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919–922 c International Academic Publishers
Vol. 43, No. 5, May 15, 2005
Inﬂuences of Temperature and Average Interparticle Distance on the Properties of Two-Dimensional Dusty Plasma∗
LIU Song-Fen,1,† WANG Xin,1 LIU Yu-Bin,1 HU Bei-Lai,1 WANG Long,2 LIU Yan-Hong,2 and HUANG Feng2
Department of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China Institute of Physics, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China
(Received July 8, 2004; Revised September 10, 2004)
Abstract The structure and single-particle motion of a two-dimensional dusty plasma have been investigated. Pair correlation function, mean square displacement, velocity autocorrelation function, and the corresponding spectrum function have been computed by molecular dynamical simulation. The results show that the coagulation of a two-dimensional dusty plasma system is strongly aﬀected by particle density and temperature, which are discussed in details.
PACS numbers: 52.27.-h, 52.27.Lw, 52.65.Yy
Key words: dusty plasma, molecular dynamics simulation, structure, single particle motion
There is a great interest in the study of dusty plasma in the ﬁelds of astrophysics, solids, microelectronics, and basic plasma physics both in experimental and theoretical work.[1,2] The research on dusty plasma is developed in astrophysics, where people need to deal with a dusty plasma in space, such as planetary nebula and planetary magnetic stratum and etc. With the development of industrial technology, it is found that the existence of dusty plasma results in serious problems of reducing the operating capability of apparatus, even leading to the uselessness of the apparatus during the microelectronics manufacturing. Recently, the researches focus on the structure, phase transition, single dusty particle’s movement character, and wave dispersion of dusty plasma, which would provide the better understanding of behavior of dusty plasma. Dusty plasma is a complex and strongly coupled system, being composed of a great deal of charged particles, which are usually charged negatively as a result of electrons and ions’ collecting motion. Many experiments have shown that dusty plasma could form a liquidlike, solid-like or gas-like structure in diﬀerent laboratory conditions.[3,4] And a two-dimensional dusty plasma lattice in an rf discharge was observed. At the same time, molecular dynamical (MD) simulation turns out to be another important tool for investigating dusty plasma, which could foretell some results of experiments.[6−9] In this paper, based on the earlier work, we study the structural character and single-particle motion in a two-dimensional dusty plasma at diﬀerent temperatures as well as diﬀerent particle densities.
2 Physical Model and Molecular Dynamical Simulation
We start our considerations with one of the most classical dusty plasma systems, which has the identical particles with the point charge Q and the mass M , inter∗ The † E-mail:
acting exclusively through the Yukawa potential energy φ(r) = (Q2 /4π 0 r) exp(−r/λD ), and immersed in a neutral background, where r is the distance between two particles, and λD denotes the Debye length of the background plasma. There are three important parameters in this sys√ tem: a = 1/ ndusty , κ = a/λD , Γ = Q2 /(4π 0 akB T ), where ndusty is the density of dusty plasma, a is the mean interparticle distance, κ is the ratio of the mean interparticle distance a to the Debye length λD , and the coupling parameter Γ is the ratio of the system’s Coulomb interaction energy to their kinetic energies. T is the system temperature. In this paper, we do some simulation in a 2D canonical system. The constant temperature MD-Verlet arithmetic is used. We use the Nos¨ e–Hoover thermostat scheme to keep a constant temperature of the system. We put 256 particles in a 2D square box with periodic boundary conditions to study the structural properties and singleparticle motion of an inﬁnite system. In the calculation, we deﬁned the mean interparticle distance a as the length unit; φ0 = Q2 /4π 0 a as the unit of energy, t0 = M a2 /φ0 = 4π 0 M a3 /Q2 as time unit. We performed −1 0.03 ωpd as the time step, where ωpd = Q2 / 0 M a3 is the dusty plasma frequency, the initial run lasts 3 × 104 steps for equilibration, and the subsequent 3 × 104 time steps are measured by calculating the pair correlation function (PCF) g (r), the mean square displacement (MSD) and the velocity autocorrelation function (VACF). These functions could characterize the structural and single particle motion properties of a 2D dusty plasma. We suppose κ = 1 following with the experimental condition. Each characteristic function was calculated at diﬀerent coupling parameter and mean interparticle distances. The pair correlation function g (r), the mean square displacement r2 (t) , the velocity autocorrelation function
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N (r. All of these results show that the structural order of the 2D dusty plasma enhances with decreasing a for the same Γ. i=1 respectively. and ri (t) and vi (t) are the position and velocity of the i-th particle at time t. 43 Z (t) and its corresponding spectrum function are deﬁned by g (r) = S N (r. . where N is the number of dust particles in the simulation box. · · · · denotes the thermal average. WANG Xin. At Γ = 25.577. Vol. Z (t) = Z (ω ) = 1 2π N i=1 vi (t) · vi (0) N i=1 vi (0) · vi (0) ∞ − i ωt Z (t) e −∞ Fig. the ﬁrst peak splits into three parts at a = 0. For example. 3 Numerical Results and Discussions . at Γ = 100. Figure 1 shows g (r) varying with r/a at diﬀerent values of coupling parameter Γ and the average interparticle distance a. respectively. 12 next nearest neighbors and 18 next-next neighbors for any test particle. N 2πr∆ 1 N N (1) (2) r2 (t) = (ri (t) − ri (0))2 . there are 6 nearest neighbors. at Γ = 50. 500. the ﬁrst peak splits. the split of the ﬁrst peak enlarges with decreasing a and at Γ = 500. dt . In our simulation. This structure is similar to a liquid. S is the area of the simulated region. we got that each particle has 6 nearest neighbors at all parameter. (3) (4) The results of Liu[8.1a). the vertex of the ﬁrst peak increases and the peak width decreases.5.5. (b) Its local ampliﬁcation. ∆) . the ﬁrst peak splits at a = 0. ∆) is the number of particles located between r − ∆/2 and r + ∆/2 (∆ = 0. which indicates that this system appears to have a structural order.9] showed the structural and dynamical properties in a 2D dusty plasma aﬀected only by temperature. et al. By integrating g (r). 1 (a) The pair correlation function g (r) varies with diﬀerent values of coupling parameter Γ and average interparticle distance a. This structure is close to a solid. One can see from Fig. At certain a.920 LIU Song-Fen. there are 6-6-6-12-6-18 neighbors for any test particle. At Γ = 500 and a = 0. The static structural order of a condensed matter system is usually investigated by pair correlation function. LIU Yu-Bin. we changed the interparticle distance in order to represent the system properties for diﬀerent classical coupling parameters. 1 that oscillation in peaks of g (r) is increasing with decreasing a for the same Γ.
417 at a = 0. 2 that the MSD gradually increases or tends to be a constant rapidly with decreasing the average interparticle distance a at the same Γ. Studying the particles motion is the simplest method to distinguishing a solid from a liquid. at the condition of the Γ = 62.5. r2 (t) ∝ t1.0.16. It is clear from Fig.No.408 and t/ωpd ≤ 16.404 at a = 0. For example. The mean square displacement (MSD) of particles tends to a constant for a solid. and ampliﬁes with the time of motion for a liq−1 uid.577 −1 and r2 (t) ∝ t0. r2 (t) ∝ t0. Figure 2 shows the MSD varying with t/ωpd at different values of Γ and a. which means that the dynamical process of particles conﬁned to their equilibrium positions gets more .0 at a = 1. 2 The mean square displacement varies with coupling parameter and average interparticle distance. Fig. corresponding to that of the diﬀusive and subdiﬀusive regime. 5 Inﬂuences of Temperature and Average Interparticle Distance on the Properties of · · · 921 quickly with increasing the number density.
Figure 3 shows the VACF and the corresponding spectrum function varying with −1 t/ωpd and ω/ωpd . M.O. 73 (1994) 652. 43 that the oscillation of VACF strengthens with decreasing a for the same Γ.  A. Chem. we have calculated the pair correlation. E56 (1997) 7310. 35 (2002) 9535. Lett. Therefore. J. Phys. At the same time the oscillatory period of Z (t) becomes shorter in time domain. 4 Conclusion In summary. the 2D dusty plasma begins to coagulate. Liu. et al. Liu. Rev. and G. Wang. G. we may conclude that the kinetic mode of a 2D dusty plasma system is only related with the temperature. et al. Phys. Melzer. A: Math.Z. E53 (1996) 2757..H. A. et al. Phys. WANG Xin.  J. Chin.S. Hoover. Generally. Rev. both the temperature and the number density of the dusty plasm are important characteristic parameters which aﬀect the properties of the two-dimensional dusty plasma system.922 LIU Song-Fen. A41 (1990) 5516. Rev. and A. hence it is possible to excite a transverse wave in a solid. Phys. Kremer. Liu.. A31 (1985) 1695.       P. Rev.Y. Fig. Rev. Phys. B. Gen. Grest.. Sin. Kalman and K. W.I. Phys. Robbins.J. E59 (1999) 1047. Piel. Phys. Therefore. D.  D. 49 (2000) 1094 (in Chinese). The velocity autocorrelation function (VACF) is the simplest variable characterizing the dynamical information in the many-body system. LIU Yu-Bin. Our results show that the dusty plasma could coagulate rapidly with increasing coupling parameter and decreasing average interparticle distance. Phys.G.Y.  H. et al. Sansibiv and J. the peak of low frequency oscillation appears. the mean square displacement and the velocity autocorrelation function with its corresponding spectrum function of a two-dimensional dusty plasma system by molecular dynamics simulation. Golden. 12 (2003) 765.. and the frequency becomes higher at smaller a. From Fig. 88 (1988) 3286. Phys. Goree. Vol. Phys. So we can know that the system tends to a solid with increasing Γ and decreasing a. 3. Phys. Y. accordingly. the oscillatory frequency becomes larger in frequency domain. Acta. Rev. At Γ = 10 no new oscillatory mode comes into being with increasing interparticle distance. respectively. 20 (2003) 155. indicating a new oscillatory mode. .. Hua. 3 The velocity autocorrelation function with their corresponding spectrum functions varies with diﬀerent coupling parameter and average interparticle distance. At Γ = 100. K. Thomas et al. one can see References  D. Lett. Schmidt. and J. Homann. et al. Chin. Liu. J. at about Γ = 100.
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