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Cabinet- Group of presidential advisors that are not mentioned in the constitution and is composed of 14 secretaries and the

attorney general Central Clearance- a review of all executive branch testimony, reports and draft legislation by office of management and budget to ensure that each communication in congress is in accordance with the presidents program. Clinton v. City of New York- in 1977 ruled that law granting the president the line item veto was unconstitutional because it violates the separation of powers outlined in the constitution. Closed Rule- an order from the house rules committee that sets the time limit on debate and forbids a particular bill from being amended on the floor. Cloture- used by senate to end or limit debate. 60 members present and voting can halt a filibuster by doing this. Concurring opinion- a written opinion not only to support the majoritys decision but also to emphasize certain constitutional and legal basis for argument. Discharge Petition- a device by which a member of the house, after a committee has been on a bill for more than thirty days, may petition to have it brought to the floor. If a majority agrees, the bill is discharged for the committee. Dissenting Opinion- a written opinion by justices that are opposed to all or part of the majoritys decision. Divided Government- a government in which the presidency is controlled by ne party and congress is controlled by another party. More common in recent centuries as voters have become more independent and have voted by ticket splitting. Executive Office of the President- organization established by FDR to assist the president carrying out major duties. Those who directly work for the president in the white house. Includes the white house office, chief of staff and the press secretary, and the council of economic advisors. Executive Privilege- the right of the president to withhold information when doing so would compromise national security (diplomatic files and military secrets). Not mentioned in constitution and is unwritten tradition that started with Washington. Filibuster- strategy used the senate whereby opponents of a bill talk the bill to death through unlimited debate. Germane- amendments that are strictly relevant to the bill. Gerrymandering- drawing districts intentionally benefit a group politically. Only illegal if racially motivated. Government Corporation- a government organization that like business corporations provide services that could be provided by the private sector and charge a fee for it. USPS.

Grand Jury- a jury of 12-23 persons who, in private, hear evidence presented by the government to decide where the persons shall be required to stand trial. If jury believes there is sufficient evidence to suggest the crime was committed, then an indictment is issued. Hatch Act- A federal law prohibiting government employees from active participation in partisan politics. And protected government employees from being fired on partisan grounds. Incrementalism- tendency of the budget to increase a little bit each year. Independent Agency- government not accounted for by the cabinet, independent regulatory agency and government corporations. Indictment- formal words written or spoken by a jury that charge a person with a crime. INS v Chadha- ruled unconstitutional the legislative veto.1983, but congress continues to enact laws containing them. Jus Sanguinis- citizenship based on parents citizenship. Jus Soli- citizenship recognized by birth in a certain territory. Line- Item Veto- Gave the president power to cut wasteful spending programs and was very controversial from the start and was declared unconstitutional. Strike or remove certain parts of a spending bill without vetoing the whole bill. Logrolling- A legislator supports a proposal favored by another in return for support for his own proposal. Majority Opinion- more than half disagree of agree. Merit System- hiring personnel is based on promotion ratings and entrance exams to provide skilled and talented administrative people. Oversight- The process of monitoring the bureaucracy and its administrative policies mainly though congressional hearing. Pendleton Act- 1183. Act that created the federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage. Per Curiam Opinion- a court decision without an explanation. Without an opinion. Petit Jury- a jury of 6-12 persons who determine guilt or innocence in a civil or criminal action. Pocket Veto- veto taking place when congress adjourns within ten days of submitting a bill to the president, who simply lets the bill die by neither signing it nor vetoing it. Presentment Clause- When a bill is passed by both houses of congress it can become a law if the president entirely agrees with it. How bills become laws. Reapportionment- congressional districts are redrawn and seats are redistributed among states in the house. Happens every ten years with the census. Each district must have an equal number of districts

and the house number remains at 435 even though states gain and lose seats. REDISTRIBUTION OF SEATS. Redistricting- when state legislatures draw district maps. Redrawing congressional and other legislative district lines after the census to accommodate the population shift and to keep equal population distributing in the districts. Regulatory Board- government agency responsible for some sector of economy making and enforcing rules to protect public interest. Also judges disputes over these rules. Rider- unpopular provision added to an important bill that is certain to pass so that it will ride through the legislative process. Rules of Four- requirement that a case can be heard by the Supreme Court only if four justices vote to hear it. Senatorial Courtesy- unwritten tradition whereby nominations for state level judicial posts are not confirmed if they are opposed by a senator from the presidents party from the state in which the nominee will serve. Applies when there is opposition from the nominees state senator. Solicitor General- presidential appointee and the third ranking office in the department of justice. In charge of the appellate court litigation of the federal government. Has four jobs. Spoils System- employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends. Stare Decisis- let the decision stand. Most cases reaching the appellate courts are settled on this principle. Unanimous Consent- senate can ease passage of a bill through unanimous consent. US v Nixon- ruled executive privilege unconstitutional except in cases of secret foreign or military affairs. Whip- appointed person who assists each floor leader and keep track of how party members vote and persuades each members votes. Writ of Certiorari- legal document issued by the Supreme Court to request the court transcripts of a case. Indicates the court will review a lower courts decision.