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- Introduction 1. Freemasonry 1.1. Who are FREEMASONS,what do they do? 1.2. How does one become a member? 1.3.

History 1.4. Purpose of Freemasonry 1.5. Are Masons also Satanists? 1.5.1. What is Satanism? 2. Structure of Freemasonry 2.1. Description of degrees 3. USA presidents 3.1.Presidents known as FREEMASONS

George Washington James Monroe Andrew Johnson James Knox Polk William McKinley, Jr. Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt William Howard Taft Warren G. Harding Franklin Delano Roosevelt Harry S. Truman Gerald Rudolph Ford George Walker Bush Barack Hussein Obama


25. 8. 2010.

Kuglof iz pekaa :D
Slijedio je i slatki hljeb :D

Sastojci (za hljeb od 1kg): 120 ml mlijeka 3 jaja 210 gr putera ili margarina 1 ajna kaikica soli 90 gr edera 530 gr brana 3,5 ajnih kaikica kvasca 50 gr sjeckanih badema ili ljenjaka 150 gr groica

Priprema: Redom sipati u zdjelu: mlijeko, jaja, puter ili margarin isjeckan na komadide, so, eder, brano i kvasac. Startovati program za slatki hljeb i nakon signala ubaciti i sjeckane bademe ili ljenjake i groice koje su prethodno marinirane. I slijedi slatko iekivanje :D


Freemasonry is the oldest and largest fraternity known. As is customary with any concept of thought, it has enjoyed times of great renown and prestige. It has experienced times of adversity. It remains a vibrant organization that is attracting followers over all the civilized world. The fraternity is so old, and so many of its records have been lost or it is destroyed or never written, that a big amount of Masonic lore is a legend. Although so many of the legends of Freemasonry tie in so perfectly with authenticated records that many accord the legends the status of fact. Most of Masonic historians have problem to distinguish between that which can be proven and that which cannot. That is unavoidable that myths have arisen with respect to Freemasonry, some of them advanced by its supporters and others of them promoted by its critics. Also, what is important to add is that to members of brotherhood is allowed to declare their own membership, but for that person is strictly prohibited to declare membership of his brothers (other members). That is one of the reasons why it is hard to classify this fraternity just as secret or public organisation. Freemasonry can be a very secretive lot, however much of the "secret" information has been publicized. The Lodge buildings are clearly marked on the outside, address and phone numbers listed in the phone book. Their website probably even includes an "Upcoming Events" page. Freemasonry is like vicious circle because even knowing some information from and about fraternity it is not possible to relate everything to have sence thereby making Freemasonry different from other brotherhood. It is known that Freemasonry is divided in Lodges which are like branch of the main Grand Lodge (sometimes called Orient) which is center for certain territory ( mainly country, state ).

1.1. Who are Freemasons, what do they do ?

Members of fraternity Freemasonry are called Freemasons or shortly Masons. The main principles of Freemasons insist that each member show tolerance, respect and kindness in his actions toward other, practices charity and care for the community as a whole and strives to achieve high moral standards in his own personal life. Freemasons do a lot of work for charities, including holding and participating in various fund raisers within the community to promote charitable causes.

1.2. How does one become a member?

To become a member, a candidate must satisfactorily meet all the specific criteria. He must be at least the minimum age required by that particular Lodge, be of good morals and good reputation, believe in a Supreme Being, he must apply of his own free will and be unanimously elected by the Lodge members. Applications will usually be considered by a membership committee who holds an interview with the candidate and formally reports back to the Lodge, before the admission process is allowed to begin. Easiest way to become a mason is if someone from family is a mason (mainly father). In that case, person has direct link with Freemasonry, indicating free will to join Lodge that person becomes Lufton what is the name for Masons who got membership through family connections.

1.3. History

Some documents used as evidence to confirm that there were Masonic lodges in existence in Scotland in period of the late 16th century . There are clear references to the existence of lodges in England by the mid-17th century. The first Grand Lodge, the Grand Lodge of London and Westminster (which is later called the Grand Lodge of England (GLE)), was founded on 24 June 1717, when four already existing London Lodges met for a dinner. However, many lodges could not endorse changes which the GLE made . As a result of that they formed a rival Grand Lodge on 17 July 1751, which they called the Most Ancient and Honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons according to the Old Institutions, better known as the Ancient Grand Lodge of England. The two competing Grand Lodges vied for supremacy the Moderns (GLE) and the Ancients until they united on 25 November 1813 to form the United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE). The Grand Lodge of Ireland and The Grand Lodge of Scotland were formed in 1725 and 1736. Freemasonry was exported to the British Colonies in North America by the 1730s organising various Provincial Grand Lodges.That were beginnings of Freemasonry and beginnings of expansion Freemasonry all over the Globe. The earliest known American lodges were in Pennsylvania. After the American Revolution, independent U.S. Grand Lodges formed themselves in each state so their power would be greater.

1.4. Purpose of Freemasonry

There are two forms of understanding the goal of existence Freemasonry: 1. Given by Masons 2. Given by scientists(which are studying Freemasonry) Assertions and explanations of both sides are based and they have sense but they are completely opposite. 1. According to Masons and explanation given by Washington Lodge the basic purpose of Freemasonry is to make better men out of good men. There is an emphasis placed on the individual man by strengthening his character, improving his moral and spiritual outlook, and broadening his mental horizons. They are claiming that Masonry tries to educate its members about:

The principles of personal responsibility and righteousness Understanding of and feeling for Freemasonry's character How to put these lessons into practice in their daily life

In that way they try to build a better world - by building better men to work in their own communities. Freemasonry believes in universal peace made possible by teaching its doctrine through the Brotherhood of Man and the Fatherhood of God. 2. According to scientists Freemasonry is not good like they are presenting in public. Scientists are claimed that Freemasonry is satanic organization and also some people which had experience with Masonic organization say that that is the highest level of evil with which they were in touch. For scientists Masons are trying to establish New World Order, control human minds, take control of Worlds economy, industry, army and etc.

1.5. Are Masons also Satanists?

First of all, to start speaking about Masons who are or who are not Satanists it is necessary to explain what is Satanism and who are Satanists indeed?

1.5.1. What is Satanism?

Satanism is not easily defined. There are several "divisions" of Satanism, it uses to help people understand how each group believes and behaves. Not every group, which may be private or public, performs satanic rituals, participates in satanic worship, reads The Satanic Bible, uses traditional satanic symbols, or attends "the Church of Satan." In contrast to Christians, Satanists themselves disagree on their very fundamental principles. Christians may differ in opinion about interpretation of certain Bible passages, but they believe the same foundational principle that Jesus is Gods Son who paid the price for human sins by dying on the cross and rising from the dead. Satanists argue among themselves whether Satan even exists and whether they are worshiping him or themselves. As it is said, not every form of Satanism professes a belief in gods or spirits. While some forms of Satanism believe in spiritual entities, there are some who have a materialistic worldview and in relation to faith and religion they are atheists or agnostics. Satanic spiritualists contend that Satan is a god or a chief evil spirit and they pursue interaction with him and other evil spirits. In contrast, those Satanists who are professed atheists and agnostics see Satanism as a philosophical worldview manifesting in a particular lifestyle often characterized by questioning authority. The spiritualists are more likely to

perform satanic rituals, while the non-spiritualists don't. Also, satanic groups include a wide range of adherents because some Satanists are teenagers who are dabbling in self-proclaimed diabolical groups where they practice Satanism recreationally and their activities include: fantasy role-playing games, heavy metal music with satanic lyrics and drug use. Other Satanists belong to groups whose purpose is less recreational and this type of order is often esoteric and very often practices occult rituals performed by adults. Satanic organizations have different purposes, as already mentioned, some are public, while others are private. Public groups are sometimes incorporated as non-profit religious organizations and have tax-exempt status in the United States. This subset of Satanism produces the most literature and is even recognized by the United States military. There are, however, private groups as well that largely operate in secret. In short, Satanism may or may not involve worshiping Satan, but it is a conscious effort to NOT worship the one true God.

After answering the question What is Satanism?, it is very easy to continue explaining question Are Masons also Satanists?. Masonic meeting is not an act of worship, a lodge is not a church and Freemasonry is not a religion. Freemasons use prayers to open and close their meetings, just like it does Congress and Parliament. Freemasons take oaths and obligations on a Bible or other book sacred to the faith of the individual candidate, just like it does Supreme Court justices, the President of the United States, police officers, courtroom witnesses and Boy Scouts. The misconception is that Masonic meetings are some sort of bizarre secret worship service, offered up to a pagan god or goddess. At any rate, no, they are not necessarily Satanists.

2. Structure of Freemasonry

Freemasonry has clearly defined hierarchical order which is divided into six groups which are ranked by their importance. These six groups are presenting title and origin of degrees. In every group has different number of titles which are presenting how much is important and influential some Mason. Groups are: 1. Symbolic Degrees (Conferred in a Symbolic or "Blue" Lodge under the jurisdiction of a recognized Grand Lodge of Masons ) 1 Entered Apprentice 2 Fellow Craft 3 Master Mason 2. Ineffable Degrees (Conferred in a "Lodge of Perfection ) 4 Secret Master 5 Perfect Master 6 Intimate Secretary 7 Provost and Judge 8 Intendant of the Building 9 Master Elect of Nine 10 Elect of Fifteen 11 Sublime Master Elected 12 Grand Master Architect 13 Master of the Ninth Arch 14 Grand Elect Mason 3. Historical Degrees (Conferred in a "Council of Princes of Jerusalem" ) 15 Knight of the East, or Sword 16 Prince of Jerusalem 4. Philosophical Degrees (Conferred in a "Chapter of Rose Croix" Degrees ) 17 Knight of the East and West 18 Knight of the Rose Croix of H.R.D.M. 5. Traditional and Chivalric Degrees (Conferred in a "Consistory" of the Royal Secret)

19 Grand Pontiff 20 Master ad Vitam 21 Patriarch Noachite 22 Prince of Libanus 23 Chief of the Tabernacle 24 Prince of The Tabernacle 25 Knight of the Brazen Serpent 26 Prince of Mercy 27 Commander of the Temple 28 Knight of the Sun 29 Knight of St. Andrew 30 Grand Elect Knight Kadosh 31 Grand Inspector Inquisitor Commander 32 Sublime Prince of The Royal Secret 6. Official degree 33 Sovereign Grand Inspector General This Degree is conferred by the Supreme Council upon Freemasons of the 32 in recognition of distinguished Masonic or Public service. It cannot be applied for, but is conferred by invitation only.

2.1. Description of degrees :

1 Entered Apprentice. This degree begins a mans journey into freemasonry and represents youth ; 2 Fellowcraft. This degree symbolizes man in adulthood and represents work ; 3 Master Mason. This degree represents man in old age and relates to wisdom ;


4 Secret Master. In this degree, the dignity of fidelity and integrity is demonstrated ; 5 Perfect Maser. This degree teaches that unworthy ambitions are corruptive and destructive to the man who forgets his duty to family, country and God ; 6 Intimate Secretary. This degree shows that a man who is trustworthy can survive false accusations ; 7 Provost and Judge. This degree teaches that Truth prevails, and Justice triumphs, tempered with mercy and forgiveness ; 8 Intendant of the Building. This degree symbolizes that the personal goal of title and position can cause strife ; 9 Master Elect of Nine. This degree teaches that Truth often emerges from the clash of opinions, and to look at life and duty and God through the minds of others who do not share the same religious faith ; 10 Master Elect of Fifteen. This degree uses the symbolism of Solomon's life and that his pride prevented him from asking for forgiveness ; 11 Sublime Master Elected. This degree emphasizes virtue of good citizenship and that a man should ever be loyal, brave and courageous in the conviction that right will eventually prevail ; 12 Grand Master Architect. This degree teaches that the quality of Mercy through a spirit of compassion and a tenderness of heart will enable one to overlook injuries, or to treat the offender better than they deserve ; 13 Master of the Ninth Arch. This degree portrays the history and legend of Enoch and prepares the candidate for the 14 degree ; 14 Grand Elect Mason. This degree describes the constant endeavor of perfection of character ; 15 Knight of the East or Sword. This degree shows the important lesson by the example of Zerubbabel, of loyalty to conviction, fidelity to duty, and devotion to Truth ;

16 Prince of Jerusalem. This degree is a drama of the rewards found in the lessons of the 15 degree ; 17 Knight of the East and West. This degree teaches that one should learn from, and avoid repeating, the errors of the past ; 18 Knight of the Rose Croix of H.R.D.M.. In this degree, the principles of tolerance are affirmed and grants to each man the right to answer, in his own way, his convictions ; 19 Grand Pontiff. This degree proclaims the spiritual unity of all who believe in God and cherish the hope of immortality, no matter what religious leader they follow or what creed they profess. It is concerned primarily with the perennial conflict between light and darkness, good and evil, God and Satan ; 20 Master ad Vitam. This degree is a drama of the American spirit confronting the challenge of disloyalty and treason. Masonic principles and leadership are subjected to a crucial test. The degree demonstrates the Masonic condemnation of all who conspire against the security of the nation and the happiness of our people ; 21 Patriarch Noachite. This degree teaches that Freemasonry is not a shield for evil doing and that justice is one of the chief supports of our fraternity ; 22 Prince of Libanus. In this degree, the dignity of labor is demonstrated. It is no curse, but a privilege, for man to be allowed to earn his sustenance by work. Idleness, not labor, is disgraceful ; 23 Chief of the Tabernacle. This degree teaches that those with faith in God and love for their fellow man will make great sacrifices to help others ; 24 Prince of the Tabernacle. This degree teaches that a mutual belief in a Supreme Power should bind all men together in a world-wide brotherhood ; 25 Knight of the Brazen Serpent. This degree teaches that there are desert stretches in every individual life in the history of every nation, with a resultant breakdown of discipline and loss of faith. This degree is a clarion call to faith-in ourselves, in each other, and in God ;


26 Prince of Mercy. This degree teaches the quality of mercy; that it is a spirit of compassion and a tenderness of heart which dispose us to overlook injuries and to treat an offender better than he deserves ; 27 Commander of the Temple. This degree teaches that Scottish Rite Freemasonry believes in the concept of a free church in a free state, each supreme in its own sphere, neither seeking to dominate the other, but cooperating for the common good ; 28 Knight of the Sun. This degree using the symbolism of the tools and implements of architecture teaches that by building high moral character among its adherents, Freemasonry may advance man's determined quest for the achievement of unity and good will throughout the world ; 29 Knight of St. Andrew. This degree emphasizes the Masonic teachings of equality and toleration. We are reminded that no one man, no one Church, no one religion, has a monopoly of truth; that while we must be true and faithful to our own convictions, we must respect the opinions of others ; 30 Grand Elect Knight Kadosh. This degree sets forth the tests and ceremonies that symbolize the experiences we must undergo in the building of excellence in character ; 31 Grand Inspector Inquisitor Commander. This degree teaches that we should give every man the benefit of innocence and purity of intentions. He who would judge others must first judge himself ; 32 Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret. This degree describes the victory of the spiritual over the human in man and the conquest of appetites and passions by moral sense and reason. The exemplar represents every Freemason eager to serve humanity but caught between self-interest and the call of duty. Duty often requires sacrifice, sometimes the supreme sacrifice;


3. USA Presidents
Under the United States Constitution, the President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. As chief of the executive branch and head of the federal government as a whole. The presidency is the highest political office in the United States by influence and recognition, and the president is also the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is indirectly elected to a four-year term by an Electoral College. The presidents of the United States were 43 persons since 1789 when George Washington was elected unanimously for the first President of the United States of America. Barack Obama which is elected in 2009 for the President has two mandates at position of the President. George Washington, Barack Obama and eleven more which were presidents in period between Washington and Obama are known as participants of Freemasonry and they are also Freemasons with high degree.


3.1. Presidents known as FREEMASONS

a) George Washington (1789 1797) b) James Monroe (1817-1825), c) Andrew Johnson (18651869), d) James Knox Polk (1845-1849) , e) William McKinley, Jr. (18971901), f) Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt (1901 1909), g) William Howard Taft (1909-1913), h) Warren G. Harding (1921-1923), i) Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1933-1945) , j) Harry S. Truman (19451953), k) Gerald Rudolph Ford (1974 - 1977). l) George Walker Bush (2001-2009) m) Barack Hussein Obama (2009 now)


George Washington

George Washington joined the Masonic Lodge in Fredericksburg, Virginia at the age of 20 in 1752. His Masonic membership, like the others public titles and duties he performed, was expected from a young man of his social status in colonial Virginia. During the War for Independence, General Washington attended Masonic celebration and religious observances in several states. He also supported Masonic Lodges that formed within army regiments. At his first inauguration in 1791, President Washington took his oath of office on a Bible from St. John's Lodge in New York. During his two terms, he visited Masons in North and South Carolina and presided over the cornerstone ceremony for the U.S. Capitol in 1793. In retirement, Washington became charter Master of the newly chartered Alexandria Lodge No. 22, sat for a portrait in his Masonic regalia, and in death, was buried with Masonic honors. Such was Washington's character, that from almost the day he took his Masonic obligations until his death, he became the same man in private that he was in public. In Masonic terms, he remained "a just and upright Mason" and became a true Master Mason. Washington was, in Masonic terms, a living stone who became the cornerstone of American civilization. He remains the milestone others civilizations follow into liberty and equality. He is Freemasonry's perfect ashlar upon which countless Master Masons gauge their labors in their own Lodges and in their own communities. He is the only President to serve as Worshipful Master of his lodge during his presidency. George Washington laid the cornerstone of the United States Capitol, acting as Grand Master pro tem for the Grand Lodge of Maryland. He was buried with Masonic honors. Masons of the United States have erected a granite monument in his memory on Shooter's Hill.


James Monroe

James Monroe was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia in 1758. Monroe attended the College of William and Mary, fought with distinction in the Continental Army and practiced law in Fredericksburg, Virginia. There is some dispute regarding the Masonic affiliation of Monroe due to the loss of lodge records. It appears that he was initiated on November 9, 1775 in St. Johns Regimental Lodge in the Continental Army. He later affiliated with Williamsburg Lodge No. 6 in Williamsburg, Virginia. There are no known records to confirm his advancement through the degrees but there is evidence that Monroe was received as a Master Mason during a visit to a Tennessee lodge in 1819. It is interesting to note that Monroe was not yet eighteen when initiated indicating the concept of lawful age had not been universally fixed at twenty-one at this time. Like Washington, Monroe would serve two terms as President. He died on July 4, 1831 in New York.


Andrew Jackson

Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee. Also, Andrew Jackson was the first of two Presidents to have served Freemasonry. Born in the backwoods settlement of Waxhaw, South Carolina on March 15, 1767, Andrew Jackson received sporadic education. But in his late teens he read law for about two years, and he became an outstanding young lawyer in Tennessee. Fiercely jealous of his honor, he engaged in brawls, and in a duel killed a man who cast an unjustified slur on his wife Rachel. A major general in the War of 1812, Jackson became a national hero when he defeated the British at New Orleans. The Masonic record of Brother Jackson has not been located though there is no doubt he was a Mason. He appears to have been a member of St. Tammany Lodge No. 29, Nashville, Tennessee, as early as 1800. The lodge name was later changed to Harmony Lodge No. 1 on November 1, 1800. Brother Jackson is officially listed as a member in the Lodge Returns to the Grand Lodge of Tennessee for 1805. Very active in Freemasonry, Brother Jackson was a Grand Master of Masons in Tennessee, serving from October 1822 until October 1824. Jackson served two terms as President from 1829 until 1837. He died on June 8, 1845 at the Hermitage near Nashville, Tennessee.


James K. Polk

James K. Polk was born in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, on November 2, 1795. Studious and industrious, Polk was graduated with honors in 1818 from the University of North Carolina. As a young lawyer he entered politics, served in the Tennessee legislature, and became a friend of Andrew Jackson. Brother Polk was initiated in Columbia Lodge No. 31 on June 5, 1820 located in Columbia, Tennessee. He would be passed and raised in this lodge though the actual dates are unknown. In 1825 he was exalted a Royal Arch Mason in La Fayette Chapter No. 4 located in Columbia. Polk would serve as the Governor of Tennessee from 1839 through 1841 prior to his election as President of the United States. He would serve one term as President from 1845 to 1849. He left office in poor health and died a few months later on June 15, 1849 in Nashville, Tennessee. Known to have served as Junior Warden of his lodge . The same think with Monroe, there is no record of Polk ever serving as Master. During his Presidency he assisted in laying the cornerstone of the Smithsonian Institution with Masonic ceremonies.


William McKinley
McKinley was born in Niles in Ohio on January 29, 1843, McKinley briefly attended Allegheny College, and was teaching in a country school when the Civil War broke out. Enlisting as a private in the Union Army, he was mustered out at the end of the war as a brevet major of volunteers. He studied law, opened an office in Canton. McKinley was initiated, passed, and raised in Hiram Lodge No. 21 located in Winchester in Virginia during 1865. He affiliated with Canton Lodge No. 60 in Canton on 1867 and later demitted to become a Charter Member of Eagle Lodge No. 431, also in Canton. McKinley was elected Governor of Ohio in 1891 and served two terms from 1892 to 1896. He was inaugurated as President in 1897 and was elected to a second term in 1900. McKinleys second term as President came to a tragic end in September 1901. While attending the PanAmerican Exposition in Buffalo, New York he was shot by a deranged man. McKinley would die eight days later on September 14, 1901, becoming the second Masonic President to be assassinated. Before that president asked to exchange Masons in the Union and Confederate Armies during the Civil War because he saw special fraternal relations between them.


Theodore Roosevelt
With the assassination of President McKinley in 1901, Theodore Roosevelt, not quite 43, became the youngest President in the Nation's history. He brought new excitement and power to the Presidency as he vigorously led Congress and the American public toward progressive reforms and a strong foreign policy. He was born in New York City on October 27, 1858 into a wealthy family. During the Spanish-American War, Roosevelt was lieutenant colonel of the Rough Rider Regiment, which he led on a charge at the battle of San Juan. He was elected Governor of New York in 1898, serving with distinction. Assuming the Presidency in September 1901, Roosevelt received the three degrees in Matinecock Lodge No. 806 in Oyster Bay in New York during the year. He was very supportive of Freemasonry during the remainder of his life. Following the completion of McKinleys term, Roosevelt was elected to a second term in his own right and served as President through 1909. Roosevelt died on January 6, 1919 in Oyster Bay. Roosevelt was often expressing his interest in Freemasonry. Also, Roosevelt visited lodges at home and abroad. He participated in Masonic ceremonies on several occasions while President wearing Masonic gown.

William H. Taft
As an evidence of belonging Masonry is picture while wearing Washington's Masonic gown in White House. William Howard Taft was born on September 15, 1857 in Cincinnati, Ohio. He was graduated from Yale and returned to Cincinnati to study and practice law. He rose in politics through judiciary appointments earned through his own competence and availability. Taft was made a "Mason at Sight" within the Body of Kilwinning Lodge No. 356 located in Cincinnati. Tafts father and two brothers were also members of this Lodge. After the ceremony, President Taft often was saying "I am glad to be here, and to be a Mason. It does me good to feel the thrill that comes from recognizing on all hands the Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of Man." Taft was a distinguished jurist and an effective administrator but a poor politician. Large, jovial, and

conscientious, Taft was inaugurated as President in 1909, and spent four uncomfortable years in the White House caught in the intense battles between the political factions of Washington. Tafts term ended in 1913 and, free of the Presidency, served as Professor of Law at Yale until President Warren G. Harding which is also Mason, made him Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court, a position he held until just before his death.

Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding was born near Marion, Ohio, on November 2, 1865. An active civic leader, he became the publisher of a newspaper. He was a trustee of the Trinity Baptist Church, a director of almost every important business, and a leader in fraternal organizations and charitable enterprises. Harding was initiated in Freemasonry on June 28, 1901 in Marion Lodge No. 70 located in Marion in Ohio. Because of some personal antagonism, Harding's advancement was hindered until 1920 by which time he had been nominated for President. Nineteen years after his initiation, Harding achieved the Sublime Degree of Master Mason in Marion Lodge. Harding won the Presidential election of 1920 by an unprecedented landslide of 60 percent of the popular vote. Harding died in San Francisco in 1923 of a heart attack.


Franklin D. Roosevelt
He was a Mason for thirty-four years and he participated in numerous Masonic activities, including his son Elliott as a Master Mason in 1933. Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882 at Hyde Park in New York. He attended Harvard University and Columbia Law School. Roosevelt entered public service through politics, serving in several state and federal positions before being elected Governor of New York in 1928. In the summer of 1921, at the age of 39, he was stricken with poliomyelitis. Demonstrating indomitable courage, Roosevelt fought to regain the use of his legs, particularly through swimming. Roosevelt received the three degrees in Masonry within Holland Lodge No. 8 located in New York City in 1911. During his lifetime he was supportive of Freemasonry and somewhat active in the fraternity. He was elected President in November 1932 to the first of four terms spanning the Great Depression to World War II. His tenure as President was a period of great social and political change in the United States. He brought hope to the American people as he promised prompt, vigorous action, and asserted in his Inaugural Address, "the only thing we have to fear is fear itself." When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, Roosevelt directed organization of the Nation's manpower and resources for global war. During this period he directed the war effort but also contemplated the planning of a United Nations in which international difficulties could be resolved. As the war drew to a close, Roosevelt's health deteriorated, and on 12th April 1945 he died of a cerebral hemorrhage .


Harry S. Truman
Truman was the second President to have served as a Grand Master, also elected as Grand Master of Missouri in 1940. It was assumed that he was the most active Mason of any President since Washington. Millions of Americans watched his Masonic funeral on television. A very active Freemason, Truman received his Masonic degrees in Belton Lodge No. 450 in Grandview, Missouri in 1909. In 1911, Truman and several other Masons organized Grandview Lodge No. 618 and Truman served as the first Master of the Lodge. In 1940, Truman was elected Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Missouri and would serve as such until October 1941. Truman became a US Senator in 1934 and he was active in monitoring the war effort. Franklin D. Roosevelt chose Truman to be his Vice-Presidential candidate in the 1944 elections, which Roosevelt won. On April 12, 1945 he became President upon the death of Roosevelt. After consultations with his advisers, he ordered atomic bombs dropped on cities devoted to war work, Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In 1948, campaigning against the backdrop of crises in foreign affairs around the globe, Truman won a term as President in his own right. Deciding not to run for a second term, Truman retired from the Presidency in 1953 and returned to Independence, Missouri where he died in age of 88.

Gerald R. Ford
After being a part of the football team of the University of Michigan, Ford went to Yale where he served as assistant coach while earning his law degree. His reputation made him popular during his twenty-five years in Congress where he served as House Minority Leader from 1965 to 1973. Ford was initiated in Freemasonry on September 30, 1949 in Malta Lodge No. 465 in Grand Rapids, Michigan. In 1951 he was passed and raised a Master Mason in Columbia Lodge No. 3 in Washington, D.C. as a courtesy for Malta Lodge while Ford served in Congress. Gerald Ford had been the first Vice President chosen under the terms

of the Twenty-fifth Amendment and was succeeding the first President ever to resign. President Ford won the Republican nomination for the Presidency in 1976, but lost the election to his Democratic opponent. He was the only President never elected to either the Vice Presidency or Presidency. Ford was honored by the Scottish Rite when he was elected to its 33rd Degree. Also, honored with him was Truman.

George W. Bush
George Bush has also on numerous occasions been referred to as a Freemason. The confusion as to President Bush being a member arises from the swearing in ceremonies at his inauguration. President Bush took his oath of office on the George Washington Bible which belongs to St. Johns Lodge in New York City. That Bible belonged to a Masonic Lodge and many writers assumed he was a Freemason. The Bible was used at the request of the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies. The Bible was first used on April 30, 1789, by the Grand Master of the Masons in New York, to administer the oath of office to George Washington, the first president. Other president who took their oath of office with this Bible is Warren G. Harding. When he was president of the USA, he often used Masonic symbols and signs while having public conniption. Also, he has 33rd Degree.

Barack H. Obama
Barack Obama is a 32nd Degree Prince Hall Mason, he was honored while he was senator. Also, many of theorists are connecting his showing up from nowhere as a result of success in Masonic orders. William R. Singleton Hope Lebanon Lodge #7 was hosting the first-ever public Masonic Inaugural Ball in honor of Presidentelect, Barack Obama and Vice-President Elect Joseph Biden.