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DOI: 10.

1142/S0217984910023037
April 20, 2010 17:24 WSPC/147-MPLB S0217984910023037
Modern Physics Letters B, Vol. 24, No. 10 (2010) 979994
c World Scientic Publishing Company
ADAPTIVE FUZZY SYNCHRONIZATION OF TWO DIFFERENT
CHAOTIC SYSTEMS WITH STOCHASTIC
UNKNOWN PARAMETERS
W. J. YOO, D. H. JI

and S. C. WON

Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering,


Pohang University of Science and Technology,
San 31 Hyoja-Dong, Pohang, Gyungbuk, 790-784, Republic of Korea

capzone@postech.ac.kr

won@postech.ac.kr
Received 22 June 2009
Revised 21 August 2009
In this paper, we present a method for synchronizing two dierent chaotic systems that
have unknown parameters that are aected by stochastic variations generated by the
Wiener process. The parameters are expressed by the sum of their mean values and
the white Gaussian noise multiplied by the diusion matrices. To describe the unknown
nonlinear function yielded by It os lemma due to the unknown diusion matrices, a
fuzzy logic system is employed. Using adaptive fuzzy control, the response system is
synchronized with the drive system within an arbitrarily small error bound. Numerical
simulations show the eectiveness of the proposed method.
Keywords: Adaptive fuzzy; synchronization; stochastic chaos.
1. Introduction
Chaotic systems occur in many real-world scientic and engineering problems. Such
systems are very sensitive to the initial conditions and to variations of parameters,
and this sensitivity can cause unpredictable phenomena. As a result the challenge
of synchronizing chaotic systems has been intensively studied. Since chaotic syn-
chronization was introduced by Pecora and Carroll,
1
many types of synchronization
technique have been developed.
28
Recently, the problem of synchronizing two dierent chaotic systems has been
studied.
914
Nonlinear feedback control schemes have been used for synchroniza-
tion of two dierent chaotic systems.
9,10
Active control approaches have been pre-
sented
11,12
for synchronization between Lorenz
15
and Chen,
16
or Lorenz and L u
systems.
17
Adaptive control schemes have been studied for synchronization of dier-
ent chaotic systems with unknown parameters, which were estimated by adaptation
laws.
13,14
However, all these approaches deal with deterministic chaotic systems. In prac-
tical situations, chaotic systems often show stochastic characteristics because the
979
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April 20, 2010 17:24 WSPC/147-MPLB S0217984910023037
980 W. J. Yoo, D. H. Ji & S. C. Won
systems are interferred by random noise so the chaos synchronization is aected sig-
nicantly. In this paper, we focus on the stochastic variation of system parameters
due to random noise. Recently, Salarieh and Alasty have proposed the synchroniza-
tion of chaotic systems with stochastic unknown parameters.
18
The time-varying
unknown parameters are assumed to be disturbed by white Gaussian noise (WGN)
which is generated by the Wiener process. The parameters are expressed by the
sum of the their mean values and the WGNs multiplied by the diusion matrices.
However, Salarieh and Alasty assumed that the diusion matrices are known.
In practice, it is not easy to nd the diusion matrices. If there is no stochastic
information about the system parameters, unknown nonlinear terms are generated
in derivation of stability condition using It os lemma.
19
In this paper, we propose
an adaptive fuzzy logic scheme to compensate for the unknown nonlinear terms
using control input.
As an extension of Ref. 18, this paper addresses an adaptive fuzzy synchro-
nization based on the drive-response framework for two dierent chaotic systems
with unknown parameters which are perturbed by WGN, which is assumed to be
generated by the Wiener process. The model proposed by Salarieh and Alasty
18
is adopted to describe the stochastic variation of unknown parameters, but it is
assumed that the information about their mean and diusion matrices as well as
their bound is fully unknown. The unknown nonlinearities are approximated by the
fuzzy logic system (FLS),
20
in which parameters are adjusted by an adaptation law
satisfying the Lyapunov criterion. It is shown that the mean square of synchroniza-
tion error between the drive and the response system converges into any arbitrarily
given small bound. Simulation results are provided to verify the eectiveness of the
proposed method.
2. Fuzzy Logic Systems and the Universal Approximation Theorem
Consider an n input, single-output FLS
20
with M fuzzy IF-THEN rules:
Rule r : If x
1
is A
r1
and and x
n
is A
rn
Then z = z
r
, (1)
where 1 r M, x = [x
1
, . . . , x
n
]
T
X R
n
is the input of the FLS and z R
is the output of the FLS, with a compact set X. z
r
is the fuzzy singleton for the
output of rth rule and A
r1
, . . . , A
rn
are fuzzy sets with the Gaussian membership
functions
rj
(x
j
) = exp[(x
j
c
rj
)
2
/
rj
] where c
rj
is the center and
rj
is the
width of the Gaussian membership function. Using this singleton fuzzy model, the
output of the fuzzy system can be described as
z =

M
r=1
z
r
(

n
j=1

rj
(x
j
))

M
r=1
(

n
j=1

rj
(x
j
))
=
T
(x) , (2)
where = [ z
1
, . . . , z
M
]
T
is a parameter vector and (x) = [
1
(x), . . . ,
M
(x)]
T
is the
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Adaptive Fuzzy Synchronization of Two Dierent Chaotic Systems 981
fuzzy basis function vector dened by

r
(x) =

n
j=1

rj
(x
j
)

M
i=1
(

n
j=1

ij
(x
j
))
, r = 1, 2, . . . , M . (3)
Now, we introduce the following theorem:
Universal Approximation Theorem.
20
Suppose that the input universe of dis-
course X is a compact set in R
n
. Then, for any given real continuous function g(x)
on X and arbitrary > 0, there exists a fuzzy system f(x) =
T
(x) such that
sup
xX
|g(x) f(x)| < . (4)
That is, fuzzy systems that are composed of a product inference engine, a single-
ton fuzzier, a center average defuzzier and Gaussian membership functions are
universal approximators.
In this paper, a singleton FLS is used to describe the unknown nonlinear function
that the diusion matrices cause in the stability analysis of stochastic systems. The
fuzzy parameter vector can be adjusted using an adaptation law to satisfy the
Lyapunov stability criterion.
3. Problem Formulation
We consider the following chaotic drive (5) and response (6) systems
18
:
x = f(x) + F(x) , (5)
y = g(y) + G(y) + H(y)u (6)
where x R
n
is the state of the drive system; y R
n
is the state of the response
system; u R
n
is the control vector of the response system; f() R
n
and g()
R
n
are nonlinear function vectors; F() R
np
, G() R
nq
, H() R
nn
are
nonlinear function matrices, each with a Euclidean norm bounded by an unknown
positive constant; R
p
is the system parameter vector of the drive system;
and R
q
is the system parameter vector of the response system. The system
parameter vectors, and in the model proposed by Salarieh and Alasty
18
are:
=

+ v , (7)
=

+ w, (8)
where

is the unknown mean value of ;

is the unknown mean value of ;
and are the unknown diusion matrices; and v and w are independent zero-mean
vector Wiener processes of which the elements satisfy
E{dv} = 0, E{dw} = 0, E{dv
i
dw
j
} = 0, i, j ,
E{dv
i
dv
j
} =
_
dt, if i = j
0, otherwise
, E{dw
i
dw
j
} =
_
dt, if i = j
0, otherwise
, (9)
dtdt = 0 .
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April 20, 2010 17:24 WSPC/147-MPLB S0217984910023037
982 W. J. Yoo, D. H. Ji & S. C. Won

,

, and are assumed to be bounded but in this paper the upper bounds need
not be known.
Using Eqs. (7) and (8), the dynamic equations (5) and (6) can be rewritten as
It o dierential equation
19
:
dx = [f(x) + F(x)

]dt + F(x)dv , (10)


dy = [g(y) + G(y)

+ H(y)u]dt + G(y)dw. (11)
By subtracting Eq. (11) from Eq. (10), the error dynamics is described by
de = [f(x) g(y) + F(x)

G(y)

H(y)u]dt + F(x)dv G(y)dw, (12)
where e = x y. To synchronize the response system with the drive system, we
need to refer to It os lemma.
Lemma 1. (Itos lemma)
19
Assume that an n-dimensional vector stochastic pro-
cess X satises the Ito dierential equation (12). Let (X, t) be an arbitrary func-
tion of X and t. Then, the dierentiation of the function is given by the Taylor
expansion of (X, t), i.e.
d(X, t) =

t
dt +
n

i=1

X
i
dX
i
+
1
2
n

i=1
n

j=1

X
i
X
j
dX
i
dX
j
, (13)
where X
i
is the ith element of X.
For stochastic systems, the objective of synchronization is to design a controller
to make the mean square of the synchronization error approach the origin, i.e.
e(t) 0 as t , where e = E{e
T
(t)e(t)}
1/2
. The adaptive fuzzy synchro-
nization scheme is presented in the next section.
4. Adaptive Fuzzy Synchronization
The adaptive fuzzy synchronization controller consists of the nonlinear feedback
controller and the adaptive controller. In the adaptive controller part, the fuzzy
parameter vector is updated to approximate the unknown nonlinear function (13)
of Lemma 1. The approximation error for the nonlinear function by the FLS is
compensated by a state error feedback controller of which the gain is tuned by an
adaptation law. Also, the mean

and

are estimated by the adaptive parameters.
The main result is summarized by the following theorem.
Theorem 1. Consider the drive and the response systems (10) and (11). The syn-
chronization error would converge to a set S = {e|E{e
T
e} < } with the arbitrarily
given error tolerance as t if the control and adaptation laws are given by
u = H
1
(y)[f(x) g(y) + Ke + F(x) G(y) + e
T
(x, y)] , (14)
K = k
1
+ k
2
, (15)
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Adaptive Fuzzy Synchronization of Two Dierent Chaotic Systems 983
=
1
F(x)
T
e , (16)

=
2
G(y)
T
e , (17)

k
2
=
3
e
T
e, if E{e
T
e} > , (18)

=
4
e
T
e(x, y), if E{e
T
e} > , (19)

k
2
=
3
, if E{e
T
e} , (20)

= 0, if E{e
T
e} , (21)
where k
1
is a positive constant for the convergence of mean squared error (MSE);
k
2
is the adaptive gain to compensate for the fuzzy approximation error; R
M
is the fuzzy parameter vector; (, ) R
M
is the fuzzy basis function vector; M
is the number of rules for the FLS; R
p
is the estimate of

; R
q
is the
estimate of

;
1
,
2
,
3
and
4
are positive constants; is a positive constant such
that < .
Proof. Let us dene the following function:
V
1
=
1
2
e(t)
2
+
1
2
1

2
+
1
2
2

2
, (22)
where =

and

=

. Dierentiating both sides of Eq. (22) yields:
dV
1
=
1
2
E
_
d(e
T
e) +
2

1

T

dt +
2

dt
_
. (23)
Using It os lemma, the error dynamics (12) and the property (9), d(e
T
e) is
d(e
T
e) = 2e
T
de +
n

i,j=1
de
i
de
j
,
= 2e
T
de +
p

i=1
(
T
F
T
(x)F(x))
ii
dt +
q

i=1
(
T
G
T
(y)G(y))
ii
dt , (24)
where the subscript ii means the ith diagonal element. Substituting Eq. (12) into
Eq. (24) and then substituting the result into Eq. (23) yields
dV
1
= E
_
e
T
([f(x) g(y) + F(x)

G(y)

H(y)u]dt + F(x)dv G(y)dw)
+
1
2
p

i=1
(
T
F
T
(x)F(x))
ii
dt +
1
2
q

i=1
(
T
G
T
(y)G(y))
ii
dt
+
1

1

T

dt +
1

dt
_
. (25)
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984 W. J. Yoo, D. H. Ji & S. C. Won
Because of the properties of the Wiener process Eq. (9),
dV
1
= E
_
e
T
([f(x) g(y) + F(x)

G(y)

H(y)u]dt)
+
1
2
p

i=1
(
T
F
T
(x)F(x))
ii
dt +
1
2
q

i=1
(
T
G
T
(y)G(y))
ii
dt
+
1

1

T

dt +
1

dt
_
. (26)
Thus,

V
1
= E
_
e
T
([f(x) g(y) + F(x)

G(y)

H(y)u])
+
1
2
p

i=1
(
T
F
T
(x)F(x))
ii
+
1
2
q

i=1
(
T
G
T
(y)G(y))
ii
+
1

1

T

+
1

_
. (27)
Then dene a nonlinear function N(x, y) as
N(x, y) = (e
T
e)
1
_
1
2
p

i=1
(
T
F
T
(x)F(x))
ii
+
1
2
q

i=1
(
T
G
T
(y)G(y))
ii
_
. (28)
From the universal approximation theorem, there exists an FLS
T
(x, y) such that
N(x, y) =
T
(x, y) + (x, y) , (29)
where (x, y) is the approximation error which is bounded by an unknown constant
as
|(x, y)| < . (30)
Let

denote the optimal fuzzy parameter vector, i.e.

= arg min
R
M
_
sup
x,y
|N(x, y)
T
(x, y)|
_
. (31)
Then dene

=

and

k
2
= k
2
and a Lyapunov function candidate:
V = V
1
+
1
2
3

k
2

2
+
1
2
4

2
. (32)
Dierentiating Eq. (32) yields:

V =

V
1
+ E
_
1

+
1

k
2

k
2
_
= E
_
e
T
([f(x) g(y) + F(x)

G(y)

H(y)u])
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Adaptive Fuzzy Synchronization of Two Dierent Chaotic Systems 985
+
1
2
p

i=1
(
T
F
T
(x)F(x))
ii
+
1
2
q

i=1
(
T
G
T
(y)G(y))
ii
+
1

1

T

+
1

+
1

+
1

k
2

k
2
_
. (33)
Because

= ,

and

k
2
=

k
2
, substituting Eqs. (14), (28),
(29), (30), (31) into Eq. (33) yields

V = E
_
e
T
eN(x, y) e
T
e
T
(x, y) k
1
e
T
e k
2
e
T
e
+
1

1

T
(
1
F
T
(x)e ) +
1

T
(
2
G
T
(y)e

)
1

T


1

k
2

k
2
_
= E
_
e
T
e
T
(x, y) + e
T
e

(x, y) e
T
e
T
(x, y) k
1
e
T
e k
2
e
T
e
+
1

1

T
(
1
F
T
(x)e ) +
1

T
(
2
G
T
(y)e

)
1

T


1

k
2

k
2
_
< E
_
k
1
e
T
e +
1

1

T
(
1
F
T
(x)e ) +
1

T
(
2
G
T
(y)e

)
+
1

T
(
4
e
T
e(x, y)

) +
1

k
2
(
3
e
T
e

k
2
)
_
, (34)
where

is the minimum fuzzy approximation error when =

.
From the adaptation laws (16)(19),

V < E{k
1
e
T
e} 0 . (35)
Because k
1
is a positive constant,

V < 0 for all synchronization errors. Hence, the
MSE approaches the neighborhood of the origin.
However, as E{e
T
e} approaches zero, the magnitude of N(x, y) will increase
without bound while E{

} 0. This means that the FLS


T
(x, y) cannot ap-
proximate N(x, y) around the origin. Therefore, the convergence of the MSE is not
guaranteed by the adaptation law (19). To prevent failure of FLS to approximate
N(x, y), we dene an error tolerance and a set S = {e(t)|E{e(t)
T
e(t)} }.
When e(t) / S, N(x, y) is bounded so that it can be approximated by the FLS.
Then, the inequality (35) is satised and e(t) converges to the set S.
When e(t) S, instead of dealing with N(x, y), let us dene the non-
linear function L(x, y) = e
T
eN(x, y) =
1
2

p
i=1
(
T
F
T
(x)F(x))
ii
+
1
2

q
i=1

(
T
G
T
(y)G(y))
ii
. Instead of Eqs. (18) and (19), we set the adaptation law for k
2
to Eq. (20) and the adaptation law for to Eq. (21). Because F(x), G(y), and
are bounded, L(x, y) is also bounded, i.e. 0 L(x, y) <

L, where

L is a pos-
itive constant. In the case that e(t) increases so that it approaches the boundary
E{e
T
e} = , there exists a positive constant such that < E{e
T
e} . Then,
M
o
d
.

P
h
y
s
.

L
e
t
t
.

B

2
0
1
0
.
2
4
:
9
7
9
-
9
9
4
.

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m
b
y

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O
H
A
N
G

U
N
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V
E
R
S
I
T
Y

O
F

S
C
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o
n

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3
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9
/
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.

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April 20, 2010 17:24 WSPC/147-MPLB S0217984910023037
986 W. J. Yoo, D. H. Ji & S. C. Won
we obtain the following inequality:

V < E
_
k
1
e
T
e +

L k
2
e
T
e e
T
e
T
(x, y)
1

k
2

k
2
_
< E
_
k
1
+

L k
2

T
(x, y)
1

k
2

k
2
_
. (36)
Because the adaptation law (19) updates in the positive direction, the FLS

T
(x, y) is not negative if (0) 0. So, if the error signal

k
2
is redened as

k
2
=

L

k
2
, (37)
where

L

=

L/ k
1
, then

V < E
__

k
1
_
k
2

1

k
2

k
2
_
= E
_
(

k
2
)
1

k
2

k
2
_
= E
_
1

k
2
(
3


k
2
)
_
. (38)
The adaptation law (20) yields that

V < 0. Therefore, e(t) remains in the
set S.
Remark 1. For smaller ,
3
and
4
, which are the learning rates of the adaptive
parameters, should be larger to maintain a good transient performance. However,
the larger learning rates may cause larger control inputs. Hence, there is a tradeo
between error tolerance and control eort.
5. Numerical Examples
To verify the eectiveness of the proposed method, three examples are presented
in this section. The rst example presents the stochastic chaos synchronization
between the unied chaotic system
21
and the R ossler system.
22
The second example
presents the synchronization between the hyper Lorenz
23
and the hyper L u.
24
The
third example presents the synchronization of the 3D hysteresis multiscroll chaotic
system
2527
and 1D saturated multiscroll chaotic system.
28
Example 1. (Unied chaotic system R ossler system synchronization)
Consider the unied chaotic system (the drive system) of the form
21
:
_
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
_
=
_
_
0
x
1
x
3
x
1
x
2
_
_
+
_
_
x
2
x
1
0 0 0
0 x
1
x
2
0
0 0 0 x
3
_
_
_

4
_

_
. (39)
M
o
d
.

P
h
y
s
.

L
e
t
t
.

B

2
0
1
0
.
2
4
:
9
7
9
-
9
9
4
.

D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

f
r
o
m

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.
w
o
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d
s
c
i
e
n
t
i
f
i
c
.
c
o
m
b
y

P
O
H
A
N
G

U
N
I
V
E
R
S
I
T
Y

O
F

S
C
I
E
N
C
E

o
n

0
3
/
1
9
/
1
3
.

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April 20, 2010 17:24 WSPC/147-MPLB S0217984910023037
Adaptive Fuzzy Synchronization of Two Dierent Chaotic Systems 987
For the numerical simulation, the values of

i
for i = 1, 2, 3, 4 are
_

4
_

_
=
_

_
25a + 10
35a 28
29a 1
(8 + a)/3
_

_
, (40)
where a [0, 1] is the constant parameter. When 0 a < 0.8, the system (39) is
the generalized Lorenz system
15
; when 0.8 < a 1, the system is the generalized
Chen system
16
; when a = 0.8, the system is the L u system,
17
which is topologically
nonequivalent to the other two.
The R ossler system (the response system) has the form
22
:
_
_
y
1
y
2
y
3
_
_
=
_
_
(y
2
+ y
3
)
y
1
y
1
y
3
_
_
+
_
_
0 0 0
y
2
0 0
0 1 y
3
_
_
_
_

3
_
_
+
_
_
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
_
_
_
_
u
1
u
2
u
3
_
_
. (41)
In this example, all three dierent cases are considered: a = 0 (Lorenz attractor),
a = 1 (Chen attractor), a = 0.8 (L u attractor). For the numerical simulation, we
chose

= [0.2, 0.2, 5.7]
T
, = 0.3I
4
and = 0.3I
3
, where I
m
is the mm identity
matrix. The initial conditions were x(0) = [10, 5, 10]
T
and y(0) = [1, 0, 1]
T
.
Without the control input, the R ossler system generates a dierent trajectory from
the unied chaotic systems (Fig. 1). For the controller, k
1
= 20, = 0.1, = 0.05,

1
= 100,
2
= 100,
3
= 30 and
4
= 50 were selected, and the initial values for
, , and k
2
were set to zero. The following Gaussian membership function was
used for the ith rule of the FLS:

i
(x, y) = exp
_

j=1
(x
j
c
xij
)
2

xij

j=1
(y
j
c
yij
)
2

yij
_
, (42)
where c
xij
, c
yij
and
xij
,
yij
are appropriate centers and variances. The centers,
c
xij
and c
yij
were chosen in the interval [40, 40] with uniform distance, and the
variances were chosen as
xij
=
yij
= 20 for j = 1, 2, 3. The R ossler system success-
fully synchronized with the unied chaotic systems (Fig. 2). The synchronization
errors between the unied chaotic systems and the R ossler system converged to the
set S = {e|e
T
e < } (Figs. 35).
Example 2. (Hyper-Lorenz L u systems synchronization) Consider the
hyper-Lorenz system (the drive system) has the form
23
:
_

_
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
4
_

_
=
_

_
0
x
2
x
1
x
3
x
4
x
1
x
2
0
_

_
+
_

_
x
2
x
1
0 0 0
0 x
1
0 0
0 0 x
3
0
0 0 0 x
2
x
3
_

_
_

4
_

_
. (43)
M
o
d
.

P
h
y
s
.

L
e
t
t
.

B

2
0
1
0
.
2
4
:
9
7
9
-
9
9
4
.

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o
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d

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y

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O
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N
G

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I
T
Y

O
F

S
C
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N
C
E

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n

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3
/
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9
/
1
3
.

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April 20, 2010 17:24 WSPC/147-MPLB S0217984910023037
988 W. J. Yoo, D. H. Ji & S. C. Won
(a) The Lorenz attractor (a = 0). (b) The Chen attractor (a = 1.0).
(c) The L u attractor (a = 0.8). (d) R ossler system without control.
Fig. 1. State trajectories of (a)(c) the unied chaotic system and (d) the R ossler system.
The hyper-L u system (the response system) has the form
24
_

_
y
1
y
2
y
3
y
4
_

_
=
_

_
y
4
y
1
y
3
y
1
y
2
y
1
y
3
_

_
+
_

_
y
2
y
1
0 0 0
0 y
2
0 0
0 0 y
3
0
0 0 0 y
4
_

_
_

4
_

_
+
_

_
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
_

_
_

_
u
1
u
2
u
3
u
4
_

_
.
(44)
The trajectories of both systems vary depending on the value of their system param-
eters. The hyper-Lorenz system (43) shows hyperchaotic behavior when

1
= 10,

2
= 28,

3
= 8/3 and

4
= 0.1 (Fig. 6(a)). The hyper-L u sysetm (44) shows hyper-
chaotic behavior when

1
= 36,

2
= 20,

3
= 3, 0.35

4
1.3 (Fig. 6(b)). For
the numerical simulation, we chose

= [10, 28, 8/3, 0.1]
T
,

= [36, 20, 3, 1]
T
,
= 0.01I
3
and = 0.01I
3
. The initial conditions were x(0) = [1, 1, 1, 1]
T
and
y(0) = [5, 2, 5, 2]
T
.
For the FLS, c
xij
and c
yij
were chosen in [30, 30] for j = 1, 2, 3 and in [0, 60]
for j = 4, with uniform distance. The variances were chosen as
xij
=
yij
= 15 for
M
o
d
.

P
h
y
s
.

L
e
t
t
.

B

2
0
1
0
.
2
4
:
9
7
9
-
9
9
4
.

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o
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b
y

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O
H
A
N
G

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N
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R
S
I
T
Y

O
F

S
C
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N
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April 20, 2010 17:24 WSPC/147-MPLB S0217984910023037
Adaptive Fuzzy Synchronization of Two Dierent Chaotic Systems 989
(a) Lorenz attractor (a = 0). (b) Chen attractor (a = 1).
(c) L u attractor (a = 0.8).
Fig. 2. (Color online) Synchronized trajectories of the unied chaotic system and the R ossler
system.
Fig. 3. (Color online) The synchronization errors between the Lorenz (a = 0) and the R ossler
systems.
M
o
d
.

P
h
y
s
.

L
e
t
t
.

B

2
0
1
0
.
2
4
:
9
7
9
-
9
9
4
.

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o
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n
l
o
a
d
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d

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c
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b
y

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O
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A
N
G

U
N
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R
S
I
T
Y

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S
C
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C
E

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n

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.

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April 20, 2010 17:24 WSPC/147-MPLB S0217984910023037
990 W. J. Yoo, D. H. Ji & S. C. Won
Fig. 4. (Color online) The synchronization errors between the Chen (a = 1) and the R ossler
systems.
Fig. 5. (Color online) The synchronization errors between the L u (a = 0.8) and the R ossler
systems.
M
o
d
.

P
h
y
s
.

L
e
t
t
.

B

2
0
1
0
.
2
4
:
9
7
9
-
9
9
4
.

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o
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n
l
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c
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f
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m
b
y

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O
H
A
N
G

U
N
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V
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S
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T
Y

O
F

S
C
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N
C
E

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n

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9
/
1
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April 20, 2010 17:24 WSPC/147-MPLB S0217984910023037
Adaptive Fuzzy Synchronization of Two Dierent Chaotic Systems 991
(a) (x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) space. (b) (x
1
, x
2
, x
4
) space. (c) (x
1
, x
3
, x
4
) space. (d) (x
2
, x
3
, x
4
) space.
(e) (y
1
, y
2
, y
3
) space. (f) (y
1
, y
2
, y
4
) space. (g) (y
1
, y
3
, y
4
) space. (h) (y
2
, y
3
, y
4
) space.
Fig. 6. State trajectories of (a)(d) the hyper Lorenz and (e)(h) the hyper L u systems.
Fig. 7. (Color online) The synchronization errors between the hyper Lorenz and the L u systems.
j = 1, 2, 3, 4. The same control parameters in Example 1 were also used. As shown
in Fig. 7, the hyper-L u system was also well synchronized with the hyper-Lorenz
system and the synchronization errors converged to the set specied by .
Example 3. (Multiscroll chaotic systems synchronization)
Consider the 3D hysteresis multiscroll chaotic system (the drive system) of the
M
o
d
.

P
h
y
s
.

L
e
t
t
.

B

2
0
1
0
.
2
4
:
9
7
9
-
9
9
4
.

D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

f
r
o
m

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w
w
.
w
o
r
l
d
s
c
i
e
n
t
i
f
i
c
.
c
o
m
b
y

P
O
H
A
N
G

U
N
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V
E
R
S
I
T
Y

O
F

S
C
I
E
N
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E

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n

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3
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9
/
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.

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April 20, 2010 17:24 WSPC/147-MPLB S0217984910023037
992 W. J. Yoo, D. H. Ji & S. C. Won
(a) 3D hysteresis multiscroll chaotic system. (b) 1D saturated multiscroll chaotic system.
Fig. 8. State trajectories of the multiscroll chaotic systems.
form
25
_
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
_
=
_
_
x
2
H
2
x
3
H
3
0
_
_
+
_
_
0 0 0
0 0 0
H
1
x
1
H
2
x
2
H
3
x
3
_
_
_
_

3
_
_
, (45)
where H
j
is the hysteresis series function dened as
H
j
= H(x
j
, p
j
, q
j
) =
_

_
p
j
, if x
j
< p
j
+ 1,
i, if i 1 < x
j
< i + 1,
i = p
j
+ 1, . . . , q
j
1,
q
j
, if x
j
> q
j
1,
for j = 1, 2, 3 , (46)
in which p
j
and q
j
are positive integers.
For [

1
,

2
,

3
]
T
= [0.8, 0.72, 0.66]
T
, p
1
= q
1
= 2, p
2
= 3, q
2
= 4, p
3
= q
3
= 1,
system (45) has a 3D 5 8 3-grid scroll chaotic attractor (Fig. 8(a)).
The 1D saturated multiscroll chaotic system (the response system) is
28
_
_
y
1
y
2
y
3
_
_
=
_
_
y
2
y
3
0
_
_
+
_
_
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
y
1
y
2
y
3
S(y
1
)
_
_
_

4
_

_
+
_
_
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
_
_
_
_
u
1
u
2
u
3
_
_
, (47)
where S(y) is the saturated function series of the form:
S(y) = S(y, K
1
, h
1
, a
1
, b
1
) =
_

_
(2b
1
+ 1)K
1
, if y > b
1
h
1
+ 1 ,
K
1
(y ih
1
) + 2iK
1
, if |y ih
1
| 1 ,
a
1
i b
1
,
(2i + 1)K
1
, if 1 < y ih
1
< h
1
1 ,
a
1
i b
1
1 ,
(2a
1
+ 1)K
1
, if x < a
1
h
1
1 ,
(48)
and K
1
, h
1
, a
1
and b
1
are positive integers.
M
o
d
.

P
h
y
s
.

L
e
t
t
.

B

2
0
1
0
.
2
4
:
9
7
9
-
9
9
4
.

D
o
w
n
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o
a
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d

f
r
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m

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.
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t
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o
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b
y

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O
H
A
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G

U
N
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S
I
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Y

O
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S
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E

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n

0
3
/
1
9
/
1
3
.

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o
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.
April 20, 2010 17:24 WSPC/147-MPLB S0217984910023037
Adaptive Fuzzy Synchronization of Two Dierent Chaotic Systems 993
Fig. 9. (Color online) The synchronization errors between the 3D hysteresis multiscroll chaotic
system and the 1D saturated multiscroll chaotic system.
For

1
=

2
=

3
=

4
= 0.7, K
1
= 9, h
1
= 18, a
1
= b
1
= 2, system (47) has a
1D 6-scroll chaotic attractor (Fig. 8(b)).
For the numerical simulation, the diusion matrices were chosen, = 0.3I
3
and
= 0.3I
4
. The initial conditions were x(0) = [0.5, 1, 1]
T
and y(0) = [5, 3, 10]
T
.
All the control parameters were set to the same values used in Example 1. For the
FLS, c
xij
and c
yij
were chosen in the interval [6, 6] with uniform distance, and
the variances were chosen as
xij
=
yij
= 3 for j = 1, 2, 3.
We can see that the response system was also synchronized with the drive system
and the synchronization errors converged to the set specied by (Fig. 9).
6. Conclusion
In this paper, we consider the adaptive fuzzy synchronization of two dierent chaotic
systems with stochastic unknown parameters based on the drive-response frame-
work. The system parameters are disturbed by the WGN, which is generated by
the Wiener processes. It is assumed that the WGNs are multiplied by the diusion
matrices and added to the mean values of the system parameters. However, the
proposed method does not require any information about the value of the means or
the diusion matrices. An FLS is used to describe the unknown nonlinear function
induced by the diusion matrices of the system parameters. The FLS approxima-
tion error is compensated for by the state error feedback control law. Based on
Lyapunov stability analysis, adaptation laws are derived for the fuzzy parameter
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April 20, 2010 17:24 WSPC/147-MPLB S0217984910023037
994 W. J. Yoo, D. H. Ji & S. C. Won
vector, the synchronization error feedback gain and the mean values of the system
parameters. Numerical examples demonstrate that the drive and response systems
are well synchronized and the mean square of the synchronization error converges
to the neighborhood of the origin within any arbitrarily chosen bound.
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