A Lov-Fover 0.7-Y H.

264 720p YIdeo Decoder
D.F. Fincholsloin, V. Szo, M.L. Sinangil, Y. Kokon, A.I. Chanoiakasan
`n··n·|&··ìì· 1n·ì:ì&ì· ·¡ J··|n·|·jj
AIstract
Tne H.264/AYC vIdeo codIng standard can deIIver
nIgn con¡ressIon emcIency at a cost oI Iarge con-
¡IexIty and ¡over. Tne IncreasIng ¡o¡uIarIty oI
vIdeo ca¡ture and ¡IayLack on ¡ortaLIe devIces re-
quIres tnat tne energy oI tne vIdeo codec Le ke¡t to a
nInInun. TnIs ¡a¡er ¡ro¡oses severaI arcnItecture
o¡tInIzatIons sucn as Increased ¡araIIeIIsn, nuItI-
¡Ie voItage/Irequency donaIns, and custon voItage-
scaIaLIe SHAÞs tnat enaLIe Iov voItage o¡eratIon
and reduce tne ¡over oI a nIgn-dehnItIon decoder.
An H.264/AYC HaseIIne LeveI 3.1 decoder ASIC vas
IaLrIcated In 65-nn CÞOS and verIhed. It o¡erates
dovn to U.7-Y and nas a neasured ¡over oI 1.BnV
vnen decodIng a nIgn dehnItIon 72U¡ vIdeo at 3U
Iranes ¡er second, vnIcn Is over an order oI nag-
nItude Iover tnan ¡revIousIy ¡uLIIsned resuIts.
1 IntroductIon
1ho H.264¸A\C viooo cooing slunouio cun oolivoi high con-
piossion ofcioncy; howovoi, il conos ul u cosl of high con-
ploxily uno powoi which is ciilicul foi bulloiy-opoiuloo oo-
vicos. Slulo-of-lho-uil ASIC H.264 oocooois huvo usoo loch-
niguos such us pipolining, puiullolisn, uno cuching lo inciouso
lhioughpul uno ioouco powoi consunplion [1, 2, 8, 4[. In lhis
woil, wo uso uooilionul uichilocluio oplinizulions lo onublo
low vollugo opoiulion, uno lhus ioouco lho powoi consunp-
lion of high-oofnilion oocooing. \o pioposo lhul fuilhoi
puiullolisn, nulliplo vollugo¸fioguoncy oonuins, uno cus-
lon vollugo-sculublo S!AMs uio nocossuiy in oiooi lo nuin-
luin lho lhioughpul nocossuiy foi high oofnilion oocooing ul
low vollugos. 1o vulioulo lhoso ioous, u 1.S n\ H.264¸A\C
!usolino Lovol 8.1 viooo oocoooi wus inplononloo in 6ò-nn
CMOS uno oocooos 720p^80fps wilh supply vollugos oown
lo 0.7-\.
\ollugo sculing is u woll-lnown lochniguo lhul iooucos on-
oigy consunplion by u guuoiulic fucloi, ul lho cosl of in-
ciousoo ciicuil ooluy. 1his oociousoo spooo is u chullongo foi
ioul-lino uppliculions such us viooo oocooing whoio on uv-
oiugo u now fiuno nusl bo conpuloo ovoiy 88 ns. \o will
oosciibo u viooo oocoooi lhul ullows low vollugo opoiulion by
iooucing lho lolul nunboi of cyclos ioguiioo poi fiuno wilh-
oul inciousing lho lovols of logic on lho ciilicul pulh bolwoon
iogislois. 1his ullows foi u longoi clocl poiioo, which louos
lo u lowoi supply vollugo uno lowoi onoigy.
2 Decoder FIpeIIne ArcLItecture
1ho H.264 coooc is oosciiboo in [ò[ uno builos upon piovious
M!LG slunouios. A blocl oiugiun of oui oocoooi huio-
wuio is shown in Figuio 1. Al lho syslon lovol of lho oo-
coooi, FIFOs of vuiying ooplhs connocl lho nujoi piocossing
unils: Lnliopy Docoooi (LD), Invoiso 1iunsfoin (I1), Mo-
lion Conponsulion (MC), Spuliul !iooiclion (IN1!A), Do-
blocling Filloi (D!), Monoiy Conliolloi (MLM) uno Fiuno
!uloi (F!). 1ho pipolinoo uichilocluio ullows lho oocoooi
lo piocoss sovoiul 4x4 blocls sinullunoously, ioguiiing fowoi
cyclos lo oocooo ouch fiuno.
1ho nunboi of cyclos ioguiioo lo piocoss ouch 4x4 blocl
vuiios foi ouch unil us shown in 1ublo 1. 1ho lublo oosciibos
lho pipolino poifoinunco foi oocooing !-fiunos (lonpoiul
piooiclion). Mosl of lho oplinizulion oloils woio focusoo on
!-fiuno poifoinunco, sinco lhoy occui noio fioguonlly lhun
I-fiunos (spuliul piooiclion) in highly conpiossoo viooos.
1ho piosonco of FIFOs bolwoon ouch unil oisliibulos lho
pipolino conliol uno ullows lho unils lo opoiulo oul of locl-
slop. 1his uoupls foi lho vuiiublo luloncy of ouch unil uno
inciousos lho lhioughpul of lho oocoooi by iooucing lho nun-
boi of slulls, us oosciiboo in [6[.
Entropy
Decoder
(ED)
Inverse
Transform
(IT)
Intra/Inter
Selection
(MUX)
Spatial
Prediction
(INTRA)
Motion
Compensation
(MC)
Deblocking
Filter
(DB)
Bitstream
Input
Video
Output
+
Bitstream
Input
Bitstream
Input
OUR
CHIP
Memory
Controller
(MEM)
Decoder
Unit
FIFO
LEGEND
Frame
Buffer
(FB)
Figuio 1: H.264 oocoooi uichilocluio.
1ublo 1: Cyclos poi 4x4 lunu blocl foi ouch unil in !-fiuno
pipolino of Figuio 1, ussuning no slulling. [ [ is poifoinunco
ufloi Soclion 8 oplinizulions.
1:¡·|:n· 1:n 1cr ¹··:cj·
1n:ì ·¡o|·· ·¡o|·· ·¡o|··
EL 0 89 4.8
IT 0 4 1.6
ÞC 4 [2[ 9 [4.ò[ 4.6 [2.8[
LH S [2[ 12 [6[ S.9 [2.9[
ÞEÞ-read 4 27 18
1ho lunu uno chionu conpononls huvo sopuiulo pipolinos
lhul shuio nininul huiowuio uno uio noslly oocouploo fion
ouch olhoi. 1ho lwo pipolinos oo huvo ooponooncios on ouch
olhoi, which sonolinos piovonls lhon fion iunning ul lho
suno lino. Foi oxunplo, bolh pipolinos uso lho suno LD ul
lho sluil, sinco lhis opoiulion is inhoionlly soiiul uno pio-
1
173 978-1-4244-2605-8/08/$25.00 ©2008 IEEE
IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conference
November 3-5, 2008 / Fukuoka, Japan
6-1
oucos inpul coofcionls uno nolion voclois lo bolh pipolinos.
3 FaraIIeIIsn
!uiullolisn cun bo usoo wilhin ouch unil lo ioouco lho nun-
boi of cyclos ioguiioo lo piocoss ouch 4x4 blocl. 1his is pui-
liculuily upplicublo lo lho nolion conponsulion (MC) uno
ooblocling (D!) unils, which woio founo lo bo loy bolllo-
nocls in lho syslon pipolino.
1ho cosl of puiullolisn is piinuiily un inciouso in uiou.
1ho inciouso in logic uiou ouo lo lho puiullolisn in lho MC
uno D! unils oosciiboo in lho following soclions is uboul
10'. \hon conpuioo lo lho onliio oocoooi uiou (incluoing
on-chip nonoiy) lho uiou ovoihouo is loss lhun 8'.
3.1 AotIon ConpensatIon FaraIIeIIsn
1ho MC unil usos inloipolulion uno flloiing lo piooicl lho
cuiionl 4x4 blocl fion pusl fiunos lo oxploil lonpoiul io-
ounouncy. 1ho lunu inloipoluloi piooicls lho cuiionl 4x4
blocl fion u 9x9 blocl of pixols fion lho piovious fiuno,
whilo lho chionu inloipoluloi usos bilinoui fllois lo piooicl
u 2x2 blocl fion u 8x8 blocl.
1o inpiovo lho lhioughpul of MC, u socono ioonlicul inloi-
poluloi wus uoooo in puiullol us shown in Figuio 2. 1his pui-
ullol sliucluio cun ooublo lho lhioughpul of lho MC slugo if
ouiing ouch cyclo, bolh nolion voclois uio uvuilublo uno lwo
now colunns of 9 pixols fion lho fiuno buloi uio uvuilublo
ul lho inpuls of MC0 uno MC1. 1ho chionu inloipoluloi hus
4 puiullol bilinoui fllois uno cun piooicl u 2x2 blocl ovoiy
cyclo.
MC0
MC1
Frame
Buffer
(FB)
Entropy
Decoder
(ED)
column0
MV0
MV1
column1
6:1
6:1
6:1
6:1
6:1
x9
Figuio 2: 1ho MC unil is oupliculoo inlo MC0 uno MC1.
1ho oulupulh of ouch MC is ò4 S-bil iogislois, lhiiloon 6:1
FI! fllois, uno foui 4:1 bilinoui fllois.
3.2 DeIIockIng FIIter FaraIIeIIsn
1hoio uio 4 lunu uno 2 chionu ooblocling fllois iunning in
puiullol. 1ho lunu uichilocluio is shown in Figuio 8. 1ho
4 lunu fllois shuio lho suno bounouiy slionglh culcululion,
us oo lho 2 chionu fllois. 1ho lunu uno chionu fllois cun
ull iun ul lho suno lino, ussuning lho inpul oulu uno con-
fguiulion puiunolois uio uvuilublo. A lunu nucioblocl (16
4x4 blocls) hus 12S oogos lhul nooo lo bo flloioo, so wilh 4
lunu fllois lho nucioblocl lulos 82 clocl cyclos lo conplolo.
Unlilo piovious inplononlulions [7[, flloiing on 4x4 blocls
bogins bofoio lho onliio nucioblocl is ioconsliucloo.
A singlo-poil on-chip cucho wilh 4x4xS-bil oulu-wiolh is
usoo lo sloio pixols fion lho lop uno lofl nucioblocls. 1ho
oogo flloiing oiooi of lho nucioblocl wus oplinizoo lo nin-
inizo lho nunboi of slulls fion iouo¸wiilo conlicls lo lho
cucho uno uccounls foi lho 4x4 blocl uiiivul oiooi uno lho
lofl-iighl-lop-bollon oogo oiooi spocifoo in H.264 [ò[. Fui-
lhoinoio, us lho on-chip cucho hus u 2-cyclo iouo luloncy, u
fow oxliu slull cyclos uio nooooo foi lhoso nonoiy uccossos
whon piofolching lhon is nol possiblo. 1uling inlo uccounl
lhis ovoihouo, lho uvoiugo nunboi of cyclos ioguiioo by D!
foi u lunu 4x4 blocl is uboul 2.9.
Luch of lho lwo chionu conpononls of u nucioblocl hus
82 pixol oogos lo bo flloioo. Using 2 fllois poi cyclo iosulls
in slighlly ubovo 82 clocl cyclos poi nucioblocl. \hon uc-
counling foi slulls, lho nunboi of cyclos poi nucioblocl is
uboul lho suno us lunu. Ovoiull, lho nunboi of cyclos io-
guiioo by D! is uiouno 46 cyclos poi nucioblocl, which is
loss lhun olhoi ooblocling flloi inplononlulions [7[.
Last Line Cache
104kb
[SRAM]
Internal Memory
4x(4x4x8b)
[DFF]
Block IN
p
0~3
(x4)
Filters (bS=4)
Filters (bS=1 to 3)
Boundary
Strength (bS)
Datapath
Control
Datapath
Control
Block OUT
Datapath
Control
Datapath
Control
Datapath
Control
q’
0~3
(x4)
p’
0~3
(x4)
(bS=0)
4x4 4x4
4x4 4x4
q
0~3
(x4)
p
0~3
q
0~3
4x4
4x4
4x1
4x1
4x4
4x4
calc
clip
<<
>>
......
......
threshold
threshold
<<
4 PARALLEL FILTERS
Figuio 8: Doblocling flloi uichilocluio foi lunu flloiing.
4 AuItIpIe YoItage/Frequency DonaIns
Sovoiul fuclois linil lho unounl of puiullolisn lhul cun bo
oxposoo in coiluin unils. Foi inslunco, lho nunboi of puos
on un ASIC is liniloo, which iosliicls lho oogioo of non-
oiy conliolloi puiullolisn foi ol-chip nonoiy uccossos. 1his
oxpluins lho luigo cyclo counl foi MLM in 1ublo 1. In u
singlo-fioguoncy oosign, MLM cuusos nuny slulls in lho iosl
of lho syslon. 1his foicos lho onliio oocoooi lo iun ul u high
fioguoncy in oiooi lo nuinluin lho ioguiioo poifoinunco.
\o pioposo puililioning lho oocoooi inlo 2 oonuins (non-
oiy conliolloi uno lho coio oocoooi), so lhul wo cun inoopon-
oonlly luiloi lho fioguoncy uno vollugo of ouch oonuin. 1ho
lwo oonuins uio conplololy inooponoonl, uno uio sopuiuloo
by usynchionous FIFOs uno vollugo lovol-shiflois, us shown
in Figuio 4. Aooilionully, 1ublo 1 shows lhul lhoio coulo
bo fuilhoi bonofl lo ulso plucing lho LD unil on u sopuiulo
oonuin.
Huving lwo sopuiulo oonuins ullows us lo oynunicully uo-
jusl fioguoncios foi lho oiloionl woillouos inooponoonlly.
1his is inpoilunl sinco woillouos foi lhoso lwo oonuins will
vuiy wiooly uno oiloionlly ooponoing on wholhoi lho oo-
coooi is woiling on I-fiunos oi !-fiunos. Foi oxunplo, lho
MLM oonuin ioguiios u highoi fioguoncy foi !-fiunos voisus
2
174
Memory
Controller
write
slow
Voltage
Level
Shifters
V
high
V
low
CLK
fast CLK
slow
Core
Domain
DFF
read
fast
data
fast data
slow
Asynchronous FIFO
D Q D Q
D Q
full
slow
FIFO
LOGIC
Mem
Array
metastability
flop
D Q
empty
fast

Figuio 4: Inooponoonl vollugo¸fioguoncy oonuins uio sopu-
iuloo by usynchionous FIFOs uno lovol-convoilois.
I-fiunos. Convoisoly, lho coio oonuin ioguiios u highoi fio-
guoncy ouiing I-fiunos sinco noio iosiouuls uio piosonl uno
lhoy uio piocossoo by lho LD unil.
5 Aenory OptInIzatIon
Sinco lho fiuno buloi (F!) is luigo uno loculoo ol-chip, il
is inpoilunl lo nininizo lho ol-chip nonoiy bunowiolh in
oiooi lo ioouco powoi. \o lovoiugoo lwo loy lochniguos lo
ioouco lhis nonoiy bunowiolh. Duiing nolion conponsu-
lion, sono of lho ioounounl iouos uio iocognizoo uno uvoiooo.
1his huppons whon lhoio is un ovoilup in lho voilicul oi hoi-
izonlul oiioclion uno lho noighboiing 4x4 blocls (wilhin lho
suno nucioblocl) huvo nolion voclois wilh ioonlicul inlogoi
conpononls[4[.
Socono, on-chip cuchos woio usoo lo sloio oulu lhul is liloly
lo bo iousoo, us shown in Figuio ò. 1his cuching schono io-
oucos lolul ol-chip nonoiy bunowiolh by ulnosl 18' iolu-
livo lo lho cuso whoio no cuchos uio usoo. Cuslon low-vollugo
S!AMs ([S[) woio oosignoo lo opoiulo ul lho oosiioo coio
vollugo uno fioguoncy. 1ho S!AM uichilocluio is shown in
Figuio 6. 1ho S1 bil-coll (!C) is oplinizoo foi low-vollugo
wiilubilily uno luigol poifoinunco. !ow-wiso supply nooo
MCHo is uclivoly pulloo-oown ouiing wiilo uccossos lo in-
piovo oogiuooo wiilo nuigin ul low vollugos. 1ho coll poi-
foins buloioo iouos lhiough lho 2 oxliu liunsislois on lho
iighl, in oiooi lo uvoio iouo upsols ul low vollugos. A psouoo-
oiloionliul sonsing schono conpuliblo wilh lho S1 coll wus
inplononloo, us shown on lho iighl sioo of Figuio 6. 1ho
lulch-busoo sonso-unplifoi usos inpuls !D!L uno u globul
iofoionco vollugo (sns!of) lo pioouco DA1AOU1, which is
lhon buloioo lo lho nonoiy inloifuco`s oulpul. Conpuioo
lo u convonlionul S!AM, lhis cuslon oosign cun opoiulo ul
u nuch lowoi supply vollugo uno liuoo-ol poifoinunco foi
onoigy.
6 Fover Aeasurenents
1ho H.264¸A\C !usolino Lovol 8.1 oocoooi, shown in Fig-
uio S wus inplononloo in 6ò-nn CMOS uno lho powoi
wus nousuioo whon poifoining ioul-lino oocooing of sov-
oiul 720p^80fps viooo sliouns. 1ho fiuno buloi wus inplo-
ED IT
INTRA MC
DB +
MUX
LAST
MVS
9.4 kbits
LAST
LINE
21 kbits
LAST 4
LINES
104 kbits
TOTAL
COEFFS
1.6 kbits
FB
On-chip
Low-voltage
SRAM
(size)
LEGEND
Processing
Unit
Figuio ò: On-chip cuchos ioouco ol-chip nonoiy bunowiolh.
8C 8C
8C
8C
8C
C
o
l
u
m
n
C
l
r
c
u
l
t
8C
8C
8C
8C 8C
Pow Clrcult
Pow Clrcult
Pow Clrcult
Pow Clrcult
Pow Clrcult
8C
C
o
l
u
m
n
C
l
r
c
u
l
t
8C
8C
8C
8C
MCHd
8L 8L8
wL wL
PD8L
PDwL
MCHd
Control
MCHd
v
DD
wL Drlvers
wwL
PDwL
6
4

C
e
l
l
s
snsPef PD8L
snsLN
D
A
T
A
O
U
T
8
L

D
r
l
v
e
r
s
8
L
8
L
8
D
A
T
A
|
N
C
o
l
u
m
n
C
l
r
c
u
l
t
Figuio 6: Low-vollugo S!AM uichilocluio.
nonloo using 82-bil-wioo Cypioss Z!1 S!AMs. A \iilox II
F!GA wus usoo lo inloifuco lho ASIC lo lho oispluy. Figuio
7 shows u conpuiison of oui ASIC wilh olhoi oocooois, whilo
1ublo 2 lisls lho poifoinunco of oui oocoooi ul 720p. Oui
720p oocoooi ulso hus lowoi powoi uno fioguoncy iolulivo lo
D1 of [1[. 1ho powoi of lho I¸O puos wus nol incluooo in lho
nousuiononl conpuiisons. 1ho ioouclion in powoi ovoi lho
olhoi iopoiloo oocooois cun bo ulliibuloo lo u conbinulion
of using lho low-powoi lochniguos oosciiboo in lhis pupoi uno
u noio uovuncoo piocoss.
1ublo 2: Mousuioo poifoinunco nunbois foi 720p^80fps.
YIdeo noLcaI snIeIds ¡arkrun
, of Fiunos 800 800 144
!iliulo (Mbps) ò.4 7.0 26
Ol-chip !\ (Gbps) 1.2 1.1 1.2
Coio Fiog (MHz) 14 14 2ò
Mon Clil Fiog (MHz) ò4 ò0 ò0
Coio \oo [\[ 0.7 0.7 0.S
Mon Clil \oo [\[ 0.Sò 0.S4 0.S4
Iover {nV) 1.B 1.B 3.2
6.1 Fover Hreakdovn
1his soclion shows lho sinululoo powoi biouloown ouiing
!-fiuno oocooing. 1ho powoi of !-fiunos is ooninuloo by
8
175
10 W
100 W
1 mW
10 mW
100 mW
1 W
0.1 1 10 100
Mpixels/s
[work] - process, profile
P
o
w
e
r
QCIF
@15
QCIF
@30
CIF D1 720p 1080p Resolution
[1] - 130nm, Baseline
[2] - 180nm, Baseline
[3] - 180nm, Baseline
[4] - 130nm, Main
This work - 65nm, Baseline
Figuio 7: Conpuiison wilh olhoi H.264 oocooois [1, 2, 8, 4[
3
.
2
m
m
3.2mm
MEMORY CONTROLLER
DOMAIN
CORE
DOMAIN
CACHES
l76 |/O PADS
Total Area :
Technology :
|/O Pads :
Area Utlllzatlon :
Standard Cells :
On-chlp SPAM :
l0mm
2
65nm
l72
4l%
l34k
l7k8
DECODER STATISTICS
Figuio S: Dio pholo showing lho oiloionl oonuins.
MC (42') uno D! (26'), us soon on lho lofl chuil of Figuio
9. Aboul 7ò' of lho MC powoi, oi 82' of lolul powoi, is
consunoo by lho MLM iouo logic, us illusliuloo by lho pio
chuil on lho iighl of lho suno fguio. 1ho nonoiy conliolloi
is lho luigosl powoi consunoi sinco il nusl iun ul u highoi
vollugo uno fioguoncy lhun lho coio oonuin lo uchiovo lho
luigo MC iouo bunowiolh (8 lunu pixols uio iouo foi ovoiy
oocoooo pixol).
MC
42%
DB
26%
MEM
write
7%
Pipeline
control & FIFOs
19%
INTRA
1%
IDCT
1%
ED
3%
Motion Vector
predictor
5%
MEM
Read
75%
Interpolators
20%
P-Frame
Figuio 9: !osl-luyoul sinululoo ASIC powoi biouloown oui-
ing !-fiuno oocooing.
7 Sunnary
\o inplononloo u full viooo oocoooi syslon lhul oonon-
sliulos high oofnilion oocooing ul low-vollugo opoiulion.
Sovoiul lochniguos woio lovoiugoo lo nulo lhis low-powoi
oocoooi possiblo. 1ho oocoooi unils woio pipolinoo uno
isoluloo by FIFOs lo inciouso concuiioncy. 1ho MC inloi-
poluloi uno D! fllois woio iopliculoo foi inciousoo poifoi-
nunco. 1ho oocoooi wus puililionoo inlo inooponoonl voll-
ugo¸fioguoncy islunos lo onublo lowoi vollugo¸fioguoncy op-
oiulion foi sono of lho piocossing blocls. Finully, vollugo-
sculublo on-chip cuchos holpoo ioouco bolh on-chip uno ol-
chip nonoiy powoi.
8 AcknovIedgenents
1ho uulhois woulo lilo lo lhunl Noliu, 1oxus Insliunonls
(1I), uno NSL!C foi lhoii suppoil of oui iosouich, 1I foi
piovioing chip fubiiculion, uno lho nuny iosouichois fion
Noliu, 1I uno MI1 who huvo pioviooo vuluublo fooobucl.
HeIerences
[1[ C.-D. Chion, C.-C. Lin, Y.-H. Shih, H.-C. Chon, C.-J.
Huung, C.-Y. Yu, C.-L. Chon, C.-H. Chong, uno J.-I.
Guo, A 2ò2lgulo¸71n\ Mulli-Slunouio Mulli-Chunnol
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