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System Concepts

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 2

Power in Balanced 3-Phase

Systems S = V I

*

1φ LN

S 3φ = 3× S 1φ

= 3 ×V LL I *

= P + jQ

Capacitive loads have leading Power Factors.

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 3

Leading & Lagging Power

Factors

PowerStation displays lagging Power Factors as positive and leading Power

Factors as negative. The Power Factor is displayed in percent.

Leading Lagging

P

j

Q

P

j

Q

Power Power − +

P

j

Q

Factor Factor +

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 4

3-Phase Per Unit System

kVA B S = 3VI If you have two bases:

IB = Then you may calculate the other two

3kVB V = 3ZI

by using the relationships enclosed in

SB brackets. The different bases are:

(kVB ) 2 BI =

ZB = 3VB •IB (Base Current)

MVA B V

Z = B

2 •ZB (Base Impedance)

B SB •VB (Base Voltage)

•SB (Base Power)

I actual Vactual PowerStation selects for LF:

I pu = Vpu = •100 MVA for SB which is fixed for the

IB VB entire system.

Z pu = Spu = used along with the transformer turn

ratios are applied to determine the

ZB SB base voltage for different parts of the

system.

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 5

Example 1: The diagram shows a simple radial system. PowerStation converts the

branch impedance values to the correct base for Load Flow calculations. The LF

reports show the branch impedance values in percent. The transformer turn ratio

(N1/N2) is 3.31 and the X/R = 12.14

Transformer Turn Ratio: The transformer turn ratio is

used by PowerStation to determine the base voltage for

different parts of the system. Different turn ratios are

applied starting from the utility kV rating.

N1

kV =

1

B kVB2

N2

kVB2

Transformer T7: The following equations are used to find

the impedance of transformer T7 in 100 MVA base.

X

Z pu ×

R x pu

X pu = R pu =

X

2

X

1+ R

R

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 6

0.065(12.14) 0.06478

X pu = = 0.06478 R pu = = 0.005336

1 + (12.14) 2 12.14

The transformer impedance must be converted to 100 MVA base and therefore the

following relation must be used, where “n” stands for new and “o” stands for old.

2 2

o VB SnB

o

13.8 100

Zpu = Zpu n

n

o = (5.33×10−3 + j0.06478) = (0.1115+ j1.3538)

VB SB 13.5 5

Impedance Z1: The base voltage is determined by using the transformer turn ratio. The base

impedance for Z1 is determined using the base voltage at Bus5 and the MVA base.

VB = = = 4.0695 ZB = = = 0.165608

N1 3.31 MVA 100

N2

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 7

The per-unit value of the impedance may be determined as soon as the base

impedance is known. The per-unit value is multiplied by one hundred to obtain

the percent impedance. This value will be the value displayed on the LF report.

Zpu = = = (0.6038+ j6.0382)

ZB 0.1656

% Z = 100 × Z pu = 60.38 + j603.8

The LF report generated by PowerStation displays the following percent impedance

values in 100 MVA base

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 8

Load Flow Analysis

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 9

Load Flow Problem

• Given

– Load Power Consumption at all buses

– Configuration

– Power Production at each generator

• Basic Requirement

– Power Flow in each line and transformer

– Voltage Magnitude and Phase Angle at each bus

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 10

Load Flow Studies

• Determine Steady State Operating Conditions

– Voltage Profile

– Power Flows

– Current Flows

– Power Factors

– Transformer LTC Settings

– Voltage Drops

– Generator’s Mvar Demand (Qmax & Qmin)

– Total Generation & Power Demand

– Steady State Stability Limits

– MW & Mvar Losses

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 11

Size & Determine System

Equipment & Parameters

• Cable / Feeder Capacity

• Capacitor Size

• Transformer MVA & kV Ratings (Turn Ratios)

• Transformer Impedance & Tap Setting

• Current Limiting Reactor Rating & Imp.

• MCC & Switchgear Current Ratings

• Generator Operating Mode (Isochronous / Droop)

• Generator’s Mvar Demand

• Transmission, Distribution & Utilization kV

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 12

Optimize Operating

Conditions

• Bus Voltages are Within Acceptable Limits

of Equipment

Maximum Ratings

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 13

Calculation Process

• Non-Linear System

• Calculated Iteratively

– Assume the Load

Voltage (Initial Conditions)

– Calculate the Current I Assume VR

Calc: I = Sload / VR

– Based on the Current, Calc: Vd = I * Z

Calculate Voltage Drop Vd Re-Calc VR = Vs - Vd

– Re-use Load Voltage as initial condition until the

results are within the specified precision.

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 14

Load Flow Calculation

Methods

• Low Requirements on initial values,

but slow in speed.

3. Fast-Decoupled Method

• Two sets of iteration equations: real

power – voltage angle,

2. Newton-Raphson Method reactive power – voltage magnitude.

• Fast in speed, but high requirement on • Fast in speed, but low in solution

initial values. precision.

• First order derivative is used to speed up • Better for radial systems and

calculation. systems with long lines.

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 15

Load Nameplate Data

kVARated = =

PF × Eff PF × Eff kW

kVARated PF =

FLA3φ = kVA

3 × kV kVA

I3φ = 1000 ×

kVARated ( 3 × kV)

FLA1φ =

kV kVA

Where PF and Efficiency are taken at 100 %

I1φ = 1000 ×

kV

loading conditions

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 16

Constant Power Loads

• In Load Flow calculations induction,

synchronous and lump loads are treated

as constant power loads.

• The power output remains constant even

if the input voltage changes (constant

kVA).

• The lump load power output behaves like

a constant power load for the specified %

motor load.

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 17

Constant Impedance Loads

• In Load Flow calculations Static Loads, Lump Loads

(% static), Capacitors and Harmonic Filters and Motor

Operated Valves are treated as Constant Impedance

Loads.

• The Input Power increases proportionally to the

square of the Input Voltage.

• In Load Flow Harmonic Filters may be used as

capacitive loads for Power Factor Correction.

• MOVs are modeled as constant impedance loads

because of their operating characteristics.

Constant Current Loads

• The current remains constant even if the

voltage changes.

• DC Constant current loads are used to test

Battery discharge capacity.

• AC constant current loads may be used to test

UPS systems performance.

• DC Constant Current Loads may be defined in

PowerStation by defining Load Duty Cycles

used for Battery Sizing & Discharge purposes.

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 19

Constant Current Loads

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 20

Generic Loads

Exponential Load

Polynomial Load

Comprehensive

Load

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 21

Generator Operation Modes

Feedback Voltage

•AVR: Automatic Voltage

Regulation

•Fixed: Fixed Excitation

(no AVR action)

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 22

Governor Operating Modes

• Isochronous: This governor setting allows the

generator’s power output to be adjusted based on

the system demand.

• Droop: This governor setting allows the generator

to be Base Loaded, meaning that the MW output is

fixed.

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 23

Isochronous Mode

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 24

Droop Mode

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 25

Droop Mode

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 26

Droop Mode

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 27

Adjusting Steam Flow

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 28

Adjusting Excitation

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 29

In PowerStation Generators and Power Grids have four

operating modes that are used in Load Flow calculations.

Swing Mode

•Governor is operating in

Isochronous mode

•Automatic Voltage Regulator

Voltage Control

•Governor is operating in

Droop Mode

•Automatic Voltage Regulator

Mvar Control

•Governor is operating in

Droop Mode

•Fixed Field Excitation (no

AVR action)

PF Control

•Governor is operating in

Droop Mode

•AVR Adjusts to Power Factor

Setting

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 30

• In the Swing Mode, the voltage is kept fixed. P & Q can vary

based on the Power Demand

• In the Voltage Control Mode, P & V are kept fixed while Q & θ

are varied

• In the Mvar Control Mode, P and Q are kept fixed while V & θ

are varied

model is changed to a Load Model (P & Q are kept fixed)

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 31

Generator Capability Curve

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 32

Generator Capability Curve

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 33

Generator Capability Curve

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 34

Maximum & Minimum

Reactive Power

Machine Rating (Power Factor Point)

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 35

Generator Capability Curve

Field Winding

Machine Rating

Heating Limit

(Power Factor

Point)

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 36

Generation Categories

Generator/Power Grid Rating Page

10 Different Generation

Categories for Every

Generator or Power Grid

in the System

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 37

Power Flow

V1 = V1 ∠δ 1

V 2 = V2 ∠δ 2

S = V* I = P + jQ

V *V V1*V 2 V2

2

= 1 2 *SIN (δ 1 − δ 2 ) + j *COS (δ 1 − δ 2 ) −

X X X

V1*V 2

P= *SIN (δ 1 − δ 2 )

X

2

V1*V 2 V2

Q= *COS( δ 1 − δ 2 ) −

X X

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 38

Example: Two voltage sources designated as V1 and V2 are

connected as shown. If V1= 100 /0° , V2 = 100 /30° and X = 0 +j5

determine the power flow in the system.

I= =

X j5

I = −10 − j2.68

I

V2 I* = (86.6 + j50)(−10 + j2.68) = −1000 − j268

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 39

The following graph shows the power flow from Machine M2. This

machine behaves as a generator supplying real power and

absorbing reactive power from machine M1.

1 1

Power Flow S

( V ⋅E)

( )

⋅sin δ ∆

0

X

2

( V ⋅E)

( )

⋅cos δ ∆ −

V

X X

−2

2

0 δ∆ π

Real Power Flow

Reactive Power Flow

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 40

Bus Voltage

PowerStation displays bus voltage values in two ways

•kV value

•Percent of Nominal Bus kV

For Bus4:

kVCalculated = 13.5 kVNo min al = 13.8

kVCalculated

V% = × 100 = 97.83%

kVNo min al

For Bus5:

kVCalculated = 4.03 kVNo min al = 4.16

kVCalculated

V% = × 100 = 96.85%

kVNo min al

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 41

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 42

Lump Load Negative

Loading

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 43

Load Flow Adjustments

• Transformer Impedance

– Adjust transformer impedance based on possible length variation

tolerance

• Reactor Impedance

– Adjust reactor impedance based on specified tolerance

• Overload Heater

– Adjust Overload Heater resistance based on specified tolerance

– Adjust Transmission Line Impedance based on possible length

variation tolerance

• Cable Length

– Adjust Cable Impedance based on possible length variation tolerance

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 44

Load Flow Study Case

Adjustment Page

Adjustments applied

•Individual

•Global

Temperature Correction

• Cable Resistance

• Transmission Line

Resistance

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 45

Allowable Voltage Drop

NEC and ANSI C84.1

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 46

Load Flow Example 1 Power Grid

1000 MVAsc

Part 1 X/R = 22

Gen1

10 MW

Voltage Control

Design:

%Pf = 85

Transformers MW = 5

T1 = 30 MVA Max Q = 4

T2 = 15 MVA Min Q = -1

T3 = 5 MVA

T4 = 3 MVA

Select typical %Z &

X/R

Cable1

ICEA 15kV 3/C CU,

100%

Size= 250 Impedance

Length= 400 ft Z1

13.8 kV

Cable2 100MVA

KERITE 5kV 3/C % Z = 0.01+j1

CU, 100%

Size= 500

Length= 300 ft

Load Flow Example 1 Transformer

T5 = 5 MVA

Part 2 Select typical %Z

& X/R

Cable3

ICEA 5kV 3/C

CU, 133%

Size= 500

Length= 100 ft

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 48

Load Flow Alerts

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 49

Equipment Overload Alerts

Cable Monitor Continuous Amps

Reactor Monitor Continuous Amps

Line Monitor Line Ampacity

Transformer Monitor Maximum MVA Output

DC Link DC Link Loading Capability (Idc,

Max. MVA)

Panel Monitor Panel Continuous Amps

Generator Monitor Generator Rated MW

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 50

Protective Device Alerts

High Voltage Circuit Breaker Continuous rated Current OverLoad

Fuses Rated Current OverLoad

Contactors Continuous rated Current OverLoad

SPDT / SPST switches Continuous rated Current OverLoad

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 51

If the Auto Display

feature is active, the

Alert View Window

will appear as soon as

the Load Flow

calculation has

finished.

Advanced LF Topics

Load Flow Convergence

Voltage Control

Mvar Control

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 53

Load Flow Convergence

• Negative Impedance

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 54

Voltage Control

• Under/Over Voltage Conditions must be

fixed for proper equipment operation and

insulation ratings be met.

– Transformer Replacement

– Capacitor Addition

– Transformer Tap Adjustment

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 55

Under-Voltage Example

• Create Under Voltage • Method 2 - Shunt

Condition Capacitor

– Change Syn2 Quantity to 6. – Add Shunt Capacitor to Bus8

(Info Page, Quantity Field) – 300 kvar 3 Banks

– Run LF – Voltage is improved

– Bus8 Turns Magenta (Under • Method 3 - Change Tap

Voltage Condition)

– Place LTC on Primary of T6

• Method 1 - Change Xfmr – Select Bus8 for Control Bus

– Change T4 from 3 MVA to 8 – Select Update LTC in the

MVA, will notice slight Study Case

improvement on the Bus8 kV – Run LF

– Too Expensive and time – Bus Voltage Comes within

consuming specified limits

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 56

Mvar Control

• Vars from Utility • Method 2 – Add Capacitor

– Add Switch to CAP1 – Close Switch

– Open Switch – Run Load Flow

– Run LF – Var Contribution from the

Utility reduces

• Method 1 – Generator

– Change Generator from • Method 3 – Xfmr MVA

Voltage Control to Mvar

Control – Change T1 Mva to 40 MVA

– Set Mvar Design Setting to 5 – Will notice decrease in the

Mvars contribution from the Utility

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 57

Panel Systems

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 58

Panel Boards

• They are a collection of branch circuits

feeding system loads

• Panel System is used for representing power

and lighting panels in electrical systems

Double-Click to drop multiple panels

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 59

Representation

A panel branch circuit load can be modeled as

an internal or external load

Advantages:

1. Easier Data Entry

2. Concise System

Representation

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 60

Pin Assignment

Pin 0 is the top pin of the panel

ETAP allows up to 24 external load connections

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 61

Assumptions

• Vrated (internal load) = Vrated (Panel Voltage)

• Note that if a 1-Phase load is connected to a 3-

Phase panel circuit, the rated voltage of the panel

circuit is (1/√3) times the rated panel voltage

• The voltage of L1 or L2 phase in a 1-Phase 3-Wire

panel is (1/2) times the rated voltage of the panel

• There are no losses in the feeders connecting a

load to the panel

• Static loads are calculated based on their rated

voltage

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 62

Line-Line Connections

Load Connected Between Two Phases of a

3-Phase System

A A

B B

C C

Load

LoadB

Angle by which load current IBC lags the load voltage = θ°

Therefore, for load connected between phases B and C: For load connected to phase B

PBC = VBC.IBC.cos θ PB = VB.IB.cos (θ - 30)

QBC = VBC.IBC.sin θ QB = VB.IB.sin (θ - 30)

SC = VC.IC

PC = VC.IC.cos (θ + 30)

QC = VC.IC.sin (θ + 30)

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 63

Info Page

NEC Selection

A, B, C from top to bottom or

left to right from the front of

the panel

voltage (LG) on a 3-phase, 4-

wire delta connected system

(midpoint grounded)

3-Phase 3-Wire Panel

1-Phase 3-Wire Panel

1-Phase 2-Wire Panel

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 64

Rating Page

Intelligent kV Calculation

If a 1-Phase panel is connected to a 3-Phase bus

having a nominal voltage equal to 0.48 kV, the

default rated kV of the panel is set to (0.48/1.732

=) 0.277 kV

is Ingress Protection

(IPxy), where IP00 means

no protection or shielding

on the panel

Breakers or Fuses from

Main Device Library

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 65

Schedule Page

Standard Layout

Column Layout

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 66

Description Tab

First 14 load items in the list are based on NEC 1999

Last 10 load types in the Panel Code Factor Table are user-defined

Load Type is used to determine the Code Factors used in calculating the

total panel load

External loads are classified as motor load or static load according to the

element type

For External links the load status is determined from the connected load’s

demand factor status

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 67

Rating Tab

Amperes for this load.

for a 3-phase load are

1200, enter W as 400

(=1200/3)

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 68

Loading Tab

For internal loads, enter the % loading for the selected loading category

calculated based on terminal bus nominal kV

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 69

Protective Device Tab

LV Circuit Breaker

(Molded Case, with

Thermal Magnetic

Trip Device) or

Fuse will appear

depending on the

Type of protective

device selected.

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 70

Feeder Tab

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 71

Action Buttons

Copy the content of the selected

row to clipboard. Circuit number,

Phase, Pole, Load Name, Link

and State are not copied.

copied row) in the selected row.

This will work when the Link

Type is other than space or

unusable, and only for fields

which are not blocked.

selected row.

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 72

Summary Page

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 73

Output Report

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 74

Panel Code Factors

for each types of load separately and then summed up

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 75

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