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# ETAP 5.

## Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc.

System Concepts

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 2
Power in Balanced 3-Phase
Systems S = V I
*
1φ LN

S 3φ = 3× S 1φ

= 3 ×V LL I *

= P + jQ

## Inductive loads have lagging Power Factors.

Capacitive loads have leading Power Factors.

## Lagging Power Factor Leading Power Factor Current and Voltage

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 3
Leading & Lagging Power
Factors
PowerStation displays lagging Power Factors as positive and leading Power
Factors as negative. The Power Factor is displayed in percent.

Leading Lagging

P
j
Q
P
j
Q
Power Power − +

P
j
Q
Factor Factor +

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 4
3-Phase Per Unit System
kVA B S = 3VI  If you have two bases:
IB =   Then you may calculate the other two
3kVB V = 3ZI
by using the relationships enclosed in
 SB  brackets. The different bases are:
(kVB ) 2 BI =
ZB =  3VB  •IB (Base Current)
 
MVA B V
Z = B 
2 •ZB (Base Impedance)
 B SB  •VB (Base Voltage)
•SB (Base Power)
I actual Vactual PowerStation selects for LF:
I pu = Vpu = •100 MVA for SB which is fixed for the
IB VB entire system.

## Zactual Sactual •The kV rating of reference point is

Z pu = Spu = used along with the transformer turn
ratios are applied to determine the
ZB SB base voltage for different parts of the
system.

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 5
Example 1: The diagram shows a simple radial system. PowerStation converts the
branch impedance values to the correct base for Load Flow calculations. The LF
reports show the branch impedance values in percent. The transformer turn ratio
(N1/N2) is 3.31 and the X/R = 12.14
Transformer Turn Ratio: The transformer turn ratio is
used by PowerStation to determine the base voltage for
different parts of the system. Different turn ratios are
applied starting from the utility kV rating.

## kVB1 To determine base voltage use:

N1
kV =
1
B kVB2
N2
kVB2
Transformer T7: The following equations are used to find
the impedance of transformer T7 in 100 MVA base.

X
Z pu ×  
R  x pu
X pu = R pu =
 
X
2
X
1+    R 
R 

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 6
0.065(12.14) 0.06478
X pu = = 0.06478 R pu = = 0.005336
1 + (12.14) 2 12.14
The transformer impedance must be converted to 100 MVA base and therefore the
following relation must be used, where “n” stands for new and “o” stands for old.

2 2
o  VB   SnB 
o
 13.8   100 
Zpu = Zpu  n 
n
 o  = (5.33×10−3 + j0.06478)   = (0.1115+ j1.3538)
 VB   SB   13.5   5 

## % Z = 100 × Z pu = 11.15 + j135.38

Impedance Z1: The base voltage is determined by using the transformer turn ratio. The base
impedance for Z1 is determined using the base voltage at Bus5 and the MVA base.

## kVutility 13.5 VB2 (4.0695) 2

VB = = = 4.0695 ZB = = = 0.165608
 N1  3.31 MVA 100
 N2 

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 7
The per-unit value of the impedance may be determined as soon as the base
impedance is known. The per-unit value is multiplied by one hundred to obtain
the percent impedance. This value will be the value displayed on the LF report.

## Zactual (0.1 + j1)

Zpu = = = (0.6038+ j6.0382)
ZB 0.1656
% Z = 100 × Z pu = 60.38 + j603.8
The LF report generated by PowerStation displays the following percent impedance
values in 100 MVA base

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 8
Load Flow Analysis

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 9
Load Flow Problem
• Given
– Load Power Consumption at all buses
– Configuration
– Power Production at each generator

• Basic Requirement
– Power Flow in each line and transformer
– Voltage Magnitude and Phase Angle at each bus

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 10
Load Flow Studies
• Determine Steady State Operating Conditions
– Voltage Profile
– Power Flows
– Current Flows
– Power Factors
– Transformer LTC Settings
– Voltage Drops
– Generator’s Mvar Demand (Qmax & Qmin)
– Total Generation & Power Demand
– Steady State Stability Limits
– MW & Mvar Losses
Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 11
Size & Determine System
Equipment & Parameters
• Cable / Feeder Capacity
• Capacitor Size
• Transformer MVA & kV Ratings (Turn Ratios)
• Transformer Impedance & Tap Setting
• Current Limiting Reactor Rating & Imp.
• MCC & Switchgear Current Ratings
• Generator Operating Mode (Isochronous / Droop)
• Generator’s Mvar Demand
• Transmission, Distribution & Utilization kV
Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 12
Optimize Operating
Conditions
• Bus Voltages are Within Acceptable Limits

of Equipment

Maximum Ratings

## • Circulating Mvar Flows are Eliminated

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 13
Calculation Process
• Non-Linear System
• Calculated Iteratively
– Assume the Load
Voltage (Initial Conditions)
– Calculate the Current I Assume VR
Calc: I = Sload / VR
– Based on the Current, Calc: Vd = I * Z
Calculate Voltage Drop Vd Re-Calc VR = Vs - Vd

## – Re-Calculate Load Voltage VR

– Re-use Load Voltage as initial condition until the
results are within the specified precision.
Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 14
Load Flow Calculation
Methods

## 1. Accelerated Gauss-Seidel Method

• Low Requirements on initial values,
but slow in speed.
3. Fast-Decoupled Method
• Two sets of iteration equations: real
power – voltage angle,
2. Newton-Raphson Method reactive power – voltage magnitude.

• Fast in speed, but high requirement on • Fast in speed, but low in solution
initial values. precision.

• First order derivative is used to speed up • Better for radial systems and
calculation. systems with long lines.

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 15
Load Nameplate Data

## kWRated HP × 0.7457 kVA = (kW ) 2 + (kVar ) 2

kVARated = =
PF × Eff PF × Eff kW
kVARated PF =
FLA3φ = kVA
3 × kV kVA
I3φ = 1000 ×
kVARated ( 3 × kV)
FLA1φ =
kV kVA
Where PF and Efficiency are taken at 100 %
I1φ = 1000 ×
kV
loading conditions

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 16
Constant Power Loads
• In Load Flow calculations induction,
synchronous and lump loads are treated
as constant power loads.
• The power output remains constant even
if the input voltage changes (constant
kVA).
• The lump load power output behaves like
a constant power load for the specified %
motor load.

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 17
Constant Impedance Loads
• In Load Flow calculations Static Loads, Lump Loads
(% static), Capacitors and Harmonic Filters and Motor
Operated Valves are treated as Constant Impedance
Loads.
• The Input Power increases proportionally to the
square of the Input Voltage.
• In Load Flow Harmonic Filters may be used as
capacitive loads for Power Factor Correction.
• MOVs are modeled as constant impedance loads
because of their operating characteristics.
Constant Current Loads
• The current remains constant even if the
voltage changes.
• DC Constant current loads are used to test
Battery discharge capacity.
• AC constant current loads may be used to test
UPS systems performance.
• DC Constant Current Loads may be defined in
PowerStation by defining Load Duty Cycles
used for Battery Sizing & Discharge purposes.

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 19
Constant Current Loads

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 20
Generic Loads

Exponential Load
Polynomial Load
Comprehensive
Load

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 21
Generator Operation Modes

Feedback Voltage
•AVR: Automatic Voltage
Regulation
•Fixed: Fixed Excitation
(no AVR action)

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 22
Governor Operating Modes
• Isochronous: This governor setting allows the
generator’s power output to be adjusted based on
the system demand.
• Droop: This governor setting allows the generator
to be Base Loaded, meaning that the MW output is
fixed.

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 23
Isochronous Mode

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 24
Droop Mode

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 25
Droop Mode

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 26
Droop Mode

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 27
Adjusting Steam Flow

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 28
Adjusting Excitation

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 29
In PowerStation Generators and Power Grids have four
operating modes that are used in Load Flow calculations.

Swing Mode
•Governor is operating in
Isochronous mode
•Automatic Voltage Regulator

Voltage Control
•Governor is operating in
Droop Mode
•Automatic Voltage Regulator

Mvar Control
•Governor is operating in
Droop Mode
•Fixed Field Excitation (no
AVR action)

PF Control
•Governor is operating in
Droop Mode
•AVR Adjusts to Power Factor
Setting
Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 30
• In the Swing Mode, the voltage is kept fixed. P & Q can vary
based on the Power Demand

• In the Voltage Control Mode, P & V are kept fixed while Q & θ
are varied

• In the Mvar Control Mode, P and Q are kept fixed while V & θ
are varied

## • If in Voltage Control Mode, the limits of P & Q are reached, the

model is changed to a Load Model (P & Q are kept fixed)

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 31
Generator Capability Curve

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 32
Generator Capability Curve

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 33
Generator Capability Curve

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 34
Maximum & Minimum
Reactive Power
Machine Rating (Power Factor Point)

## Armature Winding Heating Limit

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 35
Generator Capability Curve

Field Winding
Machine Rating
Heating Limit
(Power Factor
Point)

## Steady State Stability Curve

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 36
Generation Categories
Generator/Power Grid Rating Page

## Load Flow Loading Page

10 Different Generation
Categories for Every
Generator or Power Grid
in the System

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 37
Power Flow

V1 = V1 ∠δ 1 
 
V 2 = V2 ∠δ 2 

S = V* I = P + jQ
V *V  V1*V 2 V2 
2
= 1 2 *SIN (δ 1 − δ 2 ) + j *COS (δ 1 − δ 2 ) − 
X  X X 
V1*V 2
P= *SIN (δ 1 − δ 2 )
X
2
V1*V 2 V2
Q= *COS( δ 1 − δ 2 ) −
X X

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 38
Example: Two voltage sources designated as V1 and V2 are
connected as shown. If V1= 100 /0° , V2 = 100 /30° and X = 0 +j5
determine the power flow in the system.

I= =
X j5
I = −10 − j2.68
I

## V1I* = 100(−10 + j2.68) = −1000 + j268

V2 I* = (86.6 + j50)(−10 + j2.68) = −1000 − j268

## | I |2 X = 10.352 × 5 = 536 var

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 39
The following graph shows the power flow from Machine M2. This
machine behaves as a generator supplying real power and
absorbing reactive power from machine M1.

1 1
Power Flow S

( V ⋅E)
( )
⋅sin δ ∆
0
X

2
( V ⋅E)
( )
⋅cos δ ∆ −
V
X X

−2
2
0 δ∆ π
Real Power Flow
Reactive Power Flow

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 40
Bus Voltage
PowerStation displays bus voltage values in two ways
•kV value
•Percent of Nominal Bus kV

For Bus4:
kVCalculated = 13.5 kVNo min al = 13.8
kVCalculated
V% = × 100 = 97.83%
kVNo min al
For Bus5:
kVCalculated = 4.03 kVNo min al = 4.16
kVCalculated
V% = × 100 = 96.85%
kVNo min al

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 41
Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 42
Lump Load Negative
Loading

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 43
Load Flow Adjustments
• Transformer Impedance
– Adjust transformer impedance based on possible length variation
tolerance

• Reactor Impedance
– Adjust reactor impedance based on specified tolerance

• Overload Heater
– Adjust Overload Heater resistance based on specified tolerance

## • Transmission Line Length

– Adjust Transmission Line Impedance based on possible length
variation tolerance

• Cable Length
– Adjust Cable Impedance based on possible length variation tolerance

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 44
Load Flow Study Case
Adjustment Page
Adjustments applied
•Individual
•Global

Temperature Correction
• Cable Resistance
• Transmission Line
Resistance

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 45
Allowable Voltage Drop
NEC and ANSI C84.1

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 46
Load Flow Example 1 Power Grid
1000 MVAsc
Part 1 X/R = 22

Gen1
10 MW
Voltage Control
Design:
%Pf = 85
Transformers MW = 5
T1 = 30 MVA Max Q = 4
T2 = 15 MVA Min Q = -1
T3 = 5 MVA
T4 = 3 MVA
Select typical %Z &
X/R

Cable1
ICEA 15kV 3/C CU,
100%
Size= 250 Impedance
Length= 400 ft Z1
13.8 kV
Cable2 100MVA
KERITE 5kV 3/C % Z = 0.01+j1
CU, 100%
Size= 500
Length= 300 ft
Load Flow Example 1 Transformer
T5 = 5 MVA
Part 2 Select typical %Z
& X/R

Cable3
ICEA 5kV 3/C
CU, 133%
Size= 500
Length= 100 ft

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 48
Load Flow Alerts

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 49
Equipment Overload Alerts

## Bus Alerts Monitor Continuous Amps

Cable Monitor Continuous Amps
Reactor Monitor Continuous Amps
Line Monitor Line Ampacity
Transformer Monitor Maximum MVA Output
DC Link DC Link Loading Capability (Idc,
Max. MVA)
Panel Monitor Panel Continuous Amps
Generator Monitor Generator Rated MW
Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 50
Protective Device Alerts

## Low Voltage Circuit Breaker Continuous rated Current OverLoad

High Voltage Circuit Breaker Continuous rated Current OverLoad
Fuses Rated Current OverLoad
Contactors Continuous rated Current OverLoad
SPDT / SPST switches Continuous rated Current OverLoad

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 51
If the Auto Display
feature is active, the
Alert View Window
will appear as soon as
the Load Flow
calculation has
finished.
Advanced LF Topics
Load Flow Convergence

Voltage Control

Mvar Control

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 53
Load Flow Convergence
• Negative Impedance

## • Bad Bus Voltage Initial Values

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 54
Voltage Control
• Under/Over Voltage Conditions must be
fixed for proper equipment operation and
insulation ratings be met.

## • Methods of Improving Voltage Conditions:

– Transformer Replacement
– Capacitor Addition
– Transformer Tap Adjustment

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 55
Under-Voltage Example
• Create Under Voltage • Method 2 - Shunt
Condition Capacitor
– Change Syn2 Quantity to 6. – Add Shunt Capacitor to Bus8
(Info Page, Quantity Field) – 300 kvar 3 Banks
– Run LF – Voltage is improved
– Bus8 Turns Magenta (Under • Method 3 - Change Tap
Voltage Condition)
– Place LTC on Primary of T6
• Method 1 - Change Xfmr – Select Bus8 for Control Bus
– Change T4 from 3 MVA to 8 – Select Update LTC in the
MVA, will notice slight Study Case
improvement on the Bus8 kV – Run LF
– Too Expensive and time – Bus Voltage Comes within
consuming specified limits

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 56
Mvar Control
• Vars from Utility • Method 2 – Add Capacitor
– Add Switch to CAP1 – Close Switch
– Open Switch – Run Load Flow
– Run LF – Var Contribution from the
Utility reduces
• Method 1 – Generator
– Change Generator from • Method 3 – Xfmr MVA
Voltage Control to Mvar
Control – Change T1 Mva to 40 MVA
– Set Mvar Design Setting to 5 – Will notice decrease in the
Mvars contribution from the Utility

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 57
Panel Systems

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 58
Panel Boards
• They are a collection of branch circuits
feeding system loads
• Panel System is used for representing power
and lighting panels in electrical systems

## Click to drop once on OLV

Double-Click to drop multiple panels

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 59
Representation
A panel branch circuit load can be modeled as
an internal or external load

Advantages:
1. Easier Data Entry
2. Concise System
Representation

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 60
Pin Assignment
Pin 0 is the top pin of the panel
ETAP allows up to 24 external load connections

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 61
Assumptions
• Vrated (internal load) = Vrated (Panel Voltage)
• Note that if a 1-Phase load is connected to a 3-
Phase panel circuit, the rated voltage of the panel
circuit is (1/√3) times the rated panel voltage
• The voltage of L1 or L2 phase in a 1-Phase 3-Wire
panel is (1/2) times the rated voltage of the panel
• There are no losses in the feeders connecting a
load to the panel
• Static loads are calculated based on their rated
voltage
Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 62
Line-Line Connections
Load Connected Between Two Phases of a
3-Phase System
A A
B B
C C

## IBC IB = IBC IC = -IBC

Load
LoadB
Angle by which load current IBC lags the load voltage = θ°

Therefore, for load connected between phases B and C: For load connected to phase B

## SBC = VBC.IBC SB = VB.IB

PBC = VBC.IBC.cos θ PB = VB.IB.cos (θ - 30)
QBC = VBC.IBC.sin θ QB = VB.IB.sin (θ - 30)

## And, for load connected to phase C

SC = VC.IC
PC = VC.IC.cos (θ + 30)
QC = VC.IC.sin (θ + 30)

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 63
Info Page

NEC Selection
A, B, C from top to bottom or
left to right from the front of
the panel

## Phase B shall be the highest

voltage (LG) on a 3-phase, 4-
wire delta connected system
(midpoint grounded)

## 3-Phase 4-Wire Panel

3-Phase 3-Wire Panel
1-Phase 3-Wire Panel
1-Phase 2-Wire Panel

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 64
Rating Page

Intelligent kV Calculation
If a 1-Phase panel is connected to a 3-Phase bus
having a nominal voltage equal to 0.48 kV, the
default rated kV of the panel is set to (0.48/1.732
=) 0.277 kV

## For IEC, Enclosure Type

is Ingress Protection
(IPxy), where IP00 means
no protection or shielding
on the panel

## Select ANSI or IEC

Breakers or Fuses from
Main Device Library

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 65
Schedule Page

Standard Layout

## Circuit Numbers with

Column Layout

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 66
Description Tab
First 14 load items in the list are based on NEC 1999
Last 10 load types in the Panel Code Factor Table are user-defined
Load Type is used to determine the Code Factors used in calculating the
total panel load
External loads are classified as motor load or static load according to the
element type
For External links the load status is determined from the connected load’s
demand factor status

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 67
Rating Tab

## Enter per phase VA, W, or

Amperes for this load.

## For example, if total Watts

for a 3-phase load are
1200, enter W as 400
(=1200/3)

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 68
Loading Tab

For internal loads, enter the % loading for the selected loading category

## For both internal and external loads, Amp values are

calculated based on terminal bus nominal kV

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 69
Protective Device Tab

## Library Quick Pick -

LV Circuit Breaker
(Molded Case, with
Thermal Magnetic
Trip Device) or

## Library Quick Pick –

Fuse will appear
depending on the
Type of protective
device selected.

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 70
Feeder Tab

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 71
Action Buttons
Copy the content of the selected
row to clipboard. Circuit number,
Phase, Pole, Load Name, Link
and State are not copied.

## Paste the entire content (of the

copied row) in the selected row.
This will work when the Link
Type is other than space or
unusable, and only for fields
which are not blocked.

## Blank out the contents of the entire

selected row.

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 72
Summary Page

## Code Demand – Per Phase and Total

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 73
Output Report

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 74
Panel Code Factors

## Code demand load calculation for internal loads are done

for each types of load separately and then summed up

Copyright 2004 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 75