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INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY
Industry has a long history of its own. From time immemorial fisheries has been the chief occupation of the people living in the coastal area. The seafood exports from India mainly consist of prawns, squids, cuttle fish and small varieties of other fishes. Export is a vital factor in the economy of any country and plays an important role in international trading. Developing nations are always on the look out demand. India sea food products have become one of the most important export items always in high demand in the developed countries making them very important for the economic well being of the country. Marine sector has proved its importance in India’s total exports. It is one of the major non traditional products. The export of which is fastly growing. India has a vast coastal area, so the raw materials i.e., various kinds of fishes and crustaceans are available in plenty. The prominent buyers of India marine products are Japan, USA, China, EU and Middle East. Competition mainly comes from Taiwan, Hong Kong, Thailand and Indonesia. India’s export of fish and fish preparation include a wide range of variety of fish like shrimp, squids, cuttle fish, Tuna and sardine.
The high profitability of this export trade leads to increase exportation and declining natural resources and catch per effort. Intensive culture of prawns compensated the declining catch and maintained the increasing trend of export and earning in the sea food industry of India. Fishing is one of the oldest occupations in India. The fishing sector has a proud place in the national economy. The significance of this sector is too dimensional i.e., employment potential and export potential. The fishery sector has been an important source of foreign exchange. For being successful in the world of marine export adequate importance has to be given to the packaging, storage and transport because of the highly perishable nature of the commodity and also due to its value in the international market. Fish and edible oil marine product has also being the part of the diet of the coastal India. But with the advancement of HACCP made in the field of packaging, refrigeration, storage and transportation we have evolved ourselves into one of the global leaders pioneering into the world of marine exports. The sea food industry is focused on consumer demand for higher quality products. Sea food is experiencing growth in both specialty food restaurants and percentage of product approving on menu’s. The industry has emphasized fresh and frozen programmes and the operator’s need for value added products that can help reduce labour cost. Kerala, to be more accurate the cochin- Allapey coast has always been food fishing ground and because of the presence of sea
port, air port and other infra structure. Cochin has become home of large marine food establishment like Abad, Amal Gum etc. Seafood is any sea animal or plant that is served as food and eaten by humans. Seafoods include seawater animals, such as fish and shellfish (including molluscs and crustaceans). By extension in North America although not generally in the United Kingdom, the term seafood is also applied to similar animals from fresh water and all edible aquatic animals are collectively referred to as seafood. The harvesting of seafood is known as fishing and the cultivation and farming of seafood is known as aquaculture, mariculture, or in the case of fish, fish farming. The principal food fish species groups are Anchovy, Carp, Catfish, Cod, Eel, Cuttlefish, Herring, Salmon, Scud, Tilapia, Trout, Tuna and so on. The seafood industry is focused on consumer demand for higher quality products. Seafood is experiencing growth in both speciality - food restaurants and the percentage of product appearing on menus. The industry has emphasized fresh and frozen programs and the operator’s need for value added products that can help reduce labour cost. SEAFOOD FOR ALL AGES We often think seafood as “grown up” but recent findings suggest, it is important to have the benefits of omega-3 from fish and shellfish starting early in life. Seafood is consumed all over the world; it provides the world’s prime source of high-quality protein; 14-16% of the animal protein consumed world
wide; over one billion people rely on seafood as their primary source of animal protein. The Food Standards Agency recommends that we eat at least two portions of seafood per week, one of which should be oil rich. There are over 100 different types of seafood available around the coast of U.K. Oil-rich fish such as mackerel or herring are full of long chain Omega-3 oils, also found in every cell of the human body. These oils are vital for human biological functions especially brain functionality. Whitefish such as haddock and cod are very low in fat and calories which, combined with oily fish rich in Omega-3 such as Tuna and Salmon can help you to protect against coronary heart diseases. Shellfish are rich in zinc, which is essential for healthy skin and muscles. Heart health Doctors have known of strong links between fish and healthy hearts ever since they noticed that fish eating unit population in the Artic had low levels of heart diseases. Fish is thought to protect the heart because eating less saturated fat and more Omega-3 can help to lower the amount of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Brain functionality
PRESENT SCENARIO OF SEAFOOD EXPORT A new generation of full service seafood manufacturers has emerged vertically integrated. seafood company staff corporate chefs invest in their own product-development teams to follow the market closely and watch for new trends developed by the single-standing owner/operator businesses that lead the way. including the Omega-3 fat DHA. customized portioned products. foodservice sales manager. These supply specialty appetizers. such as portioned fish fillets with a static marinade. encrusted. harvesting and processing companies. understands the need for value added food product. national accounts. like salmon. but now turned up on casual=dining menus. and better concentration. ‘I have been experiencing more requests over this year that accentuate the need for high quality for sustainable sources of wild species. R&D. many seasonal species were only seen on sushi menus and in higher end restaurants. A portioncontrolled product. halibut. In addition. Randy code. The older people can boost their brain power by eating more oily fish. Adding more DHA to the diet of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder can reduce their behavioral problems and improve their reading skills. Ocean Beauty Seafood’s Inc. Served very simply. and . helps control waste. precooked souse vide-styled portions and frozen offerings. In the past. these dishes present a visual and aromatic experience. Settle.The human brain is 10-12% lipids. battered and breaded products.
’ .cod in smaller proportion weights. The addition of familiar gourmet ingredients is necessary to increase value perception of the overall product and thus reduce labour for the end user.
Thus research as an aid to economic policy has its special significance in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry. . SECONDARY DATA The secondary data are those data which are secondary in nature and are mainly collected through company reports. observation. Advanced learner's dictionary of current English lays down the ling of research as "a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. web sites." Research is the pursuit of truth with the help of study. The scope of this venture is to make an effective study about the growth and development of Indian seafood industry. magazines. journals etc.CHAPTER -II RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. Research may be defined as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. comparison and experiment.
weakness. SWOT analysis was also used to analyse the strength. opportunities.TITLE OF THE STUDY "A Study on the Growth and Development of Indian Seafood industry” OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY To know about the different Marine products manufactured. To identify the SWOT analysis of the Seafood Industry. and threats of Sea food exports. To study about the importance of packaging of marine products. To find out the problems faced by the seafood exporters. . TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES The tools and techniques which were used for this project were bar diagram and Pie diagram. To learn about the Functions of MPEDA – its rules and procedures in the promotion of seafood exports.
Coefficient of variation. X = Mean of the variable The formula to calculate Linear Growth Rate is given below. . The formula to calculate mean is given below Mean = ∑ x ____ N The formula to calculate Standard Deviation is given below S D =√ ∑ (x-x) The formula to calculate co-efficient of variation is given below C. Trend percentage method.G.R = B Y x 100 Where B = Slope Coefficient of Linear regression equation.The statistical tools used in the study are Trend projection method. L. Tables and charts are used to interpret the data collected.D X Where S.D = Standard deviation of the variable considered.V = x100 S. Mean and Linear Growth Rate.
so there may be a chance for bias. Since the data for the study has been collected for a given period. extensive data collection was not possible.Y = Mean of the variable The formula to calculate the Trend Projection is given below Trend Projection = Yt = a + bt Where Yt is the Variable considered per analysis a. The limitation of this type of data may form the limitation of the study. b = Parameter to be estimated. 3. 4. 2. which are aggregated in nature. This may lead to inclusion of aggregation error. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 1. t = Time period varying from 1 till……n. As the period of study is limited. Financial Constraints is another limitation of the study. PERIOD OF STUDY Data collected for analysis taken from the year 2004-2008. . Data collection is of secondary nature.
Importance of Packing. Problems faced by sea food exporters and SWOT analysis Chapter V Chapter VI Export procedure & documentation Analysis & Interpretation Chapter VII Findings.CHAPTER SCHEME Chapter I Chapter II Chapter III Chapter IV Introduction of the Study Research Methodology Seafood .An Overview MPEDA –Its role &functions . suggestions & conclusion .
Metapenaeus monoceros . . Metapenaeus dobsoni Metapenaeus affinis.CHAPTER-III SEAFOOD -AN OVERVIEW PRODUCT PROFILE 1) SHRIMPS Raw material Scientific Names Raw Head on Shrimps Penaeus indicus . Penaeus monodon . Solenocera spp. Arrestees alcockii . Parapenaeopsis stylifera . Macrobrachium rosenbergii .
Harvest Area Mode of Procurement Finished product West coast. brackish water and culture farms of Kerala. None. Packaging Shelf life Additives/Ingredients used Mode of distribution Intended Use Intended Consumer Labelling Instructions According to buyer’s specifications. To be fully cooked before consumption. Peeled and Deveined Shrimps. As per national regulation and buyer’s specifications. . Two years from the date of production if Stored at -180 C or below. In refrigerated containers at or below minus180 C. Head Less Fan Tail Round. Directly from landing centers and farms. General population/ processors. Raw Block Frozen Head On.
Octopus spp. Salt In refrigerated containers at or below -180 C To be fully cooked before consumption. Raw Block Frozen Cuttlefish / Squid / Octopus whole. rings and cuttle fish roe. whole cleaned. Packaging Shelf life Additives/Ingredients used Mode Distribution Intended use Intended Consumer Labeling Instructions : : : : : : : According to buyer’s specifications. General population/ reprocessing units As per national regulation and buyer’s specifications. tentacles. tubes. . fillets. Two years from the date of production if stored below 180 C.2) CUTTLE FISH/SQUID/OCTOPUS Raw material Scientific Names Harvest Area Mode of Procurement Finished product : : : : : Raw Cuttle fish / Squid / Octopus whole. Marine. Sepia spp.. Loligo spp. West & East coast of Kerala Directly from landing center.
and gilled gutted. any other non histamine forming fish and all fresh water fishes. Raw IF / block frozen non histamine forming Fishes . Trichiurus lepturus ( ribbon Fish). Packaging : According to buyer’s specifications . Pampus Argenteus (Pomfret) . scale off skin on fillets & fillets.3) NON HISTAMINE FORMING FISHES Raw material Scientific Names : : Raw Head On Non-Scombroid fishes Lutjanus malabaricus (red snapper). brackish water and culture farms of Kerala. Epinepheleus malabaricus (Reef cod). Directly from landing center and farms. Harvest Area Mode of Procurement Finished Product : : : West coast.whole gutted.
Shelf life : Two years from the date of production if stored at -180 C or below. Additives/Ingredients used Mode of Distribution Intended Use Intended Consumer Labeling Instructions . General population/ Re. : : : : : None In refrigerated containers at or below -180 C.processors. To be fully cooked before consumption. As per national regulation and buyers specifications.
Raw IF / block frozen scombroid fishes whole. and gilled gutted. Scomberomorus commersoni (Seer Fish). scale off skin on fillets & fillets.4) HISTAMINE FORMING FISHES Raw material Scientific Names : : Raw Fish whole Rastrelliger kanagurta (Mackerel). Sardinella longiceps (Sardine). whole gutted. . Harvest Area : West coast. farms Mode of Procurement : Finished Product : Packaging : According to buyer’s specifications. Anchoviella Commersonii (Anchovy). brackish water and culture of Kerala. Thunnus albacares (Tuna). Directly from landing center and farms.
None In refrigerated containers at or below180C. To be fully cooked before consumption General population/Processors As per national regulation and buyer’s Specifications. .Shelf life Additives/Ingredients used Mode of Distribution Intended Use Intended Consumer Labeling Instructions : : : : : : Two years from the date of production if stored at -180 C or below.
for example is estimated to have driven imports of live food fish to more than . However. The principal food fish species groups are: PERISHABILITY Fish is a highly perishable product.000 species of fish. The live food fish trade in Hong Kong. Live food fish are often transported in tanks at high expense for an international market that prefers its seafood killed immediately before it is cooked. Delivery of live fish without water is also being exported. the majority of live fish are kept for dining customers. The Fishy smell of dead fish is due to the breakdown of amino acids into biogenic amines and ammonia. making them the most diverse group of vertebrates. While some seafood restaurants keep live fish in aquaria for display purposes or for cultural beliefs. only a small number of the total species are considered food fish and commonly eaten.There are over 31.
so it must be eaten promptly or discarded. the U. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has introduced regulation in the USA requiring the use of Time Temperature Indicators such as OnVu on certain fresh chilled seafood products. Worldwide sales that year were estimated at US$ 400 million.15.000 tonnes in 2000. food products generally decay and become harmful before the validity date printed on the package. fresh fish are filleted and displayed for sale on a bed of crushed ice or refrigerated . In many countries. PRESERVATION Fresh fish is a highly perishable food product. If the cool chain has not been adhered to correctly.S. As the potential harm for a consumer when eating rotten fish is much larger than for example with dairy products. according to the World Resources Institute. it can be kept for only a short time.
The oldest and still most widely used techniques are drying and salting. a) Australia b) Iceland c) Japan d) New Zealand e) Portugal . Long term preservation of fish is accomplished in a variety of ways. Desiccation (complete drying) is commonly used to preserve fish such as cod. but the advent of refrigerated train and truck transportation has made fresh fish more widely available inland. over one billion people rely on seafood as their primary source of animal protein. Fish such as Salmon. Most fish are filleted prior to canning. CONSUMPTION Seafood is consumed all over the world. Fresh fish is most commonly found near bodies of water.. but small fish (e.g. sardines) are only decapitated and gutted prior to canning. Fish is among the most common food allergens. Tuna and herring are cooked and canned. Partial drying and salting is popular for the preservation of fish like herring and mackerel. it provides the world's prime source of high-quality protein : 14–16% of the animal protein consumed world-wide.
Casanova reputedly ate 50 oysters a day. also found in every cell of the human body.are the greatest consumers of sea food per capita in the world. one of which should be oil-rich. as well as helping to develop strong bones and teeth. which is essential for healthy skin and muscles – and fertility. fresh tuna. combined with oily fish rich in Omega-3 such as mackerel. sardines. These oils are vital for human biological functions especially brain functionality. Shell fish are particularly rich in zinc. There are over 100 different types of seafood available around the coast of the UK. salmon and trout can help to protect us against coronary heart disease . Whitefish such as haddock and cod are very low in fat and calories which. Oil-rich fish such as mackerel or herring are full of long chain Omega – 3 oils. . The Food Standards Agency recommends that we eat at least two portions of seafood per week.
and air have made a variety of sea foods available throughout developed nations. Fresh salmon often is as readily available in areas distant from the ocean as in locations where the fish are captured. increasing demand. the development of freezing and rapid transport by rail. SEAFOOD INDUSTRY Seafood industry is growing at a tremendous pace which is reflected in the growth in exportation of fish and seafood products. Even in regions located far from the sea for many years. environmental changes and regulations. The processing and marketing of fish harvested from the wild account the majority of the industry’s products. truck.A GENERAL OVERVIEW Sea food production has steadily increased and seafood have become familiar and appreciated all around the world. . While sea food consumption in many nations was once largely dependent on locally captured species. The increase of production was due to better catching techniques. bigger boats and gears and to the exploitation of new fishing grounds. However. the global seafood sector is undergoing significant changes as pressures converge from diminishing supply. There is also a consistent pattern of growth in value.added fish and seafood products of export. and geopolitical events.
Particular kinds of aquaculture include aquaculture (the production of kelp/seaweed and other algae). .Seafood when produced for not any commercial purpose then it is known as Fishing. SEAFOOD Seafood consists of an extensive variety and sea weed which are served as a delicacy or is regarded as suitable for the purpose of eating. fish farming. albeit it at a much slower rate. .SEAFOOD PRODUCTION . shrimp farming. . and the growing of cultured pearls.While farming of fresh water and saltwater organisms. shellfish farming.Mariculture refers to aquaculture practiced in marine environments. Aquaculture production is the fastest growing primary sector at present. . and growth is expected to continue maintaining growth in fisheries production overall.
Salmon. winkle. Grouper. and crab. Herring Kingfish. such as fish and shellfish (including mollusks and crustaceans).. Catfish.e. such as sea urchin. Both saltwater and freshwater invertebrates are considered shellfish. Eel. • Fish is any non-tetrapod chordate.Seafood usually comprise mostly of seawater animals. Lingcod. and scallop. • Shellfish are aquatic invertebrates used as food: molluses. Shellfish and Roe. Tilapia. Bluefish. Pomfret. Molluses commonly used as food include the clam mussel. crayfish. Wahoo. Few of the fishes which are regarded as edible are anchovy. But in many parts of the term seafood is also used collectively to refer to animals from fresh water and as also any other kind of edible aquatic animals. Under this classification edible seaweed is also included. etc. • Roe is the fully ripe egg masses of fish and certain marine animals. in the shape of fins. TYPES OF SEAFOOD Seafood is categorized under three main classes: Fish. crustaceans. shrimp and scallop. though it is specifically termed as sea vegetables. Few crustaceans commonly eaten are the shrimp. oyster. Prawn. John Dory. lobster. This category makes up the bulk of the human food that comes from the waters of the world. Tuna. Monkfish Orange Roughy. and echinoderms. an animal with a backbone. i. Flounder. As a seafood it is used both . that has gills throughout life and has limbs if any.
the qualities and the quantities of the catches were usually poor. Other forms include ikura (salmon Roe). PROCESSING OF SEAFOOD Several socio-economic factors including urbanization. The demand generation is reflected in an increased sale of fillets. Caviar is a name for processed. However. has drastically modified their time utilization schedule. women going out to work and changes in family structures. salted roe consumed as a delicacy. and to reduce the time available for traditional home tasks including cooking. Tobiko (FlyingFish Roe). Till recently processing of seafood products depended on very simple methods. as it increases the time spent on transport between home and working places. Masago (Capelin Roe). The concentration of people in cities.as a cooked ingredient in many dishes and as a raw ingredient. Lumpfish Roe. This factor has boosted the demand for processed food products including processed variety of seafood.etc. steaks. fried mixed fish. Kazunoko (Herring Roe). Shad Roe. and small sized fish at the expenses of whole larger fish. these former salted products have been replaced by . have contributed to major modification in the demand for food products. fishermen had to go fishing with salt on the boats. with the emergence of modern processing techniques. primarily on the knifes and salt and therefore. It often happened that the seafood would get rotten before reaching consumers in cities due to backward storage facilities. As a result. The greater involvement of housewives in professional activities has had major effects to improve households income.
shrimp. The major types of processed products are categorized as follows: • Frozen Products • Fried Products • Smoked Products • Canned Products • Surimi Products • Fish Meal • Products made by fish oil and fish liver • Additives and Seasoning products • Medicines • Alga Glue . American. sashimi and others. For instance from a yellow fin tuna one can have a variety of canned tuna salads (Mexican. The development of processed convenience seafood has followed the trend of modernized kitchens and it has also diversified the offer of seafood. fresh loin. Activities of seafood processing include cold storing. A multi-variety processing system has been formulated in which fish. Nicioise. canning etc. drying.frozen or cold stored products: the big package by small package. and the glass container by the soft tin container. smoking. mussels and algae are the main stored products. etc.) canned tuna in brine or in oil. freeing. frozen steaks.
PROCESSED SEAFOOD INDUSTRY IN THE INDIAN CONTEXT India’s seafood industry is one of our biggest foreign exchange earners.• Art Craft ( Pearl) QUALITY ASSURANCE OF SEAFOOD PROCESSING UNITS To ensure the quality of seafood. Shrimps and lobsters rank first among India seafood product which has great potential as an export commodity. The Seafood Quality Management (Criteria by Canadian Fishery and Marine Ministry and the related regulations by the European Union. There are . Its turnover is around 9 billion dollars. the processing enterprise in India has been strictly instructed to follow the international quality management systems. such as HACCP created by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). It is highly in demand in the international market.
The Japanese also purchase seafood from other nations and have a highly developed aquaculture industry. Japan has a fishing fleet that travels far and wide. though the level of imports is still very low. deep-sea fish are particularly high in omega-3 fatty acids that help protect . Surimi is mined flesh of deboned fish used in fish sausages. India’s imports consist primarily of fishmeal. USA and EU.also some value added products which are useful for export and also are quite popular in the domestic market. imports quickly increased when the borders were opened. From being a country where no imports were allowed. followed by the United Arab Emirates. Other species. However. but after years of decline. HEALTH BENEFITS OF SEAFOOD The importance of seafood in the human diet varies greatly around the world. Southeast Asian countries. the exports here seemed to be on the rise again. such as. are very low in fat. The one other product India has been importing is hilsa from Bangladesh. The increase in exports has mainly been stimulated by higher demand in the Japanese market. Most of Indian exports have gone to Japan. The popularity of seafood has increased in recent years because it is seen as being a healthy source of food in many seafood category. fish cake etc. as imports from India have fluctuated. The EU has been a more unstable market. China (Hong Kong SAR) and Malaysia are also important markets for Indian seafood. such as halibut. Thailand. Cold water. but also USA and the United Arab Emirates import more fish from India. The Japanese most of all rely on seafood for their animal protein. Singapore. so they are popular with people who want to limit their daily fat intake.
arthritis. strokes and heart disease. .against many diseases such as cancer. high blood pressure.
Cuttlefish. . But promotion isn’t all the Authority does not by a long shot MPEDA’s comprehensive role also covers overseeing fisheries of all kinds specifying standards for processing as well as engaging in marketing and training activities for various segments of the Industry. Lobster and Shark etc varieties of Seafood to make happy gourmets all over the world. And the Marine products Export Development Authority in 1972 for the promotion of seafood exports has long helped lead the way forward. Further more developments measures such as putting up fish landing platforms. modernization of plant facilities and assuring quality control standards. India has them but having them do not make them the automatic choice.CHAPTER-IV MARINE PRODUCTS EXPORT DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY (MPEDA) THE ROLE OF MPEDA FOR THE PROMOTION OF SEAFOOD EXPORTS India blessed with a long coastline and abundant fishery resources has emerged as one of the world’s foremost seafood suppliers in terms of both quantity and quality shipping a diversified mix of products to more than 70 countries. Squid. To win over a gourmets India Seafood’s have to match the most exacting standards of the world and even meet the personal reference. Shrimp. Cryster.
As a result shrimp aquaculture picked up in a big way and presently contributes about 52 % by volume and 75 % by value of the shrimp exports from the country.VALUE ADDITION Value addition gives the consumer products a step closer to his meal. coastal and land based aqua culture and inland aquaculture.oriented aquaculture. 90. Realizing the importance of value addition in exports MPEDA has been concentrating on the development of diversified value added seafood products. To strengthen the raw material base for export market MPEDA is also making serious attempt to promote aqua culture production of Scampy. Moreover he gets the parts of his choice at the exact weight measurements. The efforts have proved to be fruitful as the country has expanded its overseas market and achieved higher market value realization.5 % is put into use for aquaculture. Crab. India has vast potential for mariculture. Out of 11. AQUACULTURE MPEDA promotes export. The utilization of the vast potential. so far is only marginal. It introduced new technology and encouraged seafood processors to adopt consumer packaging. . Molluscs and Fin fishes.900 hectors of coastal land available in the country only 12. Lobsters. Hence tremendous scope for aquaculture development and MPEDA is committed to take aquaculture to new vistas by extending assistance for diversified aquaculture in the country.
sea . Folders. It liaise with the government for conservation measures of over exploited resources like shrimps. lobsters. It compiles and disseminates information about reefer space requirements for shipment of frozen cargo and liaise with shipping companies and airlines to meet the demands of the industry. It compiles and disseminates information about reefer space requirements for shipment of frozen cargo and liaise with shipping companies and airlines to meet the demands of the industry. DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITIES For the modernisation of Sea food processing units. It liaise with the government for conservation measures of over exploited resources like shrimps. MPEDA compiles and disseminates trade enquiries received from overseas buyers among exporters.TRAINING AND EDUCATION Under the scheme 'Integrated Development Programme for Seafood Quality and Extension Services. MPEDA organizes demonstration-cum-training programmers for fishermen and processing workers with audio visual aids. In association with concerned agencies it sorts out trade disputes. sea shells etc. sea weeds. sea cucumbers. Marketing expertise is shared with exporters and those involved in fishing industry. MARKETING SERVICES MPEDA compiles and disseminates trade enquiries received from overseas buyers among exporters. brochures and booklets are prepared in English and regional languages. In association with concerned agencies it sorts out trade disputes. the Development section of MPEDA extents assistance. lobsters.
MPEDA participates in specialized international food and trade fairs. organizes buyer- . Assistance is given to registered processors to set up quality control laboratories and modern pre-processing plants throughout the country to meet the ISO 9000 quality standards. Marketing expertise is shared with exporters and those involved in fishing industry. INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION & MARKET PROMOTION MPEDA co-ordinates the visit of delegates from other countries or from international bodies like FAO. APPRAISAL AND INVESTMENT MPEDA advises Government of India on matters connected with deep sea fishing. It undertakes techno-economic and financial appraisal of projects for production of value added marine products. sea shells etc. World Bank etc. QUALITY CONTROL MPEDA ensures the highest standards for seafood's exported from India. organizes buyer-seller meets in major seafood markets overseas and sponsors visit of Indian delegates and individual sales teams to foreign markets. It works in close association with Export Inspection Council of India and other Indian and International quality control organizations. Entrepreneurs and professionals get pre investment advices from MPEDA.cucumbers. The HACCP cell in MPEDA offers advise on matters connected with EC Directives. INFOFISH. MPEDA participates in specialized international food and trade fairs. sea weeds. UNDP.
They ensure hassle free trade. information is available. seafood trade and industry associations and organising direct market promotion activities. It monitors the overseas market situations and exchange rate fluctuations. sellers and other interested sectors of the industry under one umbrella. liaising with government agencies. The details are published in the weekly bulletin PRIME. Port-wise. grade-wise/variety-wise. the India Trade Centre promotes seafood trade interests.seller meets in major seafood markets overseas and sponsors visit of Indian delegates and individual sales teams to foreign markets. TRADE FAIR The prestigious biennial India seafood Trade Fair organized by MPEDA brings overseas buyers. EXPORT STATISTICS AND MARKET RESEARCH MPEDA collects and compiles statistics of marine products exported through various ports in India. OVERSEAS TRADE PROMOTION OFFICES MPEDA has Overseas Trade Promotion Offices in Tokyo and New York. In Europe. trade missions. compiles and analyses export data from all processing plants. Every month MPEDA collects. in Brussels. Work Programme of MPEDA includes • • Registration of infrastructural facilities for seafood export trade Collection and dissemination of trade information .
quality control laboratory. generator sets. establishment of captive peeling sheds.• Promotion of Indian marine products in overseas markets by organizing joint and direct participation in overseas fairs and international seafood fairs in India Implementation of development schemes vital to the industry by extending financial assistance for purchase of insulated fish boxes. improvement of peeling sheds. flake ice making machineries. Induction of New Technology and Modernization of Processing Facilities . modernization of seafood industry to upgrade the processing machinery. joint venture and equity participation and installation of equipments to increase the efficiency of fishing Financial and related activities • • • • STRUCTURE AND ACTIVITIES MPEDA functions under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Export Production . installation of IQF machinery. The development schemes of the authority are implemented under four major heads: 1. Government of India and acts as a nodal agency coordinating with different Central and State Governments establishments engaged in fishery production and allied activities. Export Production . Promotion of aquaculture for augmenting export production Promotion of deep sea fishing projects through test fishing.Capture Fisheries 2. etc.Culture Fisheries 3.
4. Market Promotion With HQ at Cochin, the Authority has established field offices in all the maritime states of India to implement the various promotional schemes. The Authority maintains two overseas Trade Promotion Offices in New York (U.S.A.) and Tokyo (Japan) to promote Indian seafood and a Trade Promotion Office at New Delhi to liaise with Central Ministries. The Adviser, Agriculture & Marine Products Division of the Indian Trade Centre, Brussels (under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry) assists MPEDA in its trade promotion activities in Europe and liaises with the European countries. Six regional offices at Mumbai, Kolkata, Cochin, Chennai, Vizag and Veraval and five sub-regional offices at Kollam, Mangalore, Tuticorin, Goa and Bhubaneswar are functioning as field offices for implementation of various developmental activities of the Authority besides engaging themselves in the export promotion of marine products by providing guidance and assistance to the processing industry and the export trade. The objectives of the Overseas Trade Promotion Offices are to promote seafood imports into the respective countries by liaising with Indian exporters as well as overseas importers, developing contacts with government agencies / officials, to remove identified constraints, promote the image of Indian products through publicity campaigns, identify markets for new products, create awareness on the capabilities of Indian processing, packaging, quality inspection procedures etc. and also to identify suitable joint venture partners for deep sea fishing, aquaculture projects, processing and marketing value-added products etc.
OBJECTIVES OF MPEDA Conservation and management of fishery resource. Promotion of commercial shrimp farming Promotion of commercially viable, eco-friendly aquaculture. Imparting grass root and broad - spectrum development training with special reference to quality control, processing and marketing. Formulation and supervision of quality guidelines and standards. Registration of exporters and processing plans. Registration of marine products exports. Promotion of joint venture in deep sea fishing aquaculture and value added products. Regulation of marine products exports. Dissemination of real time market intelligence. Assistance to industry in areas of export promotion and import essential raw materials. Organizing international buyer seller meets, trade promotions, facilitating the participation of Indian seafood delegates on trade fairs overseas.
PARTICULARS OF ITS ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES
Organization chart offices- MPEDA Powers and duties of its officers and employees. Procedure followed in the decision making process including channels of supervision and accessibility. Norms set by for the discharge of its function. Rules, regulations, instructions, manuals and records, held by it or under its control or used by its employees for discharging its functions. Statement of the categories of documents that are held by it or under its control. Particulars of any arrangement that exists for consultation with, or representation by, the members of the Public in relation to the formulation of its policy or implementation thereof. Statement of Boards, Councils, Committees and other bodies consisting of two or more persons constitutes as its part or for the purpose of its advice, and as to whether meetings of those Boards, Councils, Committees and other bodies are open to the public or the minutes of such meeting are accessible for public. A directory of its officers and employees. The monthly remuneration received by each or its officers and employees, including the system of computerization as provided in its regulations. The budget allocated to each of its agency, indicating the particulars of all plans, proposed expenditure and reports on disbursements made. The manner or execution of subsidy programs, including the amounts allocated and the details of beneficiaries of such programs. The particulars of concessions, permits or authorization granted by it.
Details in respect or the information available to or held by it, reduced in an electronic form. Particulars of facilities available to citizens for obtaining information including the working hours or library or reading room, if maintained by public. Names, designations and other particulars of the Public Information Officers. Other information as may be prescribed.
shrimp. which is the current matter of study in details. are of great demand in the European as well as the American markets. Marine products such as cuttle fish. whole cleaned fish. These marine products are found in abundance along the warm and tropical Indian coast. Packaging is an integral part of production.ROLE OF PACKAGING IN MARINE FOOD PRODUCTS The fishing industry has made leap and bounds during the last two decades in India and this has vastly enhanced the scope of export of marine delicacies from India. damage or loss due to external causes. Packaging plays a very important role in making a product good. . Japan. It is also a means of prevention from spoilage. value addition and making the product attractive and pleasing to the eye plays a very vital role and substantial role in the making of a true market leader. Marine food product is highly perishable commodity and therefore proper packaging and storage plays a vital role in the export of marine products. India today stands tall among the world leaders in the field of sea food exports such as china. Norway and Indonesia. thus giving the marine food export industry vast potential. Modern packaging concepts that emerged with the advancement in the field of science and technology has great improved the self life and quality of sea food. In a world where competition arise like raging thunder. distribution. In the modern day where commerce has reached the zenith of competition. It improves the self life of a product as in the case with sea food export. and an important tool in marketing. which has not yet been fully exploited.
i.. they must be listed down as follows. Good quality ensures in packaging results in minimizing the loss and spoilage during transportation and packaging.There are various other advantages of packaging. .e. MAKES A PRODUCT ATTRACTIVE Product must be packed according to the market thus enabling the manufacturer to get maximum benefits along with customer satisfaction. Packaging plays a vital role in establishing a brand name and brand logo and also in product identification. Proper packaging also ensures quantity and quality of the product and as a result there is no variation in the quantity and quality at the time of packaging and at the time of purchase by the customer thus assuring maximum customer satisfaction. if bar coding is implemented accordance with the international standard.
and other damaging effects. Containment 2. PROTECTION Aquatic product must be protected from physical damage. Communication CONTAINMENT The original function of packaging was simply to contain the product in an enclosed volume. simple containment places few demands on packaging materials. micro organisms or chemical contamination. dehydration. packaging to final use. insects and rodents.FUNCTION OF PACKAGES Packages today are used for a variety of purposes. decomposition. Utility 4. Containment facilitated handling. Particular product will determine the type and extent of protection required. storage and transportation. Protection 3. They are: 1. Containment is an important function of packaging today. package function is classified into four groups. Generally. Although it is often a function taken for granted. . Other than physical strength and closure requirement.
radioactive materials. design of the packages for secondary use. protecting the environment from the product is an important aspect of packaging. and many other factors are all package utility characteristics. tear tapes. Often this package is used in industrial settings. Convenience usually most prevalent at the consumer level. packages may assist the user in a functionally efficient or they may do some thing for the product. Ease of identification. This fact is typical of packages used in industrial settings. Be bag packages. non-drip spots and of caps are of few of the conveniences expect the consumer. or other dangerous materials. displaying in retail outlets. storage. Utility has two basic factors. marketing and use of a product. protection of the environment and people coming in contact with the packaging are self-evident.Although often neglected. They should ease handling. Product orientation in packages. UTILITY Packages should perform several services. although the processors of aquatic products have worked toward convenience packages much more remains to be done. First. transportation. pricing. . Packages for aquatic products often do not consider protection of the environment from the product. dispensing and package disposal. When packaging poisons.
or product guarantees may be included of the package to assist the consumers. in a super market per trip and selects 14 items out of a possible 6300 items. Information about the package and how to often increase sales. A home maker spends about 27 min shopping. how to prepare the product. The product net weight and ingredients are two examples. Other information such as nutritional content may be given as sales reasons or as a means of educating consumers. Thus getting the shoppers attention is extremely important to making sales. Items such as number of servings per container. Information on how to use the product is conveyed on the package. how to use special small enclosures and related information help improve convenience. periodical deals or offers. directions on how to open a closed package. hold the consumer attention long enough to trigger a sale. such as giving free books when the consumer send in a number of purchase sales. either . Official offers on the packages. The package must attract.COMMUNICATION Today’s competitive markets require the package communicate with the potential purchaser without the aid of a sales person. are widely used sales induces. The inclusion of small prices in packages is a widely used sales technique Once the package has attracted attention and provided sufficient information and appeal. Packages are legally required to display company information. suggestions for the new recipes that use the product.
it must look good at home or on the table. The basic concept of the quality of sea food preservation in wholesome and naturalness. test schedule. QUALITY POLICY: The ultimate goal of an exporter is to process and deliver product of highest quality standards as per the requirements of the customers. The company intends to achieve these objectives by utilizing appropriate methodology from sourcing of raw materials to overseas delivery of the product by inculcating a total quality management culture in its unit. The package must be convenient. ingredients. . inspection of purchased raw materials in process and final inspection and collaboration of all measuring equipments and gauges. The in house laboratory test covers micro biologist quality assessment or raw materials. The quality controller assist in the investigation of non conformities and customer complaints if any monitoring of general plant sanitation and personal hygiene is also the responsibility of the quality controller. Repeat sales are generally the source of the greatest profits. finished goods. The activities include a drawing up of quality plan. The quality control division is headed up by a quality controller. or it must have an attractive emotional appeal to motivate repeat sales. it must have some unique characteristic.technically or emotionally to initiate a sale it must provide an experience that will induce repeat sales. water and ice.
The exporter wants to conform the water content of each marine product because there must be characteristically water content for each seafood. If there is yellow or pink color for the product it is not used for export purposes. Dehydration. 2. 4. Discoloration: The marine products have a natural color. . If there is any difference in the smell and appearance it must be rejected.STEPS TAKEN FOR QUALITY CONTROL: For calculating the quality of marine products the following steps must be taken in to account by the company:1. General appearance and odour: There must be characteristically smell and appearance for each marine product. So the company will conform this. 3. It must be checked before exporting. Deterioration: If there is any decomposition because of bacterial action such products are not qualified for exporting.
If there is any spot. Texture: There must be grade for each product. shells etc: The product must be carefully handled. vein. veins are noticed in the exportable products its will be disqualified. loose. Temperature: There must be minimum temperature for each raw material accepted products usually it is 00c to below 50c. The standard score is two and there must be medium stiffness for each product. Black spot: Appearance is very important for the exporting products. shells. Broken. The temperature be <180c for the products meant for export after freezing. Damaged. loose. it will affect the appearance due to enzymatic reaction in fish. 9. Bruised pieces: If there any broken or damage or bruised pieces the marine products are disqualified 7. .5. But if there are any legs. 8. After removing all wasteful parts the products are exporting. 6. Legs.
which come in the way of India achieving its full potential on export of marine and seafood factors. THE NEW GSP TARIFF: Exporters are faced with a serious problem. there are several problems that come in the way of India achieving its full potential in export of marine and seafood products. which could pave way to stop India’s exports.PROBLEMS FACEDBY INDIAN SEAFOOD EXPORTERS Though Indian seafood export has increased. The problems faced by industry are: The new GSP tariff Panic caused by EEC rejection Infrastructure for fishery sector Lack of well equipped laboratories Fluctuations in Foreign exchange rate 1. . The industry is worried about the possible serious negative consequences of this proposal on the products exported from the company to EEC. which is likely to come up with the European Commission relating to the scheme of GSP. there are several problems. According to industry sources.
2.25% of our total exports to Europe. or great reduction of import duties. The issue has been taken up with the commerce ministry and also action is being taken through the commerce secretary and the commerce minister to send a delegation to negotiate with the EEC. Bangladesh will dominate the Black tiger and fresh water supplies to EEC with advantage of 8.36% Duty for raw shrimps and prepared shrimps – 0% Countries like Bangladesh and Africa will have a very big advantage over US.A brief overview of the proposal and its impact on the import duties applicable in the IEC markets are: A great number of supplying countries do and will still enjoy total exemption. Ecuador. As a percentage this work out to less than 0. the reaction of trade officers of the Indian Government in Europe has been very panicky and problem has been grossly over-stated. PANIC CAUSED BY EEC REJECTION: There have been few rejections in some of the EEC ports of the Indian product. Though the EEC authorities have themselves have been intimating about these rejection. This is far lesser than normal rejection percentage from any other country. Least developed countries like Bangladesh – 0% duty Countries like Africa – 0% duty Drug fighting countries(Panama.5% Indian black tiger and scampi can never be exported to EEC in the face of such onslaught. As a . Venezuela etc).
unloading the catch. Faecal Strepto Cocci (got of man and animal) clostridium potulinum (Marine Environment). LACK OF WELL-EQUIPPED LABORATARIES: During handling of fish. which are far more than what is warranted in trying to correct the situation. packing material. Coli (gut of man). landing and berthing facilities for different kinds of fishing vessels. huge quantities of fish are spoiled and wasted. 3. If the time. This is having the negative effects on the industry as many over reaction resulted in escalation of cost and also the workability of the product. no major initiatives have been made for the domestic market. Example. E. Fishing crafts and gears with accessories. As the post harvest infrastructure development activities have lagged behind the production trends. INFRASTRUCTURE FOR FISHERY SECTOR: Lack of infrastructure is one of the serious problems faced by the seafood industry. The consumption of such fish is dangerous and it will lead to food poisoning. temperature conditions are favorable. auction hall. These microorganisms are not originally present in the flesh of the fish caught from offshore waters but a contamination occurs during the handling of the material during unhygienic surroundings. sorting platforms. transport to and from processing plants and storage are some of the links in the long chain. the contaminated bacteria get a favorable opportunity to grow and multiply at a fast rate. water ice. it gets contaminated with various bacteria of sanitary. the authorities in India have been pressurized to take steps. With thrust given to exporters.result. . 4.
There should be a stable exchange rate system which will enhance the export of sea foods.5. . this fluctuation causes loss of money to the exporters. The fall in US Dollar had greatly affected the exports. FLUCTUATIONS IN FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATE: The fluctuation in foreign exchange rate creates a major problem in the Seafood industry.
Highly sophisticated and large cold store provides good inventory management. EU approval.’ WEAKNESS . High quality and sanitation and hygiene standards (GMP. Skilled employees ensure high production efficiency and can achieve high production capacity. Strong supplier relationship ensures god supply of raw materials especially in the period of shortage of raw materials. Located in the industrial area company enjoys many privileges. HACCP) maintained by the company. Highly experienced and efficient top level and middle level management.SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGTH Highly sophisticated infrastructural facilities. good coordination and control. Location of the company ensures easy availability of raw materials and easy shipments. Directors of the company directly involved in the activities of the firm provides. SSOP. Strong buys back support from regular buyers.
Less value addition in products. High competition from similar firms. Duty free imports of raw materials meant for export. Women workers in the pre-processing center are old & it is difficult to find a replacement for them as the younger generation prefers white collar jobs. High operating costs for maintaining quality standards. Scope for the export of value added products. Untapped fishery resources like tuna have good market demand in the overseas markets. . Chemical contamination from polluted seawater. Shortage of raw materials. THREATS High investment for upgrading infrastructure facilities. Highly sophisticated cold stores can provide an extra income by storing the inventory of the other companies. Marketing department mainly depend on the regular buyers. OPPORTUNITIES EU approval provides opportunity to export to all countries. Not able to utilize optimum production capacity. IQF freezer provides opportunity for the production of value added products.
Sub prime financial crisis. Prevalence of uncertainty in the US market due to antidumping issues. Landings were poor all along the Indian coast. Competition of vannamei shrimp. . Strengthening of rupee against US$ but no improvement in export prices. Poor aquaculture crops due to untimely rains and poor price offerings to farmers.
the exporter finds out its buyers and sent them all necessary details. in the enquiry the buyer request the exporter to send him information about price. Receiving enquiries: The Exporter at first receives an enquiry from the importer direct or through export house. they are. pre-shipment stage 2. quality of goods and terms and conditions of sale. .CHAPTER-V EXPORT PROCEDURE AND DOCUMENTATION EXPORT PROCEDURES FOLLOWED The export has to go through three different stages in exporting the product. Post-shipment stage 1) Pre-shipment stage: In this stage. Pre-shipment stage has to undergo the following process. In response to the above the exporter will receive purchase orders and letter of credit from the buyer. Shipment stage 3. 1.
. The company selects shipping through sea as its mode of transportation for export of goods. in the quotation. 2) Shipment stage: In this stage the shipment of goods starts. nature of packing method of forwarding and mode of setting payment etc. Receiving indent: When the importer is satisfied he sends an indent containing instructions regarding price. The container ship is specially designed to transport shipment of relatively large in size. The exporter mentions all necessary details relating to the goods required. Company may ask the importer to provide a guarantee for payment or send a letter of credit in its favour. quality. The container is used for shipping. The exporter has to follow the instructions strictly while sending goods to the importer. their quality rice etc. Sending quotations: The reply of the form of quotations or a Proforma invoice is prepared. quantity. Credit enquiry: After receiving the indent exporter verifies the credit worthiness of the importer.
For the protection of the goods. Packing refers to the job of providing specialized containers. Packing is used for the general operation of putting of goods into containers for shipment and storage packing requires serious consideration where goods are to be transported or stored in warehouse either for shipment or for distribution. After the product has been properly packed it must be marked and labled to meet the requirement of three agencies. An identifying symbol or number must be shown on the case b) Customs requirement: The custom requirement of foreign countries pertaining to the labeling of various kinds of imported goods are detailed. Bad or insufficient packing affects both the exporter and buyer. packaging and marking The aim of every exporter must be to ensure that the goods arrive safely in the hands of consumer. a) Shipping agency: Shipping agency will not accept the cargo offered to it for transportation unless it is legibly marked. The fact that the goods are fully insured and there is no need to pay much attention on the goods in transit. defined and . Packing.
Exchange Regulations: The company has to surrender the foreign currency to the RBI as per FEMA rules. Merchandise must be marked with the name of the country of origin. It is an order issued by the shipping company to the captain of the ship to receive the goods on the border of the ship. The shipping company issues a shipping order. custom’s regulations also require that the measurement of the packages be marked on the outside. The company makes declaration to this effect in the prescribed form to the collector or any other officer authorized by the RBI. Shipping Order: The company contacts a shipping company for the shipment of goods. c) Importer’s requirement: For the purpose of handling packages. a scientific marking policy to make known the content of the packaged without removing the outer packing and unpacking the goods. Customs formalities for export: .strictly enforced.
R. Dock. All the documents except G. .dues and shipping bills: The company has to pay docks dues fixed by the docks authorities. by the presenting this document the Importer can get the clearance of goods. the customs authority makes an endorsement on the duplicate copy of the shipping bill giving direction to the dock appraiser about the extent of physical examination of the dock cargo to be conducted at the docks. the shipping bill and a copy of commercial invoice are returned to the forwarding agent to be presented to the dock appraiser. port destination etc. Bill of lading: Bill of lading is a document issued by the shipping company upon the shipment of goods. It has to prepare the shipping bill in triplicate mentioning the quantity and value of goods. the shipping company issues the certificate. and submitted them to the customs authorities. Once the cargo is loaded. forms (original). After examination of document and appraisement of value. Coy of billing of lading is send to the importer. name of ship.The customs authority examines the documents and appraise that the value and quantity in the shipping is the same as in the export order of letter of credit.
but as a method of payment it is rarely used in the international trade. It is an unconditional order signed by the marker.3) Post shipment stage: It is the last stage in exporting. Cash may be remitted by means of an international marking order for small amount. Letter of credit (L/C) Letter of credit is the document of authority for guarantee for payment given by the importer to the exporter through banking channel. . directing a person to pay a certain sum of money to the bearer of the instrument. It is the stage where the company receives the payment. The company receives the payment by the following way: Cash: Cash is a method of payment. Bill of exchange: This document is also known as draft.
• The buyer will then send a letter of credit to the exporter. The bank will scrutinize the . buyer’s agent will inform the buyers of the shipment. • The purchase order will have a validity period. • As soon as the customs authorities receive the customs bill. which will be specified in the order itself. • On the day of shipment.EXPORT PROCEDURE AND DOCUMENTATION EXPORT PROCEDURE • The buyer who wants to purchase a certain quantity of a commodity will place an outright purchase order to the exporter. • When the consignment is loaded to the ship. when the consignment is unloaded to the wharf. the customs bill is produced to the customs authorities by the clearing and forwarding agents. the preventive officers of customs inspects the consignment and they will sign the above documents saying that the consignment has been cleared for shipment. • The exporter will then purchase the raw material according to the quantity mentioned in the purchase order. Within this validity period the exporter is supposed to be ready for shipment. • On receiving the letter of credit. and process it. the exporter takes it to their bank along with the documents mentioned in it. through their agents in Cochin.
so as to maintain accountability. The given procedure is followed: a. f. raw material organoleptic evaluation register and also in the bacteriological analysis report. date. c. • Prepare document required during stuffing. Obtaining the purchasing order from the marketing department. A traceability code is given to the product while processing which identifies the source. temperature etc are recorded in the raw material receiving report. Purchasing the raw materials according to the specifications. e. b. The material is then continuously monitored by the online quality management systems and all details are recorded in the register for processing and production statement. All the parameters like time. . raw material movement register. month and year of production and also the shift during which the material is produced. The overall inspection of the product as per the production code is carried out by the technologists and all results are recorded in the analytical and the bacteriological registers. Analysis of the raw materials for sensory. PRODUCT RELEASE PROCEDURE A systematic procedure is followed for the release of consignments meant for export and records and documents are maintained to trace the entire history of the consignment. • The stuffing advice is send to the consignee. physical. organoleptic. d. and bacteriological specifications.documents and on finding those credible will credit the amount due to the exporter.
As and when the consignment is ready a code list shall be prepared and certificate of export shall be obtained by the Quality Assurance Department from the competent authority. Bill of Lading: It is a document of title to the goods that are shipped. EXPORT DOCUMENTS: The following documents are used: 1. Export/ import duty is also assessed on the basis of this invoice. Letter of Credit: It is a written undertaking issued by the buyer’s bank agreeing to pay a certain sum of money within a speculated period against a specified set of documents 2. Commercial Invoice: A commercial invoice is the exporter’s bill for the sale of the goods. The basic and most important document required for preparation of all other documents which in greater or lesser detail reproduces information from a commercial invoice. 3. The product meant for export shall be released on a first-in first-out basis from the cold store. It is also an acknowledgement from the shipping company for having received the goods on . h.g.
connecting invoice number. bill of lading number and date of sailing. Further the B/L is a contract of carriage and includes terms and conditions on which the shipping company has accepted the goods for transportation. Health Certificate: Health certificate is required for export of marine products. Certificate of Origin: . 7. According to Sec. order number. The original B/L is enclosed with the bill of exchange send to the importer. 4. Packing List: A packing list/ a note contains the date of packing.5 of Negotiable Instrument Act 1881. 6. The health department of exporting country issues this certificate. 5. the details of goods such as quantity and weight and item-wise details. details of shipping such as the name of steamer. Bill of Exchange: Bill of exchange is also known as ‘Draft’. case number to which the list/note relates. a bill of exchange is an instrument in writing containing an unconditional order signed by the maker direction a certain person to pay a certain sum of money only to or to the order of a person or to the bearer of the instrument.board the ship.
EU etc. The exporter is required to produce copies of export order to various Govt. Marine Insurance Certificate: In the international trade when the goods are in transit. they are exposed to marine perils. packing. but it is also of concern to their respective countries. Marine insurance is a contract where by the company in consideration of the payment by the insured agrees to indemnify the loss incurred by him in respect of goods exposed to perils of the sea. 10. Export Order: An order is a commercial transaction.. UK. shipment and payment but also one of the concerns to the licensing authorities. departments/financial institutions for various purposes. since it affects the balance of payment position of both the countries. Marine insurance is intended to protect the insured against the risk of loss or damage to goods in transit due to marine peril. The exporter has to obtain this certificate from the Chamber of Commerce and this document is mandatory in some countries like USA. which is not only important to the exporter and importer. 8. exchange control authorities and banks dealing in export trade. It is thus not just a matter of product manufacturing. Order Acceptance: .This certificate is issued by the Chamber of commerce stating that the goods being exported are of Indian origin. 9.
Under this document he commits the shipment if goods covered at the agreed price during a specified time. . Sometimes the exporter needs a copy of his order acceptance signed by the importer.The order acceptance is a commercial document prepared by the exporter confirming the acceptance of order placed by the importer.
original GSP & Health Certificate to the buyer also. . GR copy. GSP certificates in case the goods is to be shipped to European countries America. Island. W. Packing List. and other documents specified in the Letter of Credit to the Bank as per the buyer’s requirement specified in L/C. Accordingly they should send Non-negotiable copy Bill of Lading. 3.DOCUMENTATION STEPS 1. Invoice. 5. Packing List and original DSP 121 (US shipment). The exporter should know the posting time from factory (Customs Inspection) and arrange the container at the time of filing itself. Bill of Lading. Agent Seal No. 4. the exporter informs the shipping advice to their buyer. and Vessel Name and actual Break-up from the factory and then Commercial invoice are prepared. Based on the Purchase order or Breakup given from the factory the exporter should prepare the Customs Invoice to file in the customs office through Shipping Agency. 2. After shipment. After getting the Bill of Lading which is issued by the Shipping Line they give all documents such as Bill of Exchange. After stuffing they will get the Customer No. DSP 121 Certificate for US shipment.
export of Indian marine products mainly consisted of dried items like dried fish and dried shrimp. the first consignment of cannel shrimp was exported to the USA. clam. The inclusion of fish. They include a highly skilled and competitive women labour force.EXPORT OF MARINE PRODUCTS The Indian Seafood industry is 51 years old. which is a definite advantage in raising the socio economic standard in the coastal areas of the country. crab etc. Markets for Indian products also spread fast to developed countries from the traditional buyers in neighbouring countries. Frozen items continued to dominate the trade. Exports were concentrated on shrimp. In 1959. cuttle fish. These were carried out with no imported inputs.The industry employs over 5 million people directly and indirectly. it was only since 1961 the export of dried marine products were overtaken by export of frozen items leading to a steady progress in export earnings. Although frozen items were present in the export basket from 1953 onwards in negligible quantities. Till the end of 1960. Cochin Company from the port of Cochin initially exports consisted only of block frozen shrimp. With the devaluation of Indian currency in 1966 the export of frozen and canned items registered a significant rise. It started in 1953 with the first shipment of frozen shrimp to USA by M/s. started later in 1962. octopus. . Even today the total imported content is less than 1%.
the markets of Indian marine products were largely confined to neighboring counties like Srilanka. China 13.44% and other minor countries 9%. Middle East 4. Myanmar (formerly Burma). Japan emerged as the principal buyer of the product followed by the Western European countries. Exports to USA dropped by 20% compared to the previous year due to the anti dumping issues in US on Indian shrimp. . DURING 2006-07 EU accounted for a share of 33% in value terms followed by Japan 16.MARKET STRUCTURE Before 1960. This situation changed with the development of technology/modernization: dried products gave way to canned and frozen items.83%. USA. Japan.Except USA all other countries increased their import of marine products from India during the year. For a long time USA was the principal buyer for our frozen shrimp but after 1977. South East Asia 7. Several seafood processing units with modern machinery for freezing and production of value added products were set up at all important centers in the country for export processing. Europe. More sophisticated and affluent markets viz. Japan retained its position till 2001-02 AS the single largest buyer for our marine products accounting for about 31% in the total export value.12%. Australia etc. The product shift also resulted in market shift.37%. Singapore etc when our exports were dominated by dried items.18%. became our important buyers. USA 16.
69 10070.52 461329 802652.2 898577.43 1644.09 1478.53 7620.24 VALUE (in crores) 39.92 8794.48 2285.2009 MEAN YEAR CV LGR 2005 TREND 2012 2006 2013 2014 2007 2008 2009 562841.72 6.79 1751.54 8. This is due to the positive response of foreign customers towards India’s marine products.21 2392.30 10537.14 2498.09 1884.93 1899.86 DOLLAR($) 10.33 11004.39 6. The quantity is represented in MT which implies metric tonne and value in crores. The maximum growth is .9 512164 850615.61 Source: Secondary data INFERENCE Study of export performance of India from 2005-09 shows that the export has been increasing year by year.86 1852.04 6646.1 TABLE SHOWING THE EXPORT OF SEAFOODS FROM 2005 .52 8363.CHAPTER-VI ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION TABLE 6.4 QUANTITY (in MT) 53.5 612641 541701 686372 7734.15 7245.
The minimum growth is shown in 2005 with a quantity of 461329 MT and value of 6646. CHART 6.69 crores.79 crores.shown in the year 2009 with a quantity of 686372 MT and value of 8794.1(a) CHART SHOWING YEARWISE EXPORT OF SEAFOODS FROM 2005 TO 2009 .
4 at 2000 which increased to 94.5 117.4 112.4 17.6 30.4 85.8 during 2009. During 2000 it was 13.5 33.7 15.There is a rising trend in the aquaculture production worldwide.8 20.2 94.4 35.3 93.2 TABLE SHOWING WORLD FISHERIES AND ACQUACULTURE PRODUCTION (2000 TO 09) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Aquaculture 13.6 91.8 126.7 92. Likewise the wild harvest was 84.5 93.3 18.4 26.TABLE 6. .7 28.4 Source: Secondary data INFERENCE The above table shows the world fisheries and aquaculture production during 2000 to 2009.8 Total 98.9 87.6 116.9 24.2 122.7 104.0 93.1 100.4 120.6 at 2009.6 Wild Harvest 84.6 130.7 while it rose to 35.
CHART 6.2(a) CHART SHOWING WORLD FISHERIES AND ACQUACULTURE PRODUCTION (2000 TO 09) .
06 4442.3 TABLE SHOWING FISH PRODUCTION IN INDIA (In Thousand Tons) YEAR 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 TOTAL MEAN CV LGR TREND 2012 2013 2014 MARINE 2275 2300 2447 2576 2649 2692 2707 2967 2950 2696 2834 3056 3198 3264 3478 3689 3743 3885 4014 4248 61668 3083.10 4280. Ministry of Agriculture .20 3.48 4718.23 Source : Indian Council of Agricultural Research.67 4376.95 24.TABLE 6.4 22.45 4472.87 5.23 INLAND 1402 1536 1710 1789 1995 2097 2242 2381 2438 2566 2823 3014 3150 3210 3387 3459 3653 3756 3851 3960 54419 2720.74 4580.
the exports of marine products have become friendly to the exporters and the government gets good revenue out of marine exports.INFERENCE The above table shows the fish production in India. Due to the government rules and regulations. From the above table it is evident that the Production of Fish shows an increasing trend year by year. .
CHART 6.3(A) CHART SHOWING FISH PRODUCTION IN INDIA (IN 1990 TO 2009) .
48 4.14 3.054 51.56 21.83 3.811 40.79 26.996 61.43 3.78 26.11 19.48 25.4 CONTRIBUTION OF SEAFOOD TO INDIA’S EXPORTS YEAR VALUE OF SEA FOOD EXPORT (Rs.84 24.22 20.879 65.78 17.66 4.TABLE 6.890 58.22 1.05 19.889 59.84 321 20.16 50197.366 33.88 Source: Indian Council of Agricultural Research (2008) .86 23.84 75730.13 3.59 28222.05 5020.75 51.72 25.17 3.843 55.99 4.32 4.20 3.28 3.076 44.5 80594.04 4.62 15.65 3.97 19.28 3.MILLION) SHARE EXPORTS (%) TOTAL EXPORTS AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 TOTAL MEAN CV LGR TREND 2012 2013 2014 . 25.868 43.50 18.686 50.17 14.18 4.08 4.34 26.79 78162.37 3.22 3.999 803.45 3.651 57.46 58 3.06 2.789 53.93 18.11 16.12 18.848 63.18 3.519 35.
The quality of marine products manufactured in India is really encouraging. They are exported in Tinned bottle and other value added products. The Contribution of seafood products from India is positive and increasing. . Marine products are also exported in processed food form also. Many developed countries are the major consumers of fish and other marine products from India.INFERENCE The above table shows the contribution of seafood to India’s exports.
Highly sophisticated cold storage specialty can provide for preservation of marine products.CHAPTER-VII FINDINGS. on the basic of customer order. . The availability of raw material is seasonal. There is raising trend in the production of aqua culture in worldwide. SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION MAJOR FINDINGS: The following are the major findings of the study: The export performance of Indian seafood is promising has been increasing year by year. Women workers in the pre-processing centre are old and its difficult to find replacement for them. As the younger generation prefers “White collar” jobs. This is due to the positive response of foreign customers towards India’s marine products. The production is carried on. This would affect the export of sea foods. Joint participation of MPEDA and trade in the International fairs have been great success in bringing a more business to trade and increasing the popularity of Indian sea food in abroad.
Due to the government rules and regulations. Many developed countries are the major consumers of fish and other marine products in India. exports of marine products have become friendly to the exporters on the government gets good revenue of marine exports. .
workshops for the exporters all over India.SUGGESTIONS The following were the suggestions made: Industrial fairs must be conducted to showcase its better quality. Due concentration should be given for the packing of major marine products. The exporters must make use of the various incentives schemes offered by MPEDA. The raw material must be made available to the exporter from time to time. The awareness about marine products offered in the international market should be increased. The government policy should be made at improving the foreign demand for marine products should be well implemented. . MPEDA should conduct seminars.
I conclude by saying that I have nice exposure in the field of Marine Products Exports as well as the Export procedure. hunger and obesity. The project “A study on the growth and development of Indian seafood industry” is aimed at finding the current trend in the export of sea foods. indeed an evident practical exposure.CONCLUSION Seafood consumption has increased significantly during the recent years. There is a tremendous increase in the export value at 2005 of 461329 crores to 686372 crores in 2009. The availability of a wide variety of different products generically known as “seafood” and many of them being supplied by international trade is undoubtedly a major factor for this demand growth. Increasing further the consumption of seafood is certainly a step towards improving food security in the world. process and Documentation involved which gave me a practical insight and exposure. . can be minimized through increased consumption of seafood. Many factors are associated with this increase. This work provided me an opportunity to learn about marine industry. Two sourges of our times regarding food. Systemized working and progressive approach will enhance the image of Indian Marine Products in the leading market so as to achieve high degree of differentiation to command a premium price for the products.
XXIX. Indian Journal of Marketing. Issue XXV.com • www. Vol. Business Statistics 4. MPEDA Newsletter. Issue No.L Mahajan C.google.BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS 1. Business Environment M.com .mpeda. WEBSITES • www. December 2009.coolavenues. Procedures & Documentation 2.K.R. Business Research Methods 3.Sharma Aswatthappa JOURNALS 1.2. Export Policy.com • www.com • www. IV. January 2010 2.Kothari Dr. Vol..scribd.
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