Lactic Acid

Lactic acid was isolated and refined for the first time by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1780 from sour milk. In 1856, Louis Pasteur discovered Lactobacillus and its role in the making of lactic acid. Lactic acid started to be produced commercially by the German pharmacy Boehringer Ingelheim in 1895. Lactic acid is found primarily in sour milk products, such as koumiss, laban, yogurt, kefir, and some cottage cheeses. The casein in fermented milk is coagulated (curdled) by lactic acid. Methane Converting methane to H2 In the chemical industry, methane is converted to synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, by steam reforming. This endergonic process (requiring energy) utilizes nickel catalysts and requires high temperatures, around 700–1100 °C: CH4 + H2O → CO + 3 H2 Related chemistries are exploited in the Haber-Bosch Synthesis of ammonia from air, which is reduced with natural gas to a mixture of carbon dioxide, water, and ammonia. Industrial Hydrogen production Commercial bulk hydrogen is usually produced by the steam reforming of natural gas.[75] At high temperatures (1000–1400 K, 700–1100 °C or 1300–2000 °F), steam (water vapor) reacts with methane to yield carbon monoxide and H2. CH4 + H2O → CO + 3 H2

he obtained a white. It is not welldefined at what point on the temperature scale refrigeration ends and cryogenics begins. where he hoped they would condense to gold. waxy substance that glowed in the dark. neon. heated this paste to a high temperature. which contains considerable quantities of dissolved phosphates from normal metabolism. . We now know that Brand produced ammonium sodium hydrogen phosphate. This is a logical dividing line. it was unnecessary to allow the urine to rot. oxygen. the first element discovered since antiquity. Methane can also be prepared by reaction of aluminium carbide with water or strong acids. Acetic acid is decarboxylated in this process.100 L of urine to make about 60 g of phosphorus).15 K). and normal air) lie below −180 °C while the Freon refrigerants. nitrogen. cryogenics In physics. 4 NaPO3 + 2 SiO2 + 10 C → 2 Na2SiO3 + 10 CO + P4 methane Laboratory synthesis Methane can also be produced by the destructive distillation of acetic acid in the presence of soda lime or similar. and led the vapours through water.Posphorous Hening Brand experimented with urine. The National Institute of Standards and Technology at Boulder. Later scientists would discover that fresh urine yielded the same amount of phosphorus and improved Brand's process by using sand in the reaction (still using urine as base material). hydrogen sulfide. but most scientists[2] assume it starts at or below -150 °C or 123 K (about -240 °F). cryogenics is the study of the production of very low temperature (below −150 °C. and other common refrigerants have boiling points above −180 °C. Then he boiled it down to a paste. While the quantities were essentially correct (it took about 1. however. Instead. Colorado has chosen to consider the field of cryogenics as that involving temperatures below −180 °C (-292 °F or 93. His process originally involved letting urine stand for days until it gave off a terrible smell. the term is used today as a synonym for the low-temperature state. since the normal boiling points of the so-called permanent gases (such as helium. Etymology The word cryogenics stems from Greek and means "the production of freezing cold". Brand had discovered phosphorus. (NH4)NaHPO4. −238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. hydrogen.

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