# TRANSFORMERS

2b7

(i l The voltage ratio must refer to the terminal voltage of primaryand serondo,y.

(ii) The phase displacement between primary and secondary voltages must be the same for all transformers which are to be paralleled.
(iii) The phase sequence must be the same. Following points are worthnoting while dealing with 3-phase transformers : • The calculations are made for one phase only. The value of equivalent impedance used is the equivalent impedance per phase referred to secondary.

• When the impedances of primary and secondary windings are given separately then primary impedance must be transferred to secondary by multiplying it with (transforma•
tion ratio)2. • In case of Y/t or MY transformers the voltage ratios as given in the questions, refer to terminal voltages and are quite difference from turn ratio.

HIGHLIGHTS
1. The function of a transformer is to transform alternating current energy from one voltage into another
voltage. It operates on the principle of mutual inductance (between two or more inductively roupled roils).

2. Distribution transformers should be designed to have maximum efficiency at a load much lover than full-load fabout 50'4). Power transformers should be designed to have maximum efficiency at or near full-load. 3. The transformation ratio (K) is defined as the ratio of the secondary voltage to primary voltage. 4. Approximate voltage drop a l.Rw cos 0 ± It Xve sin 0 Exact voltage drop - (IzRa, cos 0i /2X,,a1 +
(12Xm cos 0 + I.Rt0 sin 0)2

5. Transfer of resistance or reactance from
Primary to secondary x Rs
Secondary to primary x

Z uV2

6.

The change in secondary voltage when rated load at a specified power is removed. q, regulation . 12Ro2
cos

0 t I2Xea sin 0 x 100

A

O.ud r a output

7. Atransformer in whichpart ofthe winding is common to both theprimary and secondary circuit is knoton as an auto-transformer.

in kWh (for 24 hours). input in kWh

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
(A) Choose the Correct Answer : 1. Which of the following does not change in a transformer 1 (a) Current (b) Voltage (c) Frequency (d) All of the above. Ina transformer the energy is conveyed from primary to secondary (a) through cooling coil (b) through air

2.

(e) by the flux (d) none of the above. .

12.7 Whims (6) 2. . 5. No-load test on a transformer is carried out to determine (a) copper loss (b) magnetising current (c) magnetising current and loss (d) efficiency of the transformer. 7. Which loss is not common between a transformer and rotating machines ? (b) Copper loss (o) Eddy current loss (c) Windage loss (d) Hysteresis loss. The dielectric strength of transformer oil is expected to be (a) I kV (b) 33 kV (c) 100 kV (d) 330 kV. The path of a magnetic (lux in a transformer should have (a) high resistance (b) high reluctance (c) low resistance (d) low reluctance.7 Whlmz (c) 3. Sumpner's test is conducted on transformers to determine 4. 13.2 to 0.7 Wbimr. During the abort-circuit test an a small transformer the frequency is increased from 50 Hz to 200 Hs. Which of the following is not a part of transformer installation ? (b) Breather (a) Conservator (c) Buchholz relay (d) Exciter. 9. ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY A transformer core is laminated to (a) reduce hysteresis loss (b) reduce eddy current losses (c) reduce copper losses (d) reduce all above looses. The degree of mechanical vibrations produced by the laminations of a transformer depends on (a) tightness of clamping (b) gauge of laminations (c) size of laminations (d) all of the above. eddy current losses (c) eddy current losses = copper losses (d) copper losses iron losses. 15. 17.5 per cent (b) 2 to 5 per cent (c) 12 to 15 per cent (d) 20 to 30 per cent.268 3. The efficiency of a transformer will be maximum when (a) copper losses hysteresis losses (b) hysteresis losses . The permissible flux density in case of cold rolled grain oriented steel is around (a) 1. The copper losses will increase by a factor of (a) 16 (6) 4 (c)1 (d)14 14. No-load current in a transformer (a) lags behind the voltage by about 76• (b) leads the voltage by about 75• (c) lags behind the voltage by about 15° (d) leads the voltage by about 16°. 11. 10. 6. Tho no-load current drawn by transformer is usually what percent of the fun-load current 1 (o) 0. 8. 16. it is likely to result in (a) vibrations (b) noise (c) higher eddy current loss (d) higher hysteresis loss. The purpose of providing an iron core in a transformer is to (a) provide support to windings (b) reduce hysteresis loss (c) decrease the reluctance of the magnetic path (d) reduce eddy current losses.7 WhImr (d) 4. (a) temperature (b) stray losses (c) all-clay efficiency (d) none of the above. In case there are burrs on the edges of the laminations of the transformer.

30. Hysteresis loss ins transformer varies as (Bs„ maximum flux density) (a) a(b) B_1. hTe chemical used in breather for transformer should have the quality of (a) ionizing air (b) absorbing moisture (c) cleansing the transformer oil (d) cooling the transformer oil.TRANSFORMERS 269 While conducting short-circuit test on a transformer the following side is short-circuited (a) high voltage side (b) low voltage side (c) primary side (d) secondary side. 19. The statement is (o) true (b) false. (c) 132 kV 32. Material used for construction of transformer core is usually (a) wood (b) copper (c) aluminium (d) silicon steel. The chemical used in breather is (a) asbestos fibre (b) silica sand (c) sodium chloride (d) silica gel. 28. it will (a) continue to deliver same power (b) bum (c) stall (d) continue to run at lower speed. . 28. 28. The thickness of laminations used in a transformer is usually (a)0. 27.. 24. 22. 29. 20. 83. The function of conservator in a transformer is (o) to protect against internal fault (b) to reduce copper as well as core losses (c) to cool the transformer oil (d) to take care of the expansion and contraction of transformer oil due to variation of temperature of surroundings31. 21.4mmto0. In a transformer the toppings are generally provided on (a) primary side (b) secondary side (c) low voltage side (d) high voltage side. A transformer oil must be free from (a) sludge (b) odour (c) gases (d) moisture. 23. 18.. is termed as (a) magnetastrietion (b) boo (c) hum (d) zoom. Ina transformer the resistance between its primary and secondary is (a) zero (b)191 (c) 1000 Q (d) infinite.2 (d) B.5mm (b)4mmto5mm (e) 14 mm to 15 mm (d) 25 mm to 40 mm. An ideal transformer has infinite values of primary and secondary inductances. If a pump motor is run on 2/3rd of its supply voltage. The use of higher flux density in the transformer design (a) reduces weight per kVA (b) reduces iron losses (c) reduces copper losses Id) increases part load efficiency. The highest voltage for transmitting electrical power in India is (a)33kV Ib)66kV (d) 400 kV.6 (C) B. The transformer ratings are usually expressed in terms of (a) volts (b) amperes (c) kW (d) kVA. The noise resulting from vibrations of laminations set by magnetic force.

equation of a transformer is (a) average value (b) r. Distribution transformers are generally designed for maximum efficiency around (a) 90% load (b) zero load (c) 25rk load (d) 50% load.v. The full-load copper loss are transformer is 1600 W. side (c) primary side (d) secondary side.& value (c) maximum value (d) instantaneous value. The value of flux involved in the e. Gas is usually not liberated due to dissociation of transformer oil union the oil temperature exceeds (a) 50'C (le) 80'C (d) 150'C. 37. Which of the following will have maximum influence on 44. 40.v. The main reason for generation of harmonics in a transformer could be (a) fluctuating load (b) poor insulation (ci mechanical vibrations (d) saturation of core. 35. The core used in high frequency transformer is usually (a) copper core (b) cost iron core (c) air core (d) mild steel core. (a) lc. Tertiary winding is provided in transformers having (a) mesh/star winding (b) mesh/mesh winding (c) starlstar winding (d) any of the above. A substance is placed in strong magnetic field. . While conducting short-circuit test on a transformer the following side is short-circuited.m. the capacity of the substance to get. magnetised ? (a) Permeability (b) Susceptibility (c) Permittivity (d) Resistivity.270 ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY 34. A Buchholz relay can be installed on (a) auto-transformers (b) air-cooled transformers (c) welding transformers (d) oil cooled transformers. Which of the following properties is not necessarily desirable in the material for transformer core ? (a) Mechanical strength (b) Low hysteresis loss (c) High thermal conductivity (d) High permeability. 39. (c) 100'C 36. 45. At hair-load the copper less will be (a) 6400 W (b) 1600 W (c) 800 W (d) 400 W. Harmonics in transformer result in (a) increased core losses (b) increased PR losses (c) magnetic interference with communication circuits (d) all of the above. 42. side (b) l. High frequency transformers sometimes make use of ferrite cores because it has (b) high resistance (a) high specific gravity (d high hysteresis (d) low permeability. 41. Cross over windings are used on (a) low voltage side of high kVA rating transformers (b) current transformers (c) high voltage side of high kVA rating transformers (d) high voltage side of low kVA rating transformers. 38.f.m. 47. 48. Helical coils can be used on (a) low voltage side of high kVA transformers (b) high frequency transformers )r) high voltage side of small capacity transformers (d) high voltage side of high kVA rating transformers. 48. 43.

... 66..voltatility and. Short circuit teat on transformers is conducted to determine (a) hysteresis loans (b) copper losses (c) cure losses (d) eddy current losses. The transformer laminations are insulated from each other by (a) mica strip (b) thin coat of varnish (c) paper (d) any of the above. Which winding of the transformer has Ins cross-sectional area ? (b) Secondary winding (a) Primary winding (e) Low voltage winding (d) High voltage winding. Power transformers are generally designed to have maximum efficiency around (a) no-load (b) half-load (c) near fall-load (d) 10% overload. The changes in volume of transformer cooling oil due to variation of atmospheric temperature during day and night is taken care of by which part of transformer ? (a) Conservator (b) Breather (e) Bushings (d) Buchholz relay.. 60... Silicon steel used in laminations mainly reduces (b) eddy current losses (a) hysteresis loss (c) copper losses (d) all of the above..high (e) low. Which of the following is the main advantage of an auto-transformer over a two winding transformer ? (a) Hysteresis losses are reduced (b) Saving in winding material (e) Copper losses are negligible (d) lddy losses are totally eliminated.. transformer (a) primary is supplied rated voltage (b) primary is supplied full-load current (e) primary is supplied current at reduced voltage (d) primary is supplied rated kVA.. 66...high (d) high. 64........ 61. During short-circuit test iron losses are negligible because (b) the voltage on secondary side does not vary (a) the current on secondary side is negligible (e) the voltage applied on primary side is low (d) full-load current is not supplied to the transformer. 6Y.... 63... For the parallel operation of single-phase transformers it is necessary that they should have (a) same efficiency (b) same polarity (e) same kVA rating (d) aame number of turns on the secondary side... 66. The transformer oil should have... 67. 60..low. 68. During open circuit test of s. 61. This is likely to result in (a) short-circuiting of the secondaries (b) power factor of one of the transformers is leading while that of the other lagging (c) transformers having higher copper losses will have negligible core losses (d) loading of the transformers not in proportion to their kVA ratings..... .. 68..TRANSFORMERS 271 49.. low (b) high..viscosity (a) low.. Which type of winding is used in 3-phase shell-type transformer ? (a) Circular type (b) Sandwich type (c) Cylindrical type (d) Rectangular type. Two tramsformers areconnectednparallel. These trunsformersdo not have equal percentage impedance. Open circuit test on transformers is conducted to determine (a) hysteresis losses (b) copper losses (c) core losses (d) eddy current losses..

22. (a) 66. (a) 4. 67. 4. (d) 35. (c) 18. ANSWERS 1. (d) 39. (a) 66. 6. . (d) M. (b) 47. (b) 25. The function of the magnetising component of no-load current is to sustain the alternating flux in the corr. (d) 24. (c) 45. A transformer must not be connected to U. (d) 7. (b) 49. (c) (d) (a) (d) (a) (d) (b) (d) (b) (d) 2. Which of the following is not the standard voltage for power supply in India (a) 11 kV (b) 33 kV (c) 66 kV (d) 122 kV. 70. (d) 70. source. (c) 58. Natural air cooling is generally restricted for transformers up to (n) 1. A shell type transformer has (n) high eddy current losses (b) reduced magnetic leakage (c) negligible hysteresis losses (d) none of the above. (d) 38. The size of a transformer core will depend on (n) frequency (b) area of the core (c) flux density of the core material (d) (a l and (b) both.0) 28. (c) 26. (d) 41. (b) 17. (d) (B) Say 'Yes'or 746' When a transformer raises the voltage it is called the step-up transformer. (a) 27 (b) 34. A transformer transforms in) Voltage (b)current (c) current and voltage (d) power. A transformer can have regulation closer to zero (a) on full-load (b) on overload (c) on leading power factor (d) on zero power factor. (b) 10. (d) 4& (c) 66. (a) 69. (b) 63. (d) 40. (a) 11. (a) 18. 69.272 63. 7. 66. (a) 20. (d) 12. (d) 42. 43. 6b. (d) 37. The no-load primary input is practically equal to the iron loss in the transformer. (a) 19. (c) 30. 2. (r) 52. 5. & A transformer is said to be loaded when the secondary circuit of a transformer is completed through an impedance load. (d) 21. (d 63. (b) 5. (d) 44.C. (c) 14. 1. 50. (b) 6& (c) S. (d) 61. (d) 61. 29. The (unction of breather in a transformer is ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY 64. 16.5 MVA (6) 6 MVA (c) 15 M VA (d) 50 MVA. (d) 32. (b) 69. 57. 8. (b) 13. (c) 60. (n) to provide oxygen inside the tank (6) to cool the coils during reduced load (rl to filter the transformer cooling oil (d) to arrest flow of moisture when outside air enters the transformer. 3. An ideal transformer is one in which the resistance of the windings is negligible and the core has no losses. (c) 66. (b) 31. (b) 67. (c) 33. 36. 65. (a) 46. (c) 23. 64. The secondary winding of which of the following transformers is always kept closed ? (a) Step-up transformer (6) Step-down transformer (c) Potential transformer (d) Current transformer. (d) 3. The ratio of primary voltage to secondary voltage is known as transformation ratio. Primary and secondary currents are directly proportional to their respective turns. (c) 9. (a) 62.

No 4. Short-circuit test is conducted to find full-load copper lose. The change in voltage when rated load at a specified power is removed is termed as voltage regulation. It is practicable to connect instruments and meters directly to the lines in high voltage circuits. 10. I6. Iron or core losses are found from short-circuit test. A constant-current transformer is used to supply power to street lights which are connected in series. Why are the tanks of some large transformers corrugated ? 11. No 21. The Y-J connection is principally used where the voltage is to be stepped up. what will be the frequency of the induced voltage in another coil with which it is coupled ? Q Enumerate the various kinds of transformers. How does a transformer accomplish ? 7. Yes 25. . Why are transformer windings divided into several coils? & What properties should a good transformer oil possess? 9. 2& In can of an induction regulator primary winding is stationary. 14. & What is meant by transformer action ? Under what conditions will it take place ? 4.iRANSKMMERS 273 9. When shifting resistance to the secondary-. Yes 27. Yes 3. 22. Iron or core losses include copper loss and eddy current loss.1-Y connection is employed where it is necessary to step-up the voltage. Yes 7. Yes 24. I& v. Yes 5. No 21L No. Yes 20. Yes 9. 17. 6. 1S. Theef lcioncyofatransformerataparticularloadandpowerfactorisdefinedastheratioofpoweroutput to power input. Write a short note on transformer cooling'. 20. Yes 18. No 17. Magnetic flux can be confined into a designed path. output in kWh (for 24 hours) r input in kWh A transformer in which part of the winding is common to both the primary and secondary circuits is known as auto-transformer. Yes 19. No 10. Yes 14. divide it by r 11. Yes & Yes 13. What purposes are served by placing transformers in oil-filled tanks? 10. The A-A connection is generally used in systems in which the voltages are not very high and especially when continuity of service must be maintained even though one of the transformers should had. 26. 12. Explain the principle of operation of a transformer. 21. Yes 26. Explain the need for stepping up and stepping down voltages in a power system. The current transformer ratio is not equal to the ratio of secondary to primary turns. hTe . THEORETICAL QUESTIONS 1. No 12. 16.ua 19. What is a transformer? How does it transfer electric energy from one circuit to another? 2. Copper losses iron losses is the condition for maximum efficiency of a transformer. A potential transformer is a step down transformer used along with a low range voltmeter for measuring a high voltage. mainly because of the affect of the magnetising current. No 1& Yes 2S. ANSWERS Yes Yes No Yes 2. 12. An open-circuit test is conducted to find no-load or core loss. 26. The V-V circuit is frequently used for two auto-transformers. If an alternating current is impressed on one coil. 23. 24. Yes it. Enumerate and explain briefly different types of windings. 27.

35. 20. Explain with circuit diagrams. Derive an expression for induced e. If the maximum value of lfux in the core is to be about 0. 33. 37. 330 . Why is this transformer not used as a distribution trans' former ? Prove that for the same capacity and voltage ratio. Derive an expression for the e. What useful information is obtained from open-circuit test? What ore the two components of the core loss ? How is the hysteresis loss affected by a change in flux density? Develop the equivalent circuit of a single phase transformer.09 weber. 23. 161 . What are the sources of heat in a transformer ? Describe briefly the various methods used for cooling of transformers. Derive the condition for maximum efficiency. an auto-transformer requires less copper than an ordinary transformer. What useful information is obtained from the short-circuit test? Outline carefully the procedure for performing the open-circuit test. Why are some transformers constructed with primary and secondary windings divided into two halves? 17. Draw the vector diagram of a power transformer under full-load condition. Describe the method of calculating the regulation and efficiency of n single-phase transformer by open circuit and short circuit tests. 39. the open-circuit and short-circuit tests to be carried out in the laboratory for the determination of the parameters ofa single-phase transformer. 36. 1& Draw and explain the no-load phasor diagram for a single-phase transformer. To what does the polarity of a transformer refer ? 31. UNSOLVED EXAMPLES E. 25. The no-load ratio required in a single-phase 50-Hz transformer is 6600/300 V. find the number of turns in each winding. it. 24.f.f. Define all-day efficiency. Explain the function of the active and reactive components ofthe no-load current are static transformer. of an ideal transformer winding. What is an auto-transformer? What advantages are possessed by auto-transformers? Derive an expression for saving of copper when an auto-transformer is used.m. 18. Distinguish between the 'efficiency' and the 'regulation of a transformer. 2& 29. Ns . Nr . the maximum value of flux and the number of turns on the windings. 16.274 ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY 13. What is meant by equivalent resistance of a transformer ? How may it be calculated in primary terms and secondary terms? 21.m. Show how power factor affects both of them. 20.f. Distinguish between power and distribution transformers. 30. State the applications of auto-transformers. 22. 27. Draw the equivalent circuit of a transformer and show how the constants of the primary and secondary windings may be combined to give a simplified equivalent circuit with the values of constants given in terms of the secondary winding. 40. in a transformer in terms of frequency. 38. (Ana.m. 15. 32. What is Sumpnees test ? Draw a circuit diagram to conduct this test and explain its principle. 34. What is meant by the equivalent reactance of a transformer? How may it be calculated in primary terms and secondary terms? How can the equivalent impedance of a transformer be determined ? Outline carefully the procedure for performing the short-circuit test. Equation-Turn Ratio 1.