n Dia

^^^V>v r^.^' \ ^ij"^?. I ..

New Ycrk. J. Fairbanks & Co. S. By FREDERICK E. A. 1880. Chicugo. GOODRICH. EY: I^^E (Oit-^ & SHEPARD. Quaker PrfetiTSHiNG House. MAJOR-GENERAL. L.THE Z^O ^^ ^ LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OP WiNFiELD Scott Hancock./ PUBLISHED Philadelphia. BOSTOliT:. GharI/ES'Dkev'. U.'ED. Mayor of FREDERICK PRINCE. Hon.. "WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY O. .- Indianapolis. I3pRf on & Co. 'Fr.. the City of Boeton. and Secretary of the National Democratic Committee. In J.

D -N . B..etc. 19H R L Copyright. LFfJOX FO'JNDATIONS. * • t < ' • . • c < WkIQUT <fc POTTBK i'BlNTINO COMPANY. . t c C ( c 1 c ( r c C ( ( • « • • . t I • •• . RUSSELL & 1880. AG^On. 18 I'OST OFFICK SQCAKK BOSTON. CO.THE NEW YORK LIBRARY PL'DLIC 6560TG AND Tli. B. .

3 }) ) 3 3 )33j) 33 .>'''' 3 ) J ) ' 3 J 3 33. 33 33 » 3.3 3. > 333333J) 3 3 3 J 3 33 3i33j 3 3 .3 33 333 3 3 3 33 3 33^ i.TO THE PEOPLE OF A REUNITED COUNTRr THIS STORY OF A PATRIOTIC Is LIFE Dedicated. 3 3 333 3 J J J ^ J . 3 - '.3 3 3 . )\ ) JJJ 3 J ) } 33J) 33 3 3 ) ) 3 5 ^ } 3 .)j33333 3)3 3^33 33 3 3.>3.

• t « « « c • t • c .


i .

popular government. and gilds the dark places. — when the struggle is for the sake of liberty and for maintaining the will of the people. indeed. the glory of the smooths the crudenesses. And when. in connection with such superlative military genius as he has shown. But. form the earliest literature of mankind. The love result of conflict is as much a part of human war lies nature as the love of peace heart. and is the successful warrior one who fights not alone for glory or for the love of fighting. this love of country is the love of a free. . and rounds the whole into a picturesque completeness. The subject of this sketch is such a hero. further. a new still zest is given the chronicle of his deeds. but for the love of country. and a most sucglory in war. and delight in tales of deep down in man's temporal Stories of heroes and of saints. whether successful or not. "When done. . of rare administrative talent in — most rare. of warfare and spiritual. Hard and only while cruel as the reality. great as is his historian will accord him at least equal honor for the display civil afiairs. — the soldier in such a cause becomes a hero. But when to this is added the element of patriotism.PREFACE. the impartial cessful one. To be in its tell the story of the life of a successful general is to recite a romance. it is it is work of war may doing that its hardships and it is roughnesses are seen.

among unofficial sources." Greeley's "American Conflict. Franklin. inti- mate companions of the boy Winfield and trusted friends of to Gen. Bo3'er. B. that of a superabundance of ma- His life formed. and. Clair the General . and with noble actions. l2a)EPENDENCE SQUARE. Gen. M. George II. Penn." F. send Ward. Chain and Hon. is the purpose of the writer Much has to be left untold in the limits of a work of this sort. and statesman. Secretary of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. filled has been one long romance of duty well perwith adventure. E. To select from the histor}' of the American Republic during the past.. Boston. G. Hon. forty ^-ears such facts as may show the part which General Hancock has taken in the work of making and saving our country of this volume. It is sought simply to show the man as he appears in the history of his country. Esq.8 PREFACE. knowledges his indebtedness to the courtesy of Hon. soldier. George L. of Norristown. 1880 . A. especial care has been and the author actaken to secure absolute authenticity . Thorndike." and Swinton's "Army of the Potomac" and " Twelve Great Battles. E. Gen. from Moore's of the RebelUon. Mulholland. and to many others. with great deeds. Gordon. William B. is In writing the life of the onl}" embarrassment terial. B.. this patriot. The stoiy of General Hancock's public services is chiefly taken from the official reports and documents of Congress and the War Depart" Record ment. In collecting facts for this work. July 15. and others of his companions in arms to Town. St.

of the Mexican War. 45 Front. 65 War. Adjutant. Situation of Scott's Army before Lieutenant Hancock again foremost in the the City of Mexico He leads his Company against the Battery at Post of Danger. —The — Soldier. Chapter II. Battle of Churubusco. He begins to make a Record. The Advance upon the City of Mexico. Lieutenant Hancock's Letters Home. The Hancock Family. 21 and Hilary. Hancock's Request to be ordered to the He is sent to Mexico. Chapter HI. Penn. * » » i 13 in the "War of the I. 70 dered to California. Anecdotes of his SchoolThe Champion of the Weak. Chapter II. His Marriage at St Louis. Hancock describes his Feelings while confined to the House by Fever. . Chapultepec. Marriage of Benjamin F. and then the West. The Repulse. Lieutenant Hancock Returns to the Department of He becomes Regimental Quartermaster. Lieutenant Hancock wins his first Brevet for Gal53 lantry in Action. — — — — — — — — — (9) . and its Influence The School-boys' Train-hand Captain Winupon his Career. —A Student in Norristown Academy. Chapter IV.. II. Chapter — — — Fart L — Boy and Man.CONTENTS. — The Baptist Sunday-School. Hancock and Settlement in Norristown. Education of the Twins. Molino del Rey. General Worth's Brigade ordered to carry the Fortification. Hancock enters the Sixth Infantry. Birth and Boyhood. Lieutenant Hancock's Company Leads the Charge. 28 days. — A Cadet at West Point. Chapter V. — Lieutenant — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — . Molino del Rey. His Name. The Seminole War. III. The Entry into the City of End of the Mexico. — His Class- 34 Part Chapter I. — Its Services — — — — — — — — Chapter mates. Winfield School-Teaching and Law. Revolution. — His Home Life. The Outbreak Protecting the Advance Guard of White Settlers. — How he was appointed. Early Struggles of the Young Couple. of Hancock OrDeclaration Brigham Young's Independence. Page. — One of Winfield Hancock's Chnms. 59 Hancock saved amid the Carnage. field. 1 Introduction.

. — " Fighting Joe " Hooker in command of the Army of the Potomac. ") i' . — The Battle of Williamsburg. — Hancock's Fi^ht "Terminated the Battle.10 COXTEXTS. — Chancellorsville. Chapter XII. Chapter IV. — Tho Final Desperate Assault of the Confederates.. Assault. — Hancock Leads the Advance. — General Meade's Report. — Tho Storm of Fire. — Sie. — Occupation of Chancellorsville. . — Mr. — The Wilderness. — Hancock in command at the Left Centre. 106 Chapter VI. Tart — Tho Fire upon Sumter." — His Opinion of the Results. 1)4 . — Gettysburg.. cipline. Chapter VII. — Fredericksburg. — Invalid Soldiers carry him on their Story. — Hancock Turns the Enemy's Flank. I. — Autietam. 118 Chapter VIII. — Tho Advance towards Richmond. — Battle of tho — Hancock repulses Toombs' Chickahominy. — Military Dis— Raids upon the Virginia Farms. — Tho Absolution of the Irish Brigade. — Sickles's Corps cut up.— Tho Third Day. ( — The Patriot. — Hooker Repulsed at Fort Magruder. Volliu. ." — Meade puts Hancock in command at the Front. — How tho News "was received CnAPTER in Culiforuia. — He Returns to Duty. Lee. — After Gettysburg. — "For God's Sake send up Hancock.VJ its . ChapterXL — Gettysburg. — Tho Peninsular Carapai<. . 112 burg. — Pope's Campaign in Northern Virginia. — He Selects the Battle-ground. 164 gallant Second Corps. — Hancock again leads his Division across the Rappahannock. — The Second Day.. all . — Gettysburg. — Hancock's Corps the Rear Guard..n. III. — Hancock's Wound. — Grant takes Command of Armies. — Meade arrives at Taney town. I'.. 79 Chapter H.. — Hancock — McClellau's Maryland joins iu tho Movement to Centreville. . Chapter IX. — The Surgeon's Battle and — His Journey Home. — The March to Gettysburg. — Lee Resolves upon an Invasion of the North. — Captaiu Hancock's Efforts to kec}) the State iu the Union. . — The Camp on the Rappahannock broken up. lUO Chapter V. — Tho First Day. — Hancock's Wonderful Deed of Valor. tho Chapter XIII. H5 Chapter IH. 130 Chapter X. . Pass. — The Story of One of tho — Hancock leads the Charge. 12'3 . — Hancock to the Rescue. — The Advance Guard strikes the Enemy. — Hancock receives his Commission as Major-General of Volunteers. — Struck 146 Down in the Moment of Victory.o and Capture of Yorktown. 154 Shoulders to his Father's House. — Opening tho Campaign of the Rappahannock. — Hancock Beats them Back. — Hooker's Resignation. — Hancock again Brevotted for Gallantry.. — His Work in the Preliminaries of the Peninsular Campaign. — Golding's Farm. — Hancock takes Command of the Second Corps. — Fight for the Ridge in front of tho Wheat-lield. — Cramptou's —Forcing Campaign against Hancock takes Command of a Division. — He Commands a Division on the March to Fredericks— Hancock Wounded. — He asks to bo ordered into Active Service. . — He holds the Enemy at Bay at White Oak Swamp.

. — Pf tersbnrg. — The Qaalifications of Jurors. — General Hancock and he Carpet-Baggers. 206 — Assassination of President Lincoln. Part IV." — 171 Hancock's Retort. Hancock again at the West. — — — Chapter IV. Chapter V. Chapter XVI. — Ripa- Tenderness toward the Uiifortnnatii W^oman aud her Daughter. The Love and AdHancock as a Commander. — Also her Spiritual Adviser. XV.. trict. — Hancock takes Command of the Fifth Military Dis— His Reception at Washington. The Quarrel between the Executive and ress of Reconstrnetion. 214 Chapter III. — The Famous " Ordei 24C No. II. He xiosts Couriers. Chapter XVIII. and Hancock Called to take his Place. — Disposition of — Registration of Voters. Chapter VI. — Hancock fights the Battle of the — General Sedgwick's Death. — The Statesman. General Walker demiration of his Soldiers for their General. til'. Surratt — Charges of of Conspirators.CONTEXTS. — — from March The Harhor. of his Career." — Judge Black's Letter. — He Carries the Bridge.. . — The Laws to be Sustained by the Military Carry a Pardon. — His Opening Proclamation. — Hancock Commands at Deep Bottom. Williamsburg.. — Hancock Celebrates Bunker-hill Day. Custer Sketches him at scrihes his Character auel Habits. — Hancock's Character. . The Souih Divided up into Satrapies. — — — — — Sur190 .. — A Well-rounded Character. — Hancock 17S finds Lee at the North Anna. Cold Chapter Spottsylvania toward Kichmond. 231 moved. — General Hancock's I. Chapter XVII. . — About Petersburg. — Reception of "General Order No. Sheridan ReCongress. — Hancock Takes aud Holds the Famous " Salient Angle. — The Bloodiest Battle of the War. Po. — The vast Powers placed in his Hands. 40. — A Mau of the Peo])le. 249 Prui>erty by the Courts. .. — Battle of the Boydton Plank Road. He is Called back to Sketch of the Progtake Coiiimand of the Fifth Military District. — How Chapter Developed under the lutluence. — Promotion. its . — He reads Governor Pease a Lecture on Constitutional Government. 1 rian Rights not to be Adjudicated upon by Courts-Martial. . 11 — Spottsylvania. — Arrest and Trial Chapter — Execution of Mrs. — Mrs. — His Strong Purof Army Service. — His Horse shot under him at Reams' Station. Chapter XIV. — Corps. — A Ruce between Two Armies. — Th(5 I)ose tive Ability.. In command of the Middle Military Division when Lee renders. — — — — . — His Old Wound Reopens. 195 The Secret of Hancock's Genius. 264 . — 184 The Exiilosion of the Petersburg Mine. it ill Dis('i})liiie . — Recruiting a Veteran — Brevet Mnjor-General for Gallantry at Spottsylvania." — Civil Government Resumes Sway. — His AdministraLife. — He Lends Successful Movements. — His Refusal to Supplant the Courts by Military Commissions. . Surratt's Counsel makes a Statement. 40. Cruelty against General Hancock.

— Parentage of William H. III. Pa. Gen. English's action Thereon. — Mr. Chapter IX. . Chapter — — VIII. Hancock's Resignation. Seconding the Nomination. ernment. Labor against Know-Nothingism.. Troops nt the Polls. — Retirement from Public Life. . — The Democratic National Convention of 1880. Iluucock Declines to nse his Troops for the Collection of Taxes. ment. II. — The followed by that of EngNomination of Hancock for President 363 lish fur Vice-President. English's Position. ArPEXDIX. Hancock's Famous Order. is . The Convention of 1858. — Congress. The Cincinnati Convention of 1880.ssing the Rapidan. Steel Portrait of Hon. General Hancock's Letter of Acceptance. • • LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Governor Pease's Open Letter. Speeches." — Letter from President Buchanan. 274 — — — — — Carpet-Bajjgers protest aj^ainst Civil GovernGeneral Hancock's Reply. Foraging Party. — The Famous Kansas-Nehraxska Chapter Bill and Mr. SKETCH OF THE LIFE AND PUBLIC CAREER OF WM. Grant revokes HanCongress atteni])ts to get rid of Hancock.. — Chosen Speaker of the paign. . cock nominated on the Second Ballot.. II. Hancock's Early Home at Norristowu. — He enters Politics in the Polk Cam— Elected to the Legislature. — Founder of the First National Bank of Indianapolis. William H. — — — — — . EXGLISII. Hancock the Leading Candidate. English. . — The — .^ Court at the Age of Twenty-three. He Instructs Governor Pease in the Art of Law and of Civil GovHancock's Letter to General Howard. VIT. . Hancock's Residence at Governor's Island.-s on the Money Question. Speech of HanGovernor Hubbard of Texas. 302 Convention of 1876. — Sound Democratic Stock. English. English's Letter of Acceptance. — Speech of Acceptance. — Election to Congress. . Cro. — — — — — — — — . Cavalry Charge.12 Chapter CONTEXTS. — View. Mr. — The Shadow of Chapter the Civil War. Antietain. — Admitted to Practice in the United States Suprem. Chapter I. Chapter X. — 338 The ''English Bill. 315 . . Steel Portrait of Major-General Hancock. — The "Popular Sover— eigntv" Idea. Ho Again Receives a Large Vote. 350 Chapter IV. Daniel Dougherty of Philadelphia nominates General Hancock. His His Acts in 181)8.— The Democratic California Speech in 1861.. 283 cock's Orders. . 329 House. Hancock's Consistent and Patriotic Democracy.

the second and the operations around It may be said that he took a prominent Petersburg.I]:S"TEODUOTION. and thus IsLVgely contributed to the success of our arms battle of Cold Harbor. zer's Williamsburg. skill His gallantry and were shown on many of the hardest fought battle-fields. North Anna. part in every important battle fought in the East. at the commencement of what proved to be the greatest and most terrible war of ancient or modern times. — at burg. Spottsylvania Court House. FredericksChancellorsville. Gettysburg. and the restoration of the Union of the States. trained in the application of military principles to practice in the Mexican war. . he had attained the age and the experience which make an accomplished soldier. The fame of this distinguished commander gi'ateful is secure. military art at in West Point. FraFarm. No history of the great civil war can he written Educated the without reciting the brilliant military record of Major- General Winfield Scott Hancock. where he was brevetted for gallant and meritorious conduct. South Mountain. Antietam. It is recognized not only by his countrymen. the Wilderness.

which levels so much and so largely the claims of the great and men of hi^otor}^ will never disturb his right to the niche in the temple of His fame accorded to him by his contemporaries. no question of His lenge it. for they know them by heart. . unanimously — has. and which emi- him for the discharge of the duties of the great office to which he will undojiil^tcdly be elected hi November next. and successful soldier but they have had no opportunities character. qualifies so often Time. there is a pai-t of his life and history not shown But in his public record. nor those to learn the other sides of his many qualities of head and heart which largely led to nently fit his nomination. "bore the national flag and field. fortitude. certain. Xone chaltitle is clear. and indisputable. nor in his achievements on the battle- which the people must now desire to know as the party which the elothe great Democratic party quent Choate declared. candidate for the Presidency. To supply the popular demand for . brilliant. military services have been so recenth' rendered.1^ INTKODUCTIOX. that their his mention is not necessary for the information of countrymen. They know him . all but in lands where military talent and genius are appreciated. and courage. his rank as a great soldier. There is. and the martial virtues recosrnizcd and honored. — kept step to the music of the Union" its through nominated him as its representatives. as the brave. and can be.

he naturally submits with reluctance to a return to the methods of the if his civil power is for ad- mmistering government. In the case of a soldier General Hancock. the objection that he must dissipate. occur. Nor is it surprising that these usurpations . it 15 has been proposed to give. In war.INTRODUCTION. is such apprehension to be deemed groundless. When war ceases. with which history of usurpation bristles. showed most conclusively that he had nO . a brief sketch of the private as well as public life of this distinguished citizen. It will bo generally conceded that there is a growing objection in the jDublic mind to military candidates for the Presidency. recognizes no instru- ment for the attainment of his objects but force. intelligence. in recognizing the rights of our citizens under the Constitution. for his honest and patriotic conduct after the surrender of Lee and the termination of the war. the temptation to seize upon power is Whether in this age of popular means all for and with a people possessed of ample combination and resistance to a couj) cVelat. army devoted to often too him. the laws are silent and the soldier. such information. substituting his will as authority. of the This feeling doubtless comes from fear repetition of the cases. in the pages which follow. by successful soldiers of the executive power to the overthrow of constitutional gov- ernment. and great for resistance. is it will not be necessary now to consider.

and not Napoleon. on the occasion referred to. with no rights that a it Ivepul)lican was bound to respect.uirments. wherein he completely subordinates the military to the civil will alone render his in time of peace. so that shall the more truly adjust the claims supremall of its benefactors to the rewards of heroic conduct. was his inspiration and There is nothing nobler or more sublime in guide. His letter to Govthe ernor Pease. the Father Country. to act the rule of the of his that Wat^hington. who for political and partisan purposes wished to keep the South under military conti-ol. should any other of our ^aucessful . when commanding power Fifth Military District. of Texas. Let it be remembered that the action of General in Hancock was oppo^>ition to his ofiicial r>uperiors at Washington. and our admiration a. if he INTRODUCTION. history than the conduct of this hero of a hundred battles.16 disposition. name illustrious and forever dear the to all who love civil liberty. official r'glit Let be remembered that he imperilled his fessional life riotic by this sacred respect for and proand j)at- regard for law. and we feel that whatever fear of detriment to ihe Republic might obtain. in 1868. When judgment of civil- mankind shall be elevated and refined by a higher it ization. conqueror : had the power. this patriotic surrender of the great soldier to the acy of the civil law Vv'ill add more to his fame than his erreat military achievements.




become President, there could be no danger placing him in the chair once occupied by Washing-


who had shown

himself possessed of equal moder-


and equal respect for the Constitution and the

laws of the country.
It is a curious fact that, notwithstanding the


posed popular distrust of military men for Presidents, so large a number should have been elected to this high
office lor,

Washington, Monroe, Jackson, Harrison, TayPierce, Grant, and Hayes were all soldiers, and

were mostly selected as candidates because of their When we consider the functions and military record.
duties of the executive,

would seem that a


accomplished in his


would be eminently

fitted for

the discharge of these duties

and, but for the popu-

apprehension before alluded to, the military qualities, instead of being an objection, would be regarded
as a qualification in a

supreme magistrate.


is this

advantasre in favor of selectinsr Presi-

dents from the military profession.
likely to be


are not as

committed to any partisanship touching questions, beyond a general endorsement of

the principles

party to which they adhere.

Their professional position keeps them outside of party feuds and dissensions, and enables them to take broader and, as

were^ more judicial views of political questions and measures than those laymen who, to




prominent to be candidates for



high office, must make politics a profession. In applying this observation to General Hancock, we might observe that, while he endorses the platform
of principles adopted by the Cincinnati Convention



and approves the general policy of the Democratic party in respect to the important issues of the campaign, in doing so he

not called to modify previous

opinions inconsistent with these principles,
plain any former action antagonistic thereto.

nor exlie will

enter upon the discharge of the great trust which the

people will commit to him in March, free of



and relieved of every influence which might embarrass or fetter him. He has been always noted and

for his energy, industry, perseverance, fortitude,

His intelligence, good judgment and sagacHis knowledge of men has been ity are well-known.

conspicuously shown in the selection of his staff
cers, as he has


always surrounded himself with able assistants who well understood the work wanted from

^We are warranted

in belie vinsr


his action

in this respect that,

should he become President, he

will call to his aid cabinet advisers





duty and be competent to discharge it. Right men will be put in the right places. The public interests
will not sufler

through official appointments made for sendee only, nor will the country be longer



for years



the swarms of

bummers who

have infested every department of the government. In looking through the life of General Hancock,



from the time he


West Point Acadwar and

emy, during

his military

career, in

peace, he has exhibited peculiar aptitude for the du-

of an executive


Possessing in an emi-

nent degree what is termed "character," his official conduct seems to have been always guided by fixed






what duty







tained, he enters at once

upon the performance of the

Without doubt, the nature of the military profession fosters and develops this habit of mind. We
say that he


eminently a


of convictions,

with the courage of his convictions ; but not obstinate in temper, nor unyielding, if good reasons be shown for
a change of opinion.
available candidate.





every respect a most nothing in his record

which we are called to defend.
shields in this contest, for


can abandon our
use for them.

we have no

He is popular with all sections.

His nomination

equally the North and the South.


has united into

a compact body a divided Democracy, and so acceptable

he to large numbers of our political opponents that


Independent Republican Hancock organizations

springing up in nearly

the States.



"We have spoken of him as certain to be elected, not only because this seems to be the general conviction,
but because


feel that since

such happy results would

follow his election,

must occur that the



be maintained.

With General Hancock

President of the United States,

the hideous past

would be buried
their devilish


Demaoroofues would cease
sections hostile

work of keeping the


Amity and fraternal regard would make us again one people. The era of good feeling would return, and the issue settled by war,
rekindling sectional animosities.

*'an indestructible

union of indestructible States,"

everywhere recognized.

Boston, July
12, 1880.




"HP jiL. :Et






The Hancock Family.


the War of the Revolution. of Benjamin F. Hancock and Settlement in NorrisSchooltown, Penn. Early Struggles of the Young Couple. and Law. of the Education Winfield and Twins, Teaching Character and Public Services of the Father of General Hilary.

— Marriage


— Its Services in


in the year 1828, a little family



the village of Norristown, Penn., from the farming country near by, and set up their modest household.

This family consisted of Benjamin^ F. Hancock, his wife Elizabeth, and their twin sons. The boys, Winfield Scott Hancock and Hilary B. Hancock, were at
that time four years old. Both father and mother

came of the farming



Montgomery County.
upon the
soil in

Their English ancestors had


the old country ; their fathers and grandfathers had found more bountiful subsistence in the cultivation of the broad meadows along the

new land which they had possessed and made free Benjamin F. Hancock was himself a farmer Elizabeth Hexworth was a
Schuylkill and the rich intervales of the


farmer's daughter. It was a sturdy, patriotic stock, and it flourished in a section crowded with patriotic memories. German-

town, Brandy wine. Valley Forge, Paoli, are names indissolubly associated with the history of our struggle

was a mariner. with so many other patriots. also joined the patriot army. He chose the patriot's part. and did not pass the double barricades of that melancholy enclosure until the close of the war. returning to enjoy Benjamin F. In the war of 1812. he returned to free America. although a boy in his teens. or consignment to the notorious Dartmoor Prison. He was captured at sea.24 for LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF independence as a Republic and it was among the associations clustering about these places that the Han. were interwoven with their The gi-andfather of Elizabeth Hancock family history. and dying of the effect of hardships and privations in the field shortly after he saw the land made free for his children. dying Jan. and side of his father. upwards of 90 years old. 29. then a mere lad. Benjamin F. fought by the the fruits of the liberty for which he had given his He attained great youthful strength and enthusiasm. He won and honorably earned "Washington's army. This was the family whose youngest members took . made one of the local company that garrisoned Camp Dupont. Her father. was one of the patriot farmers of the Revolution. -Hancock's father. was given the choice of seiwice against his country in the British navy. a captain's commission in gave his life for his country. These associations. 1847. Edward Hexworth. On his release. age. too. cock family gi'cw up. when the British ad- vanced their troops as far as Red Bank. Richard Hancock. whose name was a terror. and the safety of Philadelphia and all the towns in that section was threatened. and. Hancock himself.

and with quiet earnestness he set himself to accomplish it. and won her for his wife. Hancock. ward more rapidly in the career which he had marked the children Then out for himself. turned his talent to account in teaching a country school. but his purpose was steady to place his children in a better position for starting in life than he had occupied. such was not the custom among the farmers of Pennsylvania. was brought up as a farmer. a farmer's daughEven at the time of his ter. Farmer Hexworth was a man of moderate prop. . 25 Norristown in 1828. marriage he had aspirations for a different career. Republic. although born in Philadelphia. was the income that his own labor brought him. Indeed. confident and brave. of the their residence in . erty. He had no means of his own his support. The man who took upon himself the responsibilities of marriage was expected to knoAv his ability to So the young couple set out in provide for his own. but not of wealth sufficient to endow his daus^hter on her marriao^e.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. it held a place in the peerage of the up stock. came . comfortably well off. it was . The wife attended to domestic duties. and it was while farming in the country near Montgomeryville that he paid his suit to Elizabeth Hexworth. Benjamin F. and that of his family. whose education was above the average. — of the people. under his increasing the father was impelled to push forresponsibilities. and. The husband. His ambition was not great : . It was good it had the traditions soil with neither of earnest patriotism and honest labor crest nor pedigree. life dependent upon themselves.

where there were opportunities for advancing himself and for This educating his hoys.2n LIFE AND rUBLIC SEllVICES OF it was that led him to remove to Xorristown. long after this. Many were the trusts committed to his character for uprightness standing high his hands even in a borough whose lawyers have a proverbi-iil . The husband continued to teach school in Norristown. of sterling ability and In his profession he was a counsellor. as they must have prospered with such earnest endeavor. bravely took her share in the work of supporting the family. rooms on one side of the house. He was a quiet. who in the office of John Friedley. Benjamin F. confidence in They were poor. 19. Benjamin Hancock and his wife l)e£:an their new life in a most modest way. he began to receive proofs of the confidence and respect of his fellow-citizens. but they hoth had themselves. Hancock was admitted to the Montgomery County bar and. In Norristown. was a true helpmeet. . Aug. while the husband carried on his law business in his office on the opposite side. unassuming man. a milliners turning her talent. which naturally followed from his upright life. as milliner in pleasant Norristown. Another son was born. . Esq. and meantime studied law The ^y\i'e. . rather than a barrister and he was much sought for such business. The Hancock fiimily prospered. 1828 the wife continued her occupation at . great integrity. and opened store in the house . and dexterity to the best account in aid of her hard-worliing husband. while yet young. with their young family. The Jtather was appointed justice of the peace and. taste.

his son John He war of the Rebellion. he devoted his energies at once to the work of securing its advantages for his town. the free-school system was not known in the State. but as a who had himself taught children. Johnson. when the school laAV was passed. When he established himself in Norristown. whom he was educating at a private academy in the town. Hancock survived her husband twelve years. 1867.WIXFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. his ment as Collector of Internal Eevenue by President held at the time of his own lived to see his son Hilary established in profession as a practising lawyer. and. Mr. From 1836 until his death. . and sent to the public schools and by example as well as by labor he urged the development of the system. leaving to his children as the chief part of their inheritance the example of an honorable. MriS. and accomplished as much as any other man in the formation and arrangement of the school system in Norristown. and Winfield wearing the stars of a major-general in the United States army. — a position which he death. and as a — not who had children of his own to educate. whieh he took a special and active was public education. Christian life. were taken out. Hancock was further honored by the appoint. practical man pedagogU3. in and his strong good sense findino: recoo:nition One matter interest from all his fellow-citizens. He was an earnest promoter of free public schools . a period of thirty-one year?. His own boys. Squire Hancock thoroughly believed in the system. reputation for 27 honesty. he was a prominent and active member of the Scliool Board of Norristown. He died on the 1st of Februa colonel of volunteers in the ary.

especially when associated with hereditary tendencies and it can hardly be doubted that in this case the career of the young Pennsylvanian was in some degree determined by the name . Penn. on the 14th of February. and I a Schoolmate in after Years. WiXFiELD Scott Hancock. 1824. on both the father's and the mother's side. its effect in the choice of a name for one of the twin boys who came to the young couple that February day in the little farm-house in Montgomery County. — How ho Met pion of the Weak.. its II. was born near Montgoineryville. of course. His name Avas given him. of such exceptional militar}^ development incidents of his in the man. and Influence upon his Career. not because of any relationship with the general who at that time held so high a popularity. but from admiration of the man. boyhood should be genius recalled which seem to show that the bent of his mind It is. which he bore. — Captain Winfiehl. had military traditions and the influence of this may have had . after the expect that. — The Cham— Anecdotes of his School-days.28 LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF CHAPTER Birth and Boyhood. friends and school-mates tell with peculiar zest of the school -boy militia that used to train under his captain- . son of Benjamin F. — The School-boys' Traiu-haud. The Hancock family. There is much in a name. natural to General Hancock's was always in that direction. — His Name. Elizabeth Hancock.






bayonets, the paper hats,

wooden muskets with tin and the home-made uniforms

flags, that distinguished their soldiery, and recount the parades and the drills in which they participated


under the buddins: commander of thousands. But it may be considered doubtful whether young Hancock really had any more than the usual boyish
fondness for military display. One fact, however, is and this is, that even at an early age he quite evident showed the talent for leadership which developed to

such a remarkable degree in the man. He was not only the captain of the school-boys' train-band, but the
leader in sports, the chosen referee in boyish disputes. It was the frequent course, in case of a difterence

between the boys, for them to




out to


— as readiness in an emergency — how
relate with a chuckle

Winfield usually settled it with expedition, and with a good deal of sound common-sense. Gray-headed members of that juvenile militia company
illustrating Winfield's


he quelled insuborto their mothers.

dination that threatened to

become a mutiny, by order-

ing the ringleaders to report at


no indications of his present figure and, indeed, he retained this physique until after he returned from the war. He was sound in body, mind, and morals for his home was a Christian one, and all the influences about the household of the Hancocks were wholesome and manly. One of his distinguishing traits was an entire absence of fear in doing what he considered his duty. He
slim, with

was restored at once. The boy Winfield was tall and



would tolerate no bull3ing of the smaller bo^'s when he was about. As one of his sehool-mates says, "If a big boy undertook to worry a small boy, he'd find Winfield atop of him in short order." Another story runs thus There was a tumult among the bo3^s returning home from sehool one day, just in

front of

Lawyer Hancock's



scuffle devel-


into a stand-up fight

between two of the j^oungMr. which brought Hancock to his office door, as

he recoG^nized Winfield in one of the combatants.



son," called the father, in his inva-

calm manner. The boy walked directly up to the oflice door, and with flushed face looked his father straight in the eye. " " asked INIr. KanAVhat is the matter, Winfield ?

That big boy tried to whip me," was the reply, and I wasn't going to let him." "But he is a great deal larger than you, my son." " I know he is, father but I can't let him whip me."


boy's persistence in his purpose of establishing the principle of equality had, however, to yield to the


judgment of the fitness of things, and the combat was closed then and there. Eeverence for parental authority was a characteristic of young Hancock, and so was filial affection. His mother whom he venerated through life, and deeply mourned when death removed her to rcvst beside her husband and General Hancock's only daughter in the quiet

used to relate with happy cemetery of Norristown It was when the twins pride an incident in point.



were yet young that one evening she was left alone by the necessary absence of the father on public busiShe was engaged on some ness until a late hour.
household work

but she noticed that she was never

bedtime came for the twins, one of them went, the other remained. After the lapse of an hour, the one who had been sitting quietly with her left the


room, and the other came in to take his place. She found that the little fellows had, of their own motion, decided that mother was not to be left to sit up alone all that lono^ evening:, and had or^^anized a watch to keep her company. One was to sit up the first hour the other, the next and so on.
; ;

Those who knew General Hancock as a boy speak
always of his generosity as a leading trait in his charThere was nothing mean about him. He was acter.
thoughtful for others before himself. He always wanted to have his friends to share what good fortune he had,



as he

had himself.

This trait remained with

and won for him stanch friends in whatever station he found himself placed. There is a story told which in a measure illustrates this quality, although its most curious interest is found in its sequel. A poor little orphan boy came to Norristown when Winfield was about eleven years old, sent

him throughout


there at the death of his parents to be cared for by distant relatives. Winfield, in a manner, took the little
fellow under his protection. He was the youngest and the smallest boy in the school which they both attended, and was consequently on occasion the butt of those who

were inclined to bulty or


Young Hancock was





already developing into a manly l)oy, and he stood be-


his little protege

very lavish supply of pocket-money in those treats which school-boys delight in. This little fellow left Norristown as poor as he had
going to Philadcl})liia to work for his own living as soon as he had passed the dependent age, and reaching that city with only one cent in his pocket. But he was fortunate in finding work, and he worked

made a and divided with him
battles for him,

his persecutors, fought his place for him among the others,
his not





so well at his trade, carpentering, that before long he w^as at the head of a gang of men and, to make a long story short, in the course of years he accumulated

wealth, and, going into politics, was elected a member of the city council. During the same years, Winlield


man's estate, and made his own career in another field and it was the little forsaken




he had befriended in his school-days, who, in the city government of Philadelphia, introduced the resolutions of thanks and welcome to i\Iajor-Gen.


Winfield Scott Hancock, in the name of the city, and offering him the use of the historic Independence Plall

The reception on his visit to Philadelphia. chances of life had brous^ht ao^ain into immediate assofor


Hancock, through paths so widely separated since the Norristown It was Everman, too, who, as chairman school-days. of the committee of the city government, presented the engrossed resolutions to his former school-mate and
champion. These recollections of the early boyhood of Winfield



W. Everman

and AVinfield











Hancock are cherished as precious memories at old home in the Schuylldll Valley having little

value, indeed, in themselves, but serving to bring into closer sympathy the hero whom a united country

honors, with the people from of whom he is.


he came and one

It is old Ridge pike. and in other ways . in the academy. from Montgomcr}' township. of his giving the General and his family the benetit more vivid lesfal knowledsre and business ability. which began in ])oyhood. One of Win field Hancock's Chums. — Honors received. A:yioxG the intimate friends of General Hancock's school-boy days was Hon. with his father and mother and twin brother. Chain. now one of the The leading lawyers of the Montgomery County bar. mile was one now in the city limits. near Montgomcrvvillc. even friendship. bo}' and In lf^28 he came This house at that time standing. — — Birth of Children. — The Baptist Sunday-School. — His Class-mates. in Xorristown Academy. which then stood where the present market-house stands. He first went to school to Eliphalet Roberts. man. to this town. He was then about four 3'ears The family went to reside in a two-story stone house. found picture of General Hancock as a youth cannot be A in brief space than that own words. still and. Hilary. — His Home Life. old. — How he was Appoiuted. but very dilapidated. about ten miles from here. . near the cemetery. as follows : — which Mr. B. the on the of west town. — A Cadet at West Point. E. Chain gives in his " I have known him for over fort}^ j^ears. am glad to claim him as a friend. Courtship and Marriage. has continued ]Mr. — A Student.34 LIFE AND rUBLlC SEIiVlCES OF CHAPTER in. Chain having had the settleto the present day ment of the elder Hancock's estate.

very slender. His life after leaving West Point has become historical.WINFIELD SCOTT mV^sCOCK. and. but on the footing established in the boyhood days. Hilar}% brick building adjoining. that West Point he had no vices. He me. He was quiet. close to Lafaj^ette Street. at that time looked so much alike that it w^as hard to distinguish one from the other across the street. His father and mother were Baptists of the strictest ' ' school. ran in a soldierly direction. attended the Sunday-school of that church. that to our boyish ideas were the acme of military perfection. he moved was in into town. themselves with the Baptists in this town and the General. put us through all manner of manoeuvres. the General was quite young. improvising cocked hats of paper and guns and swords of sticks. With regard to his religious predilec- While not connected with any denomination. and kept their children in their earlier years under the most rigid moral training. As business improved in his profession as a lawyer. never forgot his old friends and after he graduated he would visit them at times. and needs no repetition from tions. in all he undertook. his father being the superintendent. his father and mother connected he is . was tall for his age. and occupied a three-story brick house on Swede having his oflSce in Street. He used to get us boys back of the academ}'. never assuming an}^ superiority. but I remember that his tastes earlier firm. •'From 35 my earliest acquaintance with him. we boj's ac- knowledged him as a kind of a leader. and it was a struggle for him to gain sustenance for his family. " At that time his father poor circumstances. then a small boy. a small Winfield and his brother. up to the time Winfield went to He was ' ' then in his The consequence was." The attachment of General Hancock for his boy- . but . seventeenth year.

3(5 LIFE AND PUBLIC SEPwVICES OF equally of the sincere." This was not to be . where General Hancock's child" hood days were spent. Five hundred guns were tired. and general rejoicing prevailed. by the Democratic convention at he would have realized how fully his feel- ings were reciprocated. remarked to a ernment will only remove "Now. . " Winfield." It was no longer General Hancock to them. but old Ben Hancock's boy. who " had almost reached the allotted threescore years and ten. in private oiEces. and the whole population turned out at an impromptu ratification meeting. Old men. the town was illuminated in the evening." forgot political strife as they shook hands. eral w^hen the news was received there of his nomination to the presidency Cincinnati. streets. but if Gen- Plancock could have witnessed the universal joy that pervaded Nomstown. that has been in so dilapidated a condition for years that it has not been habitable. ^lilitary hold's home was assumed command Soon if after he Division of the Atlantic. in all public places. without regard to party." The old twostory stone house near the Montgomery cemetery. party feel- Along the ing was laid aside. he the govmy headquarters to Philadelphia. and how proudly his native town watched the brilliant career of the stripling youth whom it had sent forth. of my childhood. became at once a place of importance and during the day not a few who had passed . and discussed their boj'ish recollections of AVinlicld Hancock. the home friend. everywhere in and about the town. I shall be able to realize the desire of my heart hy making my residence in XoiTistown.

and also actively engaged in carrying out its operaas tions one of the school board of Norristown. which the appointment was brought about. and a bright one and. received the best education that his paronts could provide for him . Young Hancock opportunities. where Eliphalet Roberts was his first teacher. he was sent to a free school. whether it is liut tnere is a curious story^F the way in . He was a studious boy. he was selected to read the Declaration of Independence on the occasion of the . and he improved his placed at school in the Norristown Academy.WINTIELD SCOTT HA^^OCK. his father He was being one of the promoters of the system. which. When the public school system was adopted. it 37 for years without giving a thought to the old structure stopped to gaze upon it. public celebration of the anniversary. as early as his fi[fteenth year.

gave him great influence. 'svhose taste .^_. In course of time. and to a remarkably fine horse. *^v. he gave it all to his profession. appointment as a resident of the district .1 1.i A. /> --:„„..38 LIFE AND rUBLIC SERVICES OF true or a fable. in place of a family on which to lavish his affection. which he rode on all his errands of business or Pie .... to provide his favorite with a comfortable maintenance in his age. at least illustrates how comparatively ^miall incidents may turn the course cf events unexj^ectedly to great results.. and. horse grev\^ old and stiff. the pleasure over the country. to politics. was a lawyer and a bachelor and. . as well as "his large experience in public affairs.i -^ Philndebohia. and such ..for political management. the lawyer .. This story goes that at that time there lived in ]Mont- gomery County an ex-member of Congress.

were George B. "Stonewall" Jackson. Ord. doubted that his bearing such a name to commend It cannot to do with inspiring Hancock in his with his choice of a profession. J. the two Hills. who knew and respected Benjamin F. Longstreet. The latter. as it may have little foundation in fact. as it had . Grant. and developed military talent of the first order. The period at which Hancock was at West Point was prolific of distinguished graduates. Here it was that he first saw and conversed with Gen. through the whole world. to the vacancy at West Point. had been much be in the stripling cadet. whose confidence he had betrayed. home. and was successful. threw all his influence in favor of the appointment of young Hancock. This is one of the stories of the reg^ion. as a manner of getting even with him. Hancock was esteemed at at West Point. had much career. S. both as a lawyer and a citizen. Among his fellow- names have become familiar to every American citizen. McClellan. Pleasanton. It is on the whole more probable that Hon. Franklin. Reynolds (who fell on the first day at Gettysburg). but for the indignation of the owner of the horse.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. John F. Hancock. indeed. so promising a youth. and others. "Baldy" Smith. needed no extraordinary inducement or influence to appoint his son. Joseph Fornance. for whom he was named and it is said that the veteran soldier found as he . Winfield Scott. 39 were the influences he brought to bear that he would probably have succeeded. Reno (who fell at South Mountain). Wilcadets whose liam B. Burnside. L. in relatinsr which. and are known. U. we have omitted all mention of names.

we shall next speak. Louis. Hancock's father and a who died at the aije of ciijhteen. General Hancock has had no home except Avhcrc duty called him. graduating eighteenth in a large class on the 30th of June. so brilliant and It was while he was so great. Eussell Hancock is married. 1850. and Avas buried in the fiunily lot in the Xorristown cemetery. expecting a residence of But the inexorable orders of the War Department have compelled him to break up housekeeping. it may be said. in a The fruit of this union was two children. before daughter of a prominent merchant of St. . fitted it Once or tAvice he has hired a house and up for occupancy. — son. and remove perhaps a thousand miles There is no to take chari2:e of a different command. that he married jNIiss Ilussell. although he had been bre vetted for gallantry in the Mexican war. Of his military career and services. Since his commission in the L'nited States army. when he received his commission as Brevet Second Lieutenant in the Sixth In- The character of the fantry. 1844. the St. serving as adjutant of his regiment. home-life for one in the service.40 LIFE A^T) PUBLIC SERVICES OF boy strengthened and developed under the discipline of West Point and amid the competitors that he there had. about one hundred miles below ^lem- phis. and lives on his plantation. dauirhter. Russell. named after Mrs. then stationed at he had attained full rank as First Lieutenant. Louis. has been considerable length. ago. . several years . and he took high rank as a scholar. except what a congenial family can give and this.

not only of the city of Philadelphia.WINTIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. he showed himself stanchly patriotic under all circum. but the most distinguished honor that could be conferred of the Congress of the United States. As became the recipient of a service of plate from the citizens of Pennsylvania. as a young lieutenant. to which he was called. He hae ever been a servant of his coun- doing his duty faithfully and with honor in every station. He early learned to obey he try . of a sword from the United States Sanitary Commission of St. proved himself upright and honorable as a citizen. As a man. Louis. his name is one of the brisrhtest on our roll of heroes. Louis. he quickly showed his power to command. 41 General Hancock's good fortune since the day when he. and of the thanks. a soldier. whether of danger or of wearisome labor. . he stances. plighted vows with Miss Russell at St. In the course of his career. official — — .




the 1st of July. and strongly He sought duty for the sake of doing it well. and true to himself. — — — He begins to make a Record. conscientious. — — — Lieutenant Hancock entered the army from West Point.CHAPTEK — I. the Advance Plains. 1844. and also having within his breast a noble ambition to make his name worthy of the parents who had reared and tauijht him. Hancock's Request to be ordered He is sent to Mexico. and was On ordered to report to his command in the Indian TerriTh^> Sixth Regiment was then stationed in the tory. well qualified to develop. Ho Avas earnest. Protecting Outbreak of the Mexican War. and he went into the army with a fresh heart and an earnest purpose. the great talents which he then possessed embryo. Cadet-life at West Point had not obliterated the home influence. The of Guard White Settlers. Norristown home remained with him. under favorable circumstances. sincere. . dustrious. in the Sixth Infantry. His Serrice on the Lieutenant Hancock enters the Sixth Infantry. keeping him honest. he received his brevet Second Lieutenancy. and he shirked nothing which came to him in the path of his The effects of his early training in the profession. The characteristics which h ive smce made him one of the foremost men m the land in were even at that time apparent. Fire at Contreras and San Antonio. His first Experience under T(» the Front. inpatriotic.

at that time our most western military station. Lieutenant Hancock was for a time stationed at Fort Towson. It was here that. the slowly pushed its way across the continent. each vear hearinsr the axe's rinof further in the western forest. on the Red River of the South. Hostile tribes were numerous and active . as now. It was here that he served his novitiate. the whole line of the pioneers' advance was constantly threatened. in the region of the AVashita or Red River. But it is now. and was then transferred to Fort AVashita. which now occur. on the 18th of June. and in place of the occasional outbreaks at the more distant points of our unsettled territory. Settlers near the Indian Territory were then. they were much more at the mercy of the savage raiders. one day differing from another by little which can be called incident. The army of the United States was almost entirely occupied with the protection of the advance-line of settlers as it more numerous. It was the drudgery of army life. he received his commission as full Second Lieutenant. 1846. as it was in 1844. and seeing the rich prairie soil turned in furrows nearer to the scttinsf sun. hut at that time. the school of practice to which West Poini: graduates are sent to familiarize themselves with the 2:)ractical workings of the theories learned at the Academy. .46 LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF Far AYcst. the Indians being country comparatively vacant of white residents and means of communication almost nothing. There was no glory to be gained by service in this section. subject to frequent alarms vastly .

47 In the mean time. army going will favor it to the or not. and acting as Assistant Inspector-General but though my services are said to be . am useful. and his brilliant victories had aroused the war-spirit throughout the land. And when President Polk's administration determined to push the war to a conclusion. Kr. on my from Fort Scott.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. ordered General Scott to take command and finish the conflict. I still want to go to Mexico. find. Your affc^ctionats brothc>r. Ky. chafed under this restraint while the bu2:les were recruiting . but think it doubtful. the diplomatic difficulties between tlie United States and Mexico had developed into open Taylor had made an entrance into the territory of the Montezumas. 1847. 1846. that I cannot I made an application to-day to join the get to Mexico. . and in November. Newport Barracks. I Whether the Adjutant-General do not know. written about this time. WiN^FiKLn. which permits no contentment in inactivity when his country calls for aid. letter A to his twin brother. Newport calling across the border for he had the spirit of the true soldier. 5. but made formal application to the War Department to be sent to the front. territory was the — although the point to which he was ordered then considered far west — and was eno^acred in service at He Barracks. gives a brief expression of his feelings. Hancock could wait no longer. May My Dear arrival here Hilary : — I was exceedingly glad to front.. Lieutenant Hancock had been sent eastward from the Red River war. two long and interesting letters from you. I actively engaged as Superintendent of the recruiting service for the Western Division. The only thing that grieves me is.

without losing a boat or a man. . then a captain of cavalry. . Scott was to penetrate the interior and after his campaign of six months Already. under fire and through the surf. . all in a short bly mentioned Robert E. regiment was ordered to join Scott's army in Taylor had been fighting in a desultory way along the " conborder. and possibly with widely different results. had been honoraquer a peace. genius and his young soldier would have been delayed And. But he was to have his desire. his ^lexico. and the hei^rhts of Cerro Gordo had been stormed and The gallant Shields. and Phil. Already the army had begun to push toward the interior. was in what Scott called " and Colonel Harney was leading his artillery. taken. Kearney. and had taken the city and the castle of San Juan de UUoa. only a few weeks desponding letter to his brother. then a captain of his "little cabiengineers. Lee. course would probably have been different. In June. and every young officer's ambition burned to take part in the conflict. net It was a time when reputations were making rapidly.48 LIFE AXT) PUBLIC SERVICES OF Lieutenant Hancock's request been refused. while we cannot doubt that his strong qualities of mind would have his brought him to a commanding position in time. or had his regiment been continued on service along the western frontier instead of going to Mexico with Scott. always straight toward the capital. with five thousand prisoners. Then Scott pushed his arms on to Jalapa. then a general. on the 9th of March. the career of the Had m its opening. and thence to Puebla." and five days. 1847. Scott had landed at Vera Cruz with twelve thousand men.

Reinforcements. to march his little army through a hostile country to the capture of the capital reported of the Duke of Wellington. having followed carefully on the map the victorious course of the United States army up to the basin of city. He has away by successes. 1847. Santa Anna had then had nearly four months since the battle of Cerro Gordo to collect and reorganize the entire means of the Mexi- can Republic for a invasion. and courage and it was no easy task that Scott had undertaken. ability. that. It is Mexico. Here it reached the army of invasion at Puebla.WTN^FIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. the roster of the little army under surgeon. 49 was that AYinfield Scott Hancock first found himself m service under the veteran soldier for whom he was named. both then lieutenants. Franklin Pierce. and he can't fall On the back upon his base. the second in General Worth's . division. Lieut. He can't take the city. were on the Engineer Corps Hammond was an assistantIn fact. vigorous attempt to crush the The Mexican general possessed wonderful last . Beauregard and McClellan. Winfield Scott Hancock was in Colonel Clarke's brigade. Among them was Gen. at that ])een carried j^oint he said " : Scott is lost. in command of a brigade." 10th of August the regiment in which . only three months after Lieutenant Hancock had written his doubts of ever being permitted to share in the dangers and the glories of this war. The advance began on the 7th of August. after long delay. energy. Scott that met at Puebla contained names that the history of the past thirty years has made famous throughout the world.

bed of the road between gorgeous seat of the Montezumas. and to it was also given the work of attackThese were the first San Antonio in front. toils and dangers — once the " : tains. seemed. ten thousand feet higher. sparkling The close-surrounding enousch to touch with the hand. with Popocatepetl. the object of all our dreams and hopes. in which was Lieutenant Hancock. ins^ considerable enofasrements in which Lieutenant Hancock . filled the mind with reRecoverinsf from the sublime trance. Fortyseven miles in eight days brought the army over a route deemed impracticable by the enemy. General Scott says Descending the long western slope. A series of brilliant events was contested. great republic — under a bright The sun. of great beauty and elevation. the highest point in the the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. and then came San Antonio. now the capital of a first broke upon our enchanted view. That splendid city soon shall be ours All were ready to suit the action to the word. in descending the Rio Frio range into the valley of Mexico. Worth's division had shared the honors of Contreras." ! Here. through Avhich was opened the road to Mexico. all in the siirht of the citv of ^lexico. in the distance. . apparently near lakes. probably not a man in the column failed to say to his neighbor or himself. was sent forward to lead the way. with. to San Augustin and thence the fio^htinof beo^an. Worth's brigade. Contreras was taken in two days of sharp lighting against greatly superior numbers.50 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF Hancock served crossed the Kio Frio range of mounIn his account. pendant diamonds. numerous steeples. near its centre. liofious awe. a magnificent basin.

took one general prisoner. artillery. five retreat. I happened to witness an amusing scene just as I came out upon the road. and in describing this affair. the yells of teamsters and the shrieks of the wounded and dying as they were tumbled from their saddles by the unerring aim of our soldiers. cut in the centre the heavy garrison of three thousand men which was in drove one portion off upon Dolores and the other upon Churubusco. in the words of General Scott in his official " report. was filled. Raphael Semmes. Antonio. lying prostrate under one of the shade- . 51 It was his brigade which. much ammunition.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. and infantry were all rushing forward pell- amid the shouts of the officers as they gave their confused and hurried orders. turned tp the left. since the notorious Confederate privateer admiral. Cavalry. as far as the eye could It reach. with masses of the flying enemy. was at that time on the staff of General Worth. many of whom threw themselves at our feet in : " We the greatest alarm and consternation. magnificent causeway." was a gallant dash. and. at San ever took part. he relates the made a great many prisfollowing anecdote oners. and by a wide sweep. and the young officers of the Sixth Regiment proved their mettle. An eye-witness The describes the scene of confusion as unparalleled. and other property. abandoned guns. mell. following in pursuit through the town. came out upon the high-road to the capital. lined on both sides with rows of stately shade-trees. the rumbling of artillery and baggage-wagons as the horses were whipped up to their full speed. I saw.

I suppose. Supposing the officer to have killed." . his aid-de-camp had run off with his horse.' is ' he The general afterwards informed me that.52 trees. I inquired of the soldier if this been fact. a LIFE AND rUBLIC SERVICES OF remarkably bulky-looking figure in the unifomi of a Mexican general. and that this was the cause of his being captured a — thing which. wind. and a soldier of one of our companies standing ])y him. being a fat man only a little out of I have just run him down. were the *0h. . could only occur in Mexico. in the huiTy ! of the retreat. sir. no.' said he.

It was too. — The — General Worth's Bridge at Ghurubusco the Key to the Situation. The wanderers found the eagle thus seated. many times its own numbers — on — the great causeway leading straight to the city of Mexico.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. and there they proceeded to realize the prediction by founding the city of Mexico. islands in the lake of Tezcuco formerly occupied but with its spread and It growth the lake was largely filled up. The legend is. He had won his spurs at Contreras and at San Antonio. on an island in Lake Tezcuco. Company Brevet for taken by Storm. over now Hancock was the 20th of August. where the great battle was to be fought. and Lieutenant one of a victorious army victorious. and Churubusco lay right before him. whose mountain-rim is about one hundred and eighty miles in circumference. The city of Mexico lies in the centre of a basin or amphitheatre. Charge. 11. grasping a serpent in his talons. — The Advance upon the City of Mexico. — The T6te du Pont — The Leads the Repulse. — Lieutenant Hancock's Brigade ordered to carry the Fortification. 53 CHAPTER Battle of Clinrubusco. Cortes . . — Lieutenant Hancock Tfins his first Gallantry in Action. that the emigration under Montezuma was guided by the prediction that the great capital city of their people would be founded on the spot where an eagle was found seated upon a thorny cactus.

constituted its best means of defence. and perfected as government works in later days. crossing this San Antonio. all causeway about two miles north of The banks of the river had been artifiprevent inundation. one of which was a massive stone convent that had been prepared for defence. houses of the villag^e of Churubusco. It was surrounded by a field-work having embrasures and platforms for many cannon. It was into this basin that Scott's army had descended. and Churubusco lay at the junction of the two highways.54 found it LIFE AJ^T> PUBLIC SERVICES OF a great c\ty. from which the great causeway led straight on to the city of Mexico. capa])le of being overflowed at will. the centre of a Avonderful pagan He had the ambition to make it a yet civilization. He had taken Contreras on the west. tearing temples only to build more magnilicent cathedrals. down greater Christian city. and San Antonio on the east. and. in his rough way. Moats and marshy lands. But ungeneral topographical features remained Its streets were not more than four feet above chang-ed. its sides were planted Avith rows of maguey. Its only ap- proaches were over causeways built ages before. The Rio de Churubusco runs due east. its parapets and windows all afibrded good positions for troops. strongly fortified. its walls were pierced for musketry. like those of cially elevated to Mexican water-courses. and ammunition . with the cit}^ of Mexico in full view only a few miles distant. its the level of the water in the surrounding lakes. to which the elevated banks oficred partial South of the stream lay the scattered protection. aflfording a screen to large numbers of troops.

and more formidable work. front. The ploughed ground. was the tele da pont of Churubusco. covering the bridge by which the causeway of San Antonio led to the city of Mexico. In stretched the dikes. with an army of twentythousand men behind them. the "head of the bridge. As they approached the bridge. orderly retreat upon this position. knowing that another battle lay in front of him. Three thousand Mexican troops occupied this point. . to 55 any amount was inside the buildings. But it was the key to the whole position it lay it must be carried. this fortification. scientifically constructed. and moved forward coolly. . the corn at that time feet high. the Mexican artillery. that the little brig^ade which young Lieutenant Hancock fought was led. with and other trees. embrasures and platforms for a large arma- ment. checked the heat of the pursuit. It five was against such obstacles. but treacherously. On each side of this formidable fortification or elevated banks of the river. and a network of crossditches and dikes for irrigating purposes obstructed the advance of the attacking^ force. It was a beautiful field-work." was constructed. The river was bridged where the causeway crossed. was heavy. directly on the road to the capital The fugitives from San Antonio fell back in a disGeneral Worth. with wet ditches. and at the approach from the south. in . Another. though not miry.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. dense masses of military which had been occupied by hurried forward by Santa Anna from the city. the straggling fruit being six ground was occupied by corn-fields. and waving its green tassels most invitingly.

assault. perfectly clear. and a tremendous roar of artillery and small-arms was heard from one end to • the other of the line of battle. was ordered to move by the flank. Then it was that Lieutenant Hancock's company. advancing: ranks. Captain Iloflinan in The Mexicans in led this terrible charge. parallel to the road through the fields the Sixth was ordered directly up the road to storm the tete du j)ont. opened upon them. The action had ah-eady begun on the right of the Mexican line. against it. The awful storm of lead and iron that poured down and across that causeway permitted no living thing to stand In the words of a stafi" officer's report. whose attention had up to this time been directed to the troops advancing through the corn on command. and reflected back the vivid flashes of the guns.5(5 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF which enfiladed the road. where our troops had come up from the west. Some of the men recoiled under the sweeping stroke of the artillery but the ofiicers rallied them. but the smoke. But it was not to be done. as it arose over the heads of the combatants. and then the musketry. and with a shout they again rushed forward. . formed a deep The day was canopy that partially obscured the sun. extendinii: more than a mile. as they belched fire and iron from the frowning fortification upon the became the duty of the Sixth Infantry to charge straight through this hell of fire upon The rest of the brifi^ade the w^orks in front of them. it . turned all their . either flank. the work. seeinsr the o^allant Sixth makins^ this direct guns upon it.

but gave way . 57 "the Sixth Infantry was met by so destructive afire. while still under a galling fire. at double-quick. were turned upon the Mexicans. shouted to Lieutenant Hancock's company to leave the deadly causeway and incline to the right into the corn. When the guns of the devoted fortress. which up to this time had not slackened their fire. a white flag was hung out from the convent balcony. The enemy could not withstand the shock. Lieutenant Hancock. standards. But the battle was not yet over. however. and carried it with the bayonet.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. It was another hour before the last of Santa Anna's twenty-five thousand men were in flight toward the city of Mexico. with Hancock's company at its head. that it was forced to recoil and fall back . leaving guns." General Worth. leading his men into the embrasures and over the walls without the help of ladders. fellows fighting along down A changed. and in a moment more the cheers that rang out gave notice to the brave the line that the key to the few shots were exbattle-field had been taken. they dashed past. Then. wet ditch that surrounded the work. ripping and cutting its ranks in pieces. the deep. who was with the advance on the flank. by the side of his captain. which. was done with the coolness of a parade. . a few bayonets crossed. and prisoners in the hands of our men. It had lasted two hours from the time it was first opened by the Sixth Infantry to the time when the same regiment. clambered into the tele du pout. The capture of the bridge determined the fate of the battle. and the greater number fled over the bridge toward the city.

Kearney lost his it was at Churubusco that Winfield Scott Hancock. It battle. and the heart with irratitude to the brave officers and soldiers whose steady and indomitable valor has aided in achieving results so honorable to our country. the mind is filled with wonder. haA^ing the advantage of position and occupying regular works. won his first brevet. . the day of the battle of Churubusco. and the that the division (twenty-six hundred strong of all arms) was engaged from two to two and a half hours in a hand-to-hand conflict with from seven thousand to nine thousand of the enemy. officers was due to the fact that thev led. whose company led that terrible charge down at the causeway to the bridge. when it was stopped. 1847. order from the War Department commissioning The him dated Aug. by order of General Scott." was arm and It . The loss on our side. and the men In General Worth's report of this folloAved them. was eleven hundred." brevet First Lieutenant is — nifies the highest cause for which advancement in rank can be conferred. Churubusco that Phil. of whom This great disproportion of eighty-four were officers. and states that the " honor is conferred for gallant and meritorious conduct a formula which sigat Contreras and Churubusco.58 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF The pursuit was continued for more than half the distance from Churubusco to the gates of the city of ]\Iexico. in killed and wounded. was a costly victory. 20. he says: "When fact I recur to the nature of the ground.

fought or knowledge of the ground and the obstacles to be encountered. although not even their overwhelmAnd. The demonstrating not only their impetuous bravery.WINTIELD SCOTT HAJ^COCK. ingly large numbers availed them for success. before a peace should be conquered. He leads tenant Hancock again foremost in the Post of Danger. came to an end without any definite result from the negotiations for peace. Situation of Scott's Army before the City of LieuMexico. Molino del Rey. with its outlying fortifications. but their coolness and skill in the turmoil of battle. 59 CHAPTER in. — — — — — — Churubusco was one in which the determined bravery of the American troops and the skill of their officers in any emergency were conspicufor the Mexicans fought bravely ously displayed and like true men. the young lieutenant's quality was close at hand for only four miles distant was the city of Mexico. And yet another test of . which must be passed. Eleven out Hancock saved amid the Carnage. battle of . The armistice to which the combatants agreed after the battle of Churubusco. The Gates of the City and their Fortifications. of fourteen Officers killed. his Company against the Battery at Molino del Rey. These . the was without battle reconnoissance moreover. and the citadel taken. Even the subordinate officers showed their ability to comprehend the situation and take quick and decisive action on the spur of the moment.

last letter to my engage in preparations for it. intended for The . Aug. feel 26. each gate a fortress. in case these should be carried. left off from this place. as then. and were defended by breastworks and artillery. sometimes two or more of these entering the city at or near the same gate. partly inundated by detached Several pools of water. It was here that Lieutenant Hancock wrote home to his father negotiations States army : — My Dear wi'ite 3'ou Father : —I Tacubaya. We had to fight desperately to I It has been the theatre of a sanguinar}. Your affectionate son. and in the rainy season. lay close at hand. and at the same time upon the flanks and rear of the first batteries. WlNFIELD. with its two hundred thousand inhabitants. These various approaches were cut from point to point. Mexico. and The ground each approached by a grand causeway. In addition to the batteries which commanded the direct approaches. 6. Mexico. of great width and depth. They could almost On the side reconnoitre it with their field-glasses.GO LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF came to an end Sept.battle. 1847. cross-roads passed from one causeway to another. wet walls of the city were surrounded by ditches. The United was then at Tacubaya. other batteries were placed on the flanks of these so as to fire across the road. The city of where the United States army was operating there were four principal gates. between these causeways was low and marshy. thankful that I am able to get here. and impracticable for troops.

about one mile north of Tacubaya. The purpose here is to sketch those events which marked the career of young Hancock in his first campaign and glorious tion whether the battle of . It formed the . 61 the purpose of drainage. During his life. by Santa Anna during the and there have always been grave doubts as to the wisdom of the policy pursued by General Scott in this campaign. for the purpose of proThis tecting what was supposed to be a gun foundry. that commanding the causew^ay from Chapultepec.WINTIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. and force employed in the service of his country. events they were. ing troops near one of the four gates. Every foot of the ground at all approachable had been taken possession of by the Mexicans and fortified Much with breastworks and artillery. of this fortification had doubtless been done armistice . . opposite these complicated and formidable fortifications. supposed foundry was a range of strong stone buildings. skill. was while encamped at Tacubaya. and others crossed and recrossed these. Churubusco was necessary whether Scott would not have done better to follow Kearney when he led his troopers to the San Antonio gate of the city of Mexico whetner the taking of the Molino del Rey was a mistake or any other of the vexed questions of the Mexican war. known as the Molino del Rey. . or King's Mill. considered simply as exhibitions of bravery. party denunciation was bitter indeed but at this time it is not purposed to discuss the ques. . that the armistice was ended and at the same time word was brought to General Scott that the Mexicans were massIt .

such a short time before. It was reported the castle commanded the Molino. But as the line was advanced all doubts were dispelled. was necessary to destroy this factory of the same time prepare the way for the so frequently in this campaign. and fields of Chapultepec. At three o'clock on the morning of the 8th of September.0)2 LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF of an surrounding the rock. crashiniT of the shot throui]:h the . General Worth received his orders on the 7th of September. General Worth's division was chosen to carry out this dangerous As happened and Indeed. and the youth who. had which seemed to forbid his takinsr an active part in the contest. and at taking of the castle of Chapultepec. It was to be a night attack. western side had found themselves short of artil- of our troops. and that the church-bells of the city had been sent to this foundry for conversion into ordnance. found himself foremost in the places of danger and of honor. General Worth's command was in position and the ball was opened by the artillery. the command in which Lieutenant Hancock held a commission was especially difficult operation. For some time there was no response from the castle of Chapultepec. the position was to be taken under cover of the darkness and the assault was to be made at daybreak. The guns of castle. and the fate mourned the masonry of the jNIolino del Rey was the only answer. General Scott owing to the large captures decided that it arms. or. The location of the Mexican battery had been changed during the night. rather. favored with op})ortunitics for distinction in this war . groves. enclosure that the Mexicans lery.

through the storm of grape and musketry. But before the guns could be discharged the Mexicans perceived that they had been dislodged by a mere handful of men. although only a second lieutenant. the crevices of the stone walls and cUmbed up by them .WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. Decimated but not daunted. others fired into apertures or climbed broken sheds . . more sanguinary than even that charge along the causeway at Churubusco. was ordered. cutting down now opened The charge and men with fearful carnage. rushed straight at the battery. driving the enemy from their guns and for the moment capturing the position and turning the guns upon their late owners. bringing down their bayonets. and it 63 heavily upon the flank of the attacking party with round shot and grape. It was a frightful ordeal. drove out our soldiers and bayoneted the wounded. this gallant command It was a returned to the charge again and again. Out of the fourteen officers comofficers posing the were shot It so command of the assaulting down by the murderous fire. eleven happened that Lieutenant Hancock was in this engagement in command of his company. force. One party commenced tearing down the hacienda with no other implements than their muskets others thrust their bayonets into . aided by a tremendous fire of musketry from the troops in and on top of the Molino. also lieutenants. were Sedgwick and Buckner and Rosecrans. and they returned to the charge. and the men. Captain Hoffman having been assigned to the command of the Sixth Infantry battalion and with him. rough and fearful scramble.

The battle. had been won by three thousand as^ainst fourteen thousand . The providence that watches over the fate of nations had greater deeds for him to do. . in which the young Lieutenant Finally the southern others followed it. Hancock led the van of the assaulting party. cans. thousand. had possession of the Molino del Rcy.64 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF that offered a means of gate was dashed in. but at a terrible loss. nearly onethird were lost under the devastating lire of the Mexithis Of three Hancock. and the scorching tests to which he was put in the bloody conflicts around the Mexican basin were tousfhenino: his nerves and stren<?thenin2^ his soul for the nobler work of battling for the Union. bore a charmed hfe. while foremost in the fight. and our troops access.

a redoubt. — . The assault was made on the 13th of Sepancient times tember. House by Fever. He creeps to the Roof and cheers as his Company take the Castle. 65 CHAPTER ly. usual. and before the conquest by Cortes it was a favorite resort of Montezuma. This fortress stood on a rocky and picturesque mound at the head of one There now remained of the great causeways leading into the city.WINTIELD SCOTT HANCOCIv. Lieutenant Hancock's Letters Home. a letter from As him to his brother tells . handsome building crowned its summit. being a sheer precipice of rock. On one side. the hill was inaccessible. The waters of Lake Tezcuco in washed its base. On the other. where was the military academy of the republic and the citadel of the fortress. the Sixth Infantry was prominent in this action. The Entry into the City of Mexico. with ditches. manned with guns and nearly four hundred men. Half-way up the hill was the Glorieta. Hancock describes his Feelings wliile confined to tlie Chapultepec. and commanding the road. it was surA rouiided by two massive stone walls. Where Lieutenant Hancock was. — — — — — the fortress of Chapultepec to be reduced before the army marched upon the city in the path chosen by General Scott. who had a palace there and was accustomed to walk through the cypress groves in his hours of recreation and retirement. End of the War.

brother John. TVlNFIELD. it endeavored to do my — was my at the time. crowded with gay equipages. at times. I crept to the firing top of the roof of the nearest house. Give my age is three centuries. doing and when I learned that the colors I saw I could . mother. 1847. or great square of the anything of the kind in the United The carriage road on the outskirts is splendid.G6 LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF City of Mexico. and the conquest of the city of Mexico. but I kept my post. still I was 13'ing ill with chills and fever. watched the fight. have been in battle ? I answer. The summits of loft}' Popocatepetl are capped with more snow than is usual at this season. No snows. Churubusco. . 6. gives a brief and . in his official report. hoistel on the conquered walls were those of my ment. My Dear You ! Hilary if I : — I am again made happ}^ by the arrival of three letters from home. are on the plains. It is also a fashioncapital. what to cheer with the bo3"s when the Castle The balls whizzed about me. directlj^ under the fort. love to father. I shall alwa3's be sorry that I was absent. I could not remain under the but. own regi- The winter has set in here. is far superior to able resort for walks. and Its all my other friends. wrapping my blanket about me. and some chilly days are the consequence. howHere the roads are open and manj^ ever. Dec. and off duty dot}'. The Almada. I only missed the fight of Chapultepec by being sick in my tent. of them beautiful. proudly. my heart beat quick at the glorious sight. in all of which I can truly say I have ask me — part to participate in the battles of San Antonio. and had strength enough fell. States. Besides yes being in several skirmishes on the road from Puebla to Vera Cruz. at the time the action began. Molino del Rey. General Scott. and.

At . There were yet batteries to be taken. and the shouts that followed announced to the castle the fate that impended. first in the assault. midway. were shot down by our men. and several of our regimental colors flung out from the upper walls. led by brave officers. which many had believed to be impregnable and when that fell. The retreat allowed not time to fire a single mine without the certainty of blowing up friend and foe. attempted to apply matches to the long trains. . had to be carried before The advance of our brave reaching the castle on the heights. the grand entry of the . and on the 14th. which parties . "A men. He says : 67 — Han- strong redoubt. over rocks. chasms. barricades to be passed. The enemy were steadily driven from shelter to shelter. The redoubt now yielded to resistless valor. Sept. with city walls. . There was death below as well as above the ground. 13." No scene could have been The great dependence of the Mexicans had been placed upon Chapultepec. and under the hottest fire of cannon and musketry. the city of Mexico . . Those who. was un- wavering. killed or wounded but a lodgment was soon made streams of heroes followed all opposition was overcome. and fortified houses to be cleared of combatants. amidst long-continued shouts and cheers. vivid description of the assault which Lieutenant cock saw from the house-top.WINTLELD SCOTT IIANCOCK. But on the night of that day. and mines. at a distance. length the ditch and wall of the main work were reached the scaling-ladders were brought up and planted by the storming some of the daring spirits. more animating or glorious. though necessarily slow. were cast down. General Worth's division slept within the fell it. sent dismay into the capital. 1847.

' etc. novel a spectacle. and the army of conquest became an army of occupation. that direction it is bitterly cold. the various streets poured forth their thousands of spectators. to six thousand by and and these troops entered the city in the undress uniforms in which they had marched so many weary miles. the following year. the Neviado.' 'Hail to the Chief.' 'Yankee Doodle. in succession. which were put down by prompt measures. I entered the city at the head of the cavalry. 'Ilail Columbia." The American casualties army had dwindled disease .G8 LIFE AND rUBLIC SERVICES OF Scott says in his autobiography: ''Under a brilliant sun. There was no further fighting. cheered by Worth's division of regulars. and we find him writinof home his impressions of a Mexican winter : — Near Toluca. except desultory efforts of the mob and released criminals to create disturbance. and the balconies and house-tops were filled with a gay and so To behold So dense was the crowd that it was frequently necessary to halt until the pressure was removed. Lieutenant Hancock's regiment remained with the rest. the have another snow mountain When the wind blows from But January is the end of Mexican winter. My Dear Father : — We overlooking us. 1848. As General 'Washington's March. all the bands playing. There . and fought so many desperate battles. The da3's begin to grow warmer as the month advances.' American army was made. A treaty of peace was signed in February of picturesque throng. 5. although the nights continue chilly. Jan.

dating from that hot day. was mentioned. On one of the market da3's." The brevet commission he received in 1848. one of the remaining lakes is twenty The variety of fruits produced miles long and fifteen broad. and his Churubusco. hare is astonishing. Mexican valleys the valley of Mexico. no fires northern born find to our great discomfort. and very fertile. as before stated. Love WlNFIELD. over to fifty different kinds were on sale. and he had shown those stronsr and sterlinsc traits of character from which. there was to develop the hero and the statesman. . by the brevet " for gallant and meritorious conduct at Contreras and in the reports. His name was honorably mentioned gallantry and capacity were officially recognized. then in his twenty-fourth year. Like all the other I have seen. and. young Hancock. acknowledged his services in a series of resolutions adopted by the Legislature. ripe all. The opportunity for which he had longed had come to him. fine. when he led his men against the te'e du pont at Churubusco. fresh. in which his name. In the series of battles which attended the march of Scott's victorious army from Vera Cruz to the city of Mexico. had proved himself a true soldier. 69 as we more are no fireplaces. The valley of Toluca is most beautiful. watermelon in Think of opening a the month of January. . in later years. recently. as if it had of a large lake.WINPIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. with these of other Pennsylvania soldiers. one year before. it is perfectly level. His native State of Pennsylvania also August. consequent^. Some of these wonthe bottom once been In derful areas look like the craters of extinct volcanoes.

saw the Mexican flag again raised on the citadel after the treaty of peace had been succeeded by the evacuation.70 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF CHAPTER — V. serving in that capacity until He thus Oct. Lieutenant Hancock was made Regimental Quartermaster. when he was made Adjutant. were becoming constantly of less account except as depots. to Salt Lake. Seminole War. March Harney's — — — — — — Lieutenant IL^ncock remained in Mexico to the very end of the war. Then there followed extending . Hancock Ordered to California. more rapidly since the Mexican Fort war had opened Crawford and California to our settlers. and tben Adjutant. Louis. Lieutenant Hancock Returns to the Department of the "West. 1848. Ho becomes Regimental Quartermaster. The riage at St. June 30. Jeff'erson And Barracks. 1. he was now acquiring the details of man- agement. where Lieutenant Hancock passed the next two years. Brigham Young's Declaration of Independence. and then returned home with his a period of rest and routine Our western frontier duties at the western stations. of battle . His MarSteady Advancement in Ms Profession. 1849. w^as rapidly command. Here he becran to show evidences of the remarkable . acquired that practical experience of the duties of the several positions which was required to supplement his He had already passed the test theoretical training.

Louis . 1853. sponsibilities. and served in that capacity until the Seminole war broke out termaster. and Augustine. tenancy. was in command of the Department of the West.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. Assistant Adjutant-General of the Department of the West. he was appointed eral Clarke's stafi*. and which marked him as peculiarly fitted for executive duties. the country having fortunately no use for its army beyond a sort of police duty. Louis that Lieu- tenant Hancock. war St. being stationed at St. where he did quartermaster duty at the close of that enterprise. Brigham Young . he was sent with his regiment to Leavenworth. 27. to exert a quieting influence upon the turbulent spirits of that era of border ruflaanism. 1855. for the next six years. administrative talent which 71 afterwards distinguished him. near . on the 24th of January. We find him constantly charged with new re- and steadily advancing in the line of his He was promoted to a full Second Lieuprofession. and took a place on GenJune 19. 1850. that It was at this time. Louis and at Jefferson Barracks. The was service of Captain Hancock in the Seminole confined to the post of Fort Myers. when he was sent to Fort Myers with the rank of Captain and Assistant Quarwas durino: his residence at St. It in Florida. General Clarke. married Miss Almira Russell.. about twelve miles down the river. with headquarters at and under him Lieutenant Hancock served St. Jan. a merchant of that city. under whom he had served with such gallantry in Mexico. 1857. Kan. daughter of Samuel Eussell.

in virtue of what he assures them to be authority derived from revelations received by him from Heaven. this people have claimed to detach themselves from the bindinir oblisrations of the laws which oroverned the communities where they chanced to live. had conquered for themselves a home in the midst of natural difficulties of the harshest sort had . " Gentiles to prevent the encroachment of In order '* upon his . They have substituted for the laws of the land a theocrac}''. having for its head an individual whom they profess to believe a prophet of God. they would. allowed autonomy. stated the situation in his re- From the time port to the Thirty-fifth Congress their numbers reached a point sufficient to constitute a : " community capable of anything like independent action. have in their hands the kev to all trans-continental This was evidently the transportation and travel. dream of the far-seeing and hard-headed prophet who had led this people out from a land of persecution and As Floyd. these opportune revelations of a higher law come to his aid.72 LITE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF undertook to set up an independent government of The Mormons. receives it This prophet demands obedience and implicitly from his people. and. against his will no resistance. established a theocracy in the wilderness. then Secretary of War." Just at this time the people of the United States had l)ecome thoroughly aroused at the manner in which the jNIormon prophet was exercising his power. in years to come. secured a foothold in the centre of the continent if . his decrees there is is From there no appeal . When he finds it convenient to exercise any special command. ership. under his able leadhis own in Utah.

Our houses have been plundered. in short. . as it might please his mightiness. . in Brigham Young's place ment of Territory of . and then burned our fields laid waste our principal men butchered while under the pledged faith of the government for their safety and our families driven from . on the latter's refusal to retire. he had even resorted to massacre. either by his own men or through his Indian allies he had . he sent out a sufficient force under General Harney to compel the prophet's acquiescence. was really a declaration of It opened thus " : We war against the United States. Although the attempted secession of Brigham Young was something like a tempest in a tea-pot. President Buchanan resolved to exercise the authority given him by the Constitution Under and the laws. he had set up as a sovereign monarch in the path of our emigration across the continent. and. 73 Promised Land. to obstruct or to favor. are invaded by a hostile force are evidently assailing us to accomplish our overthrow and destruction. these circumstances. as governor of Utah. when considered in comparison ^^iih the greater movement we have since seen. and remove from the governthe Utah an official who combined in so dangerous a manner the monarchical and civil authority. refused to yield to the authority of the Federal government in matters over which it had control . The prophet's proclamation. it was not then to be lightly treated. Cummings to and be governor of Utah. Captain Hancock was in the command assigned to this expedition. He appointed Mr. For twenty-five years we have who trusted officials of the government only to be insulted and betrayed.WmriELD SCOTT HANCOCK. .

but anno}^ them and destroy their their animals. take a concealed route and get ahead of them. be burned. When you approach the road. Take no life. Keep them from sleeping at night by surprises blockade the road by felling trees or destroying river-fords watch for opportunities to set fire to the grass on their windward. for instance. is a as it . civilization. sample of the orders under which the INIormon militia and guerillas fought. a very pretty little rebellion. trains. 1857.74 their LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF homes to find that shelter in the barren wilderness hostile savages which Avere denied them in the boasted abodes of Christianity and Then he goes on to declare martial law. It is an order issued by one of the '' " apostles in the Mormon hierarchy : — Headquarters Eastern Expedition. indeed. so as. as far got and it was only by good management on the part of the officers of the Harney expedition that it did not go much further. . Use ever}^ exertion to stampede and set fire to their trains. Burn the whole country before them and on their flanks. proceed at once to annoy them in every possible way. God bless you and give you success. send scouts ahead to ascertain if the invading troops have passed that way. . . 4. Oct. to Leave no grass before them that can envelope their trains. Yom. On ascertaining the locality or route of the troops. ) ) To Major Joseph Taylor You will proceed with all road. if possible. Should they have passed." and that protection among and to call upon the people to " stand in their own defence. in Chi' Daniel U. Here. Wells.*' It was. near the : bend possible despatch to the Oregon of Bear River.

having been made Chief Quartermaster of the Southern District of California. . instead of the lightningexpress train. Utah to Benicia in California. It was for this service that his parents had trained him to honor and that he had self-reliance in his Pennsylvania home been tried in the hottest furnace of war in Mexico and that for years he had been studying the work of there . . The providence which directs the affairs of men had prepared in Winfield Scott Hancock a heroic servant That time of the people against their time of need. . army administration in had now come. the hard-earned experience were all and the opportunity had come. The patriotic soul. of the traveller's progress. When the mission of General Harney was concluded. in the the slow-moving ox-team marked the rate the Pacific coast. and Brigham Young was reduced to at least apparent acquiescence in the inevitable. Captain Hancock's command was ordered to days when Straight across the continent. make the journey. the native ability. Thence he was transferred to Los Angeles. It was here that the outbreak of the war of the He was Hebellion found AYinfield Scott Hancock. practical comparative quiet.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. he led his company from Fort Bridger in under the shadow of It took his command three months to IMonte Diablo. ready for his country's use. 75 this region of fanatical guerillas and into the heart of hostile Mormonclom the accidents of the Through service took Captain Hancock.




one in name but divided in sympathy.The Fire — Captain Hancock's Efforts to keep the State in the Union. be known as a Unionist there. ~ . That section was ready It . for the substitution of the stars and bars for the stars and stripes. That State was separated from the rest of the Union by the distance of half a continent. as well as on the Gulf. They were heard with differing sentiments among the people of California. and on the Pacific. The echoes in CHAPTER I. cannon-shot fired that Friday 1861. — He at once asks to be ordered into Active Service. against the walls of Fort Sumter. who looked longingly was quite natural that this sentiment should exist in California. were heard across the continent. The means of communication were poor and laborious. In Southern California disunion sentiment was espeIt was not comfortable for a man to cially rampant. For disunion ideas had propagated quite across the land. upon Sumter. there were those for a Southern Confederacy . of the morning April. Brigadier-General of Volunteers. — Is commissioned — The Army of the Potomac. most certainly did not hear these sounds of actual rebellion with entire disapprobation. in which Los Angeles is situated. — How the News was received in California. Southern California. No Pacific Eailroad put its iron bands across the land and anchored the West to the East but we were almost as two peoples. for the disruption of the Union .

he would find himself on the top wave of popularity. or the success of the secession movement in California. and at once a hero of the people. . He declared himself without hesitation. and its These ideas were jDroclaimed without restraint ern. in his capacity of District Quartermaster. even if the northern part of the State should stay in the Union. here it And covert about the expressions of sympathy with the South and hostility toward the North with which he was ]\Iuch of the surrounded. was. There was nothing in the midst of disunion purposes. and give even tacit encouragement to the rebellious spirit about him. The danger was. even more critical than in many of the border States whose loyalty was most questionable. indeed. should he weaken in his prize. that all that immense country. Popular outbreaks were seriously population of California ideas were largel}^ South- threatened asrainst the authorities which retained their The situation in California allegiance to the Union. was that Captain Hancock was stationed. In this played crisis the intrinsic character of the man dis- ^j itself. loyalty to the Union.80 to LIFE A^^D rUBLIC SERVICES OF drop out and join the Confederacy. his department would be the first to suffer. and without fear. whose richness was just developing. entrusted with a vast amount of government stores and material. came from the South. In case of an outbreak. as the supplies under his control oftered a tempting On the other hand. The position which Captain Hancock occupied at this moment was a most trying one. would be carried away as one of the brightest trophies of the Confederacy.

WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. General Hancock's brigade consisted of four fine regiments. batteries. which commenced with Yorktown and ended with the terrible seven days' conflict before Richmond." and with the loss of only eight mules and nine barges. low and often marshy^ Yorktown lying between the York and James rivers. which McClellan had collected and organized at Washington. was transported to Fortress Monroe. Hancock Turns the Enemy's Flank " — The and Saves the Day. the Fifth Wisconsin. This so-called Peninsula was the tract of land. the Sixth Maine. — Hancock was Superb. lay about twenty miles from Fortress Monroe Richlatter part of . wagons. and all the enormous equipage required for such a host. with animals. 1862. McClellan's army of over one hundred thousand men. The Peninsular Campaign. — Siege and Capture of Yorktown. — Pursuit of the Confederates." March. and there began the great Peninsular Campaign. and the campaign was begun in which Hancock held his first general command. — Hooker — Repulsed at Fort Magruder. with what a European " critic has called the stride of a giant. 85 CHAPTER II. — The Battle of Williamsburg. was transported from Alexandria to Fortress Monroe. the Army of the Potomac. In the mond about seventy-five miles in a straight hne. the . Charge Down the Hill.

and Hancock's briirade was sent to the right. and the Forty-third Xew York.SG Forty-nintli LITE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF Pennsylvania. They were well officered and well drilled and under Hancock's training they soon acquired the steadiEven before he led them ness and nei-^^e of veterans. and carried the Confederate rifle-trenches. and he fashioned an instrument that was to make his name immortal. Hancock and his brigade were constantly on duty on the left had . Hampton. was to determine General McClellan upon taking Yorktown by siege and from the 7th of April until the evacuation of Yorktown. making a reconnoissance in force and developing the enemy's lines in a direction where the Union The result of this reconline was not yet complete. it was sent to lead the advance on the left of the Yorktown lines. May 3. noissance. be depended upon in any emergency. His purpose and aim in their drill and tuition were to create an_arm for effective But it was good service in the cause of his country. As soon as Smith's division landed at Failing to receive reinforce- ments. he felt and knew that they could . In the meantime the army had been feeling its way throu£2:h the woods. . near Lee's Mill. forfeit his confidence. Here four companies of the Vermont troops crossed the creek. into an engagement. material with which to work. when the attempt to break the enemy's Mne failed. where McClellan thouirht he had discovered This was a dam covered a weak spot. they were obliged to retire. He little knew did they what these regi- Nor ments were to do for him. by a battery. wading breast-deep under a heavy fire from eighteen guns.

Taking two addihe moved a and two liofht batteries. and on the opposite bluff" a rebel fortification. had not engaged the enemy. A glance was enough to show that it was not strongly manned. the troops poured across the old mill . he saw before him a deep ravine with a dam across it. on the left Fort Mao^ruder !N^ow General Hooker took up position and made an ineffectual attempt to capture at that end of the line. He was now to do Smith's division. opportunity for Hancock to display those qualities of generalship which he possessed. The word was given. where the rebels had built another line of fortifications.^VINTIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. with the loss of seventeen hundred men. Coming to an opening in the woods. General Hancock obtained permission to reconnoitre the Confederate tional resfiments left. the extreme left of the line of works. a deed of war. They caught up with them at Williamsburg. mile or more to the right. occupying a position on the right of our line. He was forced to withdraw. in 87 the trenches or skirmishing with the Confederate pickets. after the flying enemy. When. on nonading by the morning of May 4. All came the first before this had been skirmishing. towards noon of May 5. it was found that the Confederate works were deserted. after heavy canthe Union batteries. Rain came on and rendered the roads almost impassable. and to leap at once to fame as a patriot soldier. But. there began a race along the roads leading to Richmond. extending almost entirely across the Peninsula from river to river. carefully feeling the strength of the enemy.

he began an artillery duel. It was a masterly stroke. but none came. an overwhelm- He sent for reinforcements. the importance in the battle of Williamsburg. first . By one quick movement. But Hancock. When Hancock w^ithin the formed his briijade in line of battle enemy's fortifications on the crest of the hill which he had seized. Hancock's little command was shut off by a deep and almost impassable ravine from the rest of the troops. ing force. Sending his two batteries to the front. and was five o'clock that . He knew that. It was not until he gave the command to fall back. realizing the commanding importance of the position he had taken. and brought up his artillery. But the situation was a dangerous one. while in front w^as the whole rebel army. the whole Confederate line would be untenable. he found there were two more redoubts between him and Fort Magruder and directed his fire upon these. On the contrary.88 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF bridge and dam. Twelve hundred yards in advance was another redoubt. and one which proved of for the artillery. the rebel General Johnston had finished with Hooker at Fort Magruder. swarmed up the bluff and captured With equal expedition a road was made the redoubt. Hancock had turned the enemy's flank and debouched upon his rear and unless he could be stopped and driven back. with adequate support. Then. which was taken in the same manner. the Confederate army w^as at our mercy. he received orders to retire. which was speedily dragged across. delayed as long as possible executing the order from General Sumner.

He could trust them. w^hen. Hancock saw that the Confederates were in motion on his front. could mean nothing but rout. he might yet win. victory against such odds meant immediate fame. and hardly stopping they came. and formed in two l)atteries he called back his splendid lines of battle. BackAvard the if at practice- brigade retreated slowly. They stood firm. with a tremendous cheer. swept around and almost enveloped the artillery. rattled up the hill.AVINFIELD SCOTT HAiNCOCK. that. force. Hancock formed his line. their More than they could trust commander. If he could trust his never recover. His two batteries played upon the advancing ConForward federates. and with this. but without checking their onset. indeed. from their advanced position. 89 making preparations to avei-t the danger on his left by overwhelming Hancock's audacious advance. perhaps. firing steadily as . advancing rapidly. first Han- He had ventured all on this. his really important separate movement in the camHe had led his brigade into a position where paign. of shell. with the road of retreat cut Retreat. the most critical point of cock's military career. Early's troops poured out of the woods on his right. as Early's troops marched on with shouts. overthrow and capture . and that they had reoccupied the two redoubts from wdiich they had last been driven but hardly had flank . On men. which turned quickly. a shock to his rising reputation from which it might the other hand. and w^ent into battery again upon the slope. it was confronted by a vastly larger ofl*. He had about sixteen hundred men. This was. regardless for canister.

and shoutins:. in double line. the next there flashed between them and . bv <^ instinct when Hancock risked and he won the own life and the At one instant day. dashed forward in front of his men. his lives of his men . Gentlemen the charge ! and upon It seemed madness to attempt to turn back the mass that was sweeping ujd the hill. What he did the yelling Confederates. bare-headed. of that military genius which divines I/O safety lies in rashness. It was not a mad venture it was a triumph of personal courage. AVhat he thought at this supreme moment. so near at hand that the men on either side could see the features of their opponents. surging hill down led the advance. upward. the enemy. There it was. waving " I his hat in his hand.and grisly line of the Confederate charge was in front of the brigade . and the taunting shouts of Early's men arc heard above the " Bull Run crack of th^ rifles Bull Run That flair : ! ! Xow " is ours ! Hancock had been sitting: on his horse close behind the centre of the line. Thev were within . irregular. and . apparently irresistible. LIFE AXD PUBLIC SEKVICES OF the impetuous charge comes nearer. the bristlino. But Hancock knew his own power and the power of his men. no one can world knows. vast. were swarming up the slope of the hill on Avhich his little brigade was drawn up.90 drill. thirty yards " when Hancock. watching with impenetrable face the phases of the action. tell. The flush of anticipated victoiy Avas The upon every face of that advancing multitude the tone of Adctory was heard in everv voice.

They fought well and des- Down the hill they went. Then it was that reinforcements were sent to Hanperately. the brigade advanced. They . and the troops. were. stopped. Of Hancock's little brigade. hundred corpses on that hillside. wet. the martial figure of Hancock on his horse marking the point where the hostile forces were joined in combat. The firing in front of Fort Magruder had ceased. leaving five General McClellan. With lowered bayonets. one hundred and twentynine were killed. They were not cowards few occasions during the war where bayonet-wounds It is in were received in an actual charge of infantry. the lacked inspiration only brave men. But Williamsburg was won. turned with a comimpulse and slowly retreated down the hill before they of such a leader as Hancock. Others held up white handkerchiefs and surrendered. slept on their arms in the mud.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. This was one of the indeed. official evidence that Hancock's men were obliged to bayonet the foremost of their assailants before the line broke. Hancock. in his first engagement . support he had asked for. the line this vision of valor incarnate that . and with line as perfect as if on parade. appreciated the value of the position taken by Hancock. this gallant onslaught. and immediately ordered that he should receive the cock. The mon rebel line faltered. tired. arriving at the front. 91 and with a shout drowned the crackling of musketry his men followed where Hancock led. By this time it was night. and hungry.

In that single day he rose from an obscure subordinate officer to a general whose name and whose praises were heralded from Maine to California. Hancock knew w^hat he could expect from his men. of the generals of the Army of the Potomac. His opportunity had come. made to " Hancock President Lincoln. had by one bold and masterly movement seized the key of the position . But it w^as not recklessness which led him to take this chance. and he had confidence in himself. would have taken the chances which Hancock took when he moved his little brigade across the ravine to flank the whole rebel army. .92 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF as a general commander. All who saw his tall figure dashing down army leading his troops against the advancing . This was Hancock's first oflorv and it was a substantial one. and he had seized it. He had won a national reputation. the Confederates hastened away under cover of the night to join the rest of Johnston's army. nor did he disappoint the country whose anxious attention was then centred upon the advance of the army of the Potomac up the Peninsula. if any. now marching rapidly towards the Chickahominy. and had turned disaster into glorious success. He was not disappointed. by his fiery personal valor he had snatched victory out of the jaws of defeat. It was the Few ready judgment of the trained leader which gave him that prescient knowledge Avhich passes for good fortune. Leavinof the orround covered with their dead and wounded." the hill. In his telegraphed report of this battle. Hancock had made Williamsburg untenable. General McClellan said : was superb.

This was one of the most brilliant engagements of the war. although they moved with great rapidity. routing and dispersing their whole force. and then turned upon them. and General Hancock merits the highest praise soldierly qualities displayed and his perfect appreciation of the vital importance of his position. and after some terrific volleys of musketry." for the " The troops with which General Hancock achieved this brilliant success were the Seventh Maine and Thirty-third New York from Davidson's brigade. he charged them with the bayonet. detailed from his own brigade. he himself losing only thirty-one men. Sixth Fifth . Forty-ninth Pennsylvania. wounding and capturing from five hundred to six hundred men.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. and Wisconsin. he awaited their onset. Feigning to retreat slowly. McClellan says Smith and Nagle could reach the field of General : Hancock's operations. he had been confronted by a superior force. acknowledge the accuracy of In his more detailed and formal acthis description. which was under Hancock's command at that time. and the Maine. killing. 93 of Early and Longstreet. "Before Generals count of the battle.

but nothing of a He exacted from those under him the same . Capturing a Sleeping Beauty. his troops could never have been brought to such a degree of efficiency. During his early connection with the Army of the Potomac. a strict disciplinarian. his merit and his capacity were . Before the campaign was over. With. for Gallantry. His Care of his Men. His Work in the Prelimina. out effective troops.94 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF CHAPTER Hancock again Brevetted ries of tbo III. f lithful and skilful labor. jNIajor in the Indeed. Farms. Skirmishing and Foraging.Peninsular Campaign. their valiant sen^ice in critical periods sul)sequently testified. and held the honorary rank of Colonel in the United States armv. Hancock had received his third brevet since Churubusco. — — — — — — — — It was for the bravery and skill shown in these earlier battles of the Peninsular Campaign that General Hancock received the brevet rank of regular army. The Foragers' return to Camp Avith Spoils of War. Military Raids upon the Virginia Discipline. promptly recognized at the War Department and the honors which the reirular service confers onlv for substantial achievements came thick and fast. Mr. he was a ])usv commander. Vollin. All his enersries were taxed to their utmost to prepare his troops for active dut\' and how well this was done. Hancock could never have won the wonderful successes that he did without Hancock's . He was martinet.

sent out along the roads leading to Fairfax Court House and ELunter's Mills. while passing through a fruitorchard. and most inspirAll who served under him came ing of commanders. first sort of warfare during the earlier part of the campaign. or even an arsenal. few weeks after General Hancock had assumed comIt was a desultory A mand of his brigade at the front. the kindliest. encountered an equal number of Confederate cavalry on similar business. That part of Virginia in which the Army of the Potomac was operating was aflame with rebellion. . Every tramp was a spy in disguise. where every male capable of bearing arms was held to be a soldier. they did not observe that one of the rebels had dismounted and concealed himself behind a tree whence. fired . Every farm-house was an outpost of the enemy.WIXriELD SCOTT HANCOCK. implicit 95 and prompt obedience to orders which he himbut he was. at the same self rendered to his superiors time. the hurry of the pursuit. he . such was the admiration . he excited as they his subordinates prized his smile as higlily dreaded his reproof. the rebels taking to the woods. but not devoid of incident. resting his revolver against a branch. a scouting-party. most sympathetic. Parties of the Confederate cavalry scoured the country for recruits and for provisions. There. pinching necessities of the war The country was transformed into a camp. Every bush might afibrd concealment for a sharp-shooter. and every crop was regarded as pledged to the support of the Southern troops. They immedi- In ately gave chase. to love and even worship him. the were felt. too.

country. the Confederate troops scoured . taken off his guard by the quick recognition and sharp interrogatory. " You are aware of the fate prescribed for spies. Good inorninir. they "gathered him in. Yollin?" continued the General. he was unflinchins^ in executin<x the laws of war.iia farmers of that section were Southern — . is Yollin." stammered the unfoi-tunate fellow. sir.06 LIFE AND rUBLIC SERVICES OF three shots at the INIajor commanding the Union scouts. returning from their unsuccessful pursuit of the rebels. they found tliis man endeavoring to make his escape. The l)ullets missed their mark. "I suppose I am." . "Yes. " Then you will please prepare for it at your earliest convenience. I believe?" inquired the answered the spy. and him before the General at headcjuarters. Mr. But ^vhen. Hancock at once recognized him as a notorious spy. pretty thoroughly and they had this advantage that the Yiri!:i. ! sir. to a considerable extent." Yollin w^as not Ions: left in doubt as to the conseHancock was never cruel. subsisted upon The the To l)e sure." The Maine and A\'isconsin men in Hancock's brii^ade l)ossessed a wondcriul talent for the cult and delicate work of procuring somewhat dilii- army. through whose successful operations in our lines the enemy had received important and damaging information. \^ollin. ])rought "Your name General." as the army phrase was. but quences of his actions. it supplies. " Ah ^Ir. I am ghid to see you we have been looking for you for some time.


'^{wm '* ' .

it was anything but that to the poor farmers who found themselves by misfortune occupying a middle position between two con- tending armies. They w^ere largely country-bred. sheep. even amid the unfamiliar surroundings of a Virginia farm. . patriots. One party took their bacon in the name of Southern patriotism the other carried off their beef in the name of Federal supremacy. Between the two. North. They were robbed on both sides. 97 not Northern ones. .WmriELD SCOTT HANCOCK. would be greeted w4th shouts of admiring merriment. thrown across their saddles. with pigs . with chickens dangling by the legs from their musketinto The entrance barrels. we knew nothing of its real and necessary cruelties. and beef-cattle as spoils of war for the subNor were delicacies wantino\ sistence of the invaders. and were more readily induced by them to contribute of their stores. and knew by instinct where the poultry and the live-stock would be found. each with an inordinate appetite for fresh meat and early vegetables. for all that. hard as we thought the war to be. corn. It was fun and food to our men . or bulging with carefully-carried eggs. and with shirt-fronts decorated with fresh vegetables. Here at the they were impoverished and ruined. speared with a bayonet and broiled on a ramrod. it is doubted whether the most delicate productions of our most artistic cooks ever had the flavor of one of these lean and scraggy stolen Virginia chickens. bringing in hay. camp of a returning foraging party. instinct they cultivated by constant forays from This camp through the farms for miles around. But. But Hancock's men were active.

VXD rUBLIC SERVICES OF this tliat Southern historians state that at even army was roduccd to great extremity . madam. and as these frequently met those of the Union army on the same errand. and usually involving a skirmish which sometimes had almost the character of a battle." It is Search " ! my house ! I'd like to see Yankees do that . all being presumptively occupied by rebel federates across the On York sympathizers. under orders. one of these occasions. that Ord met Stuart and routed his four regiments and a six-<run batterv. there ain't none in this house. and possibly having granted shelter to some of the enemy.98 LIFE . to search the neighl)oring houses. General Hancock's brigade also took part in the frequent reconnoissances that were required at this time." "AYell.ant ? " A^'e are looldng for Johnnies. madam. As the men entered one of these houses. an' clear out quick. as usual in such cases. Lari^e forao:in£]^ l)arties were sent out." ^' you better we " our orders to search every house. time Lee's there Avas day when the Confederate chief had neither the means to cook the next meal for himself. nor to seen tlie serve the next ration to his soldiers. some important It was on one of these occasions skirmishes resulted. and cannot leave until we have searched yours. after a detachment of Hancock's command had driven a small l)ody of ConKiver. often taking on the form of a considerable march. they proceeded. they were accosted ' '^ by the housewife : A\'hat do you v.

sick " my husband's aunt Betty." mand. bed-ridden crone." was the reply.won't hnd nobody up there but a poor old Is it sick one. found a. Williamsburg could l^e successfully borne only by troops who had learned to have confidence in their commander." is Where she ? " "Up chamber there. and others exsliall You amined the ground floor. and claimed its share of the sports and humors of the camp. man ? It's "No. 65607G . and who had by him been brought to a high state of military efficiency. the march. as the woman clothes outlined the shape of an old estly was more extende<l and ample than woman would warrant and mod. they But the form which the bedsaid. bore its share of the la]>ors. lying at length with his boots on. and it was it when its o:allant leader took in splendid into battle. But you. and there. during the preliminary week of the Peninsular Campaign. as some of the troops went down cellar." Up they went. "Now we will go up stairs." and gathered him in. " if said the officer in com- you will.*' a sick it ain't. and the foray condition . The boys named him at once the " Sleeping Beauty. " you must. " 99 have that pleasure.WliSTIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. test as that at Such a . turning down the coverlet. been ji'oino^ on ten years. Hancock's brigade. "Weil. they disclosed an armed Confederate.

To is ride is a constant misery. and. slowly repairing the line of the York River and Richmond Railroad. It is deep. — Battle lY. mud. A base of supplies was esta])lished at White House. — The Seven Days' Retreat to Harrison's Lauding. Mother. on the Pamunkcy River. — Golding's Farm. Those who have experienced it do not need to be told what Virginia mud is. the column was pushed on in that section.100 LIFE AND PUBLIC SEKVICES OF CHAPTER The Advance toward Richmond. the advance of McClellan's grand army was made with such rapidity as the horrible condition of the roads would permit. Those who have not known it by experience can never realize it by description. reinforced l^y the heavy rains of the season. — Hancock repulses Toomhs' Assault — He holds the Enemy at Bay at White Oak Swamp. behind which Johnston had retired w^ith the purpose of making an . By the 21st of ^lay they had reached the Cbickahominy River. — General Hancock's Letter to his of the Cbickahominy. treacherous. To drive a vehicle to plough through sticky soil to the depth of this the axles. and turned the enemy in flight toward Richmond. It pervades ever\i:hing. ILvNCOCK having decided the day at Williamsburg. and tenacious. the Army of the Potomac was advanced Through alons: the line of the retrcatinor Confederates. To walk in it is a toil of Hercules.

Hancock. war took a turn. Avith all 101 Ihe force command from Richmond. will good time. shall We all in are not in Richmond yet I hope that . In the pestilential swamps of the Chickahominy a part of a new pi'ovisional army his labors were arduous . From May into June there were skirmishes. sharinor the danijers and fatigues of all the principal attacks. The country just beyond the Chickahominy was the limit of the advance of the Union arms in this direction toward Richmond. I am well. good mercy permit both your sons to reach that city in safet}^ and in honor. W^e Hancock writins: 'O home about this time he could : — find General In Camp neak Richmoxd. now corps. and slow manoeuvres came the famous ''seven days" and the retreat. aggressive demonstration at this point. ^ i May 23. in command of Gen. It has been some time since I heard from him or you. and. Give my best love to father . WiNFiELD S. 18G2. B. Your devoted son. In all these movements. W. demonstratoward the end of June tions. a tQw days ago. God and beheve me. Hancock fought among the foremost. Here the tide of . he rendered impor- . posted on the right of the main body. Franklin.WIXFTELD SCOTT HANCOCK. I have not much thne to write. His brisfade continued in General Smith's division. and so also brother John. I preftither My Dear Mother: — I 3^our letters wrote to sume some of have missed is me in consequence of the changes of the field. but trust in his we be there.

and then carried demoralization before The best and most him by an impetuous charge. Savairc Station. and gaining new honors for bravery and persistence. by conducting: the safe with- drawal of the men under his conuiiand. As he rose in rank. and the retreat to Harri- Landing. The lowed son's battle ))V of the Chickahominy. his brigade usually occupying the post of danger. riding up and down close behind his line of battle. and for which he That is. The closing j^art of the fight shoAved on Hancock's part the tactics which he practised first became famous. June 27. was folthe enixaii^ements of Goldins^'s Farm. Hancock sustained and repulsed an attack of the enemy at in force. and not only sharing their danger. It was that the commander should share the peril of his troops and be seen by them. he was always among his men. Williamsburg. but taking yet greater risk than that to wliich he required them to expose themselves. AVhite Oak Swamp. trusting less to his aids than perhaps any other general officer. At Golding's Farm. General Hancock was prominent in all these fights. The secret of ixainiuii: and holdins: was possessed by Hancock. he continued the same practice. on successive days. but pushing his . he held his position tena- ciously until the critical moment in the attack of the enemv arrived. When a brigade commander. thoroughly disciplined troojos can hardly stand under such a stroke but to accomplish this movement. it is . necessary that the commander should have the fidence of his this confidence full con- men.102 t:int LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF aid in llic retreat. encouraging them by voice and example.

" replied Hancock. The next assault which he had to sustain in protecting the rear of the retreat. you fall you ^vill have the satisfaction of know- ing you have died for your country. It was the purpose of the Confederates to force him It . "return to your troops." said Hancock. the storv is told of one of his subordinate officers. and w^ho would tolerate it in no one else. but of making a safe retreat to the James River." "Then w^e shall all be killed. of character. He was always at the ci'itical point at the critical moment. Avith a victorious enemy in the rear and the metal of Hancock and his troops was tested under these most trying circumstances. I hope we shall be able to advance soon. the fact that it was now no longer a question of taldng Richmond. there. was at Garnett's Hill. with the opposing forces blazing away at each other at close quarters all along the line. and said : "General. wdio. is described as one of the finest spectacles of the war.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. and his troops always knew that they were fighting imder the eye of a commander who did not know what fear was. . The scene of the contest." The fi«:ht of Goldinsf's Farm was remarkable from extended into the night. rode up to the General. and eveiy where over the field. my men are all being killed." despondingly replied the officer. when he In illustration of this trait had his men in a tight place. here. fire ? may I not withdraw them a little out of the " " "No. 103 orders through his personal presence. "Very and if well.

in similar hot work at Sava^re Station. which was in advance. followed by the long train of five thousand beef-cattle. and ended in repulse of the Conloss. hurried forward and massed in the rear of the retreating army. round shot. On the following: morninc:. had made the passage on tlie 28th. and Keyes' corps. and twenty-five hundred of which had to cross the morass l)y one narrow defile. force. Toombs returned to the attack. Sixty pieces of rebel artillery were posted on the other side of the ravine. federates. and shrapnel . three of the batteries. June 29. The line of retreat to the James passed across White Oak Swamp. but was again repulsed with heavy Hancock holding the enemy in check at this point until he was able to make connection with the remainder of The day after. and no reply could be made to this terrible bombardment. and were worn out by fatigue and loss In such circumstances the best troops are of sleep. except by two or Hancock's men. had for three days been marching by night and fighting by day. Hancock's brigade had to protect this passage from the assault of the Confederate troops. shell. ceeding which. all wagons.104 LIFE AND rUCLIC SERVICES OF back and separate his command from the main hody of The attack was opened with a heavy artilthe army. moreover. The Confederate position could not be attacked. General Toombs led the assault of five regiments of Confederate infantry upon Hancock's It The fight became almost hand to hand. was shoi-t and sharp. Union . and poured their fire upon his men. he was engaged his division. suclery fire of grape. whose opposite bank Hancock occupied.

concentrated.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. by the arrival of McClellan's army at He had mounted another step on Harrison's Landing. In the same arduous services General Hancock continued until the Peninsular Campaign came to an end. the ladder of patriotic fame. and the fact that these troops endured it without flinching. Han- cock held his position throughout the day. and won his brevet of " Colonel in the regular army for gallant and meritori- ous conduct in the Peninsular Campaign. try." . told way under volumes of their bravery and discipline. until the last four days after. sustaining the artillery fire and repelling the attacks of the infan- wagon of the immense train of the retreating army was safely across the swamp. and continuous fire of artillery . liable to give 105 the demoralizing effect of a heavy.

so weak and disastrous. he intended to carry the ConIt is doubtful federate flao^ across the river that formed the dividing . covers month. — His First Connection with the Second Army Corps. when he set liis columns in motion from Richmond. General Pope's campaign in Northern Virginia. Lee had proved his strength . — Forcing Crampton's Pass. but Pope's following campaign. marching with his brigade to Centreville in support of one of Pope's blundering This was a dark day for the country. movements. — Hancock joins in the MovePope's Campaign in Northern Virginia. — ment to Centreville. the following month of August was chiefly occupied with auxiliary operations. had resulted disastrously. its its of the Potomac having returned from unsuccessful attempt to reach llichmond by forcing The Army path up the Peninsula. Not only had the attempt to reach Richmond failed. — Antietam. — Hancock takes Command of a Division. the South was exultant. this most of the military events of this General Hancock took a subsidiary part in campaign. conducted with such a profusion of boastful and glowing despatclies and proclamntions. — Hancock at South Mountain.106 LIFE AND rUBLIC SERVICES OF CHAPTER Y. The North was despondent . whether. McClellan's Maryland Campaign againat Lee. to hold the Confederate territory against all invaders now he purposed reversing the situation and becoming an invader himself.

across cause of the Confederacy. whether induced Lee himself says incorrect representations of the popular feeling in Maryland. McClellan's at the head of affairs." says Swinton. by the fords near that place. which Lee thought would lead the people to by flock hito his soil. " . So it was that the Maryland campaign came into existence. When the shattered battalions that sur- vived General Pope's disastrous campaign in Northern Yiririnia returned to Washinsrton. in three days. army as soon as he set foot on Northern or for whatever reason. required that he should hold his position. between the 4th and 7th of September. and encamped in the vicinity of There the standard of revolt was formally and the people of jNlaryland were invited by proclamation of General Lee to join the Confederate force. He could not retreat without at least measuring strength with the powerful army which he knew must be sent to repel his invasion. The ragged and shoeless condition of his troops operated strongly to quench the enthusiasm for service in the But there he was. necessities of the campaign. as well as the military . the border and the moral effect. President Lincoln requested General jMc^Clellan to resume command of the Army of the Potomac. that thousands of his troops at this time were destitute of shoes. But. 1862.WIXriELD SCOTT HANCOCK. Lee was disappointed when no recruits came. the whole Confederate army crossed the Potomac at Leesburg. line 107 bis between the warring powers. It is certain that army was wretchedly equipped and poorly provided. Frederick. which was increased in numbers by the addition reappearance of other corps. raised.

Our men found the Confederates in possession. made up of the acrirregation of the remnants of the two armies and the gamson of Washington. to be passed by the The South ^lountain range had Union army. whose chanire. It was hot work where Hancock vv^as as The rebel General ^IcLaws held the pass under well. But the forces luider " Hancock. the columns hastened. and forthwith proceeded to break through. and his arranirements and orders were But. underwent an astonishins: The heterogeneous mass. was reorganized into a compact body. Hancock was with Franklin's corps at Crampton's Pass. and forthwith thei-e bcijan a race all made for this enterprise. orders not to permit the passage. through a stroke of good fortune. a work that had mostly to be done while the army was on the march and as soon as it became known that Lee had crossed the Potomac. a copy of Lee's order for the movement of troops fell into ^IcGlellan's hands. where the other column was forcing its passage and where the gallant Reno was killed. McClellan moved toward Frederick to meet him. six miles below Turner s Gap. even if he lost his " last man in doing it . Turner's Gap and Crampton's Gap. and toward the two principal passes. and had sent troops to the passes to meet them. on the day of his arrival at Frederick. — It was Lee's plan to dislodge the Union forces from Harper's Feny before concentrating his army west of the mountains." . and he held it well. for Harper's Ferry.108 LIFE AST) rUBLIC SERVICES OF eiSect 'had the most beneficial Tnorale immediately on the army. whose duty it was to advance . lan's Lee had information of McClelmovements.

his determined fellow-soldiers fought for three hours.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. Late in the afternoon of the 15th. McClellan pushed forward his whole pursuit . Lee had taken his stand to oppose McClellan's pursuit. contested with an obstinacy which certified the valor of both sides. though at great cost. It was absolutely necessary for him to make a stand and give battle here. and not soon enough to save Harper's Ferry. and he was ready to do it. As the Confederates retired on the morninof of the 15th of September. and there rested over On the following day there was an artillery night. the Union armv drew up before the Antietam. South Mountain was won. but after a few miles' march the heads of the columns were brought to a sudden halt at army in Antietam Creek. with Hancock at the front. on the heights crowning the west bank of the stream. duel and some considerable skirmishins^. From five o'clock in the morning until seven o'clock at night the armies . On the 17th the great battle was fought. until the crest was carried and four hundred prisoners at the base of the taken. 109 along the left of the road through the steep and narrow pass. drove back the Confederates from their position mountain where they were protected by a stone wall. which surrendered to the enemy the very morning that the relieving army burst through the passes of South The battle of Mountain. and ending in a victory of which the honors were almost as great for the vanquished as for the victors. and forced them back up the slope of Here Hancock and the mountain to near its summit. where.

110 LIFE AXD rUBLIC SERVICES OF contended with great slaughter. and onl}' impatient to share in this fight. His face side is pressed — grows darker with anxious thought. I . They are the only reserves of the army. His message is I want If you do not send them. all who participated in it were fully convinced that they fought the greatest battle of the Avar. He sees clearl}^ enough that Buruneeds no message to tell him that. when the history of the battle is onl}' to be written in thoughts and purposes and words of the general. of his staff rides awa}^ to the left in Burnside's direcIt is easy to see that the moment has come when every- turn on one order given or withheld. and one ma}' believe that the field. it was the hloodiest and the most hotly contested up to that time. ' : '^ position half an hour. I ' : will send him Miller's batter}'. thing may Burnside's messenger rides up. An army correspondent told the story of the situation at the close in this way : — ' ' McCleUan's glass for the last half-hour has seldom been turned away from the left. indeed. they cannot be ' spared. and. He must hold his "ground till dark at any cost. he turns a halfquestiouing look on Fitz John Porter who stands by his side. At the time.' " McClellan mounts officers his horse. But Porter slowl}^ shakes his head. I can do nothing more . Both armies were almost exhausted when the sun went down. same thought is passing through the minds of both generals. gravely scanning the are Porter's troops below are fresh.' McCleUan's only answer for a moment is a Then he turns and speaks glance at the western sivv. and with Porter and a dozen tion. Looking down into the valley where fifteen hundred troops are h'iug. I cannot hold my troops and guns. They . Tell General Burnside this is the battle of very slowly the war.


'—I .

' is The sun already down not half an hour of daylight it is left. General Richardson." their vindictive There was great slaughter among the troops. Only a solitary gun thundered against the enemy. nected with the corps which carried as its emblem the clover-leaf. as the messenger was riding away.' Then. on this sanguinary field. Ill have no infantry.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. The sun went down in But here it was. From this time dates General Hancock's connection with the old Second Army Corps which has become His name and his fame are inseparably conhistoric. to the last bridge ' ' man . that blood. . of sudden attack on exhausted forces — how vital to the safet}^ of the army and the John Porter pushing on country were those fifteen hundred waiting troops of Fitz But the rebels halted instead of in the hollow. and they earned glory together through the war. omen of good-luck. he called him back ' : then the bridge. and presently this also ceased. Hancock won his next promotion. commanding the first division of the Second Corps. light faded. and the field was still. . and havoc among their generals. and Hancock was ordered to take his place in the field. Till Burnside's message came had seemed plain to every one that the battle could not be finished to-day. how near was the peril of defeat. ! Alwaj's the bridge * ! If the is lost. and fight the battle where Richardson was struck down. was mortally wounded. They came together amid the shrieking bullets of Antietam. Tell him if he cannot hold his ground. all is lost. cannonade died away as the Before it was quite dark the battle was over. None suspected.

Buruside succeeds McClellau. and manv more had done so from unworthy motives." — Hancock Wounded. He Commands a Division on the — — — — March to Fredericksburg. Opening the Campaign of the Rappahannock." After Antie- . While its purpose w^as to raise the standard of revolt in INIaryland and rally the citizens of that State about the Confederate flag.112 LIFE AUD rUBLIC SERVICES OF CHAPTER — YI. Lee saw his own forces dwindling away so rapidly that he was forced to confess that his army was "ruined by straggling. Instead of receiving flocks of recruits from the rebel Maryland. had greatly reduced our ranks before the action [at Antietam] began. their great privations of rest and food. These causes had compelled thousands of brave men to absent themselves. and the long marches without sympathizers in — shoes over mountain roads. instead of passing into history as an invasion. This great l^attle was fought by less than forty thousand men on our side. The Bloody Fight Pen. it degenerated into a raid. Fredericksburg. he says: "The arduous service in which our troops had been engaged. Hancock receives his Commission as Major-General of Volunteers. in which Hancock so It lasted just two weeks . The iu the '' Slaughter- Confederate campaign in ^laryland came to an end with the battle of Antietam. it resulted in the almost complete destruction of Lee's army." In his oflScial report. and distinguished himself.

to take his Burnside's plan was to advance on . and driving him with the sharp fighting and the indomitable persistence for which he was already distinguished.. but when it mand. Hancock striking the line of the enemy. Richmond by way of Fredericksburg and to accomplish this he proposed to move by the north bank of the Rappahannock to Falmouth. Ya. taking with him less than thirty thousand of the seventy thousand troops with which he had entered Lee was quite Maryland. nearly opposite to Fredericksburg. short period of rest for the Army of the Potomac followed the battle of Antietam. then cross the river by a pontoon bridge. tarn. passing rapidly in advance of the main body. Hancock being on the extreme right of the line. . it was naturally the dashing and successful Hancock who was ordered to lead the way. Following this reconnoissance. This was done about the middle of October. McClellan crossed the Potomac about five miles below Harper's Ferry. and seize the bluffs on the south bank. in which General Hancock had for the first time assumed command of a A became necessary to make a reconnoissance in force from Harper's Ferry to Charlestown. fording rivers and crossing hills and valleys while leading the way. this movement ending his comdivision . 113 ready to get back across the Potomac. General Burnside being appointed place. The discipline of his troops was as perfect as when he was in command of a much smaller force. and he made the march in good order.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. The advance was made in three columns.

chimneys standinu:. Not a cow. irallantry commission as Major-General of This promotion was in recognition of the his ability and shown by Hancock in the ])re- ceding campaign of the Army of the Potomac. Sahara. showing that the The tents and wigtroops were just put in motion. w^ams of the 2'uards aloncr the road. the camp-fires smoking. with blas- pheming whooping. in the midst of wastes that had once been farms. in the chill wind that came down the ravines through hills spattered Avith snow. winding their way. or chicken or piir.114 LIFE A^'D I'UBLIC SLIIVICES OF this One who made scribes it : — " The Tall march Avith Hancock thus decountry from the Potomac to the features of Virginia Kappahannock presented the usual scenery. One A beside the roads. lashing and cursing their way throuirh the river. nest of squalid children staring few dead horses and mules from a forlorn cabin. . on the ()[)posite l)ank of the Kappahannock. Six-mule army wagons. which is red as if it had all been soaked in their blood. like caravans. dismally uncomfortable. Thus conlirmed in his position as division commander. he halted his division in a sheltered valley and c^ave his men the rest they needed before ens-aixinsf in the tenible conflict that was before them. lookins:. Arriving near Falmouth. General Hancock led his troops through the war- swept fields of Virginia t(< Fredericksburg. or any living or movable thing that had been the property of the inhabitants." It was while this movement was in progress that Hancock received Volunteers. monuments of departed peace. Long processions of cavalry drivers. through the Virginian The dismantled huts of deserted encampstill ments.

coming out otherwise unharmed. Hancock's force was at the front. though with his uniform perforated by the enemy's bullets. and the frosty winds of the Virginia winter were sweeping down the valley of the Rappahannock and Yet so perfect was the chilling them to the hone. which Hancock maintained. and his men halted on the march through the upper parts of the city only to form a more perfect line. and falling back with them only when at- tempt to go further was foolhardy and useless. the wet and cold ranks kept their and together. 115 But when the time in the advance. for action arrived. Hancock was On the nia^ht of the 12th of Decern- ber. down under the inclement The battle began at daybreak of December 13. positions in the line discipline . else. With his division. When his force reached the position assigned it. leading his men as far as it was possible for men to go. Here. and remained there through His behavior on this octhe long and bloody action. that. while campfires were forbidden. directly in front of the enemy. and do the more execution in the attack. officers and men. the men w^ere ankle-deep in mud. casion was in keeping with the high reputation he had achieved. as everywhere a charmed life. he w^as in the hottest of the fight. 1862.'WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. . Hancock sky and at their head. Every attempt made by the enemy to break through Hancock's line was immediately repulsed. with only a slight flesh-wound across the He abdomen. lay tried to sleep." as our men used to call the position they occupied in this fight. he moved forward and crossed the river. Hancock seemed " to bear passed through the slaughterpen.

their masters. . how^ever reIt nowned. under a lire of artillery and musketry such that I was amazed it did not absolutely sweep them from the face of the earth and so utterly idle did it seem for our men to be wasted in endeavoring to breast such a storm. with the advantages of position and . only to push on again. and for awhile the action did not look so one-sided. musketry at intervals were excessively furious. . w^ould have stood as w^ell as ours did. and give up The discharges of the unfair and horrible contest. Presently some batteries of our field-artillery got to work. Few armies. can . An division in this l^attle " : That which I saw was a mas- sive line of blue-jackets standin": in the mist of their own musketrv. No troops in the world would have won a victory if placed in the position ours were. suririniz: forward and swavinsf backward. and charged upon our men. terribly damaged. artillery was silent. and the sound must be remarked While our as far more terrible than that of artillery. and that of the enemy was jarring the earth. the smoke rolling from the play of their muskets in long fleecy clouds. after a When the enemy gallant contest silenced our artillery. that it would have been a relief to see them fall back into the town. as well as weight of metal. rapid beyond computation. pieces. as gun responded to ^un l)ut it was our field-c^uns to their sies^e-c^uns and their batteries. Flash answered flash. and filling the valley of the Rappahannock with crashing reverberations. they met number of were invariably beaten back.11(3 LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF evc-witncss descril^es the advance of Hancock's a. our noble infancry miuntained for hours a line of fire across the field.

without entersince conceded. . only three thousand returned with their wounded com- mander. To show with what upon led in person to the assault the stone wall and rille-trenches of Longstreet at men whom he the foot of Marye's Heights. The buildinofs selected for the hospital service were watched over with the closest care. and under whose orders it was made. While wounded himself. it is five thousand persistent valor labored to carry out the orders entrusted to only necessary to mention the fact. and as safely guarded as the circum- stances permitted. in a manly way. that the attack ing upon the question of the wisdom or eiTor of the orders of the commandinof s^eneral. in his official report to the President. Bumside. He on Fredericksburg was a great and terrible error. and remaining in the heat of the battle.WIXFIELD SCOTT HAXCOCK. that of the out. But. and has been ever river." The character of Hancock was at this time shown in another phase. took all the blame on himself as the one who planned the assault. It was at the time understood. in liis care for the hospitals and for those wounded who could not i-each them. 117 hardly be in human nature for men to show more valor than was found on our side that day. we can reo^ard with pride and admiration the manner in which those orders were carried Hancock him. under that terrible crossfire of shot and shell from the Confederate batteries. he constantly supervised the despatch of the wounded suiferers across the fought his troops well and brought them oft the bloody field of Fredericksburg in good order.

was promptly relieved of his " command. at Fair Oaks. Hooker developed this idea into a system which proved most useful during the war. — Hancock takes Command of the — vision across the " Fighting Joe Hooker in command of the Army The Clover Badge. and Gen. spent the wet months in reorganizing it. and in April had it in good condition to move on to another da}' of glory and another his corps — — — defeat." and then Burnside. Occupation of Chancellorsville. " VII. Joseph Hooker Fighting Joe" put in his place at the head of the Army of the Potomac. who. so that he could recoo-nize them in the tumult of l)attle. or at once removing: a number of commanders. It was Hooker who originated the plan of designat- The ing the several army corps by distinctive badges. . — Hancock's Division saves the Day.— of the Potoraac. — " Stonewall " Jackson's Death. slaughter of Fredericksburg was followed by the liaseo of the ''Mud ]\Iarch. liaving offered the President the alternative of accepting his The own resisrnation. Hooker straii^^htened out the tan^^le in which Biu'nside had left the army. — — Rappahannock. germ of the idea was the happy thought of the gallant Phil. — Leo attacks the Position. ordered the soldiers of his division to sew a piece of red flannel to their caps. Hancock again leads his Di- Second Corps.118 LirE A^D rUBLIC SERVICES OF CmVPTEH Cbancellorsvillc. Kearney.

His division was in this corps. and at once set about remedying the matter. . executed. ter. the legitimate property They may as well pack and make for Richmond. But comparative failure robbed them of their characLee at length realized what was going on upon his left flank. . or clover-leaf. until.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. which Couch commanded. with that of General Sykes. This was the occasion of Hooker's boastful proclamation to the troops fly. self able to make them good. This was to turn the flank of the Confederate army. and thus compel Lee to abandon his defences along the The movement was very successfully Rappahannock. April 30. to advance as the centre column on the road from Chancellorsville to Fredericksburg being chosen.'^ sation : He is rebel also said to have declared in conver- "The army is now of the Army of the Potomac. in April." success followed his movement. Hooker had every reason to consider up their haversacks Had have they him- . these boasts would and at the time passed into history as wisdom were made. The two armies had faced each other all winter on opposite banks of the Rappahannock. the honored badge of the Second Corps. 119 Hancock wore the trefoil. Hancock's division reaching that place and bivouacking there on the night of Thursday. 1863. Hooker felt prepared to make an offensive movement. where certain destruction awaits him. Hancock's division had been sent. so far as turning the flank and getting to Chancellorsville. : "The enemy must either ingloriously or come out from behind his defences and give us battle on our own ground.

hy after the occurrence. Hancock. — from the heights towards Fredericksburg. Always generous and prompt to recognize merit. Hooker ordered in spite of protest. He led his . in his report. must the success of his command be attributed. Miles. w^ith the Eleventh Corps. has been But here it was that Hancock ao^ain saved often told. How the Confederates. and with infantry assaulted my advance line of rilie-pits. He what there was to be saved from the disaster. . Hancock was. equally with the valor of his subordinates. so strongly and successfully did Colonel Miles contest the ground. seem so stran<2:e But. jNIay 1. although he w^as attacked with great impetuosity. personally attentive to the smallest details and to this. position on one of those errors which Sykes and Hancock back. and secured a commanding They drove Friday. N." In the disposition of his forces. was beaten back in disorder. for the post of honor and danger. interposed his division like a rock between the advancing Confederates and the demoralized Union troops and. stole around Hooker's army while Lee was engaging his and how General HoAvard. under Col. under "Stonewall" Jackson.120 LIFE AXD rUBLIC SERVICES OF as usual. he held the enemy in check. and from those on my right. A. gives this tribute to the valor of one of his subordinates: "On the 2d of May. but was always handsomely repulsed by the troops on duty there. the enemy. as always. . attention in front . and made ready to accept battle at Chancellorsville. During the enemy frequently opened with artillery the sharp contest of that day. the enemy were never able to reach my line of battle.

WINFIELD SCOTT IIANCOCK. the enemy opened upon them with a terrific fire of artillery. To what dangers he and his men were exposed by the position in which they were placed in this battle. with severe loss. Jackson said: "If I had . and against any assault the enemy might be capable of making against them. that received the wound the famous that caused his death. and remained to take part in the engagement. holding them to work by own presence." writes Colonel Morris. There was no wasting of ammunition here every man fired with the utmost coolness and deliberation. enemy's musketry. At Chancellorsville he had his horse shot under him. "The firing. jected. and every discharge from his cannon seeming to give renewed energy to our brave men. of the Sixty-sixth New York Regiment. his efibrts to break our lines having proved futile. and to increase their determination to maintain their position at all hazards." It was after making his attack upon the position held "Stonewall" Jackson by Hancock. during which the enemy made repeated and determined assaults upon our lines. but with no better result every volley from the . taking steady aim at his object as if firing for a prize not a man flinched under the terrible fire to which he was sub. . troops in person. is indicated in the report of Colonel Morris. and was each time All gallantly repulsed by our men. in Hancock's division. Speaking of this while he lay dying. 121 own He his was right among his men. placed them in the field under his eye. and how bravely they held their own. "was maintained for upwards of four hours.

ed to surrender or cut their way out. encmv off we would have had them entirely sui-rounded. . who had come to knoAv. conlirmed places General Hancock in the permanent command of the admire. and need was of the stroni^^est men in the hiirhest and President Lincoln. command General Hancock w^as put of the Second Corps. occasioned by the retirement of General Couch. A in month after this l)attle." Lee ventured upon no strokes of audacity after Jackson had passed away and it is not improbable r>ut . not an over- whelmins: defeat. corps with wdiich his name is so gloriously associated. and the army and the and to trust him country recognized his advancement as a fairly-earned tril)ute to his soldierly qualities. June 25. and they would have been oblii>. in which then for nine months he had tion tion commanded a division. I would have cut the from the road to the United States Ford . His assignment to the command was at first temporary.122 LIFE AXD rUIiLIC SERVICES OF not been wounded. But events were culminating in the war for the Union. that the loss of this one life permitted the Chancellorsville expedition to become only a faihire. His elevato this important command gave unusual satisfacto officers and men. . on the 10th of June. to .

that lay clustering in the the river-banks in the great State of cities Pennsylvania and. 123 The March North. having a depleted commissariat to draw upon. tTie to CHAPTER YHI. at least without success. The authorities at Pichmond. and with Lee planned a movement that should cause the Army of the Potomac to loose its hold upon the Pappahannock. — Hooker's Resignation. — The Camp on Rapi)ahannock broken up. — Hancock's Corps the Rear Guard. who had always seemed to more harmoniously than those at Washington. and should transfer the theatre of war to the loyal act States. Invasion of the The Armv of the Potomac had now twice Pappahannock. The Confederates. — Lee Resolves upon an Gettysburg. moreover. determined upon an offensive policy. and twice had it crossed the if been driven back. — He Ravages Pennsylvania ^hile Halleck and Stanton hold Hooker hack. added to the hope of recruiting their exhausted supplies. Fredericks- burg and Chancellorsville had raised the confidence of Lee's army to the highest pitch. cast longing eyes toward the fertile fields and rich valleys and upon . — Perfect Discipline of his Men. — The March toward Washington.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. not with disaster. was the expectation of obtaining a foothold upon the line of communications between . and had given its commander a consciousness of poAver which inspired him to undertake a war of invasion on his own account.



Wasliinirton and the North, and

successful in defeatin<r
territory, levy tribute

the Union

army upon Northern

upon these wealthy and poi)ulous districts, and bly dictate terms of peace that would redound

possito the

advantage of the Confederacy. There is no doubt as to the destitution of Lee's armv
at this time, or as to the intluence


had upon the Shortly before the movement, according to

Crcneral Longstreet, Lee sent to Kichmond a requisiThe paper came tion for a certain amount of rations.

back with the Commissary-Generars endorsement "If General Lee wishes rations, let him seek them in PennAt this time, also. Hooker's army had been sylvania."

weakened, by the mustering out of the short-term A'olunteers, until it numbered about eighty thousand eliective troops, while Lee had been strengthened by a
large force of conscripts.

General Hooker had, from the tirst, divined the purpose of Lee, and had kept both the President and Sec-

On the 28th retary Stanton informed on the subject. " of May he had written You may rest assured that

impoitant movements are being made. I am in doubt as to the direction Lee will take, but probably the one

however desperate it may appear." But, being restrained by the orders of Halleck and Stanton from making an oilensive resistance to the operations of Lee, Hooker was compelled to move into a position to protect the api)roaches to Washington and there await the development of the Confederate plans. Thus the course of Ewcll across the border was free the whole region of Western Pennsylvania was open to
last year,

him, and he thoroughly scoured


levying upon the population for the subsistence of his troops, while he gathered vast herds of horses and cattle and sent them

southward across the Potomac.
sylvania farmers
fled in panic,

Thousands of Pennwith their cattle and

household goods, across the Susquehanna. Thus the invasion of Northern territory by the Confederate troops became a fixed fact. Halleck and
Stanton sat shivering at Washington, vetoing every plan of Hooker's looking toward a more vigorous policy, until, on the 27th of June, Hooker, in despair, asked to be relieved from the command of an army

which he was not allowed to use.

Hooker recommended

that General

Meade be


pointed to fill the place vacated by his resignation, and, true to his duty, conferred with his successor, and had
long and earnest discussions with him, imparting to him all his plans, and ofiering any advice that might be

The purpose of General Meade was to keep required. the Army of the Potomac well in hand, so that rapid
concentration might be effected, and, if a general engagement was to be fought, it should be upon ground of his own selection ; at the same time to watch Lee's

movements, and, when a favorable opportunity offered, strike upon his communications, and by preventing a retreat cut him in pieces. To fail to stop Lee in his invasion of Pennsylvania, meant disaster to the cause of the Union. The fate of
the Republic, at that time, hung trembling in the balance. Had the Union arms suffered defeat, the loss of Washington and the prestige of the possession of the



would not have been the only



would have been

practically nothing to prevent the cap-

ture of Baltimore, Philadelphia, possibly New York. There would have been recoirnition of the Southern

Confederacy by European Powers the destruction of the Union, or, at the best, its preservation only after All these probabilities hung on years of bloody war.

the success or defeat of Lee,





ahead on Xorthern
pected victory.


toward the North Star and ex;



Not to intercept him not to strike a place where the Union troops would have the

advantage or an equality of position or, having struck and all those results Lee, to fail to overwhelm him and the cause of the Union was lost. were possible


Probably every private soldier in the Army of the Potomac knew that a tremendous conflict was not many hours distant, and had some clear idea of what failure meant. But there were some on whom rested supreme AVith tliem there must l)e neither responsibility.




judgment, or


With them there must be no mistake,

would be
laid this



men on whom was

momentous duty was Hancock.


he performed
at that

the countrv knows.

was on the 13th of June that Hooker, who


retained his


of the


of Poto-

mac, In'oke his camp on the Rappahannock, and moved after Lee in the direction of Washiniirton. General Mulholland, then holding a command in Hancock's corps, thus describes the breaking up and the start on
the Ions: march



ou that lovely summer evening in June, 1863, we looked for the last time on Marve's Heis^hts and the monument of Washington's mother, which had been shattered and broken by the shells of both armies, and stood out there on the plain back of the city, as though protesting against this fratricidal strife, a mute and sorrowful Niobe weeping for the
misfortunes of her children, every heart beat with a quickened throb, and all the men rejoiced to leave the scenes of
the last six months.


withdrew from the Une of the river

after the shades of night


fallen over the landscape



an appropriate hour, for had not the great arm}^ while here, been in shadow, without a ray of sunshine to gladden. oui' souls? and we had been here so long, we were
to be


beginning to be forgotten as the Army of the Potomac, and letters came to us marked, Army of the Rappahannock.'

As we marched away
minizled with sorrow

in the darkness, our joy

was not unin the


was there a veteran


who did not leave behind the graves of noble and wellbeloved comrades, who had fought beside him from the bedid not march away ginning of the great struggle?




the army.




burned with unusual brisihtness

— went out and


— which





gone, to

of the Rappahannock in darkness, the living army was be sure but twent3^-five thousand of our members

over on the other side of the river

ericksbm'g and Chancellors ville indeed the corps of honor, forming a great and peimanent the bivouac of the dead." camp

— the heroes of Fred— an arm}' of occupation,


General Hancock's corps held the position of rear guard, and its route to Gettysburg was over two hundred miles in length. Some days they marched fifteen, on others eighteen miles and on June 29 this corps



longest march

made by any



City, ]\Id., in the

during: the war, loaviniTf Frederick


haltin"; at

11 o'clock at niHit

two miles

beyond Uniontow^n, a distance of thirty-four miles. This march was one of the severest as well as the

of the

I Mulholland, our corps lost more than a dozen

one day," writes General think the second out from Falmouth,



men from



On another day we they fell dead by the wayside. of Bull the battle-field crossed Run, where the year

Pope had met with disastrous defeat. No effort had been made to bury the dead properly a little earth, which the rain had lon<^ airo washed awav, had been thrown over them Avhere they fell, and their

bodies, or rather their skeletons, now lay exposed to In some parts of the field they were in groups, ^^ew.

other places singly, and in all possible positions. One cavalryman lay outstretched, with skeleton hand still Another, half-covgi'asping his trusted sword.

ered with earth, the flesh

clin2:ino: to

his lifeless

rested bones, and hand extended as if to greet us. for a short time on the field, and one of the resriments


of our brigade (the Twenty-eighth ^Massachusetts) halted on the v^ery spot on which they had fought the year previously, and recognized the various articles
lyin^ around as belonirincf to their own dead." Under the thorough discipline of General Hancock,

Corps made this march bravely, in the heat of the broiling sun of the hottest month of our
the Second

each man with his load of fifty-seven pounds year musket, ammunition, knapsack, shelter-tent and blanket and each anxious to keep up with his regi-






he should lose the


And, such was the

respect for the rights of civilians and of property, inspired in these men by their gallant commander, that

not an act of wantonness was committed on that weary advance. There is not an inhabitant on all that line of

march, who can tell of a single act of vandalism by any of the men, such as we are wont to hear of other
In the rich and cultivated country through which they passed, life and property were respected as


were in the halcyon days of peace. Old and young came to the roadside to see the army pass, and knew they were safe from insult or molestaas



of ripening grain waved untrampled when the corps had gone by, the men even going out of their way to avoid the gardens lest they should step



upon the
In this




way Hancock brought up the rear of the the Potomac, as it moved from the Eappafield

hannock toward the then uncelebrated

of Gettys-



CHAPTER IX. — The First Day. — Meade arrives at Taney town. — The Gettysburg. Advance Guard strikes the Enemy. — "For God's Sake send up Hancock." — Meade puts Hancock in command at the Front. — Ho arrives at the Critical Moment and Saves the Army. — Ho Selects the Battle-ground and Disposes the Troops. — Meade Concentrates


for the

Fight of the Second Day.

Hancock was now marching,

unconscious of the

toward the


his soldierly qualities

on which he, by the exercise of and skill, was to turn the fortunes

of the great battle of the Rebellion in favor of the Union arms. For, with no deroo:ation of the merits of the other brave men and skilful commanders who fous^ht

through those terril^le three days at Gettysburg, it is only just to Hancock to let the record shoAV the fact that it was his magnetic presence which rallied the
beaten and
his skill

commands of Howard and


which so disposed those forces as to hold the position against the Confederate army, and his clear foresight and quick decision, which marked out the battle-ijround on which Meade's victory was to be won. The battle of Gettysburg was not definitely foreseen Lee was striking for or pre-arranged on either side. Meade was hastening to intercept him, Harrisburg and had planned to give him battle on Pipe Creek. As Lee writes in his official report of the Gettysburg cam" Preparations were now made to advance upon paign

As our communications with the Potomac were thus menaced. under General Eeynolds. which was thrown forward in advance to serve as a mask while position was taken on Pipe Creek. and while Meade was consulting with Hancock. and explaining to struo^srle him expected battle. Meade's headquarters. was at Taney town. the force of the Confederate army was concentrating upon the devoted The gallant Reynolds had already corps in advance. Hancock's corps. and the result of the contest of that first day was to determine w^hich side should have the choice in the disposition of troops. While Lee was making This accident determined the battle-field. was advancing northward. the left wing of Meade's army. having crossed the Potomac. The great battle had already begun at Gettysburg." movement. with the main body of his troops. arrived. fourteen miles from GettysTliere the rear guard. but on the night of the 28th of June. burg. his plans for the . It was Hancock who was chosen to decide this in favor of the Union. just outside the town of Gettysthis bursr. and was massed on the morning of July 1. and that the head of the column had reached South Mountain. 131 ^Harrisburg. and consequently the advantage in the great between the errand armies.WINTIELD SCOTT IIANCOCK. it was resolved to prevent his further progress in that direction by concentrating our army on the east side of the mountains. information was received from a scout that the Federal army. came in contact with the van of the rebel General Hill's command on the morning of July 1. 1863.

where a call}' concentration of the at Gettysburg. after with his small force making a wonderful resistance of cavalry against enormous hordes : . and report to me the nearest position in the immediate neighborhood of Gett3'sburg." Hancock was the "controlling spirit" and wise adviser ]\Ieade at once to whom all turned when in danger. sent him with orders to assume command of all the troops at Gettysburg. Everything is going at odds. had encountered the enemy in force. to proceed without delay to the scene of the contest. he should find the position unsuitable. LIFE AND rUBLIC SERVICES OF and Buford." army would be more advantageous than . and to report upon its advantages In his testimony before the comas a tield of battle. mittee says : — on the conduct of the war. he should examine the ground critias he went out there. of infantry. on their reaching Gettys- burg. "• The moment I received this information. under Major-General Re3'nolds of the First Corps. and the advantages on the side of the enemy. and that the First in and Eleventh Coq^s were at that time engaged a contest with such portions of the eneuw as were there. General Meade " About one or two o'clock in the da}" (Ji^ly 1)1 received information that the advance of my army. instructed him that in case. upon his arrival at Gett^'sburg. and we need a controlling spirit. I directed MajorGeneral Hancock. who was with me at the time. and to report to me the facilities and advantages or disadI furthermore vantages of that ground for receiving battle. had hastily scratched a despatch to ^leacle "For God's sake in the note-book of his signal officer send up Hancock. and make an examination of the ground in the neighborhood of Gettysburg.132 fallen.

133 Hardly had the news of the unexpected engagement reached General Meade's headquarters. and particularly to advise of the condition of affairs there. in charge of a company of prisoners taken from Burgoyne. was detailed to little command the escort which left this same Taneytown. o'clock I received the sad intelligence of the fall and the actual engagement of my Previous to receiving this intelligence troops at Gettysburg. village of As there has been some controversy as to the fact of who was in command at Gettysburg. Anxious to have some one at the front who could carry out my views. then to the rear or to the right or left. as circumstances might require. when another cloud of dust was seen approaching on the road from galloped another stall' officer. bringing the sad story of the death of Reynolds and carrying the urgent appeal from Buford to send on Hancock. I had had a long consultation with General Hancock. Out of it : — ' ' At one of General Reynolds. I directed General Hancock to proceed to Gettysburg and take me of the troops there. General Meade says Gettysburg." It is a curious coincidence that. the grandfather of General Hancock. and explained to him fully my views as to . and the practicability of command fighting a battle there. if practicable if not. an officer in Washington's army. almost one hundred years before this eventful day. and who saved the army — and thereby doubtless saved the country by rallying the demoralized and flying columns and securing the position for the battle of the following — . to take them to Valley Forge. my determination to fight in front.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK.

Your obedient servant. in case of the truth of General Re}'nolds's death.General and Chief of Staff. the order of General ]\Icadc. Hancock was everywhere recognized as the one who . lie directs j^ou to turn over the command of j'our corps to General Gibbon . — ) j Commanding Officer. one to fight a battle under existing circumstances. Also. and Third at EmmettsIf you think the ground and position there a better burg. 3fajor. and General Warren. and. who is fully aware of them. Very respectfulh'. at this supreme Hancock in com- mand It was no time for over Howard. you will assembled. : July of Potomac. Second Corps The Major-Gcncral commanding has tliat just been informed General Revnolds has been killed or badlv wounded. To understand the importance of the trust thus placed in Hancock's hands. First. and that he left it al)solutely to Hancock's judgment whether changed. has gone out to see General Reynolds. Bctterfield. moment. the and he will order all troops up. by virtue of this order. and etiquette. is here given : — IIeadquakteus Army 1.. M. you assume command of the corps there Eleventh. under Avhich Hancock assumed command. that j'ou proceed to the front.134 LIFE ASD rUBLIC SERVICES OF day. 18G3 1. The fate of the army was at stake. so advise the General. You know the General's views. did not hesitate to place his plans should be entirely General Meade. his senior.10 p. viz. D. it must be understood that General Meade had already chosen a place for the expected battle.

his aid. and in a very few minutes the enemy would be in possession of Cemetery Hill. closely pursued by the Confederates. he turned over the of his corps to General Gibbon and started with his staff for the bat- command tle-field. because soldier than either of them. 135 On the point of superseding his two "I did I was an older knew. so that he might examine the maps of the country. Maj. galloping ahead to announce his coming to Howard. of Gettysburg would have gone into history as a rebel . Our troops were flowing through the streets of the town in great disorder. informed him that he had come to take command and asked him if he wished to see his written orders. At half-past three o'clock General Hancock rode up to General Howard. W. and if they chose to might be a troublesome matter to me for it the time beinsr. As General Hancock proceeded to the front he rode part of the way in an ambulance. it. resist Howard and Sickles. whom he found on Cemetery Hill. it was not proper. could save seniors. Mitchell. and to whom he told his errand. the retreat fast becoming a rout.WmriELD SCOTT HANCOCK. it. Howard answered " No no Han" cock. General Hancock says: not feel much embarrassment about it. go ahead At this moment our defeat seemed to be complete. giving him to understand that General Hancock was coming up to take command. the key to the position and the battle : ! ! ! . But I legally. G." The moment General Hancock received the above order.

went on the double-quick to occupy the high ground toward Round Confidence was restored. the battle-field of Gettysburg. . shall we say of the value of General Hancock's arrival at the critical moment on fresh troops. then. Schwerin and Saxe were said to he worth each a reinforcement of ten thousand men to an army and the of Wellington said the arrival of Napoleon on a battle-field was a better reinforcement to the Duke French army than the accession of forty thousand AVhat. and Geary. Wads worth s division and a battery were sent to hold Gulp's Hill. describinir the advent of Hancock and the turn of the tide of battle under the influence of his presence. a battle that by common consent is now admitted to have decided the fate of the Union and fixed the final result of the war? Order came out of chaos. ceased their attack. and. LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF But what a change came over the scene in the next half-hour. The presence of Hancock. Hancock had saved the day.136 victory. that were retreating down the Baltimore pike. being deceived by these dispositions. The battalions of Howard's corps. like was magnetic. with the White Star division. . that of Sheridan. Swinton. where the division of Steinwehr had already been stationed. In such an emergency it is the personal qualities of the commander alone that tell. General Plancock ar- rived on the ground. The flying troops halted and again faced the enemy. w^as says: — "At the time the confused throng pouring through Gettysburg. the enemy checked Top. were called back and with a cheer went into position on the crest of Cemetery Hill.

an efficient — but of a rather negative nature. 137 happily. and that the place to fight judgment Gettysburg was the battle.WINTIELD SCOTT If. he sent his senior aid. by the rich sacrifice of his life. and inspires. back to on the tell til this line. there is in him that mysterious but potent magnetism that calms. for officer nature had jdready traced it out in a bold relief of rock. HA^^TCOCK. This quality Hancock possesses in a high degree. he determined to advise General Meade to fight there. could not be bettered. could there be any question as to the right position to be taken up. the crest of General Meade that he could hold the position unnightfall. fortunately. when order had taken the place of confusion and our lines were once more intact. Major Mitchell found in his . and Cemetery Hill in the centre. he purchased for the possession of the army. fully aware that General to fioht the battle on the line of but noting the topographical advantages of the ground around Gettysburg. had not been able to quell. and his apare pearance soon restored order out of seemingly hopeless confusion a confusion which Howard. with Gulp's Hill right. So. Nor. On the ridge of Gettysburg the ridge Reynolds had mentally marked as he impetuously hurried — forward to buffet the advancing enemy. He knew that Cemetery Ridge. there results one of those sudden moral transformations that among the marvels of the phenomena of battle. Major Mitchell. and for the possession of history forever Hancock disposed the remnants of the two — corps. subdues. and which. Round Top on the left." General Hancock was Meade had determined Pipe Creek .

own. and required no urging to keep the men up. Reynolds. and communicated these views. Seth AVilliams. he said . and deliver the battle at Gettysburg and turning to Gen. fii^ht there. field . General Meade listened attentively.138 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF in the General IMeade eveninir. on the first of the three memorable days of Gettysburg. on to within a few miles of the battle-ground. The regiments moved forward Then the corps pushed Gen. his Adjutant" Order up all the troops we will General. So it was that. where it camped that night and arrived on the field early the next mornini]:. solidly and rapidly. Hancock was the means of changand so it was that ing defeat and disaster into success . John F. and on these representations he fortunately concluded to abandon his idea of fio-htinii^ on the line of Pipe Creek. : . the ranks opened. and an ambulance passed containing the body of the heroic . near Tane^i. and a but as they hurried not straggler was to be seen along a halt was ordered. he designated the on which the greatest and most momentous battle of the Union was to be fought." The Second Corps promptly followed General Hancock.

139 CHAPTER X. who came upon and objects became visible. their lines were seen nearly a mile distant on Seminary Ridge. his rankins: offi- who The battle arrived in the evening. — He liolds the Line between Cemetery Ridge and Little Round Top. light increased . — Hancock to the Rescue. On that morning the entire Union army. After over the cer. owin<2: to the direction of the wind or the his staff. posting the troops. the field after nightfall had no idea of the w^hereabouts of the enemy but as the day. were wholly inaudible. As yet no one in that corps. and the whole Southern force. had come up. fired. and found Hancock posting the Second Corps on Cemetery Ridge. — Hancock protects the Situation. — The Absolution of the Irish Brigade. except the corps of Sedgwick. The Second Day. General Hancock turned command to General Slocum. and away to the left rose Little Round Top. and still farther on Round Top. morning of July 2d and the second day of the clear dawned and brisfht. the sounds of the fio^ht.WLNFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. — Sickles's Corps cut up. with the exception of the General the troops approached Gettysburg the day before. Centre. and had heard a shot As formation of Tliose the countrj^. except Pickett's division and The line of battle Longstreet's corps. had reached Gettysburg. — Fight for the Eidge in front of the Wlieat-field. — HaDCOck in command at the Left — Gettysburg.

Thomas Francis Meaofher. Patrick Kelly. Avho had devoted careful attention to the disposition of his troops.140 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF formed by the army was in the shape of a Limerick the head being Little Kound Top. seemed to be everyAvhere with them in the actual contest. and whose ffreen flai? had been unfurled in every battle in which the Army of the Potomac had been engaged. proposed to give a general absolution to all the men before going into . stroyed. Col. the chaplain of the brigade. that value of Cemetery Ridge until the arrival of Hancock. General Longstreet says." The command of General Hancock on this day was the left centre. once broken. if not de. Rev. formed a part of this division. into which Sickles's corps marched Hanso bravely and in which it suffered so terribly. cock was called on for aid. and the centre of the curve wliere the Second Corps lay. which had been commanded formerly by Gen. was that sharp and persistent fighting on the left. there of his divisions. his Second Corps being posted in the The battle did not really open until rear as reserves. — General Caldwell's. and where now repose the country's dead. The Irish brigade. from the first Bull Run to Appomattox. and when it opened. the key to the Avhole line for. AVilliam Corly. in his version of the " the enemy did not see the battle of Gettysburg. Hancock. As the large majority of its members were Catholics. both wings of the army would be separated. afternoon . This position of the Second Corps was . and he at once sent out one About 4 o'clock. the fish-hook point at Spangler's Spring.

and the noble . it was perhaps the ever witnessed on this continent . Addressing the men. et Filii et Amen" Spiritus Sancti. object for which they fought ending by saying that the Catholic Church refuses Christian burial to the soldier flag. urging them to do and reminding them of the high and sacred nature of their trust as soldiers.WINTIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. as he tramped through the everglades of Florida in search of the Fountain of Youth. Father Corly pronounced the " Dominus noster Jesus words of the absolution : — Chrlstus vos absolvaty et ego^ auctoritate ipsius. vos ahsolvo ah omni vinculo excommunicationis et inlerdicti vos indigetis^ deinde ego ahsolvo vos a peccatis vestris in nomine Patris. or De Soto on his march to the Mississippi. and firmly resolving to embrace the . in quantum possum et General Mulholland. of Catholic countries of Europe. first opportunity of confessing his sins their duty well. he explained what he was about to do. Ponce de Leon. speaking of this occurrence. indeed. indulged in this act of devo- tion. the grim old warrior. Father Corly stood upon a large rock in front of the brigade. first time it was unless. who turns his back upon the " foe or deserts his The brio^ade was standinof at Order arms." As he closed his address every man fell on his knees with head bowed down. 141 ^Yhile this is customary in the armies the fight. saying that each one could receive the benefit of the absolution by making a sincere act of contrition. Then stretching his right hand toward the brigade. .

would be incorrigible. would not move to contrition. that the That heart scream of a Whit worth bolt. response to Hancock's orders. act seemed to be in harmony with all the surroundI do not think there was a man in the bri^^ade inofs. it was Near by stood Hancock. where Weed was their last in less they knelt there in their grave-clothes than half an hour many of them were numbered . who did not otFer up a heartfelt prayer. — with the dead of July 2. a location known to every one of the many thousands the second in that light as one of the bloodiest of As Caldwell's division. out by the peach orchard and Little and ^'incent and llaslett were dying. the roar of the battle rose and swelled and re-echoed throu^fh the woods. makinsr music more >iuhThe lime than ever sounded throusfh cathedral aisle. advanced to the relief of Sickles. For some it liound Top. added to Father Corly's touching appeal. surrounded awe-inspiring. approaching the crest of the rugged hill. indeed. Who can doul^t that their prayers were good? What w^as wanting in the eloquence of the priest to move them to repentance was supplied in the incidents of the fight.142 says: LIFE AND rUBLIC SERVICES OF scene was more than impressive. in day's contest. from behind the huge bowlders that were everywhere scattered around. yet over to the left. the men of Longstreet's corps rose up and poured into the Union ranks a most destructive . — "The by a briUant throng of officers who had gathered ." The contest at this point was for the ridge in front of the wheat-lield. to and while there witness this very unusual occurrence was profound silence in the ranks of the Second Corps.

Ofiicers . Firing instantly ceased. yet the Grayretained their arms. Of this division. The Confederates promptly obeyed. In a short time the bris^ades of Cross and Zook beo'an forcing the enemy back. Our men promptly returned the fire. and a large number of Kershaw's brigade became our prisoners. Here took place a rather extraordinary scene. Every man there. and knew just ^^hat was wanted. were among the" Johnnies in a few moments. By ill-fortune they found themselves surrounded. enemy as there were of and men looked for a time utterly of the bewildered backs still the fighting had stopped. and showed no disposiall tion to surrender. and they found there were as many themselves. The men. rushing forward with a cheer. There was no cheering. the brigades of Kelly and Zook were most unfortunate. and the only way out of the down their . and after firing about ten The lines minutes Colonel Kelly gave the order to charge. both Union and rebel. and so close that every shot told. At this : moment " a Union officer called out in a loud voice will lay The Confederate troops ! arms and go to the rear " This ended a scene that was becomins: embarrassins:. was a veteran. with one rebel line of battle in ft-ont and another behind. no time lost in unnecessary movements. fire.WINTIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. They stood there face to face. 143 were not more than thirty feet apart when the firing opened. and for ten or fifteen minutes the work of death went on. In an instant our men and their opponents were mingled In charging they had literally run right in together. loading and firing. among them.

fourteen hundred men were lost. that the situation was grave. Passinof throui^h this alley of death." at this point. each side fightFour or five of our insr with a dreadful earnestness. they got away with of the division but the loss was terrible. as " sure of what he said Xo it is too . best divisions had charged over the same spot. its field. and were met every time by the choice troops of the enemy — both determined to hold the field. The coml)at during the evening of July 2. General . ridixe in front fi^rht of the wheat- Until toward dark the against us. To-day I shall be killed." thouirh he felt late. to the right. Cross fell almost at the first fire and Zook a few minutes On the morninsr of that day General Hanafterward.144 LIFE AND rUBLIC SERVICES OF trap was to pass down between the two rebel lines. firing as they ran. almost half-way to the cemetery. firmly and sadly. the only l)ul- opening through Avhich they could escape. Third Corps had been driven back. cock said to Colonel Cross will fiijht as a Colonel . broken and shattered. toward the Little Round Top. evening and our prospects grew dark together. Cross answered. was of a most sanguinary character. I will never wear the star. where the lets came thick . a large }iart In the half- hour that thev were under fire. The The commander wounded and carried from the The troops that had gone to its support fared no and every man felt better. had certainly and the battle had extended along the mme line. " : This is the last time you a Briija- to-day will make vou : dier-General. Of the four brigade commanders. as hail. . So the two In'igadcs started on a double-quick.

had saved the critical position on the . gather reinforcements. . and established his headquarters well up to the front. so again ho ordered him to assume command on the left. who all the night long labored to strengthen this line. drive back the enemy. Few of our troops slept during this night. placing 2d. and restore our broken lines. The men gathered rocks and fence-rails.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. he had assumed command of the Third Corps as well as the Second. midway between Cemetery Eidge and Little Eound Top. and used them to erect a light breastwork. but it was long enough to enable him to rally some of our scattered troops. A half-hour of davlio:ht vet remained. of Sickles. face them once more to the front. all was not yet lost. This closed the second day of the great battle and Hancock. On the fall the latter under the immediate orders of General Gib- bon. and as the day before he sent him to stop the rout of the First and Eleventh Corps. Once more he was in the fio^ht. who had saved the army by his presence on the 1st of July. The Second Corps went back and was put in position on Cemetery Ridge by General Hancock. Meade had again thought of Hancock. 145 However.

The fate of battle had reserved Hancock to bear the terrible brunt of the final desperate assault on which was to depend the result of the battle.. and the cheers earnest. Battery after battery appeared along the edge of the activity among woods. On in position and our side officers sat .Hancock's Wonderful Deed of Valor. About noon there could be seen from Hancock's line con. from Cemetery Hill to Round Top. Hancock Beats Them Back. — — — — — — gray dawn of the morning of July 3.siderable the Confederates along Seminary Ridge. It became of General Geary's men gave notice all down the line that the enemy had been driven out. Then came a perfect calm. Struck Down in tho Moment of But He Saved the Day. Victory. the artillery joined at that point in. placed the horses taken to the rear. Guns were unlimbered. All along Hancock's line.— The Third Day.146 LIFE AJ<iD PUBLIC SERVICES OF CHAPTER XI. and the battle o'clock that was not until nine the cessation of the firins. At the day advanced. the fight was resumed on Gulp's Hill. But the quiet was soon to be broken. The Final Desperate Assault of the Confederates. and to gloriously repulse it. Gettysburg. where the Confederates had efi'ected a lodii^mcnt the niaht before and as the first . and that we were again in possession of that point. His Ride from Left to Kight of the Lino and back again.— The Storm of Fire. not a shot had been fired that morninij. Thanks of Congress.

streams of shot and shell screamed and of missiles : . nearly two hours the storm of death went on. One who was present under this fire fhus describes it tongue or pen can find language strong enough The air was full to convey any idea of its awfulness. taken part in every battle of the war never had seen anything like that cannonade. anxiously watched these movements in their front. which now began to play upon our lines. It was literally a storm of shot and shell. however. 147 around in groups. seemed to be discharged simulAnd then for taneously. Shortly after one o'clock. like the fall Those who had of raindrops or the beat of hailstones. and General Gibbon cock and staff to partake of some lunch. and wondered what it all meant. as though by electricity. limb from limb caissons exploded one after another in rapid succession. into position did not open singly or spasmodically. was handed around consumed without butter — if it ever was eaten — was was passing from Semi- nary Ridge cut him in two. and. The headquarters wagons had had invited Hanjust come up. every slight shelter that the light earthworks afforded. through field-glasses. Instantly the air was filled with bursting shells the batteries that had been for the last two hours getting .WINFIELD SCOTT HA^'COCK. " No hissed everywhere . The whole hundred and twenty guns. they knew all about it. The bread that for as the orderly the latter article to the gentlemen. blowing the gunners to pieces. it seemed as though nothing could Men and horses were torn live under that terrible fire. The infantry hugged the ground closely. and sought . a shell . and the oldest soldiers .

It their fall breath. Capt. Hundreds and thousands WQro stricken down the shrieks of animals and screams of wounded men were appalling . E. Mitchell. It was then. and every moment tore great gaps ranks at his side. started at the right of his line. he witnessed the magnificent courage of his General. and. Private James Wells. and apparently never would cease. Suddenly the band began to play "The quail. G. mounted. of the Sixth New York Cavalry. . Every soldier felt his heart thrill as . W. The soldiers held moment to see him dozen bullets. P. Isaac Parker. . not a for the presence and calm reckless exposure of life demeanor of the commander." ." and Hancock. and accompanied by his stalf. Harry Bingham. the Star-Spangled Banner. Bronson.148 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF began to be uneasy about the result. when the firmest hearts had becrvm to army witnessed one of the grandest sights ever beheld by any army on earth. withal. with the corps flag flj'ing in the hands of a brave Irishman. while shot and shell roared and crashed in the around him. to the his position.still iho awful rushing sound of flying missiles went on. Maj. and slowly rode along the extreme left of terrible crest in front of the line. expecting every from his horse pierced by a was a gallant deed. Capt. — a deed of heroism such as we are apt to attribute only to the knights of the olden time. and Capt. set them an example which an hour later bore good fruit. and nerved their stout hearts to win the g^reatest and most decisive battle ever fous^ht on this continent. as he passed through the lines of his men. where it joins the Taney town road.

. w^hich has thus been told : There could be no — "A hundred guns — yes. fifty more — Kained down their shot and shell As if. We lay And No Whatever looked.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. Yet still that dauntless form I see. So grand. " You've heard the rest How on they came Earth shaking at their tread A cheer our ranks burst into flame Steel crossed the foe had fled. That sight. As slow as if on dress-parade. from out its yawning door. with hat in hand. . The hiss! the crash! the The ceaseless iron hail shriek ! ! the groan! All this for half the day. . and smiled. you know. . fears we had before Were gone. . Drove the red blast of hell. ranks could stand Against that tempest wild Yet on he rode. riding slow. By my good Was ever such a sight ? " blade. Slow riding down the line. we heard and lo ! strike Full in our front — no breath was up : stirred — Came Hancock. and bowed. All hot to face the foe. 149 and he resolved to do something that day which would equal it in daring. . Was ever deed of chivalry oh. I It made the stoutest quail *' own But sudden. All down the line to right And back again. Just made us fifty thousand more. fitter subject for the heroic ballad than this incident. The band far to left. comrade mine ? '* . at length.

and their infantry. the ceased to play. eiirhteen thousand strons:. and standards gayly flapping interval. Turning his horse. and those lines of gray moved on in The common time. Hancock knew the artillcrv tire had been intended to demoralize his men. tearing and rending them in every direction. bowing and smiling to the troops as they lay flat on the ground. in describing this charge. missiles struck right in the ranks. in the wind. but with a steadiness seldom equalled. The gaps in their and precision ranks were closed General Mulholland. could now hardly restrain themselves. But. with bayonets flashing. pays this merited compliment to the bravery of the Southern " troops : Our gunners now load with canister. Eighty of his guns then opened their brazen mouths solid shot and shell were sent on their errand of de- . received orders to attack the advancini? rebels. marching steadily across the distance was nearly a mile. struction in quick succession. holding his hat in his hand. and the . They could be seen to fall in countless numbers among the advancing troops. The accuracy of the fire could not be excelled the . which was to make the real attack. as soon as made. were seen emerfrinsf from the woods and advancing up the hill. Hardly had he reached the right of the line when the men. too great to double-quick.150 LIFE AyU PUBLIC SERVICES OF left Just as Hancock reached the rebel batteries of his line. inspired by the courage of their General. who. he rode slowlj' up his line from left to right. and cover the advance of their infantrv. on they came. The ground over which they had passed was strewn with dead and wounded.

Antietam. 151 appalling . are within a hundred yards. and when his division came in range he received like treatment but the enemy were so persistent that they actually obtained a . each man felt that he must die in his tracks necessary. foothold upon the Union line." the objective point of the Confederate attack was but a single line of men. the veterans of the Peninsula. filling the air with their peculiar yells. exposed to danger and He cheering the men by his presence. General Hancock was everj^where.WINFIELD SCOTT effect is HAJS^COCK. detected the exposed position of the left flank of Petti- . they grew more excited and inspired by their officers and the hopes of an easy the . Now they Our But there was no recoil in these men of the South they marched right on as though they courted . Fredericksburg. two ranks. gallantry is past all praise . This was followed by a rapid fire that caused them to fall back. would enemy came nearer. as a break in the line cause a defeat of the army. and Chancellorsville poured in upon them such a volley as to stag- ger them and throw them into confusion. death. and as the men stood there in one feeble At but undaunted if line. At Waterloo the Old Guard recoiled before a less severe fire. sublime. As victory. they started on the run. with no reserves in sight . But when they reached a point where musket-firing became efiective. but still it they inarch on. and in some places hand-to-hand fights took place. is Their infantry rise up and pour round after round into these heroic troops. Pettigrew followed Pickett.

and the battle was won. A few of the Confederates here and there ran away and tried to regain their lines but many laid down their arms and came in as prisoners. added my the information. that Hancock on the line of among his men. Mitchell to General ]\Ieade. battle. with the following mes- The troops under my command have repulsed sage the enemy's assault. Of that attacking force. I thank you." said Hancock. and was helped to the " innot carry you to the rear. General ? quired Colonel Yesey. that General Hancock was desperately wounded. with the grace for which he is we noted. even in pain. . fell. . gentlemen. It was then. and thirty stand of colors were gathered up in front of the Second Corps." So he remained and continued to direct the fight Then he sent Major until victory was secured. seen to reel in his " — but not to the rear. front." The enemy is now flj^ing in all directions in The aid. stand of colors. of which General ]Meade was then ignorant. I will take care of myself. and we have gained a great vic: — " tory. in delivering this message. in the supreme moment of triumphant jrrew's division. "Attend to your commands. Colonel. at the front. He was Stannard's Vermont bris^ade. five thousand men surrendered to Hancock's troops. ground Shall saddle. " General Meade sent back the following reply Say to General Hancock that I am sorry he is wounded. waving his hand. who was near him. and .152 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF and caused a flank movement that resuited in the capture of many prisoners and several The terrible assault was beaten back. "No.

IT- . meritorious. Congress.WmriELD SCOTT HANCOCK." thanks and no reward could be adequate. for the country 153 and for myself. and conspicuous but the share in that great and decisive victory . that I thank him. later." country will never forget how much it owed the salvation of the Union to his services on that field. three thanked General resolution. for the For such services no service he has rendered to-day. years by joint Hancock for his "gallant.

and numerous prisoners History has given General Hancock his due as the " directing mind which. commanding Gibson.154 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF CHAPTER Xn. dh-ected prinagainst the point occupied by the Second Corps. — Honors to Han- — cock in Northern Cities. in his official says of the part taken by Hancock on of Gettysburg. the in our hands. this last decisive day " :— An was made with great firmness. During the this assault. "This terminated the battle. were severely wounded. — TIancock's Fight — His Opinion of the Battle and its Kesults. — Invalid Soldiers carry him on their Shoulders to his Father's Plouse. both JNIajor-General Hancock. commanding Second and Brigadier-General Corps." Meade's Eeport. — His Journey Home." enemy retiring to his hues. General " Terminated the Battle. and assault cipally was repelled with equal firmness b}^ the troops of that corps. supported by Doubleda3^'s division and Stanuard's brigade of the First Corps. report of this battle. the left centre. — Hancock's Wound. battle of Gettysburi? decided the war for the Hancock decided the battle General Meade. leaving the field strewn with his dead and wounded. — The Surgeon's Story. After Gettysburg. — Recruiting the Second Corps. The Union . — Ho Returns to Duty. on the first day of the battle evolved order out of confusion among the broken and " . — At "Longwood" with his Family.

rises the great renown won on that field b}' the grand old Army of the Potomac. and win the battle for the Republic. War. who down into the ears of History an incorrect account of the contest .WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. He was Meade : " always faithful and reliable. General Hancock wrote thus generously of his comrades in the battle of Gettys- burg ' ' : — the terrible contest at Gettysburg contributed in its results probably more than any other battle of the war to the As maintenance of the Union in its integrity. The place where General Howard was superseded in com- mand on the first day of the fight is now covered with the graves of thousands of gallant soldiers whose bones lie buried at the base of the beautiful monumental column which commemorates their fame. symbolized by a soldier resting from the conflict. so. by his personal bravery." Twelve years later. Two of the marble statues orna- menting the pedestal personify War and History. and the deeds of the martyrheroes who fell in that famous battle. far above pri- vate interests or individual reputations. to repel the culminating assault on the third day. as the prompt and sagacious com- mander who on the second day saved the key of the battle-field to the Union army and as the valiant fighter who. it were their lives for the gensimpl}^ sacrilege for any survivor to pour laid . In remembrance of those noble connrades eral weal. inspired his troops . "Cemetery Hill has since become consecrated ground. 155 fiying troops of Meade's advance and placed the army in the position where it could fight and win the great battle of the war . and last General No commanding general appreciatively said ever had better lieutenant than Hancock. narrates to History the story of the struggle.

and many of them lay there between the lines until the morning of the 5th. . thousands of wounded were lying. justice and truth should who dwell in his mind and heart. In front of the Second Corps the dead lay in great heaps. The singularly handsome men. They were every direction. resting upon the rights and liberties of the people. and in the camp hospital they died by hundreds during the afternoon and nio:ht." in billows of rebellion. his arms clasping the body of his brother. ' were in the crhnson tide. he may tell the world how rain descended in streams of fire. Out on the field where Longstreet's corps had There was passed.' doing even justice to the splendid valor alike of friend and foe.156 still LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF more to assume to himself honors belonging perhaps less to the living than to the dead. giving honor to whom honor Then. and the floods and the winds blew in blasts of and beat upon the fabric of the Federal Union. The rebel General Armistead carried to the rear died in this way. a high responsibility. Dismounted guns. As he was being . it was founded upon a rock. page. dipping his pen as it the sunshine of heaven lighting his is due. The scene of the repulse of Longstreet's grand charge by Hancock was indescribable. who was major of his regiment. came fraternal execration. a sacred trust. and greatly resembled each other. and that it fell not for. no means of reaching these poor fellows. dead and mutilated men and horses were piled up together in line of the colonel of one of Pickett's regiments lay dead. Above all things. ' The historian of the future ' essays to tell the tale of Gettysburg undertakes an onerous task. ]\lany noble officers and men were lost on both sides. ruins of exploded caissons.

His wishes were complied with. Alexander N. Harry Bingham. who. of Hancock's staff. was shot through the body and fell inside of our lines. July 4. On the enemy had possible. and came forward in front of his brigade. the anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. . All the next day. 157 he was met by Capt. the army lay quiet. General Hancock sending them to his friends the first ojiportunity. waving his sword. disappeared.WINFIELD SCOTT HA]SrCOCK. getting off his horse. Armistead was a brave with a most chivalric presence. awaiting events. asked him if he could do anything for him. It morning of the 5th the Meantime Hancock had been taken to the hospital and his wound treated as well as was a terrible stroke. He soldier. Dr. Armistead requested him to take his watch and spurs to General Hancock. that they might be sent to his relatives.

and he said that the Army of the Potomac had made its last retreat. General Meade with and the result was that that coincided Hancock. and heroic. great pain.hov never recovered . I. General Meade announcing the victoiy won at Gettysburg. to the honor of the Aictorv at Gettvsif and Meade would sav so he were alive.158 LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF Afterward I discovered that a bullet had penetrated his saddle. On the night of the second da3''s battle a council of war was held. It was proposed to fall back and establish the line of battle at Pipe Creek. entitled with buro". Meade He is equally patient. and then lodged in his thigh. his wrote his first despatch to at dictation. final!}' great victory crippled the rebels so that t. carrying with it the wood As he la}' in the hospital in splinters and the tenpenny nail. but Hancock opposed it. adding to the despatch that the defeat would be turned into a rout. and should fight or die on the line where the battle was begun. lie was calm. He argued that the anil}' should stay where it was.

though slow. which was more or less splintered. borne on the shoulders of the men whom he had led in battle for their country.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. General Hancock was able to leave Norristown and travel toward his western home. where he had left his wife and children. He travelled by easy stages. but spoke with voices hushed in sympathy. and the doctor pushed the probe in easily and found the ball. The probed for it while had a bright idea and asked the General to place himself as nearly as he could in the position which he occupied on his horse when he was hit. . early in September. was steady. The bright and funloving boy of seemingly a few years ago was brought home a wounded hero. and people did not cheer. the ball was still surgeons at the army hospital had the General lay in a recumbent posture but one day the family physician who attended him in Norristown . The work of extracting the ball was then easy and when this was done General Hancock's recovery. . The doorways and windows were crowded as the little cortege passed. It 159 was a deeply moving sight. It was lodged close upon the bone. for his wound was troublesome but always his chief thought was how . General Hancock looked like a dying man when he was brought home to Norristown. in his body. hardly more than two months after he received the wound on the bloody field of Gettysburg. The General straddled a chair and did so. As has been said. Indeed. and his parents and his old friends were oppressed with the gloomiest forebodings of the future.

1863.. But General Hancock was compelled to hold his eager . Alice and the children send their best love to yow and mother. but do not 3'ct walk without a little My wound is still unhealed." improving. I give me trouble for a long time. I know it is may not the best time. threw aside Oct. and I remain. for certain military documents to be forwarded stopped for consultation. HA^XOCK. It At West Point he was a tedious and painful journey. Mo.eleven acres. as ever. Louis. but it was lightened by the enthusiastic receptions which awaited wounded hero at every tanying place." He tells in a letter home how the . Please give my best love to mother. my crutches a few and now walk with a cane. At New York we find him writing home to him. ma}^ I am bus3' in trimming up the forest trees in the lawn of " Longwood. WiNFIELD S. and cannot j'et ride. I hope.160 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF he misrht return to the field and ens^aije ai^ain in the work that still needed the hands of patriots. his recovery jjrogressed : — My Dear days after Father : —I LoNGwooD. however. but still it will do. Every one joined to do him honor public attention welcomed him on every side. rapidly. 12. in well two weeks to be enough join my corps. though the doctors say it is closing I find some uneasiness in sitting long in a chair. I am " roll. As soon as possible he reached his family at his home near St. Your affectionate son. The bone appears to be injured and mv arrival. which he had named "Lons^wood." which covers nearl}.

and he immediately set to Washington . 27.WINTIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. It was not until December. in this important matter. Although the Confederacy was on its last legs. I earnestly call upon 5''ou all to assist. tinofuishino: battles. This is a matter of interest to all the citizens of the State. 1864 — To THE People of Pennsylvania I have : come among yoii as a Pennsylvania!!. by the exertion of influence in your power. issuing the following address : under date of Jan. and although the 3. that he was able to He was then ordered to enter active service as^ain. and although his Gettysburg wound was not healed. and its leaders were persistent in their struggle for Southern independence. reporting to the War Department. The army then being in winter quarters. work in his native State. His headquarters were established at Harrisburg. Dec. . was engaged during the summer and fall in Avhat was termed a campaign of manoeuvres. commission as Major in the regular army came Nov. he obeyed mth alacrity. aU the To adequately reinforce our armies in the field is to insure . with his own gallant Second Corps. with no dis- Army he lono^ed to be with them. His spirit chafed under this restraint. So Hancock was given authority to increase his corps to fifty thousand effective men and was sent north to stir up the patriotism of the people and induce enlistments. but still he was too feeble to return to duty. for the pur- pose of endeavoring to aid you in stimulating enlistments. it still had vitality. 1863. 1863. General Hancock was sent on recruiting duty. 161 His soul in the leash of patience some time longer. 15. of the Potomac.

shall now. Hancock was pre-eminently the man for the work to which he was set. Bravest among the brave. Let us act with that fact in view. Volunteers. shall won for themselves so much honor in the pass out of existence for want of patriotism in the people. he had a success which few others carried a could have achieved in recruitinsr the waninsf strenofth of the Union Army. be behind her sister States in furnishing Let it her quota of the men deemed necessary to end this rebellion.162 that the LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF war It will be the means 3'oiir homes. and conclusion. WiNFiELD S. beyond all. Philadelphia tendered him a public reception. not be said that Penns3^1vania. a stanch Democrat. in the City Hall. that have field. and. The city of New York placed the governors room. a soldier who yet unhealed wound on his person. to insure a speedy and permanent peace. Major. placing the historic Independence Hall at his service in a special vote of thanks and welcome by the Select and Common Councils of the city government. at the eleventh hour. Let it not be that those Penns3'lvania regiments. at . and in indecisive will not reach of bringing the lives of it to a wise lost battles. which has already given so many of her sons to this righteous cause.General U. now so depleted. S. It will save speedy happ}* many of our brave soldiers which would be otherb}' the prolongation of the war. possessed of that magnetic power which leads men captive. It is only necessary to destroy the rebel armies now in all the field. wearing already the T\Teath of victor won in the hardest battle. loyal to the core. Hancock.

which was then in session. when the news of his nomination to the Presi- dency was flashed over the wires throughout the land. as now. no less than in his valor. looked up to him as one of their heroes. invited him upon the House. they trusted the future of the Republic. . the Legislature. the people rose in glad recognition of the leader whom they had welcomed on his patriotic errand during those dark days in the winter of 1863. the Legislature paid him an official tribute of resjoect for his distinguished services to the country. and a public rece^^tion was given him by the merchants and citizens at the Merchants' Exchange. The people then. At Albany. and received him with great distinction.WINTIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. No wonder that. in later years. In Boston. in whose wisdom and floor of the energy. his disposal for the 163 same purpose.

against Lougstreet's One — of the year 18 04 when Hancock was again called to take command of the corps which ho It was INIarcli had so so valiantly and effectively led.164 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF CILVPTER Xin. On the 18th of March General PLancock. Penn. was still . and which he had On the 2d of that month. " his father I have just received an order from the Secretary of War to repoi-t without delay to him command in the for instructions prior to rejoining field. The "Wilderness. — The — Hancock leads the Charge of the gallant Second Corps. The Second Corps.. and the Union and Confederate forces lay facing each other along the Papidan. and on the 10th he had been assigned. I have but time to notify you of the fact. — Grant takes Command of Army of the Potomac crosses the Rapidan. efficiently recruited. The Story of — — all the Armies. by a special order of President Lincoln. : still actively engaged wrote to in recruiting his corps at Ilarrisburg. The Two Days' Fight in the Wilderness. Hancock Leads the Advance.Hancock set out on the campaign that was to end the war of Rebellion." With my this modest announcement. to the command of The Army of "all the armies of the United States. Hancock's old command. Grant had been confirmed in the ii^rade of LieutenantGeneral. largely through the efforts of General Hancock." the Potomac had l)een recruited up to a high standard. Men over the Breastworks.


5'"' 25 I—• < Si a I— ( OQ CO o .^^ ::!! .^'. I '.i!j K -J 1 1 ..|:'^|.

Lee's army occupied the blufls that skirt the south bank of the Rapidan for many miles. further 165 augmented by the addition of the gallant Third Corps. w^here. which the Confederate General Hill endeavored . which has gone into history with the name of the Battle On Hancock who took the advance of the left column. Potomac. road. advancing to Chancellorsville. Hancock's corps left the following day.WmriELD SCOTT HANCOCK. Sixth. beside which the General had under his command part an army of of the Fifth. tried by fire. Grant had in the Army of the veterans. with an army whose rolls at this time showed only fifty-two thousand six hundred and tw^enty-six men of all arms. as reorganii jd. It was a position impregnable to direct assault. and bivouackins: that nio:ht on the old battle-ground. a movable column of about one hundred and forty thousand men while against him was Lee. and Ninth Corps. the long fight began. venture. though a brave one. leading the advance in the post of honor which w^as eminently his due. Culpepper Court-House on the night of the 3d of May. The hour had come in which the Rebellion could be crushed. They crossed Ely's Ford on the morning of the 4th. holding Richmond. and Grant's plan was to cross the river by the lower fords and turn the right of the Confederate army. making in all upwards of fifty thousand men. On the 3d of May the order went forth that the Army of the Potomac should launch forth on its great ad- — . and was able to secure and hold a strategic point on the Orange plank of the Wilderness. May 5. pushed on far ahead. one year before. under Hooker. they had fought a losing fight.

and for more than a hundred years extensive iron mining had . losing largely in killed and wounded. The combatants lay on their arms. the opposing forces being very close together. exhausted after the fierce struggle. "was heavily engaged. and has a special word to say of the Irish brigade. and intersected by a few narrow wood-roads." says Hancock." The fight at once grew very fierce.16G to capture. and the musketry continuous and deadly along the whole line. with only an occasional opening." Hancock continued his efforts to drive Hill until eii2:ht o'clock. In his report of this battle. when nii>:ht shut down on the darkenins: woods and ended the struggle. Lee makes mention of " Hancock's repeated and desperate assaults. and many corpses in the tangled brakes and bushes told of the bloody work done that day. It was fought in a country whose natural features were peculiarly disadvantageous for the movements of an army." The Irish brigade. the attack was made in the midst of the dense growtli which gave that country its name of the "Wilderness. and drove his line some " distance. The res^ion is one of mineral rocks. Tlius was the battle of the AVilderness opened. Hancock speaks of the close and deadly character of the combat. further." In his own report. it behaved with great steadiness and gallantry. The whole face of the country was thickly wooded. But the woods of the Wilderness did not have the ordinary features of a forest. and although four-fifths of its numbers were recruits. LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF About four o'clock in the afternoon. which "attacked the enemy vigorously on his right. under Colonels Smythe and BroolvS.

and only Indian : tactics told. more useless. says. of the country for 167 To many feed the mines. the massive concentration of three hundred guns stood and only an occasional piece or section could be Cavalry was still brought into play in the roadsides. Han- cock opened the attack on the enemy in his front. And when. but no officer could see ten files on each side of him. like the noisy boiling of some hell-cauldron silent. after an hour's severe contest. .WINFIELD SCOTT five o'clock. there came out of its depths the crackle and roll of musketry. But in that horrid thicket there lurked two hundred thousand men. calls this he in describing the theatre of what justly " It is a region of singular and terrible combat. that told the dread storj" of death. back on the Confederates' headquar- enemy driven . and in its place there had arisen a dense under- growth of low-limbed and scraggy pines. the whole hostile front was carried. The troops could only . scrub-oaks and hazel. the timber miles around had been cut down. been carried on there. bristling chincapins. gloom and the shadow of death. under heavy loss. and the a mile and a half through the woods. Both armies were awake early to assume the offensive. stiff and Swinton. receive direction by a point of the compass for not only were the lines of battle entirely hidden from the sight of the ocmmander. though no array of battle could be seen. . and through it lurid lires played and. Artillery was wholly ruled out of use . he overpowered the Confederates. Manoeuvring here was necessarily out of the question. and." Hancock was also to bear the brunt of the battle on the following day.

and the enemy. and there was no evidence and the vSixth Fifth Corps was on our For three davs. were nearly turned creeping up towards the breastwork of logs. One of those who fouirht under Hancock in the Wilderness. " I am expecting an assault. right. sight on this occasion.' .168 ters. in his brusque way.' Sedgwick answered ' ' ' . that they were unable to lire over the parapet. on Ma}' 5. our positions remained unchanged. and drove the smoke and flame back upon the men with such fury. 8th.' replied ri2:ht. but I'm going to ba ready. pressing forward. " ' What in the hell are you doing there?' he said. quietly. The on the left. behind which one of Hancock's division was placed. 1864. we were busy in intrenching ourselves. On that da}' there was little fighting in front of us. set the works ablaze. were given a central position. describes this battle : — fighting of the battle of the Wilderness commenced. until the But General Hancock's foreon many others. Indeed. of the Fifth Corps. During the day General Sedgwick. as 3'ou remember. for a fire in the Avoods. known as the Second Corps. LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF Longstrect's arrival alone saved Lee's army from utter and complete defeat at that time. Our combined troops. the . came riding along with his staff and saw us that we would be disturbed. did not assert itself in vain. tables that Hancock in person led the assault of his gallant corps and drove out the invaders with a rush.' replied Hancock. the fight- ius: will be over there on the be.' ' " " That may Hancock. Then it was })lanted their standard on the breastworks. All day long. " The with a plank road to protect. as at work. " But there will be none. under his orders.

May 7. Hancock. That was the close of the battle of the Wilderness. All da}'' long he huiTied us. About four o'clock that ver}" da}'. That night the Confederate army retreated to Spotts^^lvania. the jaws of defeat by one of those superb exhibitions of personal valor which add such brilliancy to his grand military genius.' "' them come.' Well. had occuj)ied the post of danger and of honor he had driven the enemy before him. and everywhere. had suffered severely. Hill's and Longstreet's corps were massed against us and fought for three hours. and stopped the advancing enem}^ A few moments more and the gray coats were in turn retreating. wick if do with a single corps? persisted Sedgthe rebels come here they will bring their whole 3^ou ' army. *' ' 169 What can ' . Many of our troops had But we alread}'^ turned to run.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. neither army cared to take the initiative. and was continuall}^ warning us that the earthworks would not be that . and a cavalry combat at . I am " It seemed to me that the whole rebel army did come. When the third day. "Hancock on completed in time to protect us.' said General Hancock. that attack but he was ready. dawned. 'let going to hold this road." This practically eiided the battle of the Wilderness. day was here. and defeat seemed imminent. I suppose it was his expect wonderful foresight. and we We drove them about a mile and a following him closel3^ half back. there. I don't know how he ever came to du'ecting our movements. W-e were almost driven out of our position. leading the pursuit. and had wrested success out of . as usual. finally rallied. " Over our works went Hancock. into the very centre of their position.

which no man could see. Hancock pushed forward 8. and the alternate Union cheer and Confederate yell. the Confederates lost about eight thousand. and Grant determined to go on toward Richmond.170 Todd's LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF Farm was the only incident. dangerously wounded by the fire of his own men. in ])hie and in gray. Lee had lost Longstreet. his advance on May and the entire line followed. Sunday. Such was the cruel endins: of this strano^e and horriljle battle. Tens of thousands of dead and wounded. told how the fight surged and swelled. whose progress could be fol- sand . But Hancock still held his advanced position. . lowed only by the ear as the sharp and crackling volleys of musketry. lay in the The Union loss exceeded fifteen thouthick woods.

Spottsylvania. Hancock The Bloodiest Battle of the War. — — — — — — — sylvania Fight by Eye-witnesses. and although no engagement occurred. and played havoc along our line. fifteen a movement upon Spottsylvania CourtBut Lee was too quick miles distant. This army was all Army brought into position on the 9th. and drawn up on Spottsylvania Ridge a bulwark of defence where. planted their army across Grant's line of march. General Hancock fights the Battle of the Po. describes breastworks along his line. "A Morning Call" Takes and Holds the Famous '^Salient Angle. Accounts of the Spotton General Johnson. for twelve days. May 9. and on Monday. the Confederates had taken possession of Spottsylvania Court-House. they were able to hold in check the of the Potomac. Sedffwick's Death. who was shot while commanding the standing on the and almost instantly exiDired. the enemy's sharp-shooters brought down an illustrious victim in the person of General Sedgwick." Hancock's Retort. Grant's purpose was to move southward from the Wilderness and plant himself between Lee's army and Richmond by House. who stood bv General Sedgfwick when he fell. the scene : — . Sixth Corps. 171 CHAPTER XIY.WINTIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. for him. These sharpshooters were perched in the foresttrees above the heads and out of siijht of the Union One skirmishers.

even though the distance ' : ! ' ! straggling bees eral 3'et hummed unpleasantl}' around. the woods in the rear of the troops. took Avitli and in the midst of these a fierce foe in front and a blazing appalling perils.172 " LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF A little hum of leaden bees about the advanced line of breastworks caused the soldiers to dodQ. forest l)ehind. . and the form of tented smile was upon it. on the capturing a Confederate wagon-train folloAving clay.' ' General Sedgwick slightl}' turned toward the beloved officer at his side. when Colonel McMahon heard the buzz of a bullet culminate in what seemed an was still That must have been an exexplosion close beside him.e and duck their The General smiled at them good-naturedly he had heads. . A ball had entered the face just below the left eye. lire . the}^ couldn't hit an elephant at this dodging a bullet There was a laugh at this. pooh." During the afternoon Hancock was directed a to make purpose of where. man Wh}^. sad. having been recalled to assist in an across the River for the . During the heat of the contest. Plancock repulsed a desperate assault of the enemy. The Gen- smiling over the banter. General Sedinvick touched him with his foot in humorous ! dis- dain Who ever heard of a soldier Pooh. Hancock not only repelled the enemy. and passed out at He never spoke aftenvard. No answer. a winning smile. movement Po attack on another position. not despairing. breathed softlj' for awhile. Finally one bee hummed so near a poor Irishman's auricle that he dropped down upon his face. General. It was caught by the General fell helplessly backward. But as the face of plosive bullet. a curious. between them and the river. but almost con- Another moment. pierced the brain. though he the back of the head. Colonel McMahon as it fell.

Grant resolved to make a sudden sally against his right centre. On the night of May 11. presented an almost impassable barrier to the advance of a line of battle. Hancock moved his men into position . bayonet-like branches of which. was rendered more difficult and hazardous by a heavy growth of cedars. led the and althousfh he returned again and again to the attack. The hill which he was to assault. the task was an impossible one. Then. as he states in his report.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. Hot work awaited Hancock on his return. across the river. the . He advanced by the compass. — mostly dead. Finding that he could not succeed against Lee's left. no landmarks being visible in the fog and the thicket. but conducted his 173 command that the It field. and Hancock's corps was again chosen to lead assault at five o'clock in the afternoon the way. he moved forward. and at half-past four o'clock the next morning. Here he lost the first gun abandoned on the Second Corps had ever was left behind in con- sequence of being sunk in a marsh. the rest of the army in support. while the approach. interlaced and pointing in all directions. and without firing a shot captured the Confederate pickets. was. the most formidable point along the enemy's whole front. — the long. Its densely wooded crest was crowned with earthworks. which was swept by artillery and musketry fire. in conjunction with Warren's corps. taking the double-quick. as soon as the faint dawn permitted the direc- tion of advance to be seen throus-h thick foo: Vvhich prevailed. and the men even entered the enemy's breastworks at one or two points. Hancock .

and was army. to regain this joosition than live desperate assaults but Hancock was ably sup- ported. with a ringing cheer. tearing away with their hands what abatis there was in front of the intrench- ments. and. and presented a spectacle ghastly and terrible. and carried the line at all points. twenty pieces of artilThe rest of the force fled to lery. and the enemy was successfully repulsed. The point where Hancock struck works was where it the enemy's line of formed what is called a salient . having burst open this angle. were constantly added the bravest of those who. so close was the contest that the rival standards were The planted on opposite sides of the breastworks. in a position to rive asunder the Confederate Lee made no less . in the first . rolled like a resistless wave into the enemy's works. Frequently throughout the conflict. Inside the intrench monts there ensued a savaije hand-to-hand combat with the bayonet and clubbed muskets. The fiirht was of short duration. this was perhaps the fiercest and most deadly. Hancock had driven a wedge between the right and centre of the enemy. enemy's most savage sallies were directed to retake the famous salient which was now become an angle of death. " Spealdng of this affair. the rear in ijreat confusion. and thirty colors. resultin2r in the capture of General Johnson and nearly the whole of his division. Swinton says that of all the struggles of the war. On the Confederate side of the works lay many corpses of those wdio had been bayoneted by Hancock's men when they To these leaped the intrenchments. four thousand men.174: LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF troops.

in our corps. Lee withdrew his bleedinsr lines.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. I was informed at the time. trees even eio^hteen inches in diameter being cut clean in two by the bullets. till the musketry forest within fire was so terrible as to kill the whole its rano^e. "We reached the extreme point on the left. We did not know how this manoeuvre would result. and on good authority." It is further stated that the works. and received permission to make the move. about six o'clock. So all night long we marched quietly around the entire army. serving under Hancock. althouo^h the loss on the Union Hancock's victory had a moral efiect upon the army which was worth all it cost. gives some entertaining incidents as observed by an actor in and an eye-witness of the battle : — on the extreme right on the Po Hiver. And. but we were willing to trust an}' stratagem of our commander. assaults to recapture the position. as told by one of the officers side was terrible. and the woods in front of the salient were one hideous Golsrotha. The story of his fight. that Hancock went directl}^ to Grant. Our line then extended about eight miles. That was the understanding then and afterwards. and they on the inside. " On the evening of the 11th. after twenty hours of combat. an3'way. that he had orders to go to the extreme left. The Confederates were intrenched on some of the hills that ran around in the form of a crescent. We fought there on the 10th and 11th without changing our positions. At midnight. We were on the outside of this crescent. Hancock sent word to each of his division commanders. fell at the 175 margin of the ground was literally covered with piles of dead. We got rather the worst of it during the two da3^s' fighting. indicated by " We were .

angrily. was standing near by ' orderly stood outside the tent..' remarked our general. which might be interesting. buttoning up his clothes. m. It was a complete surprise were only thirty minutes from the time we started. until we reached the ver}' heart of the enemy's camp. at the same time extending his hand.176 LIFE AND rUBLIC SERVICES OF a. about four on tho 12th. and were on the right of the enemy. " Is General Johnson in?' he asked of the replied in the affirmative. Advancing.' said orderl}^. balance of our army. " 'I have come to make you a morning call. but I remember that he and Hancock were classmates at I West Point. and presently Johnson appeared. for he was not yet dressed. General Hancock. the side of the hill we went. firing a gun. pleasantly. who was commanding the division of the enemy we had assaulted. I forget his first name. and charwd theur thud and last line with equal success.* he exclaimed. But Johnson was furious. When we had captured the third line. and "Up and quietly. hurriedly lines. "'Ask him to step out. as usual. "I was the witness of a little incident on that occasion. We of the war. General Hancock massed his corps into three started the charge at a quarter past four. at the time and saw Hancock when An he rode up. we took their first line without a sound\ The second line made some resistance but we captured them with but little difficultv. . was leading us. who Hancock. It was one of the most brilliant and successful moves to the enemy. " I cannot take your hand on such an occasion ' as this. rode up to the headquarters of General Johnson. Hancock. who. About half a mile from the intrenched lines of the enemy wo encountered their pickets. Every man was captured without . It was just in tho TVe were then entirely cut off from the gra}' of the morning.

the enemy's troops came upon us in a solid mass. Under other circumstances I would not have offered you my hand. Hancock was going " ' must ever3^where. li i 177 answered General Hancock.' we did them. The lines of both armies met in a continual death-grapple in and to the To have right of the angle of death taken in the morning. All day long they kept firing upon Next us. the intense fury and heroism and horror of which it is simply impossible to describe at all.' said he.' ' ' In this retort the character of the man revealed itself in respected misfortune in any man. we immediately commenced to intrench ourselves. but could not be friendly to a rebel in arms. under cover of their artillery. Five distinct. tremendous charges were made by the enemy to retake that position. This occasion was known as Han- cock's great charge at Spottsylvania. ' ' Then was tui'ned over to some staff Having gained this position. 'we have captured this position and we hold it. as pleasant a job of this as possible. savage. well. . It will be death for every man stayed there. If we let them have this place they will serve us worse than of you. ' ' He the defeated general officer and carried to the rear. Boys. we had to keep it. strong colors. but bj^ nine o'clock that night the guns died down. About two hours afterwards.' . talking to our troops.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. the had and Confederates were on their departed morning "We to way Cold Harbor. Fearing an attack. 'you can do only I thought I would like to make just just as you please Oh." correspondent describes the terrible conflict over the salient angle in the enemy's works which A war Hancock had taken and was holding : — "A battle raged over those intrenchments.

falling. finally driven. where the battle had been the hottest. was the patriotic heroism of commanders and of men ever more grandly shown than in these contests where none of the pomp of battle accompanied the struggle. writhing of wounded beneath the dead moved these masses at times . umn after column of the enemy penetrated to the very face of the breastwork. for whoever cared to that would never have enticed his gaze again. to the close. were piled in hid- eous heaps. at times a lifted 3'et arm or a quivering limb told of an agony not quenched by the Lethe of death around." cruel sharpness of war had never a more vivid nor illustration than in these battles of the Wilderness The . Men look. and others still and all the day long. the angle of those works. to be hewn down and sent back like a broken wave. fighting. When the night came. been in hundreds. some bodies that had lain for hours under the conThe centric fire of the battle being perforated with wounds. killed and wounded together. dealin"- and making way for other columns.178 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF looked flown on that battle from a height would have been like gazing into the smoke and din of an Colearthquake. but only its horrors were to be found. death and meeting our troops. but unyielding. .had had a spectacle. against this rush of a foe that seemed disdainful of life. and from which the encm}. Column after column still came on. the angle was held by it. .



Cold Harbor.WINTIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. In the meantime. Sheridan. This episode forms one of the most spirited chapters in the history of our war and the meeting of the two great cavalry leaders in the Shenandoah Valley. The advance from — He Carries the Bridge. — Amenities of the Combat. Hancock liuds Lee before liim at — — Spottsylvania was not made until the 20th of May. bor. in whose command the dashing Custer was a subordinate. makes one of its most romantic pages. When at length Hancock was ordered forward. led his corps on The country through which Hancock . — A Fight at Close Quarters. the movement was in fact a race between the two opposing armies for a new vantageground on the road to Richmond. Sheridan with the Union troopers and Stuart with the Confederate riders. and in the meantime Hancock was engaged in the desperate but not altogether successful attempts of Grant to force his way straight across the Confederate fortifications from the position he had cap- tured on the 12th. was maldng his won- movements in the Shenandoah Valley and onward towards Richmond. 179 CHAPTER Xy. This ground was on derfully brilliant cavalry . on the 20th of May. the North Anna River. Armies. — The A Race between the North Anna. — Hancock at Cold Har— He Carries the Enemy's Lines. Two Marcli from Spottsylvania toward RicLmond.

evidently en route marching from Spottsylvania. but here were blight of war had not yet touched it fields with sprouting wheat and growing corn and . about an hour before sundown. under a heavy fire. Hancock's corps advanced for half a mile through woods . Hancock made the assault. over a (ete du pont which the Confederates had constructed and manned at the Chesterfeld Bridge. he saw on the opposite bank in large force in sischt of the " the enemy column. homesteads with great ancestral elms and bountiful farms. Hancock came in North Anna. luxuriant clover. But when. clambering over it. with many The large and fine plantations in the river-bottoms. sharp. on the 23d. the troops sweeping across the open plain at double-quick. and that.180 this hasty LEFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF march was a wonderful and striking contrast to that whose horrors they left behind them. The assault upon the enemy's w^orks Avas ordered to be by a general ad\^ance all along the line at half-past It was short. and blood V work. Hancock was given the place on the left of the line as the order of battle was formed. Before five o'clock the" battle was decided. driving out the enemy. It was fair and fertile. making a foothold in the parapet with their bayonets. with Pierce and Egan's brigades. too. and capturing the bridge." Hancock had to force a passage of the river. On mined to force the passage of the Chickahominy at Cold Harbor. It was impossible to dislodge the enemy. four in the morning of June 3. Hancock led another brilliant and when Grant deterskirmish at the Tolopotomy . the further advance. beautifully undulating.

They climbed over the enemy's carried off five colors. The heroic band which performed this exploit was the brigade of Colonel McKean. useless. when repulsed. numbering about eight hundred men. captured his guns. the rebel intrenchments were drawn on the rearward slope of the crest in front of Hancock. within fifteen yards of the enemy's works. Through the livelong day those men held their line within fifteen yards of the enemy. under a severe fire. with their parapet. 181 and over open intervals. that. straight up to the enemy's works. carried as a whole. But it was The works could not be although Hancock's themselves in an advanced position. all day. a line of flashed out from behind the earthen mound where . ' CO troops by telling hundred of them rebels fire — them "there come on " ! are only four or five But the moment the showed themselves above the parapet. and repeated the brilliant exploit of the " salient angle" at Spottsylvania. men fortified One of the most remarkable incidents of the war oc- It was the retention of a position. and or six hundred prisoners. and thus thrown so far back that his men. it through a fault of engineering. and their sharpshooters were able to keep the enemy's heads down long enough to allow hastily improvised parapets to be thrown up. and all his force could not dislodge them. The way happened was were under cover as soon as they had passed the ridge.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. in Hancock's corps. to come over the works and assail them and the officers could be heard encouraofinof their . partially Repeatedly during the day the enemy formed double columns of attack. curred here.

. In this manner a working party w^as able to tion. Or. just peering above their pits." the Yanks would reply. " Forward the Union breastworks the sisrnal of attack " and the Confederates. neither could he get back from his perilous posiIn this dilemma. would " draw a bead " on their tricked opponents and bring after this battle. begrimed with powder and worn out with fatigue. and at last they were brought dig its way up to all that w^ere left of them. ft ain't it about your time to cook coffee?" Yes. the ino^enious device was hit upon of running a zigzag trench up from the Union lines to his. on the other cry out : side. The gallant away McKean was shot down while standing up to receive a safely — rebel assault." . that often not ! — — ! many a one down with a bloody gift. while our men. So close were the lines of the contendins: armies more than fifty yards A man Avould call out from behind separated them. Then. one would call a parley and "Yanks. hearing all Guide centre that was said. where they lay. and many a Confederate threw up his arms and fell prone under their swift aven2^in2^ bullets. The sequel is as curious as the deed itself for while the enemy dared not venture out to assail oNIcKean's men." the response would come from the other side.182 Liira and public services of eight hundred heroes stood in a new Thermopj'ltc. "if you won't shoot while I make my johnnycake. I won't shoot while you make your coffee. would start up behind their parapet.



This culinary truce was always observed with the
strictest fidelity.

General Hancock, in his report of this battle, uses " The troops advanced as far the significant language



example of their


could carry them."



position could not be carried, and officers and realized it. An attempt was made to reduce the

works by siege but this was given up in a few days, and Grant determined to transfer his army to the south of the James River.




Hancock Celebrates Bunker-hill Day. He Leads SucHis Old Wound Reopens. Movements about Petersburg. On Sick Leave Again but Quickly Returns. — The Explosion of "^ the Petersburg Mine and its Disastrous Results.



the 15th of

May, as Hancock was marching under take up a position where the City Point

Railroad crosses Harrison's Creek," a position which did not exist, except upon an incorrect and worthless

map from which

the orders were drawn,

— he received

a despatch from General Grant directing him to use all haste in going to the assistance of General Smith, who

had attacked Petersburof. This was the first intimation that Hancock had received that Petersburs: was to be attacked that day, or that General Smith was operating He hastened forward, but was against the place. unable to join Smith until after the attack had been made. General Hancock writes in his report " The messages from Licutenant-General Grant and from General Smith, which I received between five and six p. M., on the 15th, were the first and only intimation I had that Petersburg was to be attacked that day. Up to that hour I had not been notified from any source that I was expected to assist General Smith in assaulting

that city."

General ]Meade endorsed,

in a report

now on


in the

Army Department


Had General Hancock

or myself




that Petersburg

would have

was to be attacked, Petersburg But Grant was compelled to sit

before that city in formal siege for nearly a year
in the

General Hancock, to whom,

absence of Grant

and Meade, the command of the field fell, was restrained from attacking, by orders from Meade, until the remaining corps of the Army of the Potomac and this happening on the 16th, he should arrive made the assault that day, driving the enemy some disThe attack was renewed tance along the whole line. by Hancock and Burnside on the 17th, the former succeeding in taking some important ground.

The movement of Hancock
the four lines of works of the


designed to carry
outside the city,


drive the Confederates into Petersburg, and, if possible, On this, " Bunker-hill Day," writes capture the town.

one of the old Sixth Corps, w^hich was then part of Hancock's command, " General Hancock formed his
troops, in a piece of wood, between a way, and at such a point, that the


forts, in


enemy had no

of wdiat he was doino^. Just as nio^ht was fallino^ he led us out on the charo^e. Instead of char2:in<? either
of the two forts, he led us on a dead run right between them. When on the other side he deployed his troops,

and efiected the capture of both. The enemy was so sur-

Then we prised that we met with little resistance. made a gallant charge on the second line, and after a
Then the third line was sharp fight secured it. stormed, and though the battle was now severe, w^e were successful. At the fourth line, however, we were




the point


to maintain the position
late at

had gained.

was now


and the

The next morning, however, they

opened uj^on us from


at Spottsyl-


was but it was hard work." But this arduous labor

told ns that our position certain death for all of us.

must be held
did hold


for his country

was performed

It will be remembered that Hancock at great cost. was yet a wounded man, and under the surgeon's care when he took the field with Grant in the new Army of the Potomac. The hardships of the campaign had the

of reopening the wound received at Gettysburg, and, on the evenins: of the 17th of June, his iron constitution broke down and he was compelled, with the

greatest reluctance, to turn over the command of his corps, though he did not leave the field.

During the greater part of the campaign, indeed, he had sufiered the most intense pain, being compelled to occupy an ambulance during the march, and only mounting his horse when his troops came in contact with the enemy, and his personal presence was needed to direct and inspire them. The wound was in the upper part of the thigh. It had fractured and splintered the upper part of the femur, and at one time it was thou<2:ht that his life could not be saved. A splendid constitution, however, and the best sursfical skill, had brouijht him through the worst, and his entire recovery would have followed had
not his impatience to be with his command in the field The penalty for this he prevailed over his judgment.



now had to pay by mand of his corps.

a brief retirement from the com-

the 27th of June, however, he again took command, and participated in the operations before Peters-


burg until July 26, when he crossed to the north side of the James River, with his corps and a division of cavalry, and assaulted the enemy's lines at Deep Bottom, capturing the outer works, two hundred prisonof colors, and four pieces of ers, several stands


was while Hancock was engaged

tions that General Burnside

in these operaconceived and put in execu-

tion the idea of capturing the defences of Petersburg by assault after the demoralization consequent upon the

explosion of a mine, through the breach formed by which an assaulting column could push forward and

sweep the enemy right and left. The hour for the explosion was fixed at half-past four on the morning of July 30 and, as if to give chances to fate, Burnside

decided the choice of the assaulting division by casting lots, or, as Grant expressed it, by "pulling straws or
tossing coppers."

from his fortunate expeDeep Bottom, and was not concerned in the affair in any way. The match was applied to the mine at the hour appointed but, owing to a defect in the fuse, the mine failed to explode. A second attempt at about fifteen minutes before five o'clock succeeded,
just returned
dition to

Hancock had

in the morning. showing a solid





described as

mass of earth, through which the

exploding powder blazed like lightning playing in a



bank of clouds, slowly rising some two hundred feet in the air, and hanging visibly a few seconds. Then a and cloud of black smoke floated it subsided, heavy

was the signal for a simultaneous outburst of artillery from the various batteries, and Leslie's division of Burnside's corps advanced to

The explosion of

the mine

reaching the site of the fort, it was found to have been converted by the explosion into a huge crater one hundred and fifty feet long, sixty feet wide, and from Here the assaulting twenty-five to thirty feet deep.



souo^ht shelter,




nothins: to

rushing forward and occupying the crest

enemy was paralyzed by the explosion beyond, and remained inactive for some time. But the troops
for the

and, as Meade said in his report, a scene of disorder and confusion commenced which continued to the end. The enem}^

huddled together in the crater


brought th^ir guns to bear, and poured shells and bombs into the hollow of the exploded earthworks where the Union troops were clustered. The crater

became a slaughter-pen. Burnside sent out the colored division, and the brave black fellows pushed far ahead and captured prisoners and a stand of colors, but were beaten back into the fatal crater. Disaster followed. General Hancock was a member of the military court of inquiry instituted soon after this failure, and the
the injudicious formation of the troops in going forward ; second, the halting of the troops in the crater, instead of going

court found

causes to be




forward to the crest, when there was no fire of any contMrd, no proper employsequence from the enemy

ment of engineer officers and working parties, and of materials and tools for their use, in the Ninth Corps fourth, that some parts of the assaulting columns were not properly led lifth, the want of a competent com; ;

mon head

at the scene of the assault, to direct affairs

as occurrences should


But, while the causes of the mine fiasco before Petersburg may be differently judged by experts, the ordinary
non-professional mind will always incline to the belief that it failed because a soldier of Hancock's mao^netic

presence, quick perception, and instant action was not the director and the leader of the assault.

Hancock met the assault with firmness and with per- . after a very fatiguing march. and was immediately ordered to undertake the work of tearing up the railroad track to Reams' Station. Promotion to be Brigadier-General in the Regular Army His Horse Battle of the Boydton Plank shot under him at Reams' Station. and General Hancock returned with several hundred prisoners and several stands of colors. This occupied the time until the 25th. a Veteran Brevet Major-General for Corps. his commission as Brio^adier-General beino. and Gen- of several Bottom. The same day he first Avas ordered to take command of the the expeditions which Grant made against the enemy from his position before Petersburg. Road. eral Gregg's division of Cavalry. — — — — — — — the 12tli of August.issued to Ox him on that date. made against the enemy at Deep The movement was when the enemy approached in strong force to prevent further destruction of the line. Hancock returned to his camp before Petersburg on the 21st. Recruiting of the Middle Military at In Command Gallantry Spottsylvauia.190 LIFE ASD PUBLIC SERVICES OF CHAPTER About Petersburg. Division when Lee Surrenders and the Confederacy collapses. 18G4. where the Confederates were met in largely superior force. XYII. On this expedition General Hancock's force consisted of his own Second Corps. Hancock was promoted another long step in the regular army. the Tenth Corps. Hancock Commands at Deep Bottom.

191 sistent bravery. and the govern- . But. There were then many veteran soldiers in the country. the support not being what it should have been but ates. although against tremendous odds. Both armies had enough of it during the day. elicited expressions of admi- ration even from Grant himself. being. the hands of the surgeons and even when on the march and in the 'battle. whose terms of service had expired. his country had jet greater need of him in another department of patriotic duty. cheering and inspiring them.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. In spite of the fact that the support for which he tele- graphed did not reach him. as usual. . his wound had to be dressed daily. and again narrowly escaped death. and the skill with which he handled the force under his command. on horseback among his troops. great as was the value of his services in the field. After the loss of the Weldon Eailroad Lee's depend- ence was largely upon the Boydton plank road. he held the ground valiantly through the day. he was in . The' battle of Boydton plank road was the last that General Hancock fought with his gallant Second Corps. having his horse shot under him. campaign. the brilliancy of Hancock's repulse of the great assault of the enemy. from which Hancock was instructed to drive the Confeder- The expedition was only partially successful. and almost as frequently pieces of the splintered bone were removed by the surgeons. He had been a sick man during all this When not on active fighting duty. and simultaneously withdrew after dark. It was his indomitable spirit that kept him up.

and it was to make this corps fifty thousand strong very justly believed that. amountino" to nearlv one hundred thousand men of all command arms. The man to whom the President first looked was. Pennsylvania. 1864. and the force under his including the Army of the Shenandoah. to report at Washington and undertake the It was determined organization of this veteran corps. So Ilancock was ordered. hesitated to re-enter the service in regiments recruited since their own enlistments . the old soldiers would at once flock in the short- to the standard. and made his headquarters at Winchester. With this force it was expected a decisive blow. division embracing the departments of West Virginia. Hancock's sword could not be sjDared from the field in the last terrible strusfc^le for the extinction of the Con- So he w^as again ordered to the front. . But this corps of veterans proved a correct one. Feb. 1865. in command of the Middle Military Division. in regard both to the length and severity of his service. the field Veteran soldiers. and the force be recruited This idea est possible time. with Hancock at the head of . so it was thought advisable to raise a corps which should consist of veterans alone. this oriranization. on the 26th of November.192 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF callins: into ment considered the best means of this desirable element. was destined never to be Events were marching fast. 27. and called into action. . the federate army. the chief of all the veteran general officers of the army and that man was General Hancock. having been once honorably discharged. and Washington.

April 9. No 3'oung officer. with apprehensions. was made at Appomattox Court-House. as the exigencies of the campaign But the end came sooner than was should demand. given for gallant and meritorious services at the battle of Spottsylvania. In manners. inquiring. Hancock was the man he wanted to . to co-operate with the Army of the Potomac. benignant in repose. Lee's defence of Petersburg collapsed. and the surrender of his decimated. ever reported to him and went away with any other feeling than that servo under for life. anticipated. no man ever surpassed him. 1865." The sketch of General Hancock's military services " during the active period of the Rebellion cannot be better closed than with the following picture of him. Genfurther official recognition of his services in the form of a brevet to Major-Generaleral Hancock had received ship in the regular army. but inspiring in danger and in earnestness. and hungry.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. in one 193 direction or the other. He is the embodiment of knightly courtesy. either on Lynchburg. as a man and as a commander. but bravely persistent troops. ragged. for the first time. would be struck. About a month before this. and General Hancock was under orders to be ready to move at a few hours' notice. blue. His figure is tall and finely shaped. yet his dignity is of the simple republican type that reminds one of the ideal Cincinnatus. on the 13th of March. His eye is clear. or to take transports for the southern coast to co-operate with General Sherman. : served under him ' ' — by one who knew and General Hancock appears the very beau ideal of the soldier.

orders ever bestrode a horse. brave. alwaj's kindliness itself. from first to last.194 " To LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF his subordinates he was . made him think he amounted to a good deal more than he ever before suspected. when he received them the}' became his himself. . . Yet after the lesson was taught. the wound was at once healed by some attention. reproof. The had come in personal contact with their commander that thev had made him think were reliable men and when the crisis came. He was severe in his requirements. There are brilliant reputations whose dead and living owners owe them to that loyal performance of dutv. without or murmuring questioning. Hancock's first Division Commander. He officers all felt that the}'^ . who was himself generally in hot water with his official superiors. willing to do an3'thing and be anything in the service of his country. so kindly and so gi'acious. that splendid veteran and stubborn fighter. on the other for was not a to wished be hand. " Thus he was to his subordinates. more and more statesmen . thing twice. " Happy for the Republic like this had " I more sons. good. that the object of it felt at last that he had really gained by the transaction. they Hancock's they would rather die than destro}' that opinion. Major-General 'Baldy' Smith said of Hancock He was the most lo3^al subordinate I ever knew. He went forward cheerfullv. put one at his ease at once gave confidence made a He man think better of himself. men and ' : always tried to carry out his orders in their spirit as well as to the letter. in the accomplishment of what was assigned to him. This was one of the great secrets of Hancock's success on the field. and sometimes made his colonels and generals wish that they were au^'^vhere but under the plain severity of his talk.' own and it a part and parcel of soldiers. and whatever he might think of them. What he was to his No more loyal executor of superiors is a matter of history.

and of a his troops. 195 CHAPTER XYIII. He was. man. Hancock as a Commander. under him says " He was There was not a universally beloved by his soldiers. He was one of the strictest disciplinarians in the army. that did not admire him. but the love and admiration of He was of splendid appearance. beyond all. most magnetic manner. One instance I remember. Second Corps. is General Hancock was a commander who secured not only the confidence. he impressed all who came in contact with him with his thoroug-h earnestness." — diers for their General. sympathetic as well as strict. during the campaign of Lincoln and McCiellan. — An Incident of Gettysburg. the officers and soldiers indulged in pretty free discussions of the conduct of the war on the part of the administration. which One of those who sei'ved : . kindly as well as stern. There was not a soldier in his largest command who would not die happy under Hancock's approving eye there was not one who failed to feel the electric shock which ran through the whole line when Hancock rode into sight . from a private to the highest officer. Charge with the — The Invincible Bayonet.WINTIELD SCOTT HAKCOCK. and. moreover. Hancock issued a general order. on the field of battle. — " A Soldier's Duty General Walker describes his Character and Habits. — " Gentlemen. — Custer Sketches him at "Williamsburg. In the fall of 1864." — The Secret of Hancock's Genius. — The Love and Admiration of his Solto Obey and Fight.

was on General Hancock's staff at one time durintr the war. When the war is over you can criticise as much as you like. and he could not tolerate others. AValker.' was this strict conscientiousness.' he said. Gen. Until then. who has had charsre of the takino: of the United States census of 1870 and 1880. first of all. this unswervinir purpose to compel respect for what is right. in the He could conceive of no highest sense of that phrase. 'is to a soldier's duty It is to obey and " fight. ' was read stop the Rebellion. It seemed to travel through the an ideal army like a great wave. Our first duty. and. It is needless to It say that he was everywhere beloved and admired. v\^ell as an executor of for is generally considered as incompatible that a . He was.196 LIFE AND rUBLIC SERVICES OF to every regiment. which gave the foundation to the noble character of General Hancock. Francis A. was with admiration of the soldier and respect " for the man. His presence in Hancock was the camp or along the line was like an mii)ulse which every soldier felt. true to himself. military genius he was a tactician of great skill and adroitness. in substance. seldom that you find these qualities in one man. sible for it to was impos- be otherwise when one saw the force of his As a character and his enthusiasm and energy. deviation in the slightest degree from the straight path of honor for himself. General Walker says of him General filled : commander. as is it It energy and power. commanding that all this should cease. like every one else who came to know him. not to talk. it in He personified moral force as clearly and vividly as he did physical courage.

that wild. Custer. George A. ft 197 was almost cunning should be combined General Hancock possessed with dash and industry. younger man to the veteran. as to become simply one of the illustrations of his of self-consciousness in time sublime strenirth of character. was a cadet at West Point. duty of appearing to answer before the stern professors at the military academy for a madcap escapade in which he had then recently 'indulged. Gen. serving to relieve him from the unpleasant . in twenty years at of character in sence West Point but they had one element common which certainly attracted the . moreover. describes Hancock on the day when he had turned the and awaited flank of the Confederates at Williamsburg . It is interestinof to read some of Custer's sketches of his experiences Avith Hancock. full of animal spirits. There he fell sent to down with General Hancock. He was a fiery young fellow. left among his posthumous papers when he met his cruel fate on the Rosebud. dashing. they are at once so free and so fresh. jn approached combined with it Avas so more substantial traits cock. This was an utter ab- of danger. and wonderfully versatile young cavalry leader. and the two seemed to apHancock w\as Custer's senior by preciate each other. and at once applied to be sent to the field this application." At the breaking out of the war. One of these. So he was General Smith's headquarters in the Army of the Potomac. sagacity which both to a hio'h des^ree. . In this recklessness HanCuster's case. to make himself useful and wait for a more definite assignment.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK.

Fort Magruder. Custer wrote : — " Haucock's orders prevented him from advancing bc^'ond the position he then held. Hancock. It was two o'clock when the last acceding to his request. and conse- quently the enemy's entire line. the division commander. From his position to Sumner's headquarters. urged General Sumner. anxious regarding Hooker's position on the left. sent a staff officer. directed arrived. as early as eleven o'clock. Hancock awaited it necessarj^ to be taken. that with a command. sent a back to represent the situation of affairs and to reinforcements. and to retire to the redoubt covering the crossini2f over the dam. heartily approving staff officer of Hancock's views. but not to advance. General Sumner. messen2:er '& " Those who have seen Hancock when affairs with which . urging in stronger terms the importance of promptly reinforcing him in order that he might at once decide the battle by driving the enemy from their works. came. Fully impressed with the importance of the point he held. and which furnished the key to the enemy's position. The request was delivered to Genrequest eral Smith. would not have justified him in proceeding against Fort Magruder unless numbers. declined. and instead of him to relinquish the vantage-ground already gained. was untenable the moment he chose to advance. "Again Hancock by the circuitous route several miles. however. then senior officer on the field. was the reply to his second It appeal with unfeigned anxiety. The strength of his forces.198 events with LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF tlie whole rebel army in front of him and a small brigade of sixteen hundred of his own men by his side. and instead directed Hancock to hold his ground. to grant the request. however. who. closely supported by at least twice his own reasonable force at his His position was such.

remarked. .' The moments flew by till an hour had elapsed since the ^ 'It is * ' departure of the last messenger. in the end. can imagine the manner in wliich he received the order to retire. His was a difficult but. was despatched at a gallop to hasten. Hancock was wrought up by not at all loath to express his condemnation of the policy. the expected and long-hoped-for message from Old Bull. his first duty as a soldier was to obey. and with feelings the attendant circumstances. I will then withdraw. 199 he was counected were not conducted in conformity with his views. and more fully explaining the importance of his position.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. from. urgent appeal from Hancock for assistance. now two o'clock. increased with each passing moment. of which he has ever seemed quarters. But little was going on in his front save the usual sharpshooting between skirmisliers at long range j^et each discharge of a musket seemed to add to the anxiety of him whose imperturbability has never rendered him remarkable. at a loss for expletives. Never which. great but he assumed it. was not only plainly unnecessary. trusting to events to justify his Another staff officer was sent back. if possible. an Inexhaustible supply. After receiving the order to withdraw. in conversation with the writer. and urged him to remain and make one more effort The responsibilit}' was to secure the adoption of his views. and still no reply from headHancock's impatience. so far as he personally was concerned. to have . his standpoint. bearing a most course. Hancock. position to occupy. Taking out his watch. rendered more imperative from the fact of its being a reply to his request for authority and troops to enable him to advance. if no reply reaches me from licadquarters. Messenger after messenger was ordered upon this errand. I shall wait till four. must prove disastrous. His judgment rebelled against such a course. until the hour-hand marked the hour of ' " A ' fourth staff officer .' as General Sumner was familiarly termed by the entire army.

We all kno^v^ what was the outcome of Hancock's anxious waitinfj behind the Confederate works at WilReinforcements did not come. LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF and still no orders came. if no orders reach me during that time.200 four. general. There is a pecular way. and who pictures Hancock not as a demi-god. and he had liamsburg. Hancock." "He — aids. adjutant- for orders and charm in getting such a glimpse " of the "superb Hancock as this sketch affords. It was hard for the 3'oung brigade commander believed was within to relinquish the victory which he justly his grasp. he said. with a faltering hope. to meet alone the charge of Longstreet's and Early's But Custer describes it in such an entertaining troops. drawn by a young trooper who regarded less the dignity than the fun of every situation. He had said he would with- draw still at four o'clock. deprived of the assistance of every member of his own staff. riding along the line encouraging his men to do theu' duty in the fast approaching Aim low. I must was then without a staff officer. "•'The enemy were advancing busied himself ' b}- and urging them struggle. but as very much a man. that we reproduce his story : — rapidly and confidently. and. men —aim low/ was his oft-repeated . but when the hour arrived it found liim anxious and eager to carry out his first plan of battle. none having returned from the division commander. and all having been hurried back reinforcements. I will wait a half hour ' longer retire. throwing such strong side-lights on Hancock's feelings and actions at this time.' .

that at the the fighting on both sides became terribly in earnest. galloping along his lines.martial for disobedience of orders. dashing courage. to To him the coming contest was destined : become more than an ordinary victory or defeat if the former. The Confederates. to the treatment which would be meted out to him who. and its personal consequences . His brilliant. saying. injunction nearer. 3'ou must hold this ground. has shown that he requires no personal motive to inspire him to deeds of heroism. It was probably with thoughts of defeat. hat in hand.' It was but the utterance of the thought that was passing through his mind at that moment.WIXriELD SCOTT HANCOCK. — — of a court. and his command was threatened with annihilation. to the sensitive and high-minded soldier. all would be well. and the firing loudest. with a courage which has never been sur- . and no unhappy criticisms would follow him if defeat and defeat under the circumstances implied the loss or capture of most if not all of his command then death upon the battle-field was far preferable. Hancock. strove in every possible manner to inspire his troops " "Hancock. 201 they come and. appealed to his troops. the latter permitted them to approach undisturbed. within easy range of the guns of Hancock's men. ' Men. in tones which even the din of battle could not drown. and it neither checked nor added to the ardor with which Hancock deports himself in battle. displayed upon scores of battle-fields since the one here referred to. or I am ruined.' . but had remained until obedience was no longer practicable. realizing to the fullest extent his precarious situation. the perfect model of a field-marshal that moment when he has since proven himself to be. with confidence. in violation of positive orders had repeatedly declined to withdraw his command. ' Do not be in a hurry to fire until Although the enemy had advanced nearly a thousand yards across an open and nearly level plain.

whose ranks had been terribly thinned. was the only mounted officer along the Federal line. and never ceasing to utter their inspiring battle-cry. to the assaulting column. were much exhausted. or had they been the veterans of either army. it is probable that their advance would never have crossed the fence. however. aim.202 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF passed by the troops upon either side. The fence seemed to offer no obstacle. boldly advanced. and neither exhibited signs of wavering. " About forty 3'ards in front of Hancock's line. regarded victory as doubtful. the fire of whose guns remained unabated. who had been constantly seen where the danger was most imminent. deUvering their fire from a halt. unlike the former. Hancock. separated the contending forces. protected by the questionable cover of the rails. and from there returned the terribly destructive fire their enemies were pouring into their ranks. would have made a stand. and who. . was an ordinary rail fence. who four 3"ears later had been thoroughly schooled into the idea that breastworks and courage were almost inseparable adjuncts in the art of war. observed this hesitation. saw that victory was within offensive. and who. now exhibited signs of faltering. and determined to resume the "With that excessive politeness of manner which . from their long and rapid march across a heavy and yielding soil. ttie Confederates. and with deliberate . his grasp. The who but a moment before most Federals. but. with one exception. and parallel to it. added to their constant yelling since the opening of the attack. " When within twenty paces of the Federal troops. in four heavy lines. The Confederates thh-ty paces "But now were losing ten to one of the Federals the latter. and gave forth cheers of exultation. which still advanced. The advanced line of the less Confederates reached this fence and had they been brave. as it had started. delivering their fire as rapidly as possible.

even while giving a statistician's estimate of his old commander. already wavering. Hancock. it is the first believed. battle-flag captured from the being. arriving on the battle-field at this moment. enemy by princes the Army of the Potomac. They also captured one battle-flag. which soon ter- minated in a rout. late assailants. the gentlemen — brought their bayonets down to the position of the charge. The Federals. and immediately the men — no. General ** Walker says all : — we have before General Hancock had the instincts of a staff oflScer in . receive the charge. But General Walker. The Confederates.' The order was responded to with a hearty cheer from the entire line. He altogether a different sort of man a is scholarly. characterizes 203 ing to his quet rather than fellow-beings to a life-and-death struggle."- the bearer of the captured colors to army headquar- General Walker is from Custer. shows that enthusiastic admiration burns in his breast as well. quiet. less exhausted than their were able to overtake and capture large numbers of the Confederates.WmriELD SCOTT HANCOCK. In continuation of what quoted. One of the French on General McClellan's staff. the Due d'Orleans. cried out in tones well-befitting a Stentor : him when everything is being conducted accordliking. required but this last effort upon the part Not waiting to of their opponents to relinquish the contest. as if conducting guests to a ban- — ' ' ' Gentlemen^ charge with the bayonet. was serving made ters. and moved forward to the encounter. they began their retreat. and exact — complete contrast to the untamed genius whose redsilk neckerchief used to flame so inspiringly at the head of his troopers.

He might have been the inspector-general. He had a love for all the details of the camp and of the maix-h. giving a great deal of his tune and personal attention to questions relating to regulations. He was not willing to run any risks. for the care he exercised. was due to this incessant wakefulness and vigilance.' When in various reports. He would do work that any other general would leave to his adjutant. His presence ." Genei'al Hancock was Second Corps. and a man who. and was nearly read}' to drop. whether under a tree. I can see that Hancock's almost invarialile . Ho had worshipj>C(l l>y the men of the come to the command of that corps with a record as one of the most brilliant and successful fighters in the army. but was on the field in person. This was not but alwaj's the pleasantest position for a subordinate officer looking back now. and a capacit}" to He was immensely particular. Then he had a ' what is known in the army as from a very lively experience. receive and understand them. even though of a routine nature. to breaches of discipline. he would send for me.inspiriting legends of the war embalmed his name. when I had worked twelve or fourteen hours during the da}'. Oftentimes. and he knew that a single word success misunderstood might cause disaster to his troops or make him lose a victor}-. generally speaking. and to the perfect passion for I remember this Papers. be written with the greatest punctilio and care. in the rain.204 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF - regard to keeping up the discipline and the condition of his command. battle he never issued commands from the rear. The uuOrders and letters must necessar}' attention to nice points. paid apparently. Even after he had given an order he would himself see that it was carried out. or in headquarters. and for two hours longer he would keep me in his tent. He knew what he wanted. going over a great mass of correspondence and orders.

WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. and. The other general was also shot not many feet away. whose Barksdale. recognized the ace of clubs on our caps. It was a scene which I will never forget. as well as a gold watch. boys. he asked Hancock to forward with the message. from Mississippi I name forscet. The wearers of the trefoil badge not only believed. from Louisiana. we are lost Here is the The next instant he fell from Army of the Potomac his horse. and under his command the troops realized were guided by a wise and masterful hand. Two Confederate generals led the charge. and recruits. Over the two lines of the front corps the enemy charged upon us and came up the ridge. which. as he lay on the ground. the moment he saw our lines. the Confederates only expected to meet raw troops. but the Union militia soldiers were merely Pennsylvania . 205 brought confidence even in the most desperate circumstances. lie lived a few minutes." . They had been told that the Army of the Potomac was not there. and shouted My God. they knew. LLancock went ^ : ! ' ! over to him. in his last moments. and a story which one of them tells about Gettysburg shows that they fully believed the enemy had the same appreciation of the invincibility of Hanthat they cock's corps. received the djdng man's last message to his wife. that nothing could stand before them and Hancock. one named and the other. shot through the heart. This is the story: "When Pickett's division made its charge. The Louisiana general. and. bending down.




sought the benefit of his wisdom and his moral courage to aid in preserving the peace which he had conquered. Knowledge Character befitting a Democratic Statesman. and which has in a period of General Hanto display another phase of secured him recognition by the great constitutional party of the country as the fittest of its sons to take in hands the guidance of the Eepublic. grateful for his valiant services in the hour of peril to the Kepublic on the bloody field of battle. How it Developed under the Influence of his Career. as shown in his public life. His Administrative Learning to Obey and then to Command. well to pause and review the growth and development of General Hancock's character. aroused by the occasion. Things.CHAPTER — I. Hancock's Character. A Man of the People. It was a further development of the great gifts of mind and of heart with which the Creator had endowed him not a sudden or accidental phenomenon whose permanence could not be trusted. The Discipline of Army Service. His Inheritance of Patriotism. up to the time when his And here it may be country. or a spasmodic or emotional imhis . His Strong Purpose in Life. — — — — — — — — Theke now approached cock's life which he was that grand character which has given him rank among the foremost public men of the age. pulse. . to vanish when the excitins: cause should be removed. A Well-rounded of and Men Ability.

. The honors which it. the boy gave promise of the man. with the memories of the great struggle for independence and the rights of man clustering thick about the vallevs and hills and rivers of his native And of these memories his ancestors had country. He inherited an upright name. as a boy. name had come to him by were those of a patriot yeomanry. Further than this. Neither descent. and a physical constitution well fitted to match his ancestors bore . The scion of the race of His early home influences fostered a proper and symmetrical development of his character. ennobled by intelligent labor and by an honoral^le performance of the duties of free citizens. the legacy left of Washington. never tarnished by so much as a shade of falsehood or unworthiness a sound intellect. no effbi-t and no sacrifice were too They struggled. with brave hearts and earnest souls. in the life of Hancock. but not For the education of their children. sturdy Pennsylvania farmers was. ground. The story of the hard fight of the poor colonists for freedom and for local self-government was his story his and him by those of his name blood who had battled and suflered by the side . He had a good father and mother. great.210 LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF I AVe have seen how. penurious. The blood of Revolutionary ancesHe was born on historic tors flowed in his veins. he was a son of the riches nor a great soil. He was a patriot by descent and by tradition. and conquered a place for themselves and for their boys in the world. They were poor. one of the best products of the land. formed part.

after a long interval. in which labor was made cheerful. wholesome. he was eagerly first in the place of danHe was not only daring. putting a young lieutenant. no matter what it cost him in labor or pain. working life. to be true to himself whatever might happen. He learned to be helpful to others. 211 Hancock was brought up amidst this earnest. This found him on the western verge of the Union. strongly developed by this experience. of persistence in what he knew to be his duty was upon it . The parents of Hancock seem to have bred in him an honorable ambition which directed his career very disand when he left home for the West Point tinctly . amid a disloyal community.WINFIELD SCOTT HAlfCOCK. As a youthful soldier in the Mexican war. Hancock's character was such that whatever he put his hand to he must do it well. in which the youth grew to manhood and acquired a knowledge of men and of the ways of the world. Academy he took with him a lofty purpose which found expression in earnest devotion to preparation for his opporeven as of to the test the tunity power which. he felt within him. He saw a career before him. His impulse to action chosen profession. with scores of the brightest . came the test of the Rebellion. but brave and the trait ger. to bear bravely what burdens came to his lot. and a strong purpose moved every member of the little family to accomplish something for the common good. and to trust in God. Then. to enter and the spirit within him urged him forward and fulfil his destiny. And then how eagerly he embraced the first was irresistible.

and that which formed It was as a Democrat the basis of the great Republic. that which he had sworn to preserve. In this hard school of war he showed that he possessed a judgment of men and of means that was quick and accurate that he had fertility of resource and . Hancock developed those rare administrative powers which made him the model commander as well as the brave soldier. readiness in execution . Hancock was essentially and thoroughly a Democrat.212 LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF his old and bravest of comrades going over boldly to Did he hesitate ? Not for an the support of secession. It was his creed by inheritance. instant. which gave into his hands such vast responsibilities. It was a prompt utterance of his inbred belief. gave his best energies. his strength. It was not even a choice tliat he made. It that he hastened to the preser^^ation of this Union. Others possessed this quality and yet never rose. and that his talent. and his life belonged to the people to save his and their priceless inheritance. that he could rule men with justice as he could lead them with And when it was necessary to brilliant valor. j In the war of the Union. It was his solid character. and shed his blood in its preservation. I An "indestructi- " was what he believed ' was that for which his ancestors fouijht. that this government of the people must be preserved. It was not alone his dashing personal valor Avhich brought him so rapidly to high command. his true wisdom. stir the people to a . and by the force of his instructed conscience. by education. ble union of indestructible States in.

or misty and unstable. and to present to the loyal but weary North. as in every field to which he had been called in the performance of his duty. it was Hancock who Tvas chosen to Legislatures. we have administrator. 213 greater earnestness in filling up the depleted ranks of oar volunteer army. or as a self-sacrificing patriot. his close knowledge of men and of thinofs. Up to the point to which we have now followed his seen his character develop in strength and power. He. but as a strong man and a wise course. to organize public meetings. to meet in consultation with merchants and business men. . showed him- every station a ruler of the people by his native force. so essentially a man of the self in }3eople. and prove whether his belief in the principles on which our Republic is founded was intelligent and subHow nobly he proved stantial. not merely as a brilliant soldier. It was a mission as far removed as possible from the work of leading troops to the assault of a salient. He was soon to be called to duties which should test his statesmanship in the sharpest way. But here. himself. his wise judgment. and probably no general commander in the Union army could have succeeded as did Hancock. Hancock showed an ability which conquered effective success.WIKFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. in an visit manner. the records of the Eepublic tell. the necessities for further effort.

1865. when. His headquarters were still in the valley of the Shenandoah. Arrest and Trial of the ConAssassination of President Lincoln. 1865. General against — — — General Hancock's TenderAlso her Spiritual Adviser. as on that dreadIt seemed to most patriotic ful Friday in April. and in a period of the greatest excite- ment. that men looked in each other's faces with the despair which comes over the distrust . and the grievous wounding The whole people were never of Secretary Seward. called Before General Hancock was those administrative duties upon to assume whose performance has given him world-wide fame as a civil executive. — — — posts Couriers to Carry a Pardon. the conspiracy airainst the administration culminated in the assassination of President Lincoln. — His Grief and Anxiety. ment. Surratt's Hancock. people as though the sun of liberty had gone into perA feeling of such universal fear and petual eclipse. He ness toward the Unfortunate Woman and her Daughter. he had to pass through an ordeal which tested his powers and proved his strength of character under the most trying circumstances.214 LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF CHAPTER — II. pervaded the nation. even when confronted with the severest disasters in the field. on April 14. before so shaken and unnerved. makes a StateCounsel Mrs. Mrs. Surratt. of Execution Charges of Cruelty spirators.

having under him about one hundred thousand men. a man each other. He was military commander of the District. as Provost-Marshal of the District. in AYashington now who can be said to men trusted in any emergency. General Hancock simply transmitted the order for the execution as it came to him from his superior officer. or with their watching and General Hartranft was the care. commander of the Arsenal in which they were confined. and when there is no longer any hope for mankind. Thank God. now that the fever of excitement has passed away. and. that the execution of Mrs. the President of the United States. during the days of the trial of the conspirators. But with the trial of the prisoners. carried out the execution of the death-penalty." General Hancock remained in Washington. doubt entertained by unprejudiced men. soul 215 when nature experiences some awful cataclysm.WINFIELD SCOTT HANGOQK. General Hancock was summoned at once to AYashThe extent of the conspiracy soon became ington. known. attended to the details of their imprisonment. Surratt was a murder under the forms of military law. and until after their execution. But it is unjust to charge the blame for this horrible error upon Secretary Stanis There little . ington was known over by is the country. and he. and contributed greatly to When Hancock's presence in Washallay the terror. as it soon was announced " telegraph. he had nothing to do. with the President and the Secretary of War only as his superiors. and the measures taken by him to confront the secret peril were thorough. by order of President Johnson. after the sentence.

It was. and by providing for the quick transmission of a pardon or a reprieve. more the work of Stanton's party than of the reven£]:eful Secretarv himself. it is only ignorance of history which can excuse such animadversions upon his course as have been made in some quarters. Stanton been a difierent man. he yet did what he could. As a soldier. this loud clamor for although it came with the most merciless he depended. And at this late day.216 LIFE-AlsD PUBLIC SERVICES OF ton and his "Department of Justice. up to the last foment. assassination had been resorted to as a remedy for what were considered wrongs and even the sober judgment of the Had people was shaken by this terrible development. General Hancock's share in this tragedy was. he might have restrained. Surratt with her counsel and friends. whole business was entirely outside of his sphere. as we reiteration from the party on whom have stated. the . cumstances were peculiar. and interested himself by advice to her daughter. only that of a spectator charged with maintaining the peace and order daring the operations of the judicial and executive departments. . against. as military commander. indeed. he hoped might be granted. political . or at least stood firm victims. of course. which. he had a peculiar abhorrence of the idea of executing the penalt}^ of death upon a woman and while." cruel and vindictive as the Secretary of War and his agents showed themselves on many occasions. to facilitate the communication of Mrs. For the first time in the history of the American Republic. For back of them The cirthere was a terrible popular cry for blood.

1880. Hon. . . Mary E. and for the trial and execution rested entirely on and was assumed by the President and Secretary of War and the Judge -Advocate. were the counsel for Mrs. Esq. Hancock from the time of the commencement of the trial until the execution as to alleged acts of unkindness of the General towards Mrs. : Dear ratt.. as I am informed. W. on the morning or day of the execution and whether the responsibility for the organization of the Commission.General and whether. . present and cogthat took place on the trial. permit me to in 1865. her spiritual advisers. John W. C. S. 1880. John Clampitt.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. 217 Surratt. as to the relative position and conduct of Gen. the only surviving one of the counsel who defended Mrs. ence. D. — As also were. and connected with the proceedings up to the time of the execution. that prefer to let the actors in that terrible drama speak for themselves. and the protector of her unfortuate daughter. relations of General Hancock is to the sad Judge Clampitt promptly responded. of Illinois. ment of the affair. Suron her trial before the Military Commission at Washington Sir. and all nizant of inquire and ask of you a candid statement of the facts. in the events spiritual adviser. jou. Surratt. : date given — This correspondence herewith Washington. 111. join in warm praise of General Hancock's sympathetic words The counsel of Mrs. Lake County. and her . On the 17th of July. Bartley of we Washington addressed a letter of inquiry to Hon. W. Clampitt. under of July 22. Highland Park. asking his state- W. T. and on this occasion but the whole story is so clearly and effectively set forth in recent correspondacts . July 17. her daughter Anna. also. Surratt.

C. tion or responsibility whatsoever. etc. because known to me. Bartley. I was counsel for the late Mrs. W. and relating to the position and conduct of Gen. General Hancock had an}" discretion or responsibility whatsoever. on the morning of the execution. 1880. my testi- mony may be of interest in the establishment of truth and the furtherance of justice. Very respectfully. I was counsel of that most unfortunate from as me. wronged the only surviving counsel of that deeplylad}^. and for the trial and execution. as to those matters which took place.. whether the responsibility for the organization of the Commission.218 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF which took place connected therewith. Mrs. Bartlet. SuiTatt. and to her and. Highland Park. some your principal actors. General Hancock had any discre. As prolonged and conversant with all its details. T. and took a deep interest in her case. Sun-att. is at hand. Mary E. the trial. July 22. Hon. also. rested entirely on and were assumed by the spiritual adviser . that it affords me great pleasure to accede to 3'our request.. of which bear directly upon the inquiries contained in its — and and the important facts connected with — letter. Your prompt reply hereto will be an additional act of yours in the cause of justice and truth. Lakh CorNXY. letter of the 20th inst. requesting lad}^. . I desire to state in repl}^. further. : before the Military Commission at Washington in 1865. Hancock from the time of the commence- connected with her trial ment of the trial until the execution . a candid statement of the facts My Dear Sir. — Your Washington. and one who was present at each day of the trial. W. the daughter of Mrs. T. Surratt. W. to the alleged unkindness of General Hancock to Anna. D. III. President and his legal advisers and whether. S.

211. and the attempted assassination of the Hon. Second. Surratt. the eighth day of May. to wit : — " "Executive Chamber. and as recorder thereof. Atzerodt. and as follows. for the purpose of said trial. and their aiders and abettors. or trials. May 1. was from the President of the United States. in person. Samuel A. said trials be conducted with all diligence consistent with the ends of justice. are suband lawfully triable before a Military : it is ordered First. that Brevet Major-General Hartranft be assigned to duty as special Provost Marshal-General. Edward Spangler. That said trial." By special orders No. through the office of the Adjutant-General. and bring them to trial before said Military Commission. City. Seward. and that the Judge-Advocate- Commission General proceed to prefer charges against said parties for their alleged offences. from the War Department.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. Lewis Payne. George A. and attendance upon said Commission. that the said Commission establish such order or rules of proceeding as may avoid unnecessary delay. a Military Com- mission was appointed to meet at Washington. ject to the jurisdiction of. for the trial of David E. be conducted by the said JudgeAdvocate-General. aided by such assistant and special judge-advocates as he may designate and that . and conduce to the ends of public justice. Michael O'Laughlan. 1865. and in an alleged conspiracy to assassinate other officers of the Federal Gov- ernment at Washington . 219 The order originating the Military Commission which tried and condemned Mrs. Washington City. Samuel Arnold. Mudd. Mary E. and such other prisoners as might be brought . the said Commission to sit without regard to hours. on Monday. Surratt. Third. (Signed) " Andrew Johnson. William H. and the execution of its mandates. Secretary of State. The Attorney-General of the United States hath given his opinion that the persons implicated in the murder of the late President Abraham Lincoln. that the Assistant AdjutantGeneral detail nine competent military officers to serve as a Commission for the trial of said parties. Harold. Whereas.

} \ "To Major-General " y^. Judge. Volunteers. Commanding the Middle Military Division. Harris.Advocate. S. On the fifth day of July. William II. S. and the attempted assassination of the Secretary' of State. S. when the findings of the Commission were transmitted to the President of the United States.220 before it. Volunteers. 211. to wit : — "TTae. By the Military Commission appointed 4 special orders No. Burnett appeared as Assistant Judge. L. Department. M. in the following militar}' order. U. Volunteers. D. V. Adjutant-Gen- in . and Atzerodt. Cavalry. Howe. Clendenin. S. Volunteers. without further general or special orders affecting the personnel of the Commission. July 5. U. A. U. S. Payne. U. " " Robert S. 1865. Volunteers. LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF charged with the murder of the late President Abraham Lincoln. for his approval. S. on the 30th of June. Ekin. Hancock. Harold. H. U. U. Lieutenant-Colonel David R. " "Washixgtox. dated War paragraph Department. etc. Foster. The trial of the parties arraigned proceeded from da}' to day until its close.Commission by the President was as follows : — Major-General David Hunter. 1865. Brigadier-General Albion P. through the Secretary of War. Brevet Major-General A. Brevet Brigadier-General Jas. C : Whereas. S. Bin2:ham and Brevet Colonel H. 1865. Army. Seward. John A. transmitted through the Adjutant-General of the army. S.Advocates. Brevet Colonel C. U. Volunteers. ADjrxAxx-GEXERAL's Office. S. Surratt. Washington. Brigadier-General Joseph Holt. 8th 111. United States Volunteers. Tompkins. Volunteers. " "' Lewis Wallace. Kautz. " " " T. the President approved the findings of the Commission and ordered the execution of Mrs. The detail for the Militar}. U.

were found and sentenced as hereinafter stated. A. 1865. that the sentences in " David E. A." From eral the official proceedings it will be observed that Gen- Hancock had nothing whatever to do with the organiza- tion of this Military Commission. Harold. May 6. to wit : — " Executive Mansion. and Mary E. Atzerodt. and Mary E. and after mature consideration of evidence adduced in their cases. Surratt be carried into execution authority. 221 eraPs Office. between the hours of 10 o'clock a. Lewis Payne. Ass't Adjutant. TOWNSEND. A. and of which Major-General David Hunter. in accordance with the President's order." Therefore. who had been designated by the President in Executive Order. Lewis in the cases of Payne and Mary E. G. by the proper military War. Atzerodt. Atzerodt. The foregoing sentences Lewis Payne. Harold. Surratt ) " And whereas. m. G A. dated May 1. on the seventh day bi. " By command of the President of the United States. 1865. and it is ordered the cases of David E. Surratt to be duly executed. Atzerodt. It is true that the order of the President directing the execution of the condemned parties was transmitted through the commandant of the military post to Major-General Hartranft. as a special Provost-Marshal for the purpose of said trial and attendance . under the direction of the Secretary of of July.General. the following persons were tried. nor did he possess any discretion in the matters relating thereto in any degree whatsoever. the President of the United States has approved the foregoing sentences in the following order. President. and 2 o'clock p. Lewis " (Signed) " Andrew Payne. of that day. you are hereby commanded to cause the foregoing sentences in the cases of David E. Surratt are licrebj^ approved. was President. United States Volunteers. July 5. G. Harold. Harold. G. Johnson. and Mary E. " E. 1865 (and above quoted). 1865. as follows (Here follow the findings and : — sentences in the cases of David E. nor its was he in the slightest its for degree responsible organization. Washington. D.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. or the execution of mandates .

It could not have been otherwise in feature and form. May 1. and assert these facts as be3'ond contradiction. of which Washington Cit}'. The act. the order of the President. Beinir chief in command of that Militarv Division. while standing on the platform beside the prisoners. the findings of the Military Commission and the President's order of api)roval.. I was an ej'e. President. It is a notable fact that Brevet Major-General Hartranft. comprising several States. Order. through the AYar Department. 1865) to execute the mandates of the Commission that condemned Mrs. The President's order for the execution of Mrs. but was the President's order. Surratt was sentenced to death. and not judicial. was in command of a geographical Military Division. from the very nature of the miUtary organization of the government and General Hancock its regulations and rules of procedui'e. which was performed in obedience to an order of the Commandant was not Hancock's act. Surratt to death. had inevitably' to pass through him for transmission to the officer specially designated b}' the same authority (Ex. and his ill-advisers and Andi'ew Johnson is in his grave." 222 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF upon said Commission and the execution of its mandates. was a part at the time Mrs. In this General Hartranft performed his dut}' as the subordinate officer of the President from. after first reading. Surratt was not the order of Hancock. where his headquarters had been located b}' the President's order. . whom Marshal. he had derived his powers as Special ProvostThe functions of General Hancock were purely '' ministerial as the of the Militar}' Post. with Andrew Johnson. having power to command. gave the verbal order of execution. but the act of his superior. and was made on the responsibilThe responsibilty of that order rested it}^ of the President. and he took no part in the execution. ." etc.witness to the execution. and not Major-General Hancock.

by denying her the assistance of a priest. where. and punished as such.WINTIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. but it says : — " That any officer. A. with the intent to remain permanently absent therefrom. on the morning of the execution of Mrs. when. He may tender it. Surratt. No officer of the army has the right to resign his commission at his own pleasure. as every intelligent citizen remains with the government to accept. As to the point. having tendered his resignation. in . 5." In this instance. that he was deeply moved in her behalf. which has been published. who. to due notice of the acceptance of the same by the proper prior authority. shall. and had many and diversified duties ities to perform and no soldier. in my . Nov. and without leave. and diswhether. As my own tressed on her account. There can coimnand of the and responsibilpost. He was properly avoid the performance of his duty by deserting the post to which that duty belongs. and it is effectually refuted by the testimony of the Rev. Walter. no citizen in fact. he refused her the privilege of having the spiritual consolation of her religion. General Hancock retained his post and performed his duty. of the United States Army Regulations. J. knows. shall be registered as a deserter. which has come to knowledge. dated Washington. this charge I know to be untrue. I can testify of knowledge. can be no weight in that suggestion. Art. or proper duties. The 24th paragraph. This testimony is in the form of a letter addressed by Father Walter to General Hancock. It has 223 been suggested that General Hancock should have resigned rather than have been the passive medium through which the order for execution was transmitted. on account of the order of a superior over whom he has no control. 14. 1879. her spiritual adviser. quit his post. Surratt. the counsel of Mrs. and how it pleases.

A. It is a fact sustained by the records of the Court. ordering the Comthe Military District in which she was confined o'clock produce the bod}' of Mrs. his letter as follows. upon proper application. morning of the execution. to wit " I : — am at a loss how to account for this malicious report. when I came to bid her Good-by. much less in the case of this unfor- owe false whom you showed much sympathy. Rev. that General his Hancock appeared in obedience to that summons before Honor Judge Wylie. m. J. I know this to be -srhoUy The records of the Court show that on the groundless. it was in the presence of Fathers fill Walter and cell Wiget. and exonerate you from all blame. her with a charge that General Hancock refused to obey the writ of habeas corpus. compel me to deny these charges. at a very earl}' horn. This writ was by me handed to the Marshal of the Disti'ict of Columbia. of the same da}^) . sued out by me as the counsel of to the As Mrs. and two o'clock m." and pressed her . I can add my own hand in parting. Surratt in his Court at ten (the houi' of execution having been named in the p. order as between ten a.224 LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF I quote a portion of which he completely refutes the charge. SuiTatt before Judge Wylie. Walter. whose holy serenity seemed to heavenly the morning. at the earl}' hour of two o'clock. In corroboration of the foregoing explicit statement of testimony establishing the fact of the presence of her sphitual advisers as on the of the to that terrible and execution. I have always believed you to be too much of a Christian and gen" ileman to suppose for a moment that you would interfere with any one's religious tunate lady for I feelings. Judge W3die with characteristic mandant of to firmness issued the writ of habeas corpus. accompanied by the Attorney-Gen- . morning just previous " event." to truth. Duty which and strict justice to you.

President. but so prompt and clear was the performance of his dut}^. General Han- cock's appearance before the the civil process of the Court . who. 11 o'clock.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. and to know whether he would submit to or reject the If Judge Wjdie had said that he suspension of the writ." how false is the charge that General Han- cock refused to obey the writ issued by Judge Wjiie. Judge showed his respect for and it became his duty to pre- sent to the Judge the order of the President suspending the writ. The very reverse is the truth. that the writ of declare habeas corpus has been heretofore susin such cases as this . in the estimation of the Court. own inability to enforce the order of Judge Wylie acquiesced the President. to wit : — "Executive Office. upon the judgment of the Military Commission. do hereby I. that Judge Wylie complimented him on his ready obedience to the civil authority. as the representative of the President. you will give this order in return to this writ. Andrew Johnson. thus subordinating the military to the civil power of the government. Coramanding. S. (Signed) It is thus seen " Andrew Johnson. and declined in the suspension of his writ by to go any further. : President of the United States. July " To " 7. presented to Judge Wylie the following retui'n. would consider the question of validity of the order suspending the writ when Mrs. m. so far as he was permitted to do so. which was an executive order suspending the writ of habeas corpus. and pended this writ. etc. and discharged him from the process because of his the Court. Major-General W. Not only did he obey the writ. era! of the 225 United States. and I do hereby especially suspend and direct that you proceed to execute the order heretofore given. a. and directed her to be brought into Court. Sm-ratt was brought before him. 1865. General Hancock . Hancock.

General Hancock might then have been chargeable with disobe3'ing the process. and up to the very last. and I know the fact that General Hancock afforded to Mrs. Surratt every kindness in his power. complimcntiug the General for his respect for the civil There was not authority. The charge. that he refused to obey the wi'it. dismissed his proceedings here. occun'cd at the time. and Judge Wjlie insisted upon the production before him of the bod}' of Mrs. for Mrs. and was anxious. is therefore. that she should be spared by a pardon. And when Miss Anna SuiTatt called upon him at his hotel early on the morning of the execution. ' ' that there was but one thing . Had the order of the Court ex- tended further. is easily answered. wh}^ General at the Arsenal on the morning of the The application for a pardon execution. without the slightest foundation in truth. had he refused . the slightest show of any disposition on the part of General Hancock to resist the civil process of the Court. he replied. But the Judge. I was myself on the ground and deepl}' interested in all that .226 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF would doubtless have produced the body. he submitted to and showed due respect for the judicial authority. What else could he have done ? While he acted under the orders of the President. Surratt was expected to to be renewed that morning. and that on his own suggestion and he deemed it proper to be at a convenient place to afford his aid in case of a pardon. No one can at this time realize the extent of the popular frenzy and clamor for the execution of the parties condemned and . and General Hancock was dismissed by the Court from the process. The question asked Hancock was present in newspaper discussions. and asked him what she could do to save the he hoped for it life of her mother. Surratt notwithstanding the order of the President. but no such fui'ther order was made. Judge AVylie showed great judicial integrity in awarding the writ at all under the circumstances.

it should reach its desThis is the evitination promptly and before the execution. throw herself on her knees before him and beg for the hfe of She did not ask General Hancock to accompany her to the President. Louis College. Brophy. taken for coldness.WIKFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. Chief of General Hancock's This evidence is corroborated by the sworn testimony of Mr. and suspended by the President. President so act. dence of Gen. staff. as that would be unproper in him. To this fact may be ascribed his serious manner. W. in order that at points if from the White House to the a pardon or respite should be issued by the President. On the morning of the execution he met her at the Executive Mansion in the hope of seeing the President. N. whither she had gone at the suggestion of General Hancock to beg the life of her mother. little had been served and he had but time to make answer and return the same. nor could it have been expected. G. And it was unnecessary. her mother. and INIr. who did all in his power to befriend the hapless girl and aid the mother in her sorrowful condition. He was at that moment in a state of great perplexity as to the disposition of the writ of habeas corpus which upon him. and after the imprisonment of the mother he befriended the daughter. but be borne swiftly on its mission of mercy. Mr. at the last moment. It has been as her protector. Brophy was at that time a resident of Washington Cit3^ a friend of the family. Anna. that his feelings led him to believe it possible and should the for the President to relent at the last moment . His language to her certainl}^ should convey any other idea. John P. Brophy." stated that Miss Surratt thought his manner cold. Y. and that was to go to the President. Mitchell. that the reprieve might not arrive too late. and who . General Hancock had couriers stationed Arsenal. now at St. Mr. The facts show that so deeply was General Hancock moved in the matter.. Brophy. 227 remaining for her to do. was with her.

stationed mounted men along the line to the ^^Tiite House for the pui'pose of hastening the tidings should the President at the last moment all and grant a reprieve for Mrs. He also stated to Mr. I believe I have covered all the points of your inquiry in as brief and candid a manner as the importance and gravity of the subject demand. Brophy fui'ther states that he is "impelled by a sense of duty to add his testimony to others in vindication of one who has been most unjustly assailed for alleged misconduct That he is of which no brave man could possibly be guilty. Brophy that. my dear Su'. however. should a reprieve be granted by the President. is fiilh' established : . in a voice of subdued sadness.'" And now. who spoke to Anna. This much. it might be directed to him as Commandant of the Department. and that he would be at the Arsenal till the last moment to give effect to the same should it arrive. under oath. not a politician. At the Arsenal gate. told her that he He infeared there was no hope of Executive clemency. accompanying Anna Surratt to bid her mother farewell. Surratt. met General Hancock. Brophy that he had. testifies. and feels that he has done an act of simple justice to as kniglitl}' a warrior as ever saluted with his spotless sword the sacred majest}^ of the relent ' law. to convey to him any notice of reprieve from the President. I noticed mounted soldiers at intervals along the route. but loves justice. as to the hiunanity displaj'ed by General Hancock towards the un- fortunate mother and daughter. Ifowever.228 is LITE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF a geutleman of high character. The following are extracts from his sworn statement : — "On our way from the White House to the Arsenal." These were the couriers. Mr. on the morning of the execution. stationed by order of General Hancock. he. There are many facts connected with the trial and execution which I have omitted as not within the scope of 3'our that inquuy. and. formed Mr.

He never attended the sessions of the Commission. and this he did as special Provost Marshal. I mythe reflection that the ! . Surratt in her terrible ordeal. for mere pohtical effect. nor could he. permit a single reflection. which requu-ed his entire time and attention. 229 General Hancock was in no wise responsible for the organization of the Mihtary Commission that condemned Mrs. As I attended the Commission every day of the trial. by charging upon him misconduct for having in some way participated in that act which that whole party demanded and approved at the time For standing by Mrs. entire control of the matter. Surthat her trial and execution rested entu'ely on the will and determination of the President and his constiratt to death . attempt falsely and most wrongfully to injm^e a brave soldier. so as to be under the immediate dh^ectiou of the President and Secretary of War. have influenced or controlled them in the shghtest degree. the intensity of the public feeling and the demand for the execution of the condemned parties cannot now be realized and President Johnson. instead of the Military Commandant of the Post. The trial and execution spoken of were demanded at the time by the whole Republican party infuriated . and that General Hancock in all matters pertaining to the same had no discretion or responsibility whatsoever. In conclusion. who so often perilled his life to save the Union. General Hartranft attended on the Commission daily. who had the .WINTIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. and Judge-Advocate-General Holt. Secretary Stanton. I know that he was never seen about the rooms of the Commission. from his official position. but was busilv engaged in the diversified and extensive cares of the mihtary command. and simply carrjdng out its imperative demands. tutional advisers . How humihating to the intellect of the country same pohtical party that had the entire responsibility for the atrocious murder of that innocent woman. should now. were acting under the dictates of that pohtical party.

by the attempts to falsely implicate liim in the infamy of their own crime. course during this trying ordeal heart and his conscience. one of the bravest heroes of the self felt the maliguity heaped upon my own head . It shows not only General Hancock's kindness of heart and his unflinching performance of duty. and yielded to the His representatives of law his prompt obedience. Xothing needs to be added to this very comprehensive and detailed statement of Judge Clampitt. thev seek to defame. now. While their own hands are reeking with the blood of an innocent woman. for base purposes. shows the utmost depra\ity of hmnan nature. is a credit alike to his . war. Even amid such excitement as prevailed at that time. the attempt of these politicians falsely and unjustly to traduce General Hancock for a responsibility he never had. Respectfully yours.230 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF and vengeance of that political party for the humble part I took and. which thev had demanded with fiendish mahsrnitv. Clampitt. he recognized the supremacy Of law. John W. but it illustrates his reverence for and loyalty to the civil power.

under circumpeculiar difficulty and importance. March. Hancock again at the West. 1867. approaching when General Hancock would be called upon to display. General Hancock remained in command of the Middle Department. — The South Divided up into Satrapies. Here. also. displayed executive qualities involving nice tact and discrimination in settling complications arising between the returned Confederates and the State troops. he commanded an expedition Duragainst hostile Indians in Kansas and Colorado. — Sketch of the Progress of Reconstruction. the when the cause of popqualities of true statesmanship ular liberty and free government was to find in him the stances The hour was now of .WINTIELD SCOTT HAI^COCK. — The Stormy Condition of Politics at this Time. — Military Rule Triumphant. — The Quarrel between the Executive and Congress. — He Called back to take Command of the Fifth Military District. August 20. same dauntless defender that the cause of the Union had found. — Sheridan Removed. He was then appointed by President Johnson to succeed General Sheridan in command of in the Fifth Mihtary District. the same period he also served on several importing ant army boards. is and Hancock Called to take his Place. Until the 10th of August. Before giving the history of General Hancock's . Then he was transferred to the Department of the Here he Missouri. 1866. taking command there. 231 CHAPTER III.

232 LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF depai-tment. The great question which then confronted the victo- North Avas that of the reconstruction of the Union. they would soon resume their proper Before the places as loyal members of the Union. all By the summer of 1865. had erovernments of some sort that were recognized at Washington. but some of them arising in the minds of disinterested men. con- tributed to delay and tended to a lengthened probation. the sooner would the ravages of war be obliterated. reconstruction progressed slowly. under the policy of President Johnson. Various conflicting interests. it is necessary to of affairs in the South and at administration in this review the condition Washinofton at that time. slavery was forever . The Southern armies had surrendered and the Southern States were still unreconstructed territories under military government. and prosperity whole country return. and the impression prevailed that. however. It was apparent to all who had in view the welfare of the countrv. that the sooner these revolted States could resume their former rious loyal relations to the general government. each of the States in which provisional governments had been established had elected and inaugurated a permanent government displacing the provisional appointments. through fear of the consequences of too sudden restoration of the Southern to the States to participation in the Federal power. the latelv insurs^ent States meeting of the Thirty-ninth Congress. mainly political. In all cases the ordinance of secession was annulled or repealed by the State convention. Under these conflicting influences.

1865. certainly seem that States which had participated. "throughout the security. he said. as States.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. this. the laws of the old code restricting the civil rights of the negroes were repealed. December. evinced a laudable desire to renew their . and "The people. Bitter and destructive operation of a In government through Congressional enactment. 233 prohibited. in such a high office as the amendment of the Constitution of the United States. the United States courts restored. needed It would no further recognition of their existence on an equality as to powers with the rest but such was not the view taken by those who controlled the legislation of Con. and Further than the constitutional amendment adopted. replied that the rebellion had been suppressed." he said. had reorganized their governments and were yielding obedience to the laws and government of the United States with more willingness and greater promptitude than under the circumstances and in nearly could reasonably have been anticipated all the States measures had either been adopted or were then pending. antagonism was immediately aroused against President Johnson because of his efforts to bring back the rebellious States without subjecting gress. . the President had. and steps taken The late Conto put in operation the revenue laws. to confer upon freedmen the rights and privileges essential to their comfort. the Confederate debt was repudiated. federate States. protection. entire South. in answer to a to the dangerous them resolution of the Senate calling for information regarding the condition of the Southern States. post-offices established.

and naturally quarrelled with the President. part of the desire of these men to see the wounds of the war closed up by a prompt reconstruction of the lately rebellious States. their loyalty will be in unreservedly given to the government whose leniency they cannot fail to appreciate. But Congress had a " Select Committee on Re construction. What ought to have occupied them no . obstruction placed in the way of reconstruction was unnecessary delay in the report of this select iirst The committee. From all the information in my possession. acknowledging the supremacy of the Constitution and laws of the United States. will result in a harmonious restoration of the States to the Xational Union." The observations on which President Johnson based this message to Congress were made by General Grant and General Schurz who had been sent on a tour through the South for this especial purpose." whose members quarrelled among themselves. and whose fostering care soon restore them to a condition of prosperit}'. to bring the war to a speedy close.234 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF allegiance to the government. As it had been no purpose of the politicians who really ruled the war department during the four years previous. I am will induced to cherish the belief that sectional animosity is surely and rapidly merging into a spirit of nation- and that representation. and that. now it formed no ality. and to repair the devastations of war by a prompt and cheerful return to An al)iding faith is entertained that peaceful })ursuits. connected with a properly adjusted system of taxation. their actions Avill conform to their professions.

it was only for the purpose of quarrelling still further over it. without even consulting the legislative . 1866. pictured the situation in his speech at Washington on the 2 2d of February. We find a power assumed and attempted to be exercised of a most extraordinary character. "is being hands of a few at the Federal head. and sometimes the revolutions most distressing to a people are effected without . 22. find that by an that is. The Freedmen's Bureau had its scope and powers enlarged by Congress. ." he said. You contended at the beginning of that struggle that a State had not a right to go out. and executive departments of the government. Meantime the Southern States were kept out of representation in Congress. We irresponsible central directory nearly all the powers of Congress are assumed. the shedding of blood the substance of your government may be taken aw^ay. which is equally objectionable with its all made to concentrate power in the dissolution. until it became a monstrous political machine and then began the long contest between the Executive and Congress which ended in the attempt at impeachment. and the shadow.WmriELD SCOTT HANCOCK. Jan. while there is held out to you the form. . and one measure of aggravation was passed after another. 1866. We see now that governments can be revolutionized without going into the battle-field. and thereby bring about a consolidation of the Kepublic. 235 more than a fortnight was made to consume six months and when the plan of reconstruction was at last submitted. You have been struggling for four years to put down a rebellion. President Johnson very powerfully . although they had loyal men to send there. "An attempt.

. Georgia.23 G LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF said it You had neither the right nor the power and it has been settled that the States had neither the right nor the power to go out of the Union. The famous ^Military Bill was passed. The President Avas to appoint a commander for each district. and to detail a sufficient The duties of the commilitary force in his support. "to protect all persons in their rights of person and property. to suppress insurrection. disorder. and The first district placed under military government. supported by the best and wisest and most patriotic minds in the country. selfish." To this end they were authorized to either allow local civil tribitter. manders were. come in. and violence. . and by the pul^lic judgment that those States cannot have any YiiAit to <xo out. Alabama. and that in these States there was no These States adequate protection for life or property. and Florida the fourth. . and that they shall not . continued to gain in intensity and after the fall elections in 1866 showed a majority for the opponents of reconstruction a new departure was taken. and a . the second." The conHict between the President. And when you determine by the executive. were therefore distributed into military districts. this committee turns around and assumes that they are out. . . ]:>y the military. and to punish or cause to be punished all distur])ers of the pulilic peace and criminals. Mississippi and Arkansas the fifth. This bill declared that no legal State governments existed in the lately rebellious States. Louisiana and Texas. and cruel partisan majority in Congress. North and South comprised Virginia Carolina the third.

was within the power of the military commander to give full effect to the local laws and civil regulations. recently the owners of other of their now freed fellow-men. vetoed this bill. Jt will thus be seen that it was within the power of the military commander to treat the inhabitants of a Southern State according to the requirements of a code. before the execution could take place. it President Johnson. the only restraint put upon him being the requirement of the President's approval of any death sentence he might impose. The district commander was made an absolute despot. brought On the other hand. 237 bunals to take jurisdiction of and try offenders. mere will taking the place of law it . only using his military power where the reign of law and order had not re-established itself. were disposed to exercise over the latter a power w4iich no longer belonged to them. by a long probation. commander bv arch.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. or. as he did all the partisan and obstructive legislation of ConIn his veto gress but it was passed over his veto. his this bill as " that of an absolute all mon. at their discretion. of course. message he described the power given the military . or where the men. and very many well-meaning people believed that such a government should be exercised in mihtary the States latelv in rebellion. or until the men lately in arms against the Union had. durins: the lives of the present generation. to organize military commissions for the trial of offenders. forth fruits meet for repentance. and this exercise of military authority should exclude interference on the part of the State government.

his slaves so a))solute as this bill gives to the military over both white and colored persons.' Such a power has not been wielded for it in England for more than five hundred years. Ord. and the l^resident dismissed Secretary Stanton from his cal)inet because of his hostility to the Execu- . made to render the struction of the it 1 ^ still more unendurable. many provides that it may subordinates as he chooses to bill declares that he shall 'punish or cause appoint to be punished. Sickles. sex.238 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF the lands and goods in distribute them to whom he all ] places at his free disposal his district." But when the bill Avas passed in spite of these objections. lie therefore appointed Generals Schoiield. and Sheridan to be commanders of the five districts in the order named. through an opinion of the Attorney-General l)ut construing the act Congress at once passed an act" "explanatory insisting upon the most radical con. of every color. he may may make a criminal and he . to make })ul. M of his private humors in each case that occurs. It is phiin that the authority here given to the military officer amounts to absolute despotism. the be delegated to as . and he may make it as ])loody as any recorded in history. Then the conflict became more bitter. reduces the whole population of the ten all persons. and condition. code of his own. or he may reserve the privilege of acting upon the impleases. r()i)e. the President had no choice but to carry out its officers provisions.. An attempt was powers conferred by this bill less despotic. But. and every to the most abject and stranger within their limits States — It — No master ever had a control over degradinir slaverv.

the ruler of the Fifth District. . were also removed. and his fiery nature showed itself there It was a very poor choice that as in the battle-field. but on his declination General Hancock was appointed. General Sheridan lacked the calm judicial temperament necessary in one holding such a place. comprising North and South Carolina and^ General . General Thomas was first chosen by the President to lake the place of General Sheridan. ruled the district like an autocrat. and the event proved the mistake. succeeding in forcing him out after an obstinate and indecent struggle on the Secretary's part. tive 239 policy. comprising Louisiana and Texas. President Johnson made when he put Sheridan in com- mand of the Fifth District. Sheridan. he was very much of a partisan in politics. Moreover. and before he had been in power a fortnight. had ofone far to reduce his district to the condition of a satrapy. Then two of the district commanders. comilianding the Second District. These were General Sickles. who had l)een most zealous in the use of the despotic power conferred upon them by Congress. He had not the self-poise required to maintain a clear and level head there.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. rode rough-shod over all civil law. Sheridan lost his temper and his head.

— The Principles of American Liberty find their Advocate. that General Hancock was summoned to the service of his country in a capacity where the calm- judgment. Aui^. — His Recep— Speech at a Serenade. He proved equal to the task of carrying the burden of responsibility laid upon him.240 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF CHAPTER tion at Washington. est General Hancock was summoned to Washington by order of the President assigning him to the command of the Fifth Militarv District. Hancock takes Command of the Fifth Military District. It was under such peculiar!}^ delicate and exciting conditions of public sentiment and of the governmental departments. absolutely overriding and crushing out all civil ing people who to save the authoritv. placed in his Hands. 18G7. — His — The Famous "Order No. — The vast Powers — Absolute Ruler of two great States. had created alarm amonjr thinkbelieved that the war had been fought Union and not to set up a military despot- . 28. Opening Black's Letter." — Judge Proclamation. who at that time had been taken in hand by the Radical Ivcpublicans and put in training for the Presi- dency as the candidate of the party which believed in the ascendancy of military over civil authority. and the most practical experience of men and of affairs was needed. 40. But the hiijh-handed ]iroceedin2:s of the militarv commander in the Fifth District. lY. the wisest patriotism. The removal of Sheridan was strongly opposed by General Grant.

I know no tion to dut}' has governed But I fear ma}^ meet me. Walker ad- dressed the assemblage. permitted If I can adminminister the laws rather than discuss them. that I ma}^ not be judged in advance. and manly speeches for which he is noted. General Hancock his is is entering upon a new career and although new trust mihtary." On the same occasion. them not. He said : — "And now. I need not assure 3^ou my course as a District strict soldierly Commander will be characterized obedience to the law there taught other guide or higher duty. P-13^ actions in every trying hour. aud on the fields of the my in past services. prior to his departure for the South. . referring in his remarks to the known character of General Hancock and what might be expected of him. at which he made one of those clear. duty in the military school of our countiy. ister them in spirit with due charity to the governed and to the satisfaction of my country. Hon. aud that time ma}' be As a soldier I am to adto develop my actions. straightforward. aud confidence in Mexican war and American that rebellion. fellow-citizens. They complimented him with a serenade on the 24th of September. I shall indeed be happy in the consciousness of a duty performed.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. citizens. and spread by those who do not know that devo- by the same me as a soldier. Eobert J. I ask then. Misrepresentation and misconstruction arising from the passions of the hour. ism . Among other thinsrs he said : — "'I thank 3-011 for this testimony of your appreciation of mj ability to perform my and different a Educated as a soldier new sphere. 241 and tliey hastened to do honor to Hancock. . in whose stanch principles and strict integrity they had the same conlidence they had in his valor.

its He has proper lulGlment. the execuofficer must and is sworn to execute it as one of the laws of the country. passed according unless it be arrested tive by the decision of the judicial authorities. which was even then under a sort of . is vested exclusively in the courts of the countr3^ They alone can pass fmal adjudication upon the law and say whether it is constitutional or not . he will not be a judge as to whether the law is wise and expedient. But. be otherwise. and these. and according to the meaning that must be placed upon them. but when a law is to the forms prescribed in the Constitution. caused by the natural opposition to the violent military rule of General Sheridan . In the Fifth Military Department there had been some few disturbances. while I am sure that General Hancock wUl execute the laws in a true spirit. highly exaggerated in the reports of the partisan press. in point of name it has task of the utmost difficulty in and imposes a that country and." With such pledges in the ears of a public and the which had become too freely accustomed to have both laws — welcome words of devotion to the Constitution arm derided as impotent in the presence of the military General Hancock set out to assume command — on the 29th of November. truly said his duty is to carry out the laws of his country. cai'ry His duty is purely a ministerial duty out the laws as they are written. fellow-citizens. or as to whether it . fellow-citizens. and he has said wisely because a soldier of the Republic most trul}' defends a country'' when he defends the laws of .242 still LIFE AND I'UBLIC SERVICES OF its civil duties. according to the Constitution. — to "The judicial power. I am also sure that he will do it in a spirit of charity and kindness.

much less covet. That such was not the course of General Hancock the crownino. It is the gratitude of all classes of Union men for his great services in the field. would have treated the unreconstructed and unrepentant rebels with the rigor which was expected of him by the party majority in Congress. surveillance. to say military is no secret that he did not relish. and to construe the power given him by the Act of make Reconstruction as absolute and irresponsible. who always saw his orders carried out at the personal exposure of himself. finding himself clothed with such authority and backed up with ample forces. this command. and assumed command of the Fifth ISIilitary District. At the same time it was expected that so stern and unyielding a disciplinarian as Hancock. not man. His reputation as a soldier and a patriot was unsurpassed.WIKFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. It is safe to say that almost any civil governor. but would rule Louisiana and Texas with a stern and steady hand. 243 had greatly excited the Northern people. General Hancock's predecessor had not hesitated to the military arm felt superior to the civil law. His first ofiicial act was to inform the people of Louisiana and Texas that he had come to be their Governor under the Eeconstruction Act. General Hancock obeyed his orders. He issued his celebrated . would brook greatest no disorder. and to let them know how he pro- posed to rule over of his life. and it was believed that the Southern people would respect and obey his orders as they would those given by few others of the men He had who had subdued them.

being essential to the prosperity . a They expected to be governed by military dictator. He the ])clief declared himself solemnly impressed with that the great principles of American liberty were the lawful inheritance of the whole people. Pro])al)lv' no more astonished and delighted people conld be found than the people of Louisiana and Texas when They the purport of that order came to be understood. General Hancock informed them that he took command in accordance with the orders he had received from the Headquarters of the Army. essary to destroy opposition to lawful authority but when peace was established and when the ci^dl authori- were ready and willing to perform their duties. and should forever continue to be. 40. He declared that the right of trial b}^ j^iiy? habeas corpus. instead of governing themselves by their own civil resrulations. the natural rights of person and of property. He congratulated the people of the South-West that peace and quiet reigned among them. He believed that free institutions. and to live under a military despotism. should be preserved.244 LITE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF "General Orders No." dated the 20th day of Xovember. expected to have. freedom of speech. what they had had before. state of things he proposed to execute the civil laws. To let best preserve that the civil authorities Wav he regarded as only nec. but that he did not propose to rule them by military orders at all. "orders" instead of laws. liberty of the press. the military poAver should cease to lead and the civil administration should resume its natural and ricfhtful conties ditions. LSG?.

S. Hancock hereby command of the Fifth MiUtarv District and of the Department composed of the States of Louisiana and Texas. clared that the civil authorities and tribunals should have the consideration of and jurisdiction over crimes and offences. so sincere.WTNTIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. is so admirably illustrative of General Hancock's turn of mind. Nov. The General Commanding is gi^atifled to learn that peace and quiet reign in this department. In war it is indispensable to repel force by force. he announced. But when insurrectionary force has been overthrown and peace established. 27. 81. and should be supported in the exercise But while thus recognizing the of that jurisdiction. C. D. Washington. In accordance with General Orders No. that we present it here in full : — General Orders No. Headquarters Fifth Military District. La. issued at such a time and under such circumstances. As a means to this great ities in end he regards the maintenance of the civil authorthe faithful execution of the laws as the most efficient under existing circumstances.. Headquarters of the Army. 40. 245 and happiness of the people. 29. that he should suppress armed insurrection and forcible resistance to law by force of arms at once. Adjutant-General's Office. 1867. and the civil authorities are ready and willing to per- . 1867. 40. were themselves the He destrongest inducements to peace and order. rights of the people. It will be his purpose to preserve this condition of things. 1. assumes 2. ) ) New Ohleans. The Order No. and withal so judicious. with soldier-like directness and brevity. Aug. Major-General W. and overthrow and destro}^ opposition to lawful authority.

W. Should there be violations of existing? laws which are not inquired into by the civil magistrates. S. will be instantly- suppressed of bj^ arms. Solemnly impressed with these views. [Oflicial. so novel in the history of the series of military usurpations known as reconstruction. the will cases will be reported to these headquarters. when such orders While the General thus indicates his purpose to respect the liberties of the people. the libert}of the press. and every newspaper printed it the next morning. the freedom of siDeech.liities. It Avas received with delight by all who truly believed in the supremacy of the ideas on which our Kepublic is founded. and those tribunals will be supported in their lawful jurisdiction. the habeas corpus. be made as ma}" be deemed necessar}'. -Gen. It was hailed as the presage of a return from the anarchy of .] This order. and ever should The right of trial b}' jury. the natural rights of persons and the rights of property must be preserved. Free institutions. the lawful inheritance of of American liberty people. Bv command Ma j. power should cease to lead. Hancock. always furnish the strongest inducements to peace and order. or forcible resistance to law. he wishes all to understand that armed insurrection. while they are essential to the prosperity and happiness of the people. the Genthe militaiy eral announces that the still gi'cat principles tliis are be. or should failures in the administration of justice b}' the courts be complained of.246 form LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF tlioir (. was flashed all over the land that night. its natural and rightful resume and the civil adiiiinistralion dominion. Crimes and offences committed in this district must be referred to the consideration and judgment of the regular civil tribunals.

but I canuot resist the temptation to steal time enough from my chents to tell you how grateful j^ou have made me by your patriotic and noble be: My Dear — Washington. Washington .WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. 30. from among the military commanders who had been endowed with arbitrary power. I am much engaged. when he read that now famous "Order No. and to carry his point. sat down and wrote as follows to General Hancock. 40 " in the morning papers : — This moment I read your admirable General order. and still retain the support of Congress and the confidence of It was a dark day for constitutional govthe people. there appeared one who refused to exercise this power otherwise than in the support of and subordinate to civil law. Judge Black. Andrew Johnson had honestly attempted to carry out the beneficent scheme which his predecessor originated. ' 247 of peaceful law. 1867. through the dark clouds that overhung the land. havior. the announcement came as a beam of sunlight war to the safe rule . Nov. has the very ring of the Revolutionary metal. most distinct. The policy of conciliation and restoration. Yours is the first. had received a serious check when he fell by the hand of the assassin. and most emphatic recognition which the principles of American liberty have received It at the hands of any high officer in a Southern command. ernment and when. but had failed through lack of those qualities of intellect and of heart which enabled Lincoln to restrain party antagonism within limits. which the lamented President Lincoln inaugurated. one of the ablest constitutional lawyers our country has produced.

Yom's. It will prove to all men that '"Peace has her victories not less renowned than those of war. for I dare say you care nothing about that. Major-General Hancock. S. It . "With profound respect. — not because it will make 3'^ou the most popular man in America. Black. briUiant achievements as a soldier. etc. will leave j^ou without a rival in the affections of all whose good-will is worth having. its law and its government." I congratulate you.248 LITE AJ^D PUBLIC SERVICES OF never said a thing in better taste or better time. through all time. was under such auspices that General Hancock began his administration in Louisiana and Texas. J.. and expressing them feebly at that. . added to your country. the solid reputation of a true patriot and a sincere lover of your — This. and gives you a place in history which youi childi^en will be proud of. but because it will give 3'ou. This acknowledgment from me does not amount to much but I am expressing only the feelings of millions. His first word was to proclaim the rule of law.

The Laws to be Sustained by the for Local Self-Government. Louisi- . and the exponent of the rights of the men who speak the English tongue. Order No. the habeas corpus. the natural rights of persons "The and the rights of property should be and they found in his stead preserved. — The — Qualifications of Property by the Courts. Sale of a School Section. disappointed. the expounder and defender of tlie Constitutional laws of the fathers. and it : right of trial by jury. — Disposition of — Registration It was on the basis of the principles enunciated in his '"General Order No. 40. the liberty of the press. of Voters. 249 Reception of "General Hancock's Orders Develop the Capacity of the People its Sway. and free disposed to place obstacles in the way of any resumption of the old Federal relations. was electric. soured. Effect of General Hancock's Orders. was with delighted wonder. these patriotic and statesmanlike sentiments ernment . The effect on men so recently disbanded from armed rebellion. and now morose. the freedom of speech." that General Hancock began and continued his administration in the Fifth These principles are immortal they Military District. — — Jurors.WINTIELD SCOTT HA2fC0CK. 40. — CHAPTER V." They looked for a Caesar. that the people of Louisiana and Texas heard from the lips of one in whom they had expected to find a military satrap." — Civil Government Resumea Military Arm. lie at the very foundation of our system of free gov.

robbed. culminating in actual anarchy. for the time-beinsr. and had General Hancock remained the command. and rendering Louisiana at last a fit instrument for the perpetration of a great crime. and There was everything in this order humiliated people. and Avhich had had their origin in the abominable carpet-bag governments that. since the close of the war. admiral)le tact. and . Instead of an oppressor. the period of misrule in Louisiana and Texas would have come to an end ten years ago. outstri})pinLr their in sisters . had 1)lio'hted those States. the Louisianians and Texans found in Iiim a governor inspired by motives of the purest patriotism and of the highest justice. The general order with which he opened his administration was a revelation to an oppressed. and but for the fact that the administration at Washington removed General Hancock from his sphere of justice and beneficent government. moved forward on the road to reconstruction with brisk eagerness. he reconciled the diflerences that had previously prevailed. General Hancock maintained the purity and independence of the elections.250 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF ana and Texas. to produce a profound sense of gratitude in the hearts of those to whom it was addressed. would not misrule have taken place. came for awhile the blessings of peace and prosperity. contention. and a keen sense of justice to the laws of the country. the and disorders which followed. refused to organize military commissions to take the place of judicial trials. Folio wins: it. as well as to the people of With Louisiana and Texas.

would permit no military interference with istration. that power. on the ground that his interference would be unconstitutional. should only be exercised when the local civil tribunals were unable or unwilling to enforce the laws. by instituting certain qualifications for persons to be eligible to do jury duty. from the nature of things. while the act passed He was by Congress "for the government of the rebel States" made it the duty of commanders of military districts to punish disturbers of the public peace and criminals. cock declined. such qualifi- General Hancock cation being made by military order. his reasons. on the ground that if there were any charges against the clerk so removed. requested by the general commanding the District of Texas. a State government in subordination to the United States being then in the full exercise of its powers in Texas. revoked the order. to order a military commission for He declined. and could only be exercised in an emergency which did not. stating as the trial of a certain offender. a supposition which did efficient more not exist. in his opinion. announcing that he would not per- . then exist. General Hancock's predecessor had summarily. that. His predecessor had rendered the administration of justice inefficient. removed the clerk of a court. the courts were competent to take action in the premises. revoked this order. by military order.WINPIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. civil 251 admin- The mayor requested his interference formally order in certain by military of New Orleans General Hanproceedings against the corporation. and had General Hancock appointed another in his place.

252 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF civil authorities to mit the be embarrassed by military interference. The acts of General Hancock's administration were simply the development of this fundamental idea of That the people must govern popular government themselves through the laws made by their chosen : representatives. interested in civil controversies. and should be solely dealt with by the courts. and that the rights of the litigants did not depend on his Adews as to the merits of their cases. again announced that the administration of civil justice pertained only to the regular courts. General Hancock reiterated the principle that these were matters pertaining to the civil administration. that the commanders of posts act in promptly preserving the peace in case the civil authorities failed to do so. and that the sole duty of the military . Hancock. assuming on his part both the arbitrary powei General to interfere and the willinsrness to do so. unless as citizens of the State. unless Avhen necessary to keep the peace at the polls. any polling place. and for the purpose of voting . further. as being contrary to law and he ordered that no soldiers be allowed to appear at . in great numbers applied at the General's headquarters for interfer- Men. In December he issued an order prohibiting military interference with the elections. they being State to remove from office charged with appropriating public funds to their own use. but he ordered. Having been appealed to by ihe Governor of the the president and members of the police jury of the parish of Orleans. registered voters. by general order. ence.

be maintained in its supremacy by the if full force of the United States army. the vicious system that had prevailed up to the time of his assumption of command in the Fifth Under District. . to pass away from the brighter The law under which he was acting as commander of the Fifth Military District allowed him. government to proper place of supremacy. stead of accustoming the people to the sight of an authority superior to law. arm was This was. if its Grand as were his sacrifices in the cause of necessary. made Hancock changed authority had been either utterly a servile attendant on the military all this. at his discre- .WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. He put avv^ay the power which and proclaimed himself subject where he was commissioned to bo autocrat. the civil ignored or power. Inwhich had prevailed . and elevated civil w^as offered him. popular government land. the Union when assailed by arms. needed. pledging himself to maintain its authority with his life. a great change from the policy but it was a wise change. General Hancock taught them that the law was supreme that and that it would it was competent to protect them law and for all forms of civil . indeed. 253 to prevent interference with the operation of these laws. his record as the civil administrator at a time when free. is seemed about yet. There has never been known a nobler sacrifice of ambition to patriotism than that which General Hancock showed when he stripped himself of all the extraordinary powers conferred upon him. and thus breeding a contempt for government.

with the information that whatever the law decided would be disposal. jiimself adjudicate cases of every description . we append a few for the so long The people of Louisiana and Texas had been accustomed to look to the whim of the military commander for the settlement of all questions of law arising with man. which belonged. and the absolutely unwavering conscientiousness of the General. that purpose of illustration. in his . was largely caused by the unwise and arbitrary regulations. and even in those larger matters in which municipal corporations were concerned.254 tion. but to the civil branch of the government. in the intercourse of man and the other controversy. not to the military. General Hancock found that distrust of the courts. popular government to maintained. to LITE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF assume He could make the authority of civil administration. the fine perception. He preferred to relinquish power for himself. could person. in Avhich the rights of all w^ould l)e ]:)ermit acknowledged. and be a free. and contempt for the civil administration of justice. cari'ied out. Plancock invariably turned them over to the courts. and unmake judges and courts could all . that they at once and continually besieged General Hancock with applications to settle this. and to place it where it belonged. The orders hy which he carried out this beneficent change show^ so strongly the clear judgment. backed by all the force at his Upon his aiTival at New Orleans. established by his . own authority. the absolute autocrat of the two or he could sustain the civil States under his rule be. that.

in the order : — Headquaeters Fifth Military District. hberty. by the enforcement of paragraph No. Dec. is clogged. showing that. To determine who shall and who . relative to the quahtications of persons to be placed on the special numbered jury lists of the State of Louisiana. 1867. from which we make the following extract. from the first. from these issued on the 24th of August. 203. 1867. The true It is accordingl}^ made. and knew that relief was to be obtained only by establishing civil authority on a basis that would command respect revoked the reofukitions. or cause to bo punished. 2. which the constitutions of not be jurors. D. duty of the commander of this district to protect all persons in those rights. all disturbers of the pubhc peace and criminals. La. the enjoyment of life. JS'ew } ) Orleans. concerning the qualifications of jurors for He therefore at once service in the several courts. Special Orders No. to suppress disorder and violence. appertains to the legislative i^ower existence regulating this subject shall be amended or changed by that department of the civil government. 5. and to punish. headquarters. of the military order orders 125. A. and proper use of military power. besides defending the national honor against foreign nations.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. current series. 255 predecessor. he comprehended the situation. in the courts. and 2. The Commanding General has been officiall}' informed that the administration of justice.. and until the laws in shall aU the States under our republican system vest . if not entirely frustrated. by act of Congress. is to uphold the laws and civil government. and to secure to every person residing among us. the property. and especiaUy of criminal justice.

regulated and controlled to bv the Constitution and civil laws. 18G7. will discharge The maintain the just power of the judiciary. and is unwilling to permit the civil authorities and laws to be embarrassed by the ordinary tribunals is greatly embarrassed bj^ the operations of paragi'aph No. on the opportunity for it among those about liim. and he would tolerate no suspicion of dishonesty. henceforth.256 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF it with that power. . and that the trial by jmy be. • •••••• as so B}' command of Major-General Hancock. special orders No.] of the military commanders did. and give no So. which relates to the qualifications of persons to be placed on the jur}^ lists of the State of Louisiana. under circumstances where ordinarily the courts w^ould lie. and the same is hereb}^ revoked. without reofard any military orders heretofore issued from these head• • • quarters. upon this quaUficatiou of a jui'or. [Official. permit property and valuables to be placed in his hands. current series. is a proper The Commanding subject for the decision of the courts. reposed in him. and rerevoking the estate of a citizen of Nctv Orleans to the storing 16th of December. be. wx fmd him issuing an order one that his predecessor had made. Neither would many assume control. the trust in the of General. or in those of his subordinates. under the law. 2. His hands w^ere always clean. 125. from these headin and as miUtav}' interference the administration of justice . is deemed best to carry out the will of the people as expressed iu the last legislative act subject. it is an established fact thai quarters. it is ordered that said paragraph.

La. This is his decision on the question people a distrust of popular : — Headquarters Fifth Military District. Wood. and ordering that the propei-ty be turned over "to the possession of the party entitled to the same by the order of court. 28. New Colonel. Commanding Orleans. 257 control of the local tribunals. H.WINTIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. just where the authority of right belonged. . 1867. seems legal voters onl}^ were admitted to take part. there to be no reason why the action should be considered a and nuUity. properly speaking. I am directed him to state that the provision of the law were complied with in regard to advertisements. La. Dec. an election. there was the case of the sale of a school section in Avoyelles Parish.. : District of Louisiana. phicing the whole proval or revocation. matter in the hands of the citizens of that parish. — I am directed . on which the people had voted. but which was sent to General Hancock for apHe replied. but ei. to the legaUty of said election. the manner of taking the sense of the inhab- itants. b}^ the Major-General Command- ing to acknowledge receipt of a letter from Nelson Dm'and (forwarded b}^ you) stating that the treasurer of AvoyeUes Parish." As a further illustration of the matters which military governors had been accustomed to decide according to their humor at the moment. La. thus breeding in the government and a demoralizins: habit of reliance on the will of one man in power.^ > Office of Secretary for Civil Affairs. It was not.. New Orleans. and requesting an opinion as bj^ In reply to said if letter. caused an election to be hekl to ascertain if the citizens of the township were in favor of seUing a school section belonging to the parish. ) Lieutenant-Colonel W.

I am by the Major-General Com- acknowledge the receipt of 3'our communication of the 11th inst. and recommending the removal . New Orleans. But. whom he accused of malfeasance without any judicial investigation of the matter. right bank. ) C Office of Secretary for Civil Affairs. with appropriating to their own use and benefit the public funds of said parish. F. the matter should be again referred to them for a free and legal expression of their opinion. Sec'i/for Civil Affairs. when the Governor of Louisiana asked General Hancock to turn out of office the members of a police board.. Yom' obedient servant. Colonel. sending him the following communication : — Headquarters Fifth Military District. But if the sense of the people was not dul}' regarded (on the previous occasion ) . as to the foregoing requkements. with papers and documents accompanying the same. La. and with being personall}' interested in contracts let by them. Parish of Orleans. I am. A.. 1867. In the same way. charging the Police Jury. — manding to Excellency B. Governor of Louisiana directed . ) Ills Governor. Dec. very respectfully. 30. Lieut. U. The previous authorization of the Major-General Commanding is not considered necessar}'. General Hancock read him a courteous but emphatic lesson on the proper course for justice to take under a government of law. W.258 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF wa}" prescribed by law of arriving at the will of the commiinit}' as regards the disposition to be made of certain school lands belonging to the parish. Mitchell. in office. Flanders. G..-CoL. S.

from office 259 . ) ) New Orleans. with which General Hancock's predecessor had interfered in an arbitrary manner. In this after a fashion way he removed ment. 11. Lieut. interpreting the laws which gave opportunity for fraud and for oppression that had been turned eagerly to partisan He promptly revoked the orders. W. 1867. Your obedient servant. cated the autocratic throne assumed by his predecessor. Jan.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. another obstacle to local self-governFollowing is the order : — Headquarters Fifth Military District. very respectfull}-." and Questions to be answered by persons proposing to regiS' . Printed " Memoranda of disqualifications for the guidance of the Board of Registrars. La. A. U. of the president and members of said Police Jury state that these charges present a proper case for judicial investigation and determination and as it is and. abdiadvantage. to . Governor. Sec'y for Civil Affairs. Mitchell. if proved to exist.Col.. Then there was the business of registration of voters... as they were given full powers in the matter by act of Congress. General Orders No.. relief for the evident to him that the courts of justice can afford adequate wrongs complained of. Bvt. 3. under the Military Bill jDassed March *' 2. and the Bill supplementary thereto. 1868. the Major-General Commanding has concluded that it is not advisable to resort to the measures suggested in your excellency's communication. he should hold them responsible for the proper and exact performance of their duties. S. in reply. and informed the Board of Registrars that. G. I am.

in the opinion of the Commanding General. the Commanding General hunself constrained to dissent from the construction given to them in the "Memoranda" referred to. and of institutions organized for the dispensation of charity. and to exercise the right of suffrage at the elections to be holden under the act entitled ' An act to provide ' " government of the Rebel States and the acts supplemeutarj' thereto. would now be a . what was before. which were the only acts in existence when these "Memoranda" were distributed. however. 1867." LIFE ANT> PUBLIC SERVICES OF were distributed from these headquarters in the month of May. including all officers of municipal corporations. Since that time. and the highest functionaries of the National Government. to the members of the Boards of Registration. This construction would of com'se necessarily exclude all officers holdiug offices created under special acts of the State Legislatures. has no support in the language of the acts of Cougress passed on the 2d and the 23d of March. in the opinion of the Major-General Commanding. then in existence in the States of Louisiana and Texas." These ' ' Memoranda " and ' ' " Questions are as follows : — [The Memoranda. human language finds Upon examining those acts. being length^'. under the authority of such special laws.] Grave differences of opinion exist among the best informed and most conscientious citizens of the United States. Such differences of opinion for the more efficient are necessar}^ incidents to the imperfection of when emplo3'ed in the work of legislation. only an error of construction. for the resfistration of "the male citizens of the United States" who are qualified to vote«for delegates under the acts entitled " An act to provide for the more efficient government of the Rebel States.260 ter. 1867. as to the proper construction to be given to the acts of Congi'css prescribing the qualifications entithng persons to be registered as voters. Such a construction. are omitted.

to interpret the provisions of the acts from which the authority of the Boards was derived. but the solemn duty of the members of these Boards. and carried before competent and. Since the passage of the act of July 19. that they constituted rules prescribed to them for their government in the dis- . 1867. unless appeals are taken.WINFIELD SCOTT contravention of the law. upon such facts as they can whether obtain. any influence upon the Boards of Registration in the discharge of the duties expressh^ imposed upon and intrusted to them by these acts of Congress as they now stand. Their decisions upon the cases of especial dutj^ individual applicants are final as to the right. it is of any aj^plicant. like the members of superior authority for revision ordinary courts engaged in the exercise of judicial func. as shown b}^ the "Memo" randa referred to but he will add nothiug further to what . 26l in the act amended and defined also dissents of July 19. The Boards of Registi'ation are bodies created b}^ law with certain limited but well-defined judicial powers. 1867. he has akeadj said on the subject. The Major-General Commanding from various other points in the construction given to the disqualifying clauses of the acts in question. and ought not to have. and under the sanction of his oath of office. in the proper form. It is made their "to ascertain. each for himself. as HAJS^COCK. and in obedience to the provisions of the law. it is not only the right. an}^ person appl3-ing is entitled to be registered" under the acts. on the facts before them. and to decide upon each case according to the best of his own judgment. the bounden duty of the members of the Boards of Registration to decide upon the questions as to the right tions. because his ilKli^idual opinions cannot rightfully have. Memoranda " was well The distribution of the above ' ' calculated to produce the impression in the minds of the members of Boards of Registration.

in a great degree be performed by persons who are members of the Boards of Registration. and as the time for the revision of the registration in the State of Texas is now at hand. LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF theii* it and duties which thc}^ were required to seems certain from various communications of official of carr3'ing out the registration. controlled the proceedings of the different Boards.) to the Constitution of the this purpose. it is probable. which are to govern them in the discharge of the delicate and important duties imposed upon them. but in point of fact. and . the person deeming himself aggrieved is entitled to his appeal from the decision of the Board. facts in relation to the mode In consequence of this. the Major-General Commanding deems it of importance that the members of the Boards of Registration. and are not now to be regarded b}^ the Boards of Registration in making their decisions and that the members of the Boards are to look to the laws.262 charge of obc}^ . are null and of no effect. and of the amendment (known as Article XIV. . should be informed that the '"Memoranda" before referred to. and the dut}' of making the revision will. and that the}' not onl}' influenced. make a full statement of the facts to these headquarters and to forward the same without unnecessarv delav. to the laws alone. dis- tributed from the headquarters of this ]\Iilitar3' District. to which the " Memoranda" in question were distributed for their guidance.] of Major-Genekal Hancock. In case of questions arising as to the right of any individual to be registered. By command [Official. that they were so regarded by the members of the Boards. for the rules they will be furnished with copies of the acts of Congress relating to this subject. and the people at large. For United States. and the Boards are du-ected to in such cases.

WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. and in the growth of a manly self-reliance among citizens. in the greater steadiness of society and of business. . 263 at once The beneficial effect of these orders was seen in the increased respect paid the courts.

were The of course. They had no idea of constitutional government. His Refusal to Supon Constitutional Government." — — — — — ijovernors of the Southern States. they deliberately and persistently acted in denial of such knowledo-e. Instead of leadinof the States which they governed in the path of reconstruction toward a sound popular government. Courts by Military plant fere with Civil Suits in the Courts. and who at once proceeded to make the most of their opportunity' for enriching themselves. Lecture a Ho will not Interthe Commissions.their control and in shieldinof them from the consequences of their brigandage. Riparian Rights not to he Courts-Martial. who were appointed the shameful work of to place and power for which they were notoriously unfit. "Arbitrary Power has uo Adjudicated upon by Existence here. and usually men of little or no honest principle. They relied upon the support of the Federal troops in maintainino. such a monstrous . To a statesman like Hancock. if they had. they used every endeavor to perpetuate military rule and to crush the authority of law under the might of arms. or. He reads Governor Pease General Hancock and the Carpet-Baggers. at this time.264 LIFE A2sD PUBLIC SERVICES OF CHAPTER VI. The plunder and ruin of so many Southern States attests these men. intense partisans. of the sort known as carpet-baggers. as a reward for political service. They were.

but should be ruled by officials whom they did not choose. under military coercion . Very naturally. he demanded that the law. 265 wrong was unendurable. . They looked to him for arbitrary military interference over the head of the law and the courts individual will. and he had fought and shed his blood to secure for them the right of self-government. This perversion of power was most abhorrent to Hancock. his ideas soon clashed with those of the carpet-bag governors. up to the point of local self-government again. that the law should be obeyed. His studies at Point had grounded him in the fundamental prinall ciples of our system. who was striving to reinstate the rule of law and to educate a community. and as a man he had added to this knowledge the teaching of a wide experience of and acquaintance with the methods of popular government. Although not a politician. he knew more of the constitutional history of our country than West of these creatures of party. on the subject of the appointment of military commissions and the letter in which he declares his position on this matter is so clear and comprehensive. and insisted Governor Pease of Texas. and not his should be the ruling power.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. Now he was brought into contact with men in office who demanded that the people should not govern themselves. demoralized by war. He knew that in our Republic the people ruled themselves. and that this state of things should continue indefinitely. He very soon came into conflict with with : — . as we have already stated. that we give it here.

Noonan.. W. Nov. trict of Texas. 1867. Wall and : such other prisoners as ma}^ be brought before it. W. S. ." 2d. 1S67. dated "Executive of Texas. M.-Gen. Austin. Black hing on Judge G." in which the Governor states that he received a telegram from Judge G. New Orleans. Surgeon at Fort Inge) of the murder of R. was shot through the heart by G. Tex. the following papers 1st. informing him that "Wall. H. where the prisoners are confined. In the letter of the od. ^ His Excellency E. 28. 10. Governor of Texas: Sir. H. the counter at Mr. In this account of October. it is stated ' ' WbM while Mr.26G LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF HEADQt'AIlTERS FiFTH MILITARY DISTRICT. 1869. La. U. and has only about one hundred voters in a territor}' of about nine huncked square miles. an extract from which I transmit herewith. J.'^ > Office of Secuetauy for Civil Affairs. 11." and he then adds. Revnolds. Nov. dated Nov. " It is not probable that they (meaning the prisoners) can he kept in confinement long enough ever to be tried by the civil courts of that county . Noonan to Governor Pease. Black. Tajdor. W." and expresses the opinion that they never " can be brought to trial unless it is done ' ' . in trial J. Oct. is on the extreme western frontier of the State. Ansell.. Thacker. — Brevet Maj. Thomas's store. requests that a military commission may be ordered " for the of one G." " Would it not be best to In this letter it is them asked. Pease. 19. A letter Governor the further statement is made that Uvalde Countv. commanding Dis- a communication dated Austin. on the day Uvalde. — . and PuUian are in confinement in Uvalde County for murder. tr}- A letter of by militar}^ commission ? " from Governor Pease. Dec." and forwards in support of the request. 1867. 1867. printed account taken from a newspaper dated A 1867 (contained in a letter of James H. and in another from Dr.

it does not appear that any indisposition or unwillingness on the part of the local civil tribunals to take jurisdiction of. "when in his judgment it may be necessary for the trial of offenders. request for the creation of a military commission is based. At this time the country is in a state of profound peace. organized in •subordination . This. but the same section also declares that ' ' to that end he may allow local civil tribunals to take jurisdiction of. miUtary From an examination of the papers submitted to the ComFifth Military District. and from its very nature should be exercised for the trial of offenders against the laws of a State only in the extraordinary event that the local civil tribunals are unwilling or unable to enforce the laws against crime. It is true that the third section of more efficient criminals " .WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. and does not contain more than a hundred voters) seems to be the only foundation on which the . all disturbers of the public peace and the offences against the laws of a State. in the opinion of the Commanding General. and to try offenders." makes it government the duty of the commanders of militar}^ districts " to punish." The further power given to him in the same section. is an extraordinary power. before a military commission. which is apparent^ based on the fact that Uvalde County is a frontier county. is not suffito justify him in the exercise of the extraordinary to organize militarj^ commispower vested in him by law " sions or tribunals for the trial of persons charged with cient ' ' "An act to provide for of the Rebel States. The State Government of Texas." to organize military commissions for that purpose. and to try the mander of the is there prisoners in question and a suggestion made by the Governor that it is not probable the prisoners can be kept in confinement long enough to be tried by the civil courts (and . or cause to be punished." 267 And he therefore asks that a be commission ordered for their trial.

Under the laws against such cu'cumstances there is no good ground vested in the for the exercise commander of the extraordinary power to organize a militar}' commission to all for the trial of the persons It named. dul}' all offenders No unwillingness on against those laws. and for the punishment of offences against the existing laws of a country framed for the preservation of social order but that the intervention of this power should be called for. in their respective spheres. excites the surprise of the commander of the Fifth Military District. when the laws are no longer silent and civil . nor are an}^ obstructions whatever in the way of enforcing them said to exist. that the exercise of the militar}' power.268 LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF to the authorit}^ of the the full exercise of all empowered to Government of the United The its proper powers. and to punish States. if those charged with the administration of the laws are faithful in the dis- charge of their duties.tribunals created for the it is In his view of evil example. should ever be permitted. If the means at the disposal of the State authorities are insufficient to secure the confinement of the persons named in the communication of the Governor of the State of Texas to . through militar}. w^hen the public good imperatively militar}' requkes the intervention of the power for the repression of disorders in the bod}^ politic. or even suggested. b}' civil magistrates. administer the laws. and full trial of offences against the civil law. that there should be occasions in civil commotion. must be a matter of profound regret who value times of constitutional government. when the ordinary powers of the existing State Governments are ample for the punishment of offenders. of danger to the cause of freedom and good government. is in courts. the part of these courts is suggested to inquire into the offences with which the prisoners in question are charged. magistrates are possessed. of all the powers necessary to give effect to the laws. are in existence.

and if there is such a failure. until such necessity is for the purpose of vindicating the majesty of the law. In the opinion of the Commander of the Fifth Military Disthe existing government of the State of Texas possesses the powers necessar}^ for the proper and prompt trial of the prisoners in question in due course of law. in the instance mentioned. being made known to him. on the part of those officers. sufficient to supply the public with officers who will enforce the laws of the State. trict. it will then become necessary for the commander of the Fifth Military District to exercise the powers vested in him by the acts of Congress under which he is appointed.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. district will justify an apprehension that the prisoners cannot be fairly tried in that count}^ let the proper civil officers have the " venue" changed for the trial. the Commander of the supply the means to retain them in confinement. the General 269 on the fact Commanding there. that there are not a among the number of persons people now exercising political power in Texas. as provided for b}' the laws of Texas. to execute the laws. until the}' can be legally tried. all If these powers are not exercised for that purpose. and it be found. the failure to exercise them can be attributed onl}^ to the indolence or culpable inefficiency of the officers now charged with the execution and enforcement of the laws under the authority of the State Government. it will then become the dut}^ of the commander to remove the officers who fail to discharge the duties imposed on them. on further expe- rience. and the commanding officer of the troops in Texas is so If there are reasons in existence which authorized to act. and he deems the present a occasion to make this . Should these means fail. But shown to exist. and to replace them with others who will discharge them. it is not the intention of the Commanding General to have recourse to fitting those powers .

La.270 LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF the known to Governor of Texas. make it necessary to declare that the administration of civil justice appertains to the regular courts.. MiTCHFXL. another that. sen^ant. — thc}^ Ai'bi- trary power. sh'. So pressing were the requests that he should terfere inter- with his military authority in matters which strictly to the courts.authorit}^ in the Commanding General touching pureh' civil controversies. Sec'y for Civil Affairs. One partment. A. Orleans. many . ) ) General Orders No. 1868. has no existence here.. to the people of the State at large. The number of such applications and the waste of time they involve. Lieut-CuL. and each refers to some special consideration of gi-ace or favor which he supposes to exist. The following order was promulgated ]Neav : — Headquarters Fifth Military District. belonged and in which individual judgment had no place. The rights of litigants do not depend on the views of the general are to be adjudged and settled according to tlie laws. U. Applications have been made at these headquarters implying the existence of an arbitrary. G. 1. Your obedient W. Jan. to issue a general order explaining why sach interference would not be permitted. Bvt. S. very respectfully. It is not found in the laws of Louisiana or of — — gress Texas action in it it cannot be derived from anv act or acts of Conis restrained b}^ a constitution and prohibited from particulars. that General Hancock was compelled. and through him I am. 1. such as he has been urged to assume. early in his administration. and which should influence this Depetitioner solicits this action.

under the Constitution. requesting his intervention in staj^ing proceedings in suits notes. would be dis- . such a power ought to be exer. The if and.. be a stay-law : against the city on — in favor of the city of Orleans. By command of Major-Genekal Hancock. in his judgment. La. he can no forcible resistance to the execution of process of the courts. E. in fact. [Official. ) The Hon. Mayor of New Orleans Sir. . it is only necessary to mention that the mayor of New Orleans actually asked the Commanding General to exercise his military authority to stop suits against the city of New Orleans on its corporate notes reply : — ! The following is General Hancock's Headquakters Fifth Military District. Heath. while disclaiming judicial functions in civil cases. New cised by him. : — In answer to your communication of the 30th its ult. C New Orleans. That the notes referred to were issued originally in violabut the tion of the charter of the citv.] To understand what sort of applications compelled the issuance of the above order. Dec. the Major-General Commanding dhects me to respectfully submit his views to 3^ou on that subject as follows Such a proceeding on his part would. if at all. 20. cannot be denied . illegal act has since been ratified Corporation is therefore bound to by pay them the Legislature. which.WINTIELD SCOTT HAXCOCK.^ Office of Secretary for Civil Affairs.. 1867. could not be enacted by the Legislature of the State and. only in a case of the most urgent necessity. The Major-General Commanding takes occasion sufter 271 to repeat that. even it a defence could be made on technical grounds.

It does not. which explains in itself the request. 3'our obedient servant.. he is a trespasser . I am. 2. Besides. La. gi'aceful for the city to avail itself of Wlij^ then. Lieut. therefore. G. property used for municipal purposes liable to seizure. respectfully. S. therefore. 1868. and how necessary it was to respect for the law was destroyed. 3'ou state that the city is unable to pay its debts. instead of reinstating the confidence of the public in city notes. Mitchell. and gives the answer: stop it before all — Headquarters Fifth Military District. we present the following letter of General Hancock. Major-General Commanding to issue a certain order relative — : . under execution. it would probably sir. W.-Col. Bvt. seem to the Major-General Comthere is manding that an urgent necessity which would justify his interference in the manner required. a constable levies an execution on such property. Jan. requesting the Sir. diency of such a measm-e is more than questionable for. Esq. 3 Henry Van Vleet.272 LIFE AIs'D PUBLIC SERVICES OF it. And if further illustration is necessary to show to Tvhat extent this demoralizing policy of military interference had been carried.^ U. unfortunatel}'. New Orleans. nor is any other If. ver}^ destro}^ it altogether.^ Sec' y for Civil Affairs. by a creditor of the corporation.^ > Office of Secretary for Civil Affairs. the case with most debtors and on that ground neurl}^ all other debtors . and the city has its remed}^ against him in the proper tribunal. the expe. A. should the creditors of the cit}^ be prevented from resorting to the means given them to enforce the obligation? In support of j'our application. This is.. Chief Engineer In reply to 3'our communication. would be equally entitled to the same relief. The Supreme Court of this State has decided that taxes due a municipal corporation cannot be seized.

Your obedient servant. together with a copy of this letter. Lieut. New Orleans. A. very respectfully.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. the papers in this case.-CoL. Mitchell. U. and the military only support the laws and suppress violent opposition to them. General Hancock pursued the same calm. such as the exercise of the right of eminent domain. . W. as it may. he consistently and convincingly showed that the civil authority must rule. desire. and it appears to him very questionable whether he ought to deal with questions of that kind nor is it clear that any benefit could result to the company from such an order.^ Sec' y for Civil Affairs. Be this. . and therefore the Major-General Commanding dechnes to take ^ action in the matter. Bvt. according to the existing laws. . etc.. G. the question of power which the company desires solved by the proposed order. the vastly perplexing duties of his civil administration. S. sh'. If you I am. as the company has been regularly incorporated under the general corporation act. however. all In unwavering purpose on whatever side he was assailed with demands for the elevation of the military over the civil power. will be foi-warded to the Secretary of War. there can be no difficulty in obtaining a decree of appropriation of the land which may be required for the enterprise. belongs properly to the judiciary. So far as the State of Louisiana is concerned. to the 273 Railroad pany. Mobile and Chattanooga I am directed by him to state — : Com- That the order asked for embraces questions of the most important and delicate nature. obstruction of navigable rivers or outlets.

Hancock Declines to use his Troops for the Polls only to Vote. was to inflame the passions of the people and induce violence But the where none was ever contemplated before. of course. men of the character of those It was impossible that who then held the gov- ernment should conduct themselves honestly when they held not only the entire civil machinery of elections in their hands. Troops at the Polls. most emphatic proof of the insincerity of this plea is found in the fact that the entire civil government. ready to answer. The Usurpations of the Freedof Law and of Civil Government. — — — — — — ject. He Instructs Governor Pease in the Art the Collection of Taxes. and that in all places there was an army of occupation. It is unnecessary to recite the instances of gross fraud and perversion of the will of the people which occurred under this system. The natural effect. but also controlled an armed force with . OxE was done under the plea that violence and intimidation were feared. Hancock's Letter to General Howard on the Submen'a Bureau. was in the hands of the men who pretended to fear violence at the polls. of the most humiliating acts of the carpet-bag rulers of the Southern States was the policing of the It polls with Federal bayonets at the time of election. Soldiers to Visit Hancock's Famous Order. at a moment's call. the demand for troops to support the police in case of trouble. in every department.274 LITE A^D rUBLIC SERVICES OF CHAPTER yil.

18.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. La. New Orleans. "to form a constitution" for the State . ) J EXTRACT. eral Hancock's order on this subject is as follows : — IIeadquarteks Fifth Military District. could not be quelled in all his orders. in the opinion of the civil authorities. 1867. and for delegates thereto. and at the same time to accustom the people to the sight of the degradation of the power below that of the military. to determine whether a convention shall be held. of course. It is all citizens 275 polls at from the easily understood how. 1868. One ground that the of the peace must alone have charge of the duty of preserving order at elections. notice is hereby given that an election will be held in the State of Texas on the tenth. they permitted none to vote except those who would vote as they wished. In compliance with the supplementary act of Congress of March 23. Dec. which to exclude any or their will. increased the bad feeling among the people. twelfth. unless. and fourteenth days of February. I. Everv occurrence of this sort. civil of General Hancock's early acts was to remove He took the constitutional this unrepublican idea. 1867. and naturally led to It was the direct Vv^ay in which to breed and violence. violence civil officers it prevailed to such an extent that without the aid of the military. thirteenth. foster hatred of the government whose representative was a bayonet. 213. Special Orders No.. under said act. with these resources. As he held that the military arm should be used only to Gensustain the civil authority. eleventh. not to supersede it.

It was thus in the matter of troops at . [Official. The sheriff and other peace required to be present during the each county are whole time the polls are completed. and. for orders in each case. and until the election is made responsible that there shall be no interference with judges of election. the}' are registered as but the voters. " unless it shall be necessary to keep the peace at the polls. would rest entirely with the civil ann. General Hancock was constantly in receipt of requests from the carpet-baggers of various degrees of authority. each registrar or clerk is hereb}' clothed. place. in case of failure of the afore- said civil officers.] The idea to civil rule in Louisiana minds of those appointed and Texas seemed to be that they were to govern by military force. })art empowered to perform their duties They will make full report of such civil on the of officers to the Commanding General. are during failures the election. and will be kept open. Fifth Military District. commanders of posts civil authorities fail to will be prepared to act promptly officers of if the preserve the peace. through the headquarters. unless. with authorit}' to call As an upon tlie civil officers of the count}' to make arrests." is prohibited by law and no soldiers will be allowed to appear at any polling . to undertake by military power the work which. LITE ATO) PUBLIC SERVICES OF Militar}^ interference with elections. • ••••• of instilled into the •• • • By command Majou-General Hancock.276 IX. X. additional measure to secure the purity of the election. under a proper scheme of government. and then only for the purpose of voting . District of Texas. during the election. or other interruption of good order. as citizens of the State.

vou will find "that the Auditor of Public Accouiits of the State shall.. or that am^ other news- steps have been taken. as under existing laws in relation to the collection of taxes.WIXFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. New — I am directed by the Major-General Commanding to 3'om' letter of the 13th inst. an appeal for force was sent He replied as follows to General Hancock. : acknowledge receipt of which you state that the ' ' taxes imposed by the Constitutional Convention cannot be collected through the ordinarj^ process of collecting taxes in this State. No has been made to those coercive means to enforce the b}^ payment of taxes pointed out it is the laws of the State . because So in the matter suited his purpose better. Sir.. and a resort demand to pay. Before there had been any of the collection of taxes. .. done (and forcible resistance should be made) When . New Orleans. it : attempt to collect the levy. superintend and control the collection of said tax of one mill per cent." By reference to the ordinance of the convention. that an}^ process for the collection of this tax has issued. Peralta. to state that the tax-collectors of the parishes of Orleans and Jefferson. Jan. in repl}'. which has been refused. from 3'our statement. La. Auditor of Public Accounts. and shall give immediate notice and instructions to the different sheriffs It and tax-collectors. and. in their report to jou of the same date. 15. in Orleans." does not appear. control to the exclusion of the proper civil authorities. that the Ma^or- . except giving notice in the papers. La. 277 The Governor wanted the military to take the polls." and "refer the whole matter to him for his action " . 1868. say that "the tax- payers have generall}' refused to pay the tax. 3 H.^ > Office of Secretary for Civil Affairs. Esq. this is your dutj^ to direct the tax-collector to do. — headqrarters flpth military district.

Lieut.-CoL. stitutional Convention. Hon. New Orleans. 1868. You request the Commanding General to state what his a new mode action would be. ^ U. should the civil courts of Louisiana interfere with the collectors in the discharge of their duties. I am. G. I am. Lieut. and a subsequent inquiry was made of General Hancock as to what he would do in case the civil courts interfered with the this Even tax-collectors in the discharo-e o of their duties..^ Sec'y for Civil Affairs. very respectfull}'. take prompt measures to vindicate the supremacy of the law. U.278 LIFE AND rUBLIC SERVICES OF General Commanding will. A. Bvt. adopted on the 4th of January-. McMillan and Hon. Mitchell. j'-our obedient servant. ver}' respectfull}'. . for would be highly improper him to anticipate any illegal interference of the courts in the matter. 1878. Special Committee Gentlemen. Mitchell. 3'our obedient servant. G. ) . Bvt. Wm. did not satisfy them. upon it being reported to him. M. sh. and to state in reply that the second ordinance of the Con. the Commandins: General deems it imnecessar}' to repeat what he has already stated in reply tc a previous It letter concerning his authority on this subject. La Jan. Vidal. 21. -Col. Whenever a case vested in the he will powers General the acts of Commanding by Congress. Sec^y for Civil Affairs. p. provides for the collection of the tax. A. W.^ > Office of Secretary for Civil Affairs. and on imposes penalties defaulting tax-pa3'ers. arises for the interposition of the and order. The Major-General Commanding directs me — : to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 1 7th inst. In this connection. S. promptly exercise them for the maintenance of law sir. S. ^y. Hancock made this reply : — General Headquarters Fifth Military District.

If he was not born a statesman. Hancock again states principles which it would have been well in the minds of all district commanders it . he certainly developed into one. who was acting for his Some friction having occurred in General Hancock's department. which is given here for the reason that in certain vital to inculcate at that time. The contrast between Hancock and the general w^hom he was sent to supersede on the critical first day of the Gettysburg fight is clearly shown by the incidents which occurred about this time. he addressed a letter to General Howard on the subject. as this Bureau was run almost exclusively as a party machine. for many good or for evil. It can truthfully be said that few governors of States have ever had so perplexing questions of law and of jurisdiction placed before them for decision as General Hancock was assailed wdth when he was given absolute power. General Howard was head of the Freedmen's Bureau and. although not bred to the law or to was doing a most excellent work in teaching these lawyers and politicians the rudiments as well as politics. 279 General Hancock. carpet-bag-ridden States of And in deciding these cases he showed a clearness of mind and a genius for administration which entitle him to a high place among executive officers. the details of civil administration. there was inevitable conflict between its operations and at the . in the Louisiana and Texas.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. the purposes of a commander country and not for party.

and returned to him January 16th. was the proper authority to apply the remedy.1868." he can transmit them. I have the honor to state that I do not underof mine can be interpreted as interfering with the proper execution of the law creating the Bureau. and also Assistant Commissioner for Texas. and the part of Captain Collins in not reporting them. Frcedmen. 31. This paper seems to contain only vague and indefinite complaints. Washington D. stand how an)" orders Anything complained of in that letter. and abandoned lands. It is certainly not my intention that they should so interfere.. : New of Captain E. and transmitted by j'ou for my information. will be It is. as well as to aid and the offidut}". in the proper execution . being military commander. or of neglect of duty on . and they will No reply has been received to this a proof either of the non-existence of such special cases.-Gen. dated Dec. sub-assistant commissioner of the Bureau refugees. receive attention. and Abandoned Lands. with the following indorsement Respectfully returned Brevet ' ' : forwarded to me by General Maj. J. which could have lawfully been remedied by the exercise of military authorit}'.. which require action at these headquarters. Orleans. at Brenham. Major-General 0. without specific action as to any particular cases. J. freedmen. commanding District of Texas. If Captain Collins has an}' special cases of the nature referred to in his communication. IIo-ward Commissioner of Bureau Ptefugees. La. Feb. j^ou my pleasure cers and agents under your direction. O. who. Collins. Seventeenth Infantr}". should have received the action of General Rejmolds. General. — Referring to the report Tex. and to that end was vested with the necessary power.1867. A copy of the report of Captain Collins had already been Re3"nolds before the receipt of your communication. Reynolds.280 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF IlEADQrAIlTERS FiFTH MILITARY DISTRICT. 24. C.

. civil tribunals to take jurisdiction in their opinion necessar}^ to or tribunals for that purpose. The Reconstruction Acts charge district commanders with the duty of protecting all persons in their rights of person and propert}^ and to this end authorize them to allow local . so far as my power as district comis mander extends . and would work more harmoniousl}^. The Reconstruction Acts exempt no class of persons from their operation. My intention is to confine the agents of the Bureau within their legitimate authority. however. did I hear anything in regard to this subject. and try offenders or if organize a military commission of. and for such other offences as are not by law made triable by the United They States courts. . At present there is a clash- ing of authority. Whilst there I passed through Brenham twice. and be I can sa}^ a superior control more in favor with the people. so far as I recollect. and the duty of protecting all persons in their rights of person and property. or disregard of their prerogatives as district commanders. I simply mention the facts without desk- ing any such control. that had the district commander over the freedmen's aflfairs in the district. it is not my intention or desire to interfere with the Freedmen's Bureau. further than that. the Bureau would be as useful. There are numerous abuses of authority on the part of certain agents of the Bureau in Texas. and General Re3'nolds already investigating some of them. of the law. 281 I have just returned from a trip to Texas. to the extent of at least enablins: them to restrain these agents from any interference with. of necessity invests district commanders with control over the asrents of the Bureau. and saw Captain Collins but neither from him nor from General Rey. nolds.WIXFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. are thus given control over all criminal proceedings for violation of the statute laws of the States.

this state of affairs exists to a less extent. and arrestins. General Hancock now represents the same idea in the Presidential contest that he represented in tralized force. for tlie pres- peace and the enforcement of the local laws and they are the ones required to within their districts desisfnate tlie tribunals before which those who break the peace and A-iolate these laws shall be tried. as I have already mentioned. Army Commanding. Such being the fact. S. General Re3'nolds is aware of some of these cases.General U. 3-our obedient servant. from the first. taking fees for services. some are 3'et holding ervation of courts. . W.282 LIFE AXD rUBLIC SERVICES OF district The commaDders are made responsible . had been ea2*er in usurping authority which did not belong to his agents Hancock had. civil government could perform the duty. under law\s of their ow^n enactment. S. and is. In Texas. whenever the Howard. giving his attention to them. citizens for offences over which the Bureau is not intended b}^ law to have jurisdiction. refused to assume the authority vested in him at his discretion. very respectfulh'. acting through agents irresponsible to 18 68 as commander of the Fifth ]\Iilitary District. it Avill . be observed. if at all. General. Hancock. The difference is that between a government by the people. imposing fines. trj'ing cases. and a government of centhe people. Major. many of the agents of the Bureau seem not to be aware of it. In Louisiana. I am.

o It was quite natural that the carpet-bag goveniors of Louisiana and Texas should dislike General Hancock's system. the habeas corpus. Shortly after he came into office. and he had himself *ruled with recklessness and cruelty." Governor Pease of Texas was daced. peace. — Hancock's Resijrnatiou. It deprived them of the arbitrary power which they had been accustomed to wield.— Grovemor Pease's Open Letter. Congress attempts to get rid of Hancock. the liberty of the press. dared not pass. This Pease had been appointed to his place under miUtary rule. 283 CHAPTER yrn. The Soldier defeuds the Constitution and the Rights of the People against the LawA J3ill which They yer. They saw their consequence and their oppoi-tunities for profit falling away from them. the freedom of speech.WIKFIELD SCOTT HAXCOCK. Hence they rebelled " against Hancock's the right of trial by jury. their occupation as governors would I)e gone. and the rights of property declaration that especially worried about the reisfn of law which General Hancock had intro- should be preserved. and contentment. the natin-al rights of persons. all of the judges of the Supreme C ourt of Texas. with returning prosperity. . The Cai-pet-Baggera protest against Civil Government. — — — — He supersedes the President and revokes Hancock's — Orders. General Hancock's Reply. and gave the people a chance to govern themselves in a quiet and decent way under the law. — Grant made the Instrument of the Radicals. and they realized that.

suppress insurrection and violence. severity the action of the latter in issuing the order. were allowed to serve as jurors. as his judg- . and sent to the press an open letter addressed to General Hancock. Avere arbitrarily removed from office . and others appointed in their places. none but persons capable of taking the test oath. subject to miliHe affirmed that the President had put tary law.284 live LIFE AND rUBLIC SERVICES OF in district number. were In addition to this. in which he criticised with great . But the oppressed ex-rebels proudly endured the wrong in silence. This Avrono^. to have deluged any State in blood." To this order Governor Pease took exception. and to punish offenders either by militar}^ in command commissions or by the local civil tribunals. as soon as he took command. By arbitrary order. appointed county officers in seventy-five out of the one hundred and twenty-eight counties Avere removed. and. the their places. 40. and twelve out of seventeen of the judges. efficient more as a part of the Fifth Military District. and registered as such. aimed to repair and his first step in this " direction was the promulgation of the famous General Order Xo. Hancock of a military force to protect the rights of property and person. General Hancock. in whom this functionary desired. would have been sufficient. Such arbitrary acts. and others. No people but one defeated and exhausted by a long and bloody war. of themselves. He cited the act of Conofress providing: "for the government of the Southern States. would have endured such outrages. under ordinary circumstances." which made the government of Texas provisional.

He declared further that there . pointed out the option given him by the Reconstruction Act. yielding only an unwilling obedience. For this and similar reasons. and arguing the civil case asrainst an old soldier who had staked even his military position on the issue that the law of the land shall prevail over the power which he himself wielded. and with vigor. But the assault soldier lost his upon no time in repulsing this civilian works. 40. but that. for political effect at the before he sent it Hancock . were practically no local civil tribunals that it was not true. if He . Governor Pease demanded that General Hancock set aside the local tribunals. North. Here the spectacle was presented to the world of a executive demanding that military rule shall be established above the law of the Jand. a large majority of the white population who participated in the late rebellion were embittered against the government. and enforce penalties by military commissions. having no affection. and but little respect. as was alleged in "Order No." that there was no longer any organized resistance to the authority of the United States. long but the latter replied at once on receipt of the missive. declared that the people of Texas regarded the reconstruction lesfislation of Cono^ress as unconstitutional. for the government. to govei'n by the local civil tribunals. on the contrary.WINTIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. Governor Pease had given his to General letter to the press. 285 ment might seem best. and the emancipation of their slaves and their He own disfran- chisement as insult and oppression. the provisional governfnent a usurpation.

and where prisoners charged with offences have broken jail and escaped. and to extend forbearance and consideration to opposing views. where it is true that sheriffs fail often to arrest. were matters beyond the power of human tribunals. The act. He showed that to deny a profound state of peace in Texas necessitated a like denial in regard to an}' State in the Union where diflerences of opinion exist between majorities and minorities. it was time to remember that it He was proposed that the American people should be freemen and that it was time to tolerate free popular discussion. at the expiration of two years after the close of the war. where grand jurors will not where always indict. petit juries have acquitted persons who were guilt}'. had nothing' to do with the manner in which they should be ruled. was consistent with human welfare. they would warrant them in every State of the Union. if difficuUies in Texas authorized the settinoaside of the local tribunals and the setting up of arbitrary military commissions. and that freedom of thought and speech. therefore. so long as not developed into violation of law. though acrimonious. and that. that such mattei's as the affection or respect or hatred of the people. leo-al recoo-nized those local civil tribunals as ties for the authori- He showed purpose specified. AVhat the people of Texas thought of the constitutionality or unconstitutionality of acts of Conirress. declared that. Such reasons for establishing military commissions would enforcing: criminal laws in .286 in his LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF judgment he thought best.

18G8. and for dealing w^ith which military commissions were utterly incapable. March To His Excellency E. —Your — — from more important business would permit. but is a model of elegant and is forcible composition. successions. } ) communication of the 17th January last. but not until it had been widely circulated by the newspaper press." but that the contrary was expressly true. But no synopsis can do justice to this letter. He finally showed from the statistics that neither crime nor disloyal offences were on the increase under " the operation of Order No.strength of the writer Following is — the letter in Head QUARTERS Fifth Military Orleans. Pease. Constitution and acts sion to establish Vvdlls. full : mental . . 9.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. or to settle any of the thousand questions which arise between men.. there would no longer exist any rights of person and property and he demonstrated the absurdity of a military commis. To such a letter written and published for manifest purposes it has been my intention to reply as soon as leisure Sm. wipe civil 287 government and law and with clearness that if liberty from the face of the earth. which laws were not in conflict with the of Congress. 40. He showed he set aside the laws enacted for the people of the States lately in rebellion. Governor of Texas : New District. deeds. M. for the solution of which laws and courts were established. La. The is shown in every line. which not only admirable as an exposition of the constitutional rights of citizens. was received in due course of mail (the 27th January).

suppress insurrection and violence. and subject to mili. You do not reflect that this government. your complaint is against me. But how supposed to have made it my duty to order the commission requested. will not it read the act to perceive this is be disputed. 3"ou have entirel}" failed to military show. as in his judg- and punish offenders. command rights in said district. You admit Congress ought the act of Congress authorizes me to tr}" an offender b}' military commission. wield a militia force. you must either as legal authorities for contend tliere are no legcil . and the propriety of doing you are often very different matters. As respects the issue between us. local tribunals for au}' purpose in Texas. or allow the local civil tribunals to tr}'. should be allowed to send members to Congress. without it. but against Congress. and subject to military power. if shown. and 2:)ossess it yet other powers. The power to do a thing. . You observe are at a loss to understand liow a government.288 LIFE AXD rUBLIC SERVICES OF ' ' Your statement that the act of Congress to provide for " the more efficient government of the rebel States declares that whatever government existed in Texas was provisional that peace and order should be enforced that Texas should be part of the Fifth Military District. If 3'ou think ought to have more powers. and may fully exercise them accordingl}". military commission or tiirough the action of local civil tribunals. tar}" power . who not to be preferred made it what it is. that the President should appoint an officer to and detail a force to protect the either of person and property. can be said to be in the full exercise of all its proper powers. created or permitted b}' Congress has all the powers which the act intends. recognizes such local civil tribunals AV^hen you the purpose specified. any question as to to what have done has no pertinence. as I shall deem best and 3'ou cannot deny the act expressly . One need only contain such provisions. representation in Congress or a militia force. by ment might seem all best.

and consider the government now existing here under authority of the United States as a usurpation on their rights. I am not a lawyer. They appear to me not a little extraordinary." cede they do 3'ield it obedience. My dear it sir. and so 3'ou suppose enforce the penal code against citizens by means of military class as insult own an act of — . And for the future of our common I could devoutly wish that no great number of our countr}'. You next remark that you dissent from my declaration." "But a large majority of the white population who participated in the late rebellion are embittered against the government. and very few any respect for it. But I may lay claim. "Woe be to us whenever it shall come to pass that the power . ness. and Nevertheless. They regard the legislation : ' '• of Congress on the subject of reconstruction as unconstitutional and hostile to their interests. " that the country (Texas) is in a state of profound peace. I quote 3'om' words It is true there no longer exists here (Texas) an}' organ: '*• ized resistance to the authority of the United States. after an experience of more than half a lifetime. to some poor knowledge of men. to study the philosophy of and politics." And this is all you have to present for proof that war and not peace prevails in Texas and hence it becomes my duty to set aside the local civil tribunals. 289 deny the plain reading of the act of Congress or the power of Congress to pass the act.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. you con3'ield to it an unwilling obedience. You proceed None of this class have any affection for the government. as statecraft people have yet fallen in with the views you appear to entertain. commissions. and some appreciation of what is necessary to social order and happiness." and proceed to state the grounds of your dissent. nor has it been my busi- ma}' have been yours. They look on the emancipation of their late slaves and the disfranchisement of a portion of their — and oppression.

national banks. or that government had any authorit}' to question the absolute right of the opposition to express their objections to the propriety of the king's measures in any words or to any extent they pleased ? It would be difficult to show that the opponents of the government in the da3's of the elder Adams. so long as not developed into acts in violation of law. his — Government —his government its in terms of unmeasured bitterness. delivered in Parliament. It was during our Revolutionary war. exhibited for it either '' affection" or respect. however acrunoniously indulged. is consistent with the noblest aspu'ations of man. sedition. and related to the policy of employing savYou may be more familiar with ages on the side of Britain. were matters wholly beyond the punitorj" power of human tribunals. be safely asserted that a majority of the British nation concurred in the views of Lord Chatham. I When remember to the speech than I am. as . have read a speech of Lord Chatham. I think. or hatred. I will maintain that the entire freedom of thou2:ht and speech. and feelings of affection. the embargo. I have been accustomed to believe that sentiments of respect or disrespect. and the happiest condition of his race. or Jackson. that for one . But whoever supposed that profound peace was not existing in that kingdom. If I denounced the British lordship am not greatly mistaken. a boj^. and vented his religion proclaimed eternal abhorrence of it and its measures.290 of the LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF magistrate — ci\al or military — is permitted to deal with the mere opinions or feelings of the people. our wars with England and Mexico. or Jefferson. love. He characterized policy revolting to it ever}^ sentiment of humanity and covered with disgrace." with the of our Your are conversant past parties and history '•'• political struggles touching legislation on alienage.ct. and cannot be ignorant of the fa. It ma}^.

If 3^ou deem them constitutional laws.WINFIELD SCOTT HA:NC0CK. as you are aware. merely in accordance with the principles of our free government and neither j^ou nor I would wish to is . acts of Congress arc unconstitutional. part}^ to assert that 291 a law or system of legislation is unconstitutional. we should begin to recollive what manner of people we are to tolerate again free. of the United States has announced his opinion that these The Supreme Court. to publish his opinion freely and fearlessl}^ on this and every question which he thinks concerns his neither interest. Our peo- ple everywhere. I am confident 3^ou will not that an3^ commit 3'our serious judgment to the proposition amount of discussion. It is a poor compliment to the merits of such a cause. That the people of Texas consider acts of is Congress unconstitutional. at the end of almost two 3^ears from the close of the war. not long ago decided unanimously that a certain military commission was unconstitutional. or an3' sort of opinions. Not less is it the privilege and duty of any and every citizen. and extend some forbearance and conlect . popular discussion. oppressive. but salutary. differ as to the constitutionHow the matter really is. is not a new thing in the United States. are not only sound. in every State. This under any other. sideration to opposing views. that its advocates would silence opposition b3'^ force and generall3^ those onl3^ who are in the . or insulting to them. ality of these acts of Congress. wrong will resort to this ungenerous means. but it might be 3'our bounden duty as a citizen to do so. hovy^- . oppressive. you nor I may dogmatically affirm. and that to combat it. without reference to the side they took during the Rebellion. and beneficial to the country. It is time now. 3'ou not only have the right to publish your opinions. wherever residing. and usurpative. lectual contests truth is The maxims is left that in all intel- mighty and must free error is harmless when reason prevail. The President of no consequence to the matter in hand.

Marj'land. which I ought to respect that I should undertake to protect the rights of persons and is no local State government in . could have no abiding place beneath the circuit of the sun. propert3' i^^ '^^U ^'^'^ ^^'^U ^^^^ ^^ ^^ arbitrary manner. You next complain that . can furnish justification for 3'our denial that profound peace You might as well deu}' that profound peace exists in Texas. Ohio and Kentuck}'.292 LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF ever unwise in your judgment. or in the Supreme Court. No one can reasonabl3^ expect certain and absolute justice in human transactions and on the principles for if militar3" to be set in motion. and no local laws outand side of the acts of Congress. not contiuualH' happening. It is rather more than hinted in your letter. but admitting 3'our representations literall}'^ true. and parties respectfully and patiently the heard. California. I know not how these things are if . reasons I should set aside the local civil tribunals and order a for such United States where it might not be done with equal propriet3\ There is not a State in the Union North or South where the like facts are military commission. that there seem to contend. in parts of the State . not resulting in a breach of law. acting in aid of the civil authorities. (Texas) fail to it is difficult to enforce the criminal laws that sheriffs . I fear that a civil Texas. where all these questions have been repeatedly discussed. power is which 3'ou would government. Perfection is not to be predicated of man or his works. exists in New House of Representatives or the Senate at Washington. there is no place in the — — . that grand jurors will not always indict that in some arrest cases the military. or any assertion of feeling. and jurors have acquitted persons adjudged guilty by j^ou that other persons charged with offences have broke jail and . York. however resentful or bitter. have not been able to execute the process of the courts that petit . regulated b3' laws. where a majority of people differ with a minority on these questions or that profound peace exists in . fled from prosecution. Penns3'lvania. If such .

nor favor On them. and testified of the justice. person or property. civilization of past of persons competent to judge. leaving their w^orks an inestimable legacy to the human race. Let us for a mo- no longer any rights. as on a foundation of rock. and patriotism of more than one nation. but libraries to contain them. here. and yon would virtually annul the laws. Why should it be supposed that Congress has abolished these laws ? Why should any one wish to abolish them? They have committed no treason. as commander of the fountain of law and justice. both civil and criminal. and better suited than any other to the condition of this people. who had labored in their day for their kind. principles and precedents for ascertaining adjusting the controversies of men in every They were the creations of great and good and learned men. humanity. for by them they have long been governed. I am compelled to differ with After the abolition of slavery (an event which I hope no one now regrets) the laws of Louisiana and Texas existing prior to the rebellion. It required not volumes only. as I am informed. civil code annulled. They laid down the rights and conceivable case. connected the and present ages. and that I Fifth Military District. reposes injustice. through whose records they descended to the present I am satisfied. meaning. . nor countenance crime. from representations people of these States. com. ahuost the entire superstructure of social order in these two Annul this code of local laws. they are as perfect a system of laws as may be found elsewhere. prised a vast s^'stem of jurisprudence. the sole This is the position in which you would place me. either of ment suppose the whole local am left. except in reference to the very few cases cognizable in the Federal courts. and not in conflict with the acts of Congress. Abolish the local civil tribunals made to execute them. and there would be States. be 3"our 293 3'on. and gone down to the grave long before our recent troubles.WIXriELD SCOTT HANCOCK. These laws. nor are hostile to the United States. wisdom.

." and add that it is '• an . One would establish a will. 40. but not the principles of justice these will live in spite even of the sword. ' are pleased to state that since the publication of (nw) general orders No. another a deed or the question is one of succes. of which I am not only ignorant.294 I LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF am now is it How to protect all rights possible for me to do it ? and redress all wrongs. excepting whatever therein shall relate to slavery. sion. or murder. 3'ou tell me am to by dint of ni}' own hasty and crude judgment. I do not see how I could do better than follow the laws in force here prior to the Rebellion. sii% that you. . if sible that Congress should pass an act abolishing the local me. pandects were lost for a long period among . arson. Innumerable questions arise. that in this perplexing condition I And furnish. the legislation demanded by the vast and manifold interests of the people I repeat. are for the monstrous suggestion that there are no responsible ! local laws or institutions here to be respected b}^ the acts of Congi-ess. for it has ceased to exist. or descent. again to be regarded as a precious ti'easure. I say unhesitatingly. or trust a suit of ejectment or claim to chattels or the application may relate to robbeiy How am I to take the first step in theft. but to the solution of which a military court is entirely unfitted. and not Congress. local code. Power may destro}^ the fall should to my lot to forms. or partnership. History tells us that the Roman . outside it were pos- codes for Louisiana and Texas it —which I do not believe — and supply their places with something of nw own. . any such matter? If I turn to the acts of Congress I find I dare not open the authors on the nothing on the subject. there has been a perceptible increase of crime and manifestations of hostile feelins: toward ' You the Government and its supporters. the rubbish that war and revolution had heaped upon them but at length were dug out of the ruins.

40. your statement that the action of the district commander was increasing crime and hostile feeling against the Government. tional time and ' ' remaining to enable you." this. 1867. and your 1868. who they were. . to reach a satisfactory conclusion on so delicate and nice a How j^ou proceeded question must have been very short. But what was order No. 295 unpleasant duty to give sucli a recital of the condition of the country. but Had the dut3" of publishing and bitterness of feeling onl3'. 40. are points upon which 3'our letter so discreetl3'' omits all mention. or whether . and that I do very General orders greatly doubt the correctness of the second. some addi- No. the fact that in another part of 3'our letter 3'ou state that ever since the close of the war a ver3^ large portion diminished b3" of the people have had no affection for the Government. what their competency and fairness on what evidence 3'ou rested 3'our conclusion. 3'et a further time must transpire before you would the condibe able to collect the evidence of what 3'ou term have and after all would tion of the countr}^ . the circulating through countr3^^ long before it reached me. 29. and how could it have the . it might possibl3'' have occurred to 3'ou to furnish something on the subject in addition to 3'our bare assertion. 1868. therefore. You will Orleans. to make the necessary investigations to ascertain if order No. letter was dated Jan. been less painful to your sensibilities. The time. that I ma3^ well be excused for not rel3'ing implicitl3^ upon it nor is m3' difficulty . you 3'^et." permit me to say that I deem it impossible the first of these statements can be true.WIKFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. 17. . or something else. 40 was issued at New must have elapsed before its effect would be manifested. whether 3'ou investigated yourself or through third persons and if so. 40 to reach Texas and become generally known. before the 17th of Januar}'. was the cause. Nov. Allowing time for order No. 3'ou ascertained any facts at all.

You are yom-self the chief of these authorities not elected by the peoNot long after you had thus ple. County officers." a pledge was given in order No. Texas — five in niunber . 40 that any crimes or breaches of law would be countenanced ? You know fectly that there was not. which all understood. There are some considerations which." You will not affirm that this should cause you to hesitate before indulging in wholesale censures against the civil authorities of Texas. when the whole military force in m}' hands has not been ready to support the civil authorities of Texas in the execution of the laws. the and people habeas corpus. it seems to me. On well that while " the the contrar}'. the freedom of speech. come into office. the liberty of the press. but created by the military. Was there any intimation in general orders No." AYill 3^ou question the truth of these declarations? "SYhich one of these great principles of liberty are j'ou ready to deny and repudiate ? Whoever does so avows himself the enemy of human liberty and the advocate of despotism. served. and new appointments made twelve of the seventeen district judges were removed and others appointed. arms. all the judges of the Supreme Court of . — were removed from office. forfeited. 3'ou know perconsideration of crime and to the offences committed in the Fifth Military District was refeiTed judgment of the regular civil tribunals. 40. and the natural rights of persons and property must be preciples of . that tribunals would be supported in their lawful jurisdiction.'2i)6 LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF It sets forth that effect 3'oii attribute to it? "the great prin- American libert}^ are still the inheritance of this ever should be that the right of trial b\' jury. And I am to beheve would refuse to call for aid if they unwilling the}' needed it. more . and that forcible resistance to law would be instant!}' suppressed by ' ' pledge has ever been There has not been a moment since I have been in command of the Fifth District.

that against the local government. and others appointed in their places. twelve months. and sustained Why by that your political friends. I find that. it is most grievous complaints. Certainly you could have said nothing more to the discredit of the officials who are now in office. created by military power prior to my coming here. letter. a mystery is presented for which I can imagine no ex- planation. . four the date of order 40. 1867. . executive and judicial civil functionaries in Texas are the persons whom 3'ou desired to It is fair to conclude that the none but take the test and those who could registered citizens. and whom you represent as the offenders ? In all the history of these trou- have never seen or heard before of such a fact. that you have preferred istration. if the fact be so. I am constrained to declare that bles. you declare that neither property nor life is safe in Texas. at the date of your cases only of homicides had been reported to these headquarters as having occurred since Nov. utterly surpassing my comprehension. It is of them that j^ou have asserted they will not do their duty they will not maintain the . it is a profound myster}^. . 29. only oath. I I believe 3'ou are in very great error as to facts. not over ten arrests have been made and by means of such gross disregard of duty. should be unwilling to enforce the laws against that part of the population lately in rebellion.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. backed up the whole military of the United States in is it this district. in seventy-five out of one hundred and twenty-eight counties. have been allowed to serve as jurors during your adminfill the oflflces. I repeat. It is proper to mention. and these cases were ordered to be tried or investisjated as soon as the reports were received. On careful examination at the proper source. also. were removed. 297 or less. justice punish crimes and that out of one hundred homicides committed in the last . and so composed of your personal and political friends. If the facts be as you allege. will not arrest offenders will not . Now.

40 are correct. The report of the commanding officer of the District of Texas shows that since I assumed command no applications have been made to him b}' you for the arrest of criminals in the State of Texas. is not known. a great confidence in the accurac}' of 3'our own opinions. Of these. the LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF fact of one hundred homicides may still be cor- The Freedmen's Bureau in Texas hundred one and how many of these were by reported sixty Indians and Mexicans. lashed into excitement b}' causes which I deem mostl}' imaginary. nor is it known whether these data are acrect. one by an insane man. some all of which could be scarcel}' attributby parties unknown — able to order No. I am well satisfied. one by a Mexican. a desire to punish the thoughts and feelings of those who . they exhibit no increase of homicides in mj^ time. If the reports received since the issuing of order No. as stated b}' you. and an intolerance of the opinions of others. and of the remainder. if you are correct that one hundi^ed had occurred in the past twelve months. . curate. worthless. and would cast them safel}^ I have found else in 3'our letter but indications of temper. three by colored men. and how the remainder were classified. 29. 1867. to To this date eighteen cases of homicides have been me as having occurred since Nov. veiy little while ago 3'ou regarded the present officials in A Texas the only ones who could be Now aside. That there has been no such wanton disregard of dut}' on the part of officials as 3'ou allege. two of women b}^ their husbands.298 However. reported although special instructions had been given to report such cases as they occur. five were committed b}'' Indians. That there has not been a perfect administration of justice in Texas I am not prepared to deny. 3'ou pronounce them little trusted with power. 40.

that its citizens ban of disfranchisement. very respectfully. Presidential election was approaching. 299 from you. 3'our obedient servant. and all such persons are the proper subjects for militar}' penal jurisdiction. who were fattening upon the Southern States. If 1 have written an3'thing to disabuse your grave an error. sk. or jielding it obedience from motives which you do not approve. But all this time General Hancock's action was inter- greedy carpet-baggers. and a most unsound conclusion that while any persons are to be found differ wanting government.General Commanding. Major. S. war. Hence it was decreed that Hancock must go. and an impatience which magnifies the shortcomings of officials who are perhaps as earnest and conscientious in the discharge of their duties as ^^ourself. and should fence in the polls.TNTN^FIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. and it was no part of their plan to permit the South to acquire such fering. not only with the A a degree of rehabilitation as to have the vote of its people counted in determining the result. but with the schemes of the Radical majority in Congress. mind of so I am. To elect their was candidate and retain possession of Congress it necessary that the South should remain under military rule. I shall be gratified. The President . Hancock. would bring the South To peaceably and happily back into the Union before the ambition of these politicians could be realized. W. the status. should be under the that Federal troops allow Hancock's plan of constitutional and legal government to be carried out. and in affection or respect for is not peace.

exceeding those of the President. The first plan was to pass a bill reducing number of major-generals in the regular army Hancock having received that rank in 1866 and turn him out in that way. and with the assurance of the quieter A Pepublican nomination he readily lent himself to the The first step w^as. Nothing can intimidate me from doing what I believe to be may honest and riijht. The no longer al)le to protect me. place him in a humiliating position. I am prepared for any event. 1868 and the . in fact. dropped. So that I expect one humiliation after another until I am forced to resign. to place in the hands of the General of the army unusual powers. A bill was introduced to this the — — but the prospect of a tremendous popular reaction against its authors terrified them. the General to use these powers in interference with General Hancock's direction of afiairs in his district in such a manner as to cripple his authority and." General Hancock applied to be relieved from his command on the 27th of February. About this time General Hancock wrote is to a friend in Congress: President "I hope to be relieved here soon. scheme was then concocted. General Grant was by this time thoroughly imbued with the Presidential ambition. and it was effect . by act of Congress. .300 LIFE AKD PUBLIC SERVICES OF had appointed him and the President alone could remove him. in regard to the administration of the The next was for military governments of the South. plans of the leaders of that party. So it must be accomplished by indirection.

301 South was given over to the bayonet. But the record of that six months' consti- tutional rule in the midst of military despotism on every hand had placed Hancock's name high on the roll of Democratic statesmen.WINFIELD SCOTT HA:NC0CK. and to strife. to plunder. .

of Monof mouth. Tributes to Hia Character. the Democratic sentiment was not a flickerins* blown hither and thither with every breath of circumstance or interest. — in — — — — — — — — pleasing to note with what consistent patriotism General Hancock performed his duties to his comitry. 1861. illumining his path at every step. In every situation we find him the same loyal. and who can regret that he is a descendaut of those who fousfht there for the liberties "Who we now eujoy? And what flag is it that we now look to as the banner that carried us through the great contest. Vote. His California 186L His Acts in 1868. and was honored b}' the gallant deeds of its defenders ? . It is With him flame. It was a steady light.302 LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF CHAPTER Hancock's Consistent IX. Thus. at the outbreak of the war. Brandj'wine and Yorktown. Intimacy with President Speech The Democratic Convention of 18G3. and making it impossible for him to go astray. Hancock the Lincoln. : — of us can forget the names of Lexington. when he was captain and quartermaster at Los Angeles. His Letter Endorsing the Nomination of He Again Receives a Large Seymour. Leading Candidate. he declared himself promptly and and in a speech unflinchingly on the side of the Union made on the 4th of July. determined champion of the rights of a free people under a free government. he said . and Patriotic Democracy. The Convention of 1876. before the news of actual secession had reached that distant point.

not second to their own. and to live under the flag which has gained for us the glor}. Now. thii't3^-four bright planets.WIXFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. representing that number of To be sure. sa}' this day. We have an Our interest in the battle-fields of the Revolution in those States. estranged. insist on sundering this union of States. eleven of that number. but that when reason returns and resumes her sway they will the so long prefer the brighter page of history which our mutual deeds have inscribed upon the tablets of time.we boast of. but we will trust that those clouds may soon be dispelled. " Let us believe. they cannot God side with theirs. clouds intervene between us and great States. thi'ow aside by their rights to the memories of the great fields on our soil on which their ancestors won renown? No. that our brothers there do not wish to separate themselves permanently from bound us together. and that those great stars in the southern constellation may shine forth again with even greater splendor than before. Can ! To those who. to those among us who feel aggrieved we will assist 3'ou will respect your wrongs but the government resulting from the union of these States is a priceless heritage that we : . at least let us trust. which. who have been We will welcome them as brothers but have come back. Your rights we . representing that number of oppressed colonies. citizens of this great country that gave us birth." . then embracing thirteen pale stars. if they would. ' ' and unsatisfactory. of these sacred memories. alas ! to them may prove illusory Let them return to us. regardless forbid that they should desire it. to redress intend to preserve and defend to the last extremity. forefathers fought there side they. 303 The star-spangled banner of America. to that of the uncertain futui'e common memories which have of a new confederation. let us who only wish our it is and whose desire to be still birthrights preserved to us.

He was a Unionist in the truest and best sense of the word. that led the Democracy of the country to look to him as the proper leader of the party in the . in a So. filled with the sincerest patriotism and enthusiasm for the Union. by restoring the reign of law and establishing again free popular government in Hancock was only carrying out the wise the South. he also proved his belief government of and by the people.304 LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF seven years later. He was frequently sent for by the President . during his service in Washington at the beginning of his career. by putting down armed rebellion at any cost secondly. . he was called to responsible administrative duties. after And when. Presidential contest of 18G8. It was such absolute confidence in General Hancock's loyalty to the ideas on which our constitutional government is based. Abraham Lincoln found in the young Brigadier-General of volunteers a strong and congenial soul. he had proved the sincerity of his words by service for free government on the bloodiest fields of the war. because he was a true Democrat. too. for consultation and for an inter- change of views was the same for the key-note of Lincoln's policy idea which moved General Hancock in his It was that the Union must be preserved first. course during and after the war. the majorgenerals in the army. had shown a strength of principle sufficiently stalwart to maintain the rights of the people all He. and patriotic policy of the martyred President in his administration in Louisiana and Texas when those who had opposed Lincoln turned their opposition also against the general who had been Lincoln's friend. of .

interposed the shield of the laws of the country between the tyranny of hard and petty tp'ants and an op- power. a gentleman who. the duties of the chief executive I present a gentleman who. 305 against the encroachments of the Radical majority in He alone had the moral couratye to refuse Cono:ress. by his position during the past year. When Maine was reached on the list. to his own ambitious longings for wealth and there as the representative of his Government. — standing . Samuel J. and who. the States were first called for the presentation of candidates. has made a record that stands to-day high in the hearts of the whole American people of the United States. July 4. 1868.WIXFTELD SCOTT HANCOCK. a gentleman who. and to subordinate the military arm to civil authorit3^ He was. Governor Seymour presiding. the foremost representative of the idea of constitutional government. if elected. The organization occupied two days. am by Maine to present to this would be able other office to discharge acceptably. July 7. in fact. unites in himself all the best characteristics of the most available candidates. and many thought that to his hands should be entrusted the Democratic banner which was then approaching. Anderson presented the name of General in the election Hancock I in the following speech directed : — the majority of the delegates from body as a candidate. — ordinated his regard for the laws and the Constitution of the country". appointed to a Military District of the United States. and upon the third day. succeeding one who in that position had sub. they believe. and his respect for the Chief Magistrate of the United States. the gift of absolute power given him by act of Congress. Gen. and as well as any man in the countr}^. The convention met in New York city.

which. but held forth the hand of mere}' to the enemy when brought beneath his arms a man who. Asa Packer. cheers. . and discriminating intellect. Winfleld Scott Hancock. personal securit}'. and united within himself the attributes of lion-hearted courage and great magnanimity who fought well for the nation which placed him in command. the chairman of the Pennsylvania delegation announced that. extending: into the followinij day with the relative position of the leading candidates but little changed. educated in a school which taught him that the govern- ment was instituted to afford to its citizens the great car- dinal rights of personal libert}^.t. by nature gifted pressed and outraged people with a broad. comprehensive. . but General Hancock's ofreat nomination was received with and the ballotino^ bes^an. it . however. words I will would seem almost superfluous to give the name nominate Gen. It was a long and weary balloting. of troops in the late contest. . on another field. the vote of the State would then be thrown for General Hancock. On the fifteenth ballot. was always the oriflamme under which his troops went on With these either to honorable death or glorious victor^'. like the helmet of Navarre. was one of the brave men in command . On the first ballot Pendleton led with 105 votes (each delegate casting half a vote). and Hancock stood next on the list with 33 . having voted up to that time for Hon. From that point onward General Hancock stood at the . ever foremost in the fight.306 LIFE AND rUBLIC SERVICES OF a man who. and the right to acquire and enjoy property. the law that should accord to them those rights a gentleman who. stood there and interposed between the operations of the military government and the people who had been outraged and oppressed. held the plume aloft.

headed by Judge J. head of the poll. 1868. as in 1880. which he based But. and Avas largely composed of the same steadily cast for General to the end of the contest . in consequence of these misrepresentations. Little did they understand how firm was the foundation of principle on his conduct.votes. Little did they know the man. The opposition at this time took occasion to represent General Hancock as disaffected by the result of the Convention. supported him in the Cincinnati Convention for a successful nomination. as follows : — St. from the lirst ballot and further. men who.' in 1880. Glover addressed him a letter of inquiry. Mr. Louis. July 13. 307 on the eighteenth ballot receiving 144^. Major-General Hancock Dear Sir. in this Convention. to the effect that you — : are greatly dissatisfied with the results of the National Democratic Convention. that the Massachusetts delegation was. twelve votes of Massachusetts were Hancock. G. It was at length proved to the satisfaction of all the delegates that the necessary two-thirds vote could not bo secured for any candidate then before the Convention. Abbott. The object of these statements is to create an impression that you do not acquiesce in the . and to claim that he would not cordially support the candidate of the constitutional party. or nearly a majority. and on the twenty-second ballot ex-Governor Seymour was nominated. I deem it proper to direct your attention to statements made b}^ the Radical press.WIXFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. It is interesting to eleven of the observe that.

July 17. and to rebuke the spirit of revolution which had invaded every sacred precinct of liberty. were I to hesitate in its candid support. you did exactly . I that nothing could cause yoa more regret than to find your friends. — I am greatly obliged for 3-our favor Sir. and to assure those who have spoken with me on the subject. you pronounced the statements in question false. have taken the wish 3-0U to know. less earnest in supporting the ticket which has been nominated than they would have been had your name stood in the place of Mr. My own wish was to promote. but commit a crime aganist I never aspired to the Presidenc}' on account m}^ countr3\ of mj'sclf. St. I never sought its doubtful honors and certain labors and responsibilities mcrel}' for the position. or any of them. S. that I libert}^ to pronounce these statements false. I. therefore. S. When. Louis : Those who suppose that I do not acquiesce in tho work of the National Democratic Convention. I feel I should not only falsif}' m}^ own record. in consequence. your friend. My Dear 10th inst. Glover. know very little of my character. their cordial support. or that I do not sincerely desire the election of its nominees. Seymour and Blair will not have . I am. General. if I could. 1868. that the of constitutional preservation government eminently depends on the success of the Democratic party in the coming election.. Se^^mour's.308 LIFE AND rUBLIC SERVICES OF )ud3-mcnt of the Convention. Believing as I reall}' do. and that your friends do not and that. sincerely. T. General Hancock replied in a manly letter which shows the character of this true representative of this To loyal Democracy : — Kewpoet. of tho Glover. R. the good of the countrj'. sir. T.

another has been appointed to put them into execution ? Never Never Never practised. WiNFiELD S. when his name was again presented for the consideration of the National Democratic Convention as a candidate for the Presidency. Uke personal preferences and their manifest duty. by mutual political friends. and that they will not to suffer anvthino. Louis. June 27. very respectfully yom-s. but to the principles which I had proclaimed and Principles crisis in But shall I cease to revere those principles because. the faithful friends who. and had been transferred back to the Department of the Atlantic.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. John A. I should have considered it a tribute. - 309 and not men is the motto for the rugged which we are now struggling. hailing from every section of the Union. General Hancock had spent three years in command of the Department of Dakota. Gen. McClernand of . Hancock. ! ! ! sentiments. su-. not to me. and shall do the justice to believe that they were governed b}^ that they did not propose simply to patriotic motives aggrandize my personal fortunes. dear sir. . are my . preferred me by their votes and other expressions of confidence. whatever interested parties may say to the contrary and I desire that all may know and understand them. I shall ever hold in grateful remembrance These. Had I been made the Presidential nominee. The National Democratic Convention of 1876 met at St. right. or jealousies stand between them I have the honor to be. During this time he had been quietly performing the duties of his office. both in and out of the Convention. them throuo'h me . but to save their country all . taking no part in public life but the people had not forgotten him oi his great and priceless services to the country.

is 3'et the sincerest and lowliest devotee of the Constitution and the law the name . dismembered. never forgot a common brotherhood the name of one who. in the plenitude of military power. . to present in theh name. . very exemplar of grim-visaged war. when dishonored. the habeas corpus. and dismantled States were placed in his absolute sway. doubt his honor to 3^ou as the very shibboleth of victor3\ no man will dare to question . — We present it No man may his integi-ity. the right of trial by jury. of one who. the . declared that the liberty of the press. Pleister Clymer in the following speech : — Mr. of Peilnsylvania which proposed General Hancock. and whom . About him closes the affection of tens of thousands of men who sat with him by the camp-fire. rejDresenting three hundred and twenty-five thousand Democrats. party or creed the name of AYinfieid Scott Hancock. day. fame and reputation are true to every American citizen of whatever race or color. as their unanimous choice for the highest elective office on name of one born on their soil and dear to their the name of one whose character is the embodiment hearts of all that is chivalrous in manhood and excellent in morals the name of one who never drew his sword save in defence of his country's honor. although the . who have gone with him through the shadow of death. of one who. The presentation was made by Hon.310 Illinois LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF On the afternoon of the second presiding. the right of persons and of property must be maintained the name of one whose . President and Gentlemen of the Convention: I am charged by the delegation from the State of Pennsylvania. the States were called upon to name candidates and this time it was his own State for the nomination . and by theh authority. in the hour of supreme victory. or in obedience to her laws the name earth.

His past record is his pledge for the future we point to it with pride and rely upon it with unshaken faith. His is no sectional fame his will be no sectional support. men who are devoted to the Constitution the law. men are determined to give to the people of all the States and self-government. Good . will unite with us upon this son of ours the inestimable boon of rule . in this imperial centre. men and who ever^'where. save as foemen in battle-arraj-. miser}'. at Gettysburg. and thus rescue the and through her the union of If you nominate him in this Federal Government from the degradation and misrule which now curse it. 311 he has led into the clear sunlight of victor}-. and to whom he is endeared by his kindness.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. Convention. lijs justice. . men who denounce fraud and corruption. we ask the brethren from all the sections of the Republic to unite with us in proclaiming him our nominee. as a fact who may doubt the result? Mr. And there are other tens of thousands who have never met him. Gen. these States. once — he saved in his career — history will record it his State. his mercy. home they so unite. and by Ms devotion to the Constitution and the law. and his will be no partisan victory. suffering. that he will rescue his State in November next. Brent then rippeared on the rostrum iind addressed the Convention as follow^s — : . and almost universal bankruptcy are brought upon and if this land. who yet never breathe his name save in honor. amid the roar of cannon and the blood and carnage of civil strife. history will record another fact. men who are opposed to the infamous and corrupt military systems by which want. Standing here upon the banks of this mighty river. men who are determined to drive out from high places the thieves who have fattened upon the ill-gotten gains wrenched from citizen and soldier alike. Joseph L. Chairman.

F. birth-right and inheritance of the fathers trial by jur}-. know Gengreat Union winner in war and in peace. the father of when.312 LIFE AXD PUBLIC SERVICES OF the Mr. the war of the Revolution sheathed his sword and delivered civil country. standing in the van and champion and embodiment of Columbia victrix et bcnevolens . exhibited being terminated. Sexton of Texas then arose and addressed . -as the — Therefore. in the dark thickets of the Wilderness. we knew him. gentlemen. peace. and government he exercised in the same spirit that his George AYashington. he his commission to the Therefore. of infield Scott name W Along the fateful heights of Gettysburg. protection to property in due course of law. fore-front of the late war. Mr. human gratitude would be but an expression if gentlemen. declaring to ten millions of his fellow citizens that there still remain to them the civil habeas corpus. and when peace came. who. he has won us to the Union twice — by arms and prosperity and who and I cannot but think that the peace the of safety country will be assured by him has been illustrious in war and wise and generous in in . and over this broad Republic no flag was seen but the flag of our common country. in the State of Louisiana record while he was exercising powers and functions not exceeded by any governor or government except civil made a that of the Sultan of which Turkey or the Shah of Persia. a son of Louisiana should hear the mintioned. authorities of the country. President and Gentlemen of Convention : I would if the delegahad of not of the State tion expressed Pennsylvania great their wish that something should be said in behalf of and in not have ventured to trouble this Convention relation to their favorite son. B. eral We in Hancock as the Hancock Louisiana and in the South. we recognize him again as the representative of Columbia victrix et benevolens.

this that he will receive a most enthusiastic support from the whole of Texas. Hancock. Gen. 313 the Conyention in further support of the nomination. while a very large majority of my fellowdelegates who represent the State of Texas entertain the I not been invited by the Pennsylvania opinion that another distinguished gentleman is the most available candidate whom we can present at this time for the consideration of the American people. Winfield S. is a pure patriot and a distinguished statesman. I should not have felt it my duty to say this much had and delegation. . that the ability of General Hancock as a statesman has been tried in Texas by the severest of all ordeals I — the ordeal of experience. like my colleague who addi'essed 3'ou. President and Gentlemen : I come from a far-off State of this Uuion. as was said by the gentleman from Louisiana. and to the sentiment which I represent for them. that this should be made known. and it is my pleasure to say. have sunply to say. there are a considerable number in Texas who thinlv that General Hancock man. and on the extreme south-western border and I feel it my duty to say. that there are a very considerable number of the people of . I sa}^ further. endowed by nature and by cultivation with abilit}^ and intelligence fully equal to dis- charge the high and responsible duties of President of the United States. He said : — Mr. — But. and for the discharge of this duty I appear before is that you. that State who entertain the opinion that Pennsjdvania's dis- tinguished son. It is just and right to them. also because.WINFIELD SCOTT HAJ^COCK. It gives me pleasure to say this much. and to sav if General Hancock should be nominated by this Convention he will receive a most enthusiastic supI know I speak the sentiment of Texas when I sa}'' port.

and we onl}^ ask that those of you who come from the older and the greater vStates of this Union will present us a man who will be sure to win us success in November. Tilden make the nomination of Mr. on the first ballot. and on standing third on the list the second ballot ex-Governor Tilden was nominated.314 that LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF whoever may be nominated of the distinguished gentlemen whose names have been presented b afore you. 3'ou need have no doubt about the majority in Texas. . . Pennsylvania voted for Hancock to the his State last and when which moved to the result was known. . it The fulness of time had not General Hancock received seventy-five votes was not to be. it was unanimous. We have ten thousand Democratic votes to give to the nominee of this Convention. But come.


>-] CO O z > o z O O o t4 z .

The time at last came when the Democratic party. — Speeches of Wade Hampton.. Peiinsyivania delegato preannounced that no candidate tion the State had sent as the unanimous choice of the delegates. Mr. X. Speaker Randall. 315 CHAPTER The Cincinnati Convention of . and spoke as follows clear patriotism : — . the constitutional party of the United States. in solving the problems of administration pressing upon the country. but that one of the delegates wished to make a nomination. Voorhees. nominates General Hancock. — Speech of Governor Hubbard of Texas. Daniel Dougherty then proceeded to the platform. The National Democratic Convention met at Cincinnati. John W. his strong principle and were needed. — Hancock Nominated on the Second Ballot. on the 22d of June. Stevenson of Kentucky presiding. ator Wallace. Hon. O. Sen1880.WINriELD SCOTT HAJsXOCK. — The First Ballot. Seconding the Nomination. 1880. — Enthusiasm in the Convention. and on the second day the roll of the States was called for candidates. had rendered only more brilliant the record of General Hancock in civil as well as military aflfairs. was to call npon this soldier of the Constitution to lead the people in the contest for popular rule throughout the The passage of time length and breadth of the land. When was the that chairman of reached. and others. The first day was occupied in organization. — Daniel Dougherty of Philadelphia. and it was seen that.

" 3'et whose first nobler renown as the Militar}' Governor act. This ringing speech w'as received with great applause. Connecticut. I nominate him who can carry every Southern State. shall be subservient to the civil power. ! beware take no misstep. Oh ! my countrymen. the nomination was seconded in the same stirring strain by Gov- . and when the State of Texas was reached. with a record stainless as sword. New Jersey. that the military. Indiana. in this supreme moment. and York. and be hailed as the dawning acceptable and be of the longed-for day of perpetual brotherhood. was styled " the superb. I name one who. The plighted word of the soldier was proved in the deeds of the statesman. Pause reflect hang breathless on your deliberations. crush the embers of sectional strife. Whose nomination will thrill the land from end to end. If elected he will take his seat. With him we can fling awa}' our shields and wage aggressive war.316 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF I present to the thoughtful consideration of the convention the name of one who. The soldier-statesman. to the North and to the South. I nominate Winfield Scott Hancock of Pennsyl- vania. will suppress ever}' faction. the ! desti- nies of the Republic. save in actual war. With him as our chieftain the blood}' banner of the Republicans will fall from their palsied grasp. ! Can New his carry Pennsylvania. on the field of battle. was to salute the Constitution b}' proclaiming. can appeal to the supreme tribunal of the American people against the corruptions of the Republican part}' and its We untold violations of constitutional liberty. the imperilled liberties of the people. alike if nominated. in assuming command in Louisiana and still won Texas. amid the joyous greetings of an oppressed people.

geons. voice in that darkness of the night-time that said to us. habiliments that belonged to us our rights. When the war closed when the flag that some of us followed was furled forever when again the Constitution of the fathers was the supreme law of the land. Men of the Convention. it is peculiarly fit that Texas. It was an summer friend when he held his office at the hands of the great Repubrow. should respond to Hear me for a moment. lican part}^. carpet-baggers. to second the nomination of the soldier-statesman.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. as it is now and ever shall be. "I am unbar 3^our dunyour military ruler the war has closed . Hancock. not as a conquered province. there stood a but at the time of our sor- man. with the Constitution before him. who could. that Louisiana. I rise by request. 317 Hubbard said : — Governor Gentlemen of the Convention : I have but a word to sa}'. pre3ing upon our wasted substance. . when the wolf was howling at almost every door when there was widowhood and oiphanage ever3^where. . when by the side of every hearthstone were weeping Rachels . a request which meets the impulses of ray own bosom. The voice of a man — . a race of that nomination. . Military governors filled the bastiles with Men who had committed naught prisoners from civil life. open your courts and be tried as the Constitution prescribes. and did remove him. and Louisiana especially. but as a free people. there came a . a delegate from that State. reading it as the fathers read it that the war having passed we resumed the . but fancied offences against the government were crowded in ever}" jail and in every bastile from the Rio Grande to the " Father of Waters. S. Hancock. Winfield S. there came down through the Southland." In that hour when we had lost all. like the Vandals of old." That easv thino^ to be a man was Winfield . ernor Hubbard. through my own State.

It is all General Hancock the statesman.Republican party. but I believe and you him the soldiers of the great North. that is something in the contest that vou. as the gallant Hampton has told South will be united. not onl}' the South will stand around ag the Old Guard did around Napoleon. where We . will hear it if you nom- is the argument? can say everyis a soldier second not here even to the silent man on where. ority and supremacy of the civil power over the sword I have nothing more to sa}' except this. If 3'ou nominate Hancock. The waged. failing upon every issue of finance or of reform or of good government. whoever you may nominate. the slogan will be "The blood}' South the old haven of rebellion still lives. and a good man when the war was over. who risked his reputation and his place and power in the ver}" frown and teeth of the . to attack the record of the Democratic party. that if spear. soldiers. We will win . because he and a faithful citizen was a great soldier. stainless With a name. a record that i3 without stain and without reproach with no Credit . if the}' are like Southern soldiers. the eloquence of his letter to Governor Pease. nominate him. mark it. is a man that it will do to trust the standard of 3'our party to. is not wanting in Read worth}^ of being placed upon the proudest pages of American In the letter he discussed and asserted the superihistory.318 like LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF Haucock." You will hear . like a plumed knight to the front here is a man whom one hundred thousand Northern inate Hancock. . Here is a soldier that bore down even upon us like the brigade at Balaclava. horseback. Sir. ho is not is onl}' a soldier . we will win after a quarter of a century. the men who honestl}' fought us in that greatest of human conflicts. Mobilier scandal or DeGolyer frauds around him. blending together the soldier and the statesman. And with that. will rally around his standard. it from the mountains and your highlands 3'ou all along the lines. to be But failing in principle.

WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. and when won. shaped the measures. scholars. . John W. seems to me. and who arc battle-scarred with wounds of honor orators. to a wise conclusion. it is Winfield S. man Did I sa}^ of Winfield Scott Hancock of PennsylPennsylvania? AYinfield Scott Hancock is of the United States reunited. . . actors in every leading enterprise of a practical nature or intellecttml endeavor. The question which it have asked mj^self the question which. Daniel said : — . stand in glittering array around us. Jurists who have worn untarnished ermine statesmen who have moulded the policy. . if there is a man living in the broad confines of this great countr}^ who will wear these honors. They tell us. They tell us that the people are weary of martial habits and of martial measures. should be the index-finger to guide our work I . of every State by his good right hand gentlemen. is this . thinkers. . that this country is tired of the rule of the camp and of the sword. Who is that man among them who can people ? interlace together the heart-strings of this American is that man who can make to permeate through Who every portion of this mighty country those sentiments of mutual confidence and of brotherly love which once abided When anions: us before the schism of the secession war? I have asked the question. Hancock of Pennsylvania. We are here to-day embarrassed b}^ the very brilliancy and variety of the names which have challenged public favor for the first office in the people's gift. Then followed other endorsments as the roll-call of the States proceeded among them Hon. the heart of every man gives me answer that that vania. 319 the contest. and fought the battles of the party soldiers who have enriched our historv with feats of arms. worthy to be crowned with any honor or to be the recipient of any trust that this great public can bestow.

the soldier. The}' were like the shadow of a great rock in a weary land. All the more ready are we. to receive into our hearts him who was the first to salute with his stainless sword the majestv of the civil law who was the first to bow with who was the first of knightly' crest at the bar of civil justice . Madison and Monroe were soldiers. the magistrate without a peer. George life had in and whose been the saddle. And long after this great Convention has passed away from earth. The greatest and best. all whose voice was heard '' crvins: aloud in the wilderness of despotism.'' Bethink you not. They tell us that we. is the man who aboUshed the camp in civil places. . Make the way straight for the reign of peace and for the sovereignty of the people. the freedom of speech.320 LIFE AND PUBLIC but all SEIl VICES OF welcome I acknowlcds^e that fact . Jackson and Harrison and Tajdor were soldiers. the liberty of the press. the natural rights of persons and the rights of property must be preserved. indeed? He rule of the man who first abolishes them. the American people. The trial by jmy. therefore. All adown the line of 3'our . spent Washington whose history is musical with the clinking of the epur. that the American people the embrj'o of a man who was the are so indiscriminating as to apprehend Brutus or the embryo of a Caesar in the Brutus of unhallowed arbitrary' power. Buchanan and Lincoln had both borne arms for the Republic. They were like the springing up of a fountain in a desert. the more will thev with gladsome greetings the Who is he. Those words came to this country like a sunburst upon a wintry day. the habeas corpus. was who? George Washington. my friends. The great principles of American libert}' are still the lawful inheritance of this people. the millions who are to come after us will be singing upon their tongues those words which belong to Runn3'mede and the Magna Charta. do not want a soldier.

of this nation. the divided tribes. demanded a ballot and the result showed Hancock's name at the head of the list. 49^ . Ewing. : dles. x^ou will hear the hearty hurrah of the boys who wore the blue. 38 . Senator Thurman. and let the last cheer of this Convention go up for the Union soldiers who have shown themselves so generous in welcoming us." The The bugles ring boots and sadsignal sounds the advance. . Morrison. j'et who proved as generous to the as he was lo3^al to the conquering banner. Then the Convention. who received 153^. South Carolina. And why shall we not now follow the footsteps of our and present the greatest office which this Republic can bestow to that great Democratic soldier who shed his blood conquered for his people. Just one word more. my friends. The other candidates were Senator Bayard. and you will hear the tread of the moving legions. the standard to the front with the nomination of Han- I cock. 02 . in this canvass. having refused to adjourn. 65. will sound to America like a general order from the council of war " We move on the enemy's works to-morrow. Then. 10. The nomination of General Han- It cock means instantaneous and continuous aggression.WINTIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. Then. . GSh. roll in my who. of old. am reminded here that the first man j^esterda}^ whose very presence in this Convention touched the heart and brought forth spontaneously its applause. Tilden. like the Romans have come down from the mountain of secession. will one mighty and undivided stream for the regeneration friends. He received 171 votes. was the soldier-statesman of Nominate Winfield Scott Hancock. 321 Presidents for one hundred years are the sparkling names of American fathers soldiers. Hendricks. mingling with the wild music of the rebel cheer in one grand national anthem. Judge Field.

and for freedom all over this great land. he was a brave.322 LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF ^Yhen it met in the third day's session. We Carohna — that State which has so lately emerged and come . Wade Hampton On their said : — Senator behalf of the " Sohd South" —that South which once was arrayed against the name will gi'cat soldier of Pennsylvania I stand here to pledge 3^ou its sohd vote. Tilden's name was withdrawn by the New York delegation. We There is no name which is held in higher respect among the people of the South than that of the whom 3'ou have given us as our standard-bearer. — in prove no laggards in this great race for constitutional government. Mr. an able soldier. and recognizing it. reached Illinois in the call for States. Thursday. a gallant. a And in the name of South hearty. June 24. — one We knew then that ended. The factions of the all New York Democracy onciliation. recognize that. for home rule. we will give him a cordial. When the clerk had Then the Convention adjourned. The nomination was made unanimous amid conventions had never seen. the tide of ballot- imr was seen to set stronirly toward Hancock. and a ballot was at once taken. man We have met him on the field of battle. who always conducted war upon civilized principles and when the war . he was among the first to extend his kindly hand to aid the people who had been fighting against him. and from that moment to the close there were no votes but for the favorite. of ratification a scene of enthusiasm such as the oldest veterans of Democratic Then came the speeches and conoratulation. and on publically proclaimed their recsides there were eager voices en- dorsing the candidacy of the hero-statesman. and an earnest support.

and your act is an impress of the heart of the American Democrat in every State in the Union. named a son of they In those they inscribe upon of the gallant son of the Commonwealth of Pennsjdvania. The Pennsj'lvania." . if work. into the sisterhood of States 323 so over- —that State which was whelmingly Republican that we scarcely dared to count the Democratic vote. General Hancock. His nume is invincible. if energy can do anything. Not only is this acceptable to every Democrat in the United States. name the next. Not only is your nomination strong. Congressman Randall. who had himself been named as a candidate. Democrats of the nation named In this great city of Cincinnati the and their last President History repeats itself. Your deliberations have been marked with the utmost harmony. in behalf of that State I here pledge myself. Senator Wallace of Pennsylvania said History repeats to-day they da3's itself. but it is a nomination which will command the respect of the entire American people. if zeal. but it is one that will bring us victor}^. He will lead us to victory. the great Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. and we will add another State to the Democratic column.WINTIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. I pledge the — people of South Carolina to give as large a Democratic vote as any other State in this Union. the keystone of the Federal arch. said: I — am here to second the nomination of Pennsylvania's son. and to-day again the banners of the Democracy the name word rings out ! ' ' : Advance the column I ! ! Move on the ! enemy's works aggression I Let there be no defence. : — . but aggression ! ! aggression and victory is ours.

protected and enjoyed fidence. filled with illustrates. spoke for civil liberty when . but his gi'eatest achievement was when he said that the laws of his country were above the sword and above military power. he had the patriotism. Washington was a soldier. the laws that protect freedom of speech. b}' us.324 LIFE AXD rUBLlC SERVICES OF Senator Yoorhees said : — spectacle of a military man subordinating the military" power to the civil authorities. trial by jmy. . he had the sagacit}'.battle-fields. Hancock won renown upon man}. when Ney b}^ our radical opponents. shed his blood upon many battle-fields. shall be upheld b}^ me by the sword that is in my hand. to lift up the down-trodden "Soldier that I am. is one of the most pleasant The This General Hancock has won upon spectacles of history. placed in command of what was thought ever or any other Marshal that But his proudest act was. broken and ruined States. He made a second declaration of constitutional libert}'. Thus was 'WixFiELD Scott Hancock placed in nomorift of the American people and the platform of principles with which the Convention accompanied his nomination could set forth none more glorious than those great ideas of free popular government which his career so brilliantly An honorable and upright life." He civil authorities. crushed. it was overthi'own throughout act he one-half of this countr}' in that made a second Declaration of Independence for the Southern States. habeas corpus. the heart of his country. and set an example for his own and for our future generations of obedience to that great framework devised by our fathers. He is worthy of jour con- ination for the hio^hest office in the . to say. rode down the line as proud a figure in military histor}^ as Mai'shal commanded men.

harbor. : Governor Stevenson said " That which chiefly inspired your nomination was the fact that you Jiad conspicuously recognized and exemplified the yearning of the American people for reconciliation and brotherhood under the shield of the Constitution. New York nation. waited upon General Hancock. headed by Governor Stev- enson. was crowned with the highest honor in the gift of the great party of the people. the committee appointed by the Democratic Convention. the chairman. soldier.WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK. patriot. at his pleasant and breezy home on Governor's Island. trust. with all its zealous care and guarantees for the rights of persons and States. — the and statesman whom all honor and all ." It is in this attitude and this character that General Hancock stands before the American people. and formally tendered him the nomiIn the letter conveying the official nomination. 325 earnest and patriotic endeavor. On the loth of July.

1 .


.-7 O.Cl'jf^ .

Nov. emigrated from Kentucky to Lexington in 1818. Ind. and was one in whom all who knew him reposed the highest confidence. called State.Stock. her son in Indianapolis. born March 2. to the Legislature. His — CHAPTER I. In the little village of Lexington. Admitted to Practice in the United States Supreme Court at the Age of ClerkTwenty-three. English was Elisha English. — Sound Democratic — — — — — — — — Election to that Office. English died at his son's residence in Indianapolis. lish. His Parentage of William Boyhood Days. Maj. near Laurel. is Mahala English. Elisha G. as sheriff several times. 1874. 1822. and is buried in Crown Hill Cemetery. Elisha G. and during twenty years a member of the Indiana House of Representatives or Senate. English. was born William H. 14. As one of the pioneers of the upon to aid in its government. H. having attained the age of eighty-two The paternal grandfather of William H. EngEnglish. he was Maj. and for some time the United States marshal for Indiana. also a native of Kentucky. Scott County. The Constitutional Convention.. Nominated as Speaker of the House. Education and Admission to the Bar. on the 27th of August. and is now residing with j^ears. 1768. Sus- . English. The father of this child. the mother of William H. Elected ship at Washington. He enters Politics in the Polk Campaign.

could number two hundred living descendants... from there to Carrollton. He died at Louisville. The boy's education was such as could be acquired at . 1849. who died in the year 1817. reads : — My father and my mother. in the eighty-second year of her age. Ind. 1788 removed to Kentucky in 1790. Sarah Wharton English died Xov. and died in the year 1843. and Avas buried in the Eickers his On mother's side. Their fourteen children all married and had children before a death ' ' occurred in the family. chester. The on the tombstone of these two inscription people. English's boyhood were those hardy adventure and reckless daring. and . He was married to Sarah Wharton. a few miles north-east of Madison. Greene County. They lived lovingly as husband and wife over sixty years. 27. 10.330 LITE AND PUBLIC CAREER OF sex County. 111. in 1830. March 7. and identified with her every thoroughly interest. 1857. and. of The scenes of Mr. English's grandparents were Philip Eastin. in 1782. who married Lieutenant Eastin at Win." memory by is erected to theh Mr. near the Ohio Eiver. before the tie was broken. so familiar to the poinccrs of the West.. and Sarah Smith Eastin. English of Indiana. Dec. and it is not to be wondered at that he grew up stren^lh strengthened by the growino* of his State. Ky. a lieutenant in the Fourth Virginia in the war of the American Eegiment Revolution. and left behind her the record of a devoted mother and noble woman. Del. : Eidge (or Hillis) burying-ground. This monument Ehsha G. Ya. who had aided in settling a State.

and he identified himself with the Democratic party. and in 1843 he was . . under the old system. to the it Supreme Court of the United States. were very thorough. Mr. does now. During this time of study his aim was to become a common lawyer. in the twenty-third year of his age. years before he was of age. ENGLISH. and so earnestly did he labor. shortly afterwards to the Supreme Court of the and. Under the Tyler administration Mr. Mr. he was chosen as a delegate from Scott County to the Democratic State Convention held at Indianapolis and in that campaign he commenced his real political work. the 331 schools of the neighborhood. had he continued in the practice but he drifted . taking a prominent part in the political contests of his Some country even before he attained his majority. into politics. and particularly rigid nor was license in the inferior courts in that day sufficient to entitle one to admission to practice in the Supreme Court of the State. Marshall. and very soon into an office which kept him in Washington four years. and he never again returned to the law as a profession. since the examinations. English had all the elements of great success at the bar. English's inclinations led him to a political life. and a course of three years' study at the South Hanover College. Such admission meant very much more then than . English was appointed postmaster at Lexington. that at the age of eighteen he was admitted to practice in the Circuit Court State . .WILLIA3H H. even though he was at one time associated in practice with the well-known Joseph G.

It was soon after the close of this session of the Legislature that the presidential canvass was opened. now the venerable and respected governor of Indiana.ber of the House. and his uncle. or to make an effort to keep a place under an administration in Vvhich was given a position in Washington. for the first time. and most satisfactorily. which was extensively copied by the Democratic the independpress. . Mr. that in these later years over half a dozen are paid to perform. other uncles English. he sent a letter of resi^^nation to Mr. wherein the Whigs were led by Henry Clay.332 LIFE AND PUBLIC CAREER OF chosen principal clerk of the House of Representatives of his own State. together with comments approving ent spirit of its author. Democrats took up the then almost unknown James K. was then. Pc»lk. the election of the latter gentleman. too. and as he voted for the nomination of Cass in the next National Convention. Revel AY. and he has several times made public mention of the fact that Mr. a mem. over several competitors who were politically very strong. Polk. and two It was in this convention that he first met dele<rates. and the. Ehsha G. Eno-hsh contributed laro-ely by his eners^y and brilliant To w^ork . were vice-presidents. with the aid of one assistant. Mr. In the National Convention of 1848. | James D. and after the election he the Treasury Department at as he was not the man to disguise his principles. Enolish. and strenuously opposed the election of General Tavlor. Inasmuch he was not in full sympathy. English then performed the same duties. Williams. English's father.

during the memorable . E^N^GLISH. 333 Samuel J. without A destroying the rights of the States or aggrandizing its own powers beyond the limits of the Constitution." In the United States Senate. His own idea of what these principles are will be best understood by the follovfing vigorous and forcible words. that four of the English brothers were members of the Legislature in four different States. and as far as pos- from the blighting influence of demagogues. ducing classes in every legitimate way possible. and think the great material and business interests of this country should be placed upon the most solid basis. may a delegate from the also be mentioned. will that constitutional economical. and in favor of protecting and fostering the interests of the laboring and prosible pure. positions he has held. all combine to strengthen his convictions it may be said that the commanding that the principles of the Democratic party must prevail if we are to have a united and prosperous country. Ensflish is a Democrat by the sober judgment of his maturer manhood. and his knowledge of men and measures. his large experience.WILLIAM H. uttered by him in a lately published interview : " I am for honesty in money as in politics and morals. is the kind of government contemplated by the fathers the . as showing the foundation-stone of Mr. and all of the Democratic persuasion. liberty of the people and the property of the people. as well as by the inheritance and traditions of his funily and . and by that I think Democracy propose to stand. Englisli's political faith. protect the government. At the same time I am opposed to class legislation. Tilden. who was then It State of New York. Thus it will be seen that Mr.

was ap- proached w4th much caution. English's mind as inspired his ambition. called to more labor in the interest of his country. and it is doubtful whether a superior purpose than that which assembled at Indianapolis. that left such a fadeless impression on Mr. in accord with the spirit of the times. for a like body of men ever assembled to prepare a Constitution for the State of Indiana.334 LIFE A^D PUBLIC CAREER OF compromise of 1850. and returned to his home . and the far-reaching benefits of the measures proposed and advocated. which had been adopted in 1816 and. the adoption of a ncAV Constitution. 1850. Mr. Enijlish was a clerk of the Claims Committee. just decided to call a Convention to revise the State Constitution. which was prepared by the . and other great statesmen of the day vied with each other in those able forensic efforts which obtained so much celeljrity. broadened his views. after an existence of over a third of a century. Mr. Clay and Webster. Every one felt the neces- sity of confiding the trust to the wisest and best men in the State . in October. and of ofl&cially attesting the Constitution. The people of Indiana had . when Calhoun and Cass. and contributed largely in giving him influence in the councils of the nation when he became a member of the National Legislature. English had the honor of being elected the principal Secretary of the Convention. At the close of this extraordinary session he resigned but only to be his position. It was the pure patriotism of such men as were in the session of the Senate at that time. and led to the results so gratifying to every American patriot. the grandeur of their eloquence.

addresses. and over a competitor considered the strongest and most popular man of his party in the This was the first meeting of the Legislature county. English. and which was ratified by an overwhelming vote of the people. it was no small compliment to so young man as Mr. The adoption of the new Constitution made a neces- thorough revision of the laws of the State. At the adjournment. 335 Convention after over four months' deliberation. the journals. in 1851. abilities As were of a character to command a wider sphere of usefulness to the party and to the country. native county in the State Legislature against an opposition majority. ENGLISH. that it was his first session as a member. a signal honor to Mr.WILLIAM H. It was. and that there were many old and distinguished men in But this . to have been chosen over so many older and more experienced citizens. and the fact was recognized that his etc. that he was elected. and the same high order of talent was needed to mould the laws as had been required to prepare the Constitusity for a tion itself. English the important trust of supervising the publication of the Constitution. Notwithstanding the fact that he was but twenty-nine years of age. Secretary of the Convention. the Convention assigned to Mr. and judgment and discretion were required of the Legislature to put the new State machinery into harmonious and successful operation. under the provisions of the new Constitution. Therefore. he added largely to his reputation. therefore. was not the only honor which was to be his. to represent his English.

who had long been a member and Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. Davis. English as Spaeker. or associ. he has all the elements of a . on a disagreement between the House and Speaker Davis.. he received twenty-two votes to thirty-one for Hon. English was elected by twenty-eight majority.ition to which he has belonged. and has left his impress upon the measures of every deli])erative l)ody. in an eminent desfree. when many new points had to be decided. and his it may be mentioned as an evidence of popularity as a presiding officer. In a word. The next day Mr. he was selected by Speaker Davis as one of a committee of five to revise the laws of the State. But many such as the change in the system of taxing railroads. for long and intricate forms.336 that LIFE AND PUBLIC CAREER OF Legislature. Tvhen the caucus to nominate a Spfeaker was held. John AV. he called Mr. he originated declined. radical . English to the chair. And this is the more remarkable since it was the first session under the new Constitution. and had also been Minister to China. that force and enera'v of character which lead to successful action. but and highl}^ beneficial reforms in the laws of the State were made at this session. Mr. company. etc. Previous to the election of Mr. to the success of which Mr. that during his over three months no ai:)peal long term of service — — was taken from any of his decisions. and which. in some instances. Early in the session. mortgages. and resigned the position of Speaker. En2:lish has. English largely contributed. and the substitution of the present short form of deeds.

he would not lag behind waiting for some one else to open up the path of escape. 337 If lost aggressive. bold. He would be more apt to promptly advise which was the best way out. and successful leadership. . or to make the road himself and call upon his comrades to follow.WILLIAM H. ENGLISH. with a multitude in a pathless wilderness.

The ''English Bill" and its Author's Views upon it.— Mr.— Action English's Relations with Douglas. stitution. for the display of unselfish patriotism. — His — — — — — It was at the close of the long session of the Legislature of 1851. The Famous Kansas-Nebraska Bill and Mr Election to Congress. Ferguson. Reo:ardin2: the time and the man. Regent of the Smithsonian Institute. after he had won the highest praise from of both parties. that he was asked to allow his name to be used for the Cons^ressional election. English's Position on the Slaverj — — Second Election to Congress. lofty purpose. Encrlish entered Cono^ress at the commencement of Mr. Thereon. and was looked upon by the Democrats as a man of sound political views and unswerv- men ing integrity. and in October. utmost . Labor against Kuow-Nothiugism. and gave its political measures the same support that he had shown during the election. com-age. Mr. and unwavering devotion to the Constitution. . The "Poi)uIar Sovereignty" Idea. Third The Slavery Agitation and Lecompton ConElection to Congress.tested to the It was the time limit the strength of the Republic. an eminent writer has said " It : — was a memorable period in the histor}^ of the country when questions of far-reaching consequences had their birth and which a few years subsequent!}. moral Mr. a time . Pierce's administration. Question. he was nominated.338 LIFE AND PUBLIC CAREER OF CHAPTER n. Consentins^. 1852. elected by 488 majority over «Tohn D. in which he aided to no slight extent.

He never disappointed his constituents. ENGLISH. approved March 6. for reasons hereafter explained. although not directly adopted. at the time Mr." the opening of this Congress the famous KansasNebraska bill was introduced. 339 English met the demand. and made a minority report on Jan. or his country. and firmness. " commonly called the compromise measures. proposing several important amendments. the propriety and expediency of bringing forward the measure at that time." Mr. sagacit}'. which was superseded by the principles of the legislation of 1850. He displayed his national quahties of prudence. contained a provision "that the Constitution. English made his minority report. shall have the same force in and efiect within the said territory as elsewhere the United States . Ensrlish was a mem- At ber of the House Committee on Territories. which bill was finally adopted as an amendment to the House bill.WILLIAM H. which was charged with the consideration and report of the bill he did not concur with the majority of the committee in . Mr. Both the House and Senate bill. and all laws of the United States which are not locally inapplicable. and enacted into a law. English proposed and insert the following : — to strike out this exception . 1854. 1820." and then followed this important : reservation — Except the eighth section of this act preparatory to the admission of Missouri into the Union. his party. and is hereby declared inoperative. He was equal to the responsibility of the occasion. 31. probably led to modifications of the bill of the Senate. which.

an amendment. brought the House to a vote on the Senate bill. Greeley. English could not have been defeated on the call of the yeas and Mr. offered by Senator Douglas. and it will not be out of place to state here. not inconsistent with the Constitution of the United States. On February 7. and the author explains and condemns the new and ingenious parliamentary manoeuvre resorted to at the time. and in his "American Conflict. English was with him. hereby repealed." own way. . be.340 " LIFE AXD PUBLIC CAKEEK OF Provided^ That nothing in this act shall be so construed as to prevent the people of said territor}'. and most conducive to and so much of any existing act of Con- gress as ma}' conflict with the above right of the people to regulate then. nays ." expresses that this the belief proposition of Mr. The parliamentary manoeuvre referred to. and for many years the relations in relation to . in relation to the institution of slaver}'. and it was adopted and became the law. had been offered as a substitute for the House bill. that although some slight political differences ultimately sprang up between them idea. which. very similar in purpose." they were always personal friends. So far as the the "English Bill. Avhich cut oflf all amendments but the substitution of the Senate bill for the bill of the House. as they may deem best their happi- adapted to their ness and welfare locality. Senator Douglas w^as justly regarded as the great " " leader and champion of the popular sovereignty the Senate adopted advocacy of that principle was concerned.domestic institutions in thenthe same is. in the meantime. through the propfrom passing such laws erl}' constituted legislative authoritj^. Mr.

I regard it as an injury to the State where it exists. nor political bearings. neither in its it is a moral. volved. 341 between them were of the most intimate character. Mr. when speaking of the slaveholding are the best judges of the soil. English has many letters from Mr. and his opinion on the question can best be given in extracts from his own speeches identified with the : — native of a free State.WILLIAM H. social. During the eight years immediately preceding the war. and climate. of what will best suit their welfare and happiness. urging that Mr. and have no love for the Aside from the moral question ininstitution of slavery. but consider tliat matter which. English was in Congress. " I am a and if it it were proposed to introduce it where I reside. English be appointed Eecordcr in the general land office and Mr. Douglas expressing the most cordial friend." Again he States : — says. and promote their another occasion. Mr. and wants of the country they inhabit they are the true judges "They . speaking for himself and his constituency. ship. each organized community ought to be allowed to decide for itself." own condition. he said On : — " We do not like this institution of slavery." . lilvc all other domestic affairs. As far back as 1845. Douglas wrote President Polk. and more or less measures involving the question of slavery. would resist to the last extremity. ENGLISH.

and during the Thirt3"-fourth Congress made a speech in defence of the management of . storm. English's work in this direction. known as Know-Nothingism. Eno^lish's conm^essional career that the country was visited by the fanatical cyclone. Mr. English was one of only three in the country who had sufficient strength to survive the fact. Judge Thomas C.342 LIFE AND PUBLIC CAREER OF the people of every State and Territory perfectly free to form and regulate their The idea of "leaving domestic institutions in their own way. English in his gallant canvass against the Know-Nothings in the Second It " 1 Congressional district of Indiana in 1854. and proved to the foreign-born citizens that he was their A native of Indiana. In Mr. . and he threw himself in a It was durins: . friend indeed. into the work of crushing out. He was unanimouslv nominated for re-election to Congress." seemed to be in accordance with the genius of our American institutions but the storm raised by the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill. resulted in the defeat of nearly all the members from the free States who voted for it. and elected by a majority of five hundred and eighty-eight over the "Whig and Know-Xothing opponent. Slaughter. English was a Reo^ent of the Smithsonian Institute for eight years. says : — was a Democratic victory to which no man in the nation contributed more than did William H. speaking of Mr. it spirit of self-abnegation. subject only to the Constitution of the United States." Mr. until he won the applause of all right-thinking men.

WILLIAM H. the agitation of the slavery question continued. he clearly defined his position. It was during Congress that. ENGLISH. her people ought . and requested his constituents to select some other candidate. English taking the field for the third time. which was highly 343 commended by many eminent scientific gentlemen. and was elected by a majority than before. by his course upon the Kansas policy of the administration. English acquired He steadily and firmly opposed his widest reputation. after balloting forty-two times without making a choice. I think. tantly consented to this. until it had been ratified by a vote of the people. finally determined. In the meantime. unanimously. English's second term. Mr. the admission of Kansas under the Lecompton Constithis tution. "before by him is in the House of Repre" sentatives. English was entitled to "the gratitude and friendly regard of every scientific man in the country whose opinions are thought worth repeating. Charles Henry Davis went so far as to ^vrite a letter in which he said that Mr." At the end of Mr. Mr. he avowed his intention of retiring from public life. and. and the Kansas controversy assumed a new and more dangerous aspect than ever. It He still reluc- larger was during his third term that Speaker Orr appointed him to the important and arduous position of chairman of the Committee on Post-offices and Postroads. the institution. The convention met to nominate his successor. to insist upon Mr. In a speech delivered said he.'* Kansas admitted.

at an earlj^ day. Mr. At the same time. that when we men of the North went forth to encounter this fearful armv of fanatics. all reasonable compromises are voted down. He was " Anti-Lecompton. at least. I distinctly declare that I cannot. and I would not betray their wishes for any earthly considerations. or. he said : — "It should not be forgotten. provided the substance would be secured. satisfy the expectations of my constituents. that the privilege and opportunity of so making it be secured to the Less than this would not people beyond all question. were at home at your ease. English never departed from the position taken in this speech. I am not so wedded to to any particular plan that I may not. or." During the long and exciting contest over this question. and I am brought to vote upon the naked and unqualified admission of Kansas under the Lecompton Constitution. in conscience. at least. have a fair opportunity to vote upon the Constitution under which it is proposed admit her. vote for it. which is the making of the Constitution. and as a choice of evils. on the other hand. Know-Nothings. If. Alluding to the recent defeat of the Democracy at the North. gentlemen of the South. this great army of Abolitionists. make reasonable concessions. because you had not run counter to the sympathies and popular sentiments of your people you went with the — — : . He boldly and eloquently appealed to his Southern colleagues. conform to the public will." but not of those who wished to cripple the administration or break up the Democratic organization. for the sake of harmony.344 LITE AJO) PUBLIC CAREER OF to ratify. and Republicans combined. 3'ou.

Hunter of Vir- On Seward of New York." an issue was formed between the great co-ordinate branches of the government. of no permanent benefit to you or your peculiar institution. As the Senate had asked for the conference. the committee was J. that you do not. S. We risked everything you comparaand I appeal to you. English of Indiana. ' will enable us to respect the wishes of our constituents. and there was every chance that the angry contest would be adjourned for further and protracted agitation before a people alrs?. . and maintain the union and integrity of our party at home ? Look to it. whether. ference. English moved to concur in the proposition of the Senate. M. T. the managers on behalf of that branch of Congress were informed by Mr. English that propositions for a comginia. for a mere shadow.WILLIAM H.dy inflamed with sectional animosities. A. for the now tively nothing sake of an empty triumph. H. Mr. Stephens of Georgia. A. R.' you will turn a deaf ear to our earnest entreaties for such an adjustment of this question as we against . Greene of Missouri. ENGLISH. . it. Howard of Michigan. and the committee on the part of the House was composed of W. the part of the Senate. and W. At this stage of proceedings. and W. when there appeared no hope for a settlement of the disagreement between the two Houses. 345 . H. H. asking for a committee of free conThe motion was adopted by the deciding vote of the Speaker. current . strike down or drive from you 3'our only effective support outside the limits of your own States. whose joint and harmonious action could alone remove the dangerthis bill On ous question and give peace to the country. ye men of the South.

were acceptable to the members on behalf of the House. as they might themselves determine at a fair election. to place it in the power of the people of Kansas to come into the Union under the Lecompton Constitution or not. however. They told This was the origin of the great Kansas compromise measure. however. It will be 3' our fate to end the dangerous agita' ' tion." which finally passed both branches of Congress to him do and became the law. none of which. commonly called the "English Bill. he would prepare it. I shall remain always your friend. Buchanan. and to render 3'our character historical. This law was. promise must come from the part of the Senate made several propositions. mind. to which Mr. Mr." The night after the passage of the bill great rejoic- . and the conference would immediately terminate.346 LIFE AXD PUBLIC CAEEER OF first If they had none to offer. tliem. upon the principle of a submission of the Cjuestion of admission undei the Lecompton Constitution and an amended ordinance in his had a plan to a fair vote of the people of Kansas . the President. was highly and wrote to Mr. in effect. them at their next meeting. based. and submit it to so. The managers on The Senate committee then asked the members from the House if they had any compromise to offer. to confer lasting benefits on your country. I consider the present occasion the most fortunate of your life. the managers on the part of the House had none. English replied that he had none prepared but he . English : — gratified. and if the committee thought it Avorth while.

WILLIAIVI H. I trust and hope we shall hear no more of these . we cannot stand upon can we stand in safety ? "I am here as one of the representatives of a western It is a conser^T^ative State it is the one which gave State. In the course of Mr. a new era. and we do not believe that the people of the South desire to trespass upon our rights if they did. us all stand together in this great confederacy as each State having the right to regulate its own domestic institutions in its own way and let us apply this doctrine not only to Kansas. but practical men. national grounds as this we we shall be careful to protect our rights. Upon such broad. and fanatics. not hke visionary Let well enough alone. we should rise up as one man to resist it. and both the President and Mr. English were serenaded. and if we do. Enghsh's remarks on the occasion. and we would resist it to the last. If the doctrine of non-intervention. I know that it is the feeling of the people of Indiana that the interests and under foot. 347 were held in Washington. the best interests of the countr}^ will be struck down. we shall be equally of our brethi-en in careful not to trespass upon the rights other States. . Stop this agitation and let us act. this confederacy will continue AYe must discard all increasing in prosperity and glory ^Ye must cultivate a greater feehng these sectional ideas. the largest majority of any one in the North for President. We rights of the South should never be trodden do not intend to surrender any of our rights. but to all the Territories which . he said ings : — "Let equals. . may come into this Union for all time to come. ENGLISH. That is the doctrine of the Democratic party and when that party is struck down. of respect and sympathy for each other. where leave the solution of this matter to time and Providence. and for those of and I trust and hope this is the dawn of different sections . "While . can all stand .

or without violent opposition. Mr.348 sectional LIFE AND PUBLIC CAREER OF Every good man and lover of this agitations. '' These things will all be considered by those who are disposed to judge fairly. depending alone upon my approval to shape into a law. long conflicts and between co- ordinate branches of the Goverimient. preceded by such and heated debates. which they would have objected to as an original proposition. ever." that will we do battle faithfiiU}' to The " English would have had its Bill it. . It was no time. upon a subject of so intense excitement. without sacrificing its substance. " was never exactly as its author In a speech made some time after : passage. cavil about non-essential points. Wise and patriotic men could well approve of a measm*e. English says ' ' — It was not to be expected that a bill close votes. and that we shall people every portion stand b}" the Constitution and the Union to the last. others. to manifest a captious or dogmatical disA httle might weU be 3^ielded to the judgment of position. pastf. State when I say sentiment of the entire Democracy of my protect the rights of the the of of confederacy. have changed in some respects some of its provisions. could be enacted into a law in a manner satisfactory to all. Nothing in man's nature. much magnitude. I should. I speak the country ought to set his face against them. to words . that if the bill had been an original proposicited people are not easily quieted. originating under such circumstances. or unimportant no time. I am free to sa}'. Thhty millions of ex- and a question which could agitate a whole nation was not likely to be removed without a struggle and some sacrifice of opinion. or the history of the warranted such expectation. howtion. if necessary' to achieve a successful result in a matter of such importance.

and they voted against it. English had contended for from the beginning. as was this law. ' ' 349 Perfection in every respect was not claimed for the conference bill. the question of admission Under expected. and they now have the proud satisfaction of knowing that it has realized all they ever claimed for it. and voted for her admission." much in the praiseworthy effort of harmony under the Lecompton Constitution was. and was the very best that could be secured at the time and under the cu'cumstances which then existed. and was supported in the hope of reconciliation and If those who gave it their support erred. the case. ' ' . In that spirit it was agreed to in committee in that It sprang from the necessity of spirit enacted into a law. Thus the result was accomplished which Mr. final vote which admitted Kansas as a State.WILLIAM H. it was in peace. he was still a member. Its friends set up no unreasonable or extrava- gant pretensions in its behalf. ENGLISH. It was enough that it contained the sub- stance. referred back to the people of Kansas. in effect. yielding too removing a national councils and from the restoring dangerous question to a highly excited people. and there is no On the inconsistency in his record upon this subject. .

— Eefusiiig Political Honors. — During apolis. with that party against all the political organizations that have from time to time been arrayed against it. when John Sherman was nominated by the Republicans. Banks. ' ' — refers to his Those who are acquainted with my persoual and political histoiy know that I have never belonged to. English's Position. . The second one took place at the beginning of the Thirty-sixth Cono-ress. or sympathized I have stood with. for speaker and. after two months. — Founder of the First National Bank of Indianthe Panic of 1873. Two Notable Contests for Speakership. English it at time should be preserved. I opposed it upon those issues which . — Views on the Money There were two diirino: notable contests for the speakership Mr. When the old Whig part}^ existed. — Elected to Congress the Fourtli Time. an}' other than the Democratic jjarty. since : political career. — Mr. which are likely to live in history. and which. Eno:lish's serv^ice in Cons^ress. when the Know-Nothing party held a small balance of power. The first was at the beginning of the Thirty-fourth Congress. after a fierce and protracted struggle. Life. — The Shadow of the Civil War. — His Speech to the Southern Members.350 LIFE AND PUBLIC CAKEEB OT CHAPTER m. resulted in the election of N. P. — Retirement from Public Question. One this extract from a speech Pie said made by Mr. — Letter from President Buclianau. Governor Pennington was finally elected.

English was again nominated for Congress . and would resist. Upon the great question of slavery. and are no longer before the country. ENGLISH. and particularly the peculiar doctrines of that party in relation to naturalization and religion. all with a hearty good will. ' ' Senate. freedom of religious belief. the country would have been in a sad condition. of many letters encouragement. which is the vital question of this clay. English but he declined to receive . I stand where the Democracy stood. you should have them elected. was " " honors upon Mr. which I preferred. views upon these subjects have undergone no change." It the after the passage of the English Bill that President offered to confer the highest political . had it not been relieved by j^our measure. and in one he said : — I omit no opportunity of expressing my opinion of how much the country owes j^ou for the English amendment. had Congress adjourned without passing your amendment. " Upon the advent of the Know-Nothing or American part}^ I opposed it persistently. 351 have become obsolete. and for the to the entire last.I WILLIAJVI H. any infringement upon the one or the other. It is painful even to think of what Having lost the bill of the would have been the alarming condition of the Union. after the passage " of the English Bill." Mr." In the ensuing political campaign. and the Whig party stood. I My am for our naturalization laws as they stand. as long as the Whig party had an existence. I trust j^ou will have no difficulty in being renominated and reIf I had a thousand votes. and the contest in his district assumed a President Buchanan wrote him national importance.

and when public feeling Avas at its height.812 in 1858. Mr. C. Presidential ticket. and the advice of such prudent and practical men as he. and Mr. In Congress. not as a delegate. patriotic platform as would probably have been successful. and he preferred remaining an independent representative of the people. The election of 1858 resulted m the return of Mr. English of the safety of the country were in vain . cratic Convention at Charleston. district . had been upward and onward. — sadness. and such a conservative. Mr. was such an event as the nation looked forward to with anxiety. English's labors in the behalf of harmony and and he returned to Washington greatly discouraged. English to Congress by a larger majority than ever. In the former case. In the meantime. S. Mr. made a great speech. full of wisdom and of He commenced by saying . English v»'ent to Charleston. English felt that his acceptance might be misunderstood .352 LITE AXD PUBLIC CAREER OF any executive appointment. his majority graduall}' increasino" at each election. just before the breaking up at Charleston. Mr. There had been no change in the boundaries of his but his career in this. . if his advice. the shadows of the great civil war began to deepen. as in ever}i:hing else. had been followed. there would have been but one Democratic as a . but peace-maker and. English was a member of the The approaching Demonational campaign committee. and this at a time when Democratic congressmen were almost swept out of existence in the Northern States. The same offer of favors was made by President Johnson. from 488 in 1852 to 1.

English was for pacification if and favored every measure tending to that In a speech in the House. and leave the glorious sun of Democracy shining brightly as It is not to ' ' . "I shall not attempt. and to which may justly be attributed whatever difficulties now exist. terize this rule-or-ruin spirit in that . dark and to be lowering over our house seem but I ominous clouds have an abiding faith that these clouds will soon break awa}^. storms have no terror for me or for which I belong and. and the events which are transpiring. "I may be permitted to say. Presidency. on the present occasion. sir. at Charleston." When possible. he told the South. the movement on the part of the South for dissolution came. healthfulness of the political atmosphere. as they never ought to forgive. ENGLISH. be denied that. those who will have needlessly precipitated this state of affairs upon the country. I shall go upon the supposition that whatever storms ma}' have prevailed at Charleston were necessary for the purity and ' ' Sir. that . it would be upon absorbing the scenes that have been enacted. Mr. as natural storms are known to be for a like purpose in the physical world. " ever. to charac' . mere political the great party to . if disaster or justly yierits serious trouble ensues. just at this time. result.WILLIAM H. for the present. that I have but little ' upon this subject of the sympathy with those who demand Caesar or no sympathy with imperiously nobody that rule-or-ruin spirit which has been exhibited too much of late in both wings of the Democratic party. language I conceive it so but I venture to predict that. " If I were 353 to speak upon the topics which seem to be the attention of everj'body now. the masses of the Democratic party never will forgive.

if it does. and as because it would involve innumerit and a severance of those sacred ties which bind every man to his own immediate country. as patriots.tional man to the President's chair. of the great American conflict came. dehis efforts. and that his constituents keep step to march under the flag." able sacrifices. because of the election of a sec. The convention which nominated his successor. its days are numbered and its mission ended. individuals. ized. Would you expect let us in such an event to go with you out of the Union? If so. and he resolved to retire from polit- having served four continuous terms. or the appreciated position perils which would enwon them in the event of a resort to " Looking at this matter it is the extreme measures to which I refer. and which. and the music of the Union." Then pointedly : would only " addressing the Southern members.354 " LIFE AND PUBLIC CAEEER OF the great Democratic party. me tell you frankly. adopted the following resolution : — . The crisis spite all ical life." In alluding to the folly of the South in attempting to break up the Union. inadmissible would be impossible. he told them that not even a corporal's guard of Northern men would go with them out of the Union for such a cause. must not degenerate into a mere Southern sectional party. 3'ou have not always properly the of the Free-State Democracy. we never would surrender. your expectations will never be realCollectivel}^ as vStates. he said — from the particular stand-point to be feared you occupy. or a party that tolerates the sentiment of disunion . that has so long and so justly boasted of its nationality. .

" self After his retirement Mr.WILLIAM H. EngUsh. and our confidence in him as a public officer. that he disapproved of secession in toto^ and It that it could nev^er have his countenance and support. W.his well-known wishes." a paper of opposite political views from Mr. from the position of representative. . 355 Resolved^ That in selecting a candidate to represent this district in the Thirty-seventh Congress. English. then we must all stand or fail together. took no active part in the war. in accordance with. He Courier. every possible means of maintaining the peace but if nothing will do but war. though he was a firm and consistent supporter of the Union declined. we heartily greet him with the plaudit. He said that he had informed Southern men more than a year ago. thou good and faithful servant. H. Government of the United States. we deem it a proper occasion to express the respect and esteem we entertain for our present member. gives the following account of a speech made by him cause. Hon. thoroughly identified with Free-State interests. English spoke for over an hour." trusted that the bitter cup of civil He passed from our . he felt that his alleofiance was exclusivelv due to the State of Indiana and ever he thought it wrong . ' ' and he should accordingly laws. and stand under the old war might be and he exhaust would lips. in a speech in Congress. " Well done. Lincoln's policy whenbut as a native of Indiana. which he has long filled with credit to him- and benefit to the country. was also well known that he was opposed to the Eepiiblican doctrines. abide in good faith by then* thne-houored flag. : The Madison " — " Mr. ENGLISH. and should boldly assail Mr. In his retirement. English was offered the command of a regiment by Governor Morton but he .

English removed to Indianapolis. and there founded the First National Bank of Indianapolis. and that in accepting the same thev desire to express their thanks to him for the ver}^ great financial ability.uses which impel the resignation of the Hon. The stockholders and directors accepted his resignation with deep regret. constant watchfulness. William H. but on the 25th of July. and that he carry with him our most sincere wishes for a long life of usefulness and happiness. Resolved. havins^ become so much broken down in health that it was necessary for him to go to a warmer climate. and Mr. all A convention of bankers from parts of the United was held in the spring of 1876. and adopted the following resolutions : — Resolved^ That the directors and stockholders of this bank sincerely regret the ca. For more than fourteen years Mr. and present to him a suitable testimonial as a memento of our personal regard and esteem. which was among the first organized in the United States under the National system. so long president of this institution. English. and the very first to get out its circulation. English presided over the bank he had founded. he resiofned.356 LIFE AND PUBLIC CAREER OF In the spring of 1863. 1877. In pursuance of the latter resolution there was . with remarkable ability and fidelity. That the executive committee of the board be directed to have prepared. Mr. English was chosen as one of the committee to appear before and address a committee of Congress upon States certain matters of finance. and perfect fidelity with which he has managed it from its organization to the present time.

. and their high appreciation of his very great financial ability. July 23. the panic proved that his heart that the best interests of the city had the nerve and the will to self." said of him at that "His conduct throughout was sink . with profuse symbolical ornaments in the highest style of art. Fidelity. I want our money to rank with the same standard recognized by all the great commercial nations of I want no depreciated or irredeemable paper the world. and the leading newspaper. English." and on the reverse the following Wm." Mr. ENGIJSH. and his views on the subject can best be explained in his own words. Ens^lish retired from the bank he sold out his stock and now does not own a dollar of stock in any corporation. and proffer aid to those needing it. personal esteem of the Stockholders and Directors.WILLIAM H. English a magnificent gold medal. English has always been a fearless advocate of honest money. as a memento of the inscription: — "Presented to Hon. and over fourteen years National Bank of Indianapolis. spoken at a recent interview : — " For myself. bearing on the one side the words. President of the First founder. and perfect fidelity. Strength. "Fortitude. 1877. H. were in in the right place that he his thoughts . time : — " The People. During the financial panic of 1873 he did very much to prevent disaster to the Indianapolis banks . constant watchfulness." Soon after Mr. 357 presented to Mr.

and as gi'ew gi-eatest . and with as great pm'chasing powers as the best money in the best markets of the world.358 forced LIFE AKD PUBLIC CAEEER OF upon our people. that under the rule of the Democracy the country to be one of the nations of the earth. In his published letter of refusal. " I would sa}'. but upholding the Constitution and laws. in my judgment. that will purchase just life as the dollars paid to bondholders or office-holders. let us firml}^ stand together under the old and in the old organization. We must not allow ourselves to be driven from correct principles by Union and speedil}' any amount of misrepresentation. he said : — perhaps superfluous for me to add that. I want the laboring man. masses that prejudices. English refused to He was a delegate to the State Convenpublic affairs. and never losing sight of that great historical fact. to be paid as much of the necessaries of in real dollars. seeking nor desiring office. which cannot be overcome by misrepresentation or abuse and that is. as a private neither citizen. assailing the administration wherever we conscien- tiously believe it to be in error. as would take half as much trouble to instruct and enlighten the Honesty. is the best policy in finance and well as in morals generall}'. tion in 1861. long as they held power the people of aU the States were prosperous and happy. I shall exert whatever of influence I possess to maintain the Constitution and It is " the suppress the Rebellion." their supposed accept any further office. it the}^ do to take advantage of would be far better. fighting secessionism to the flag bitter end. or even persecution. and if poUticians politics. when pay- day comes. he did not cease to take an interest in Even though Mr." . and in 1862 it vv-as hoped that he would allow his name to be used as a candidate for Cono^ress.

I could not be indifferent to the fate of this grand old party. olis. unqualifiedly in favor of the union of the States. I do not forget that I was born a Democrat was long an earnest. "that was he who introduced a resolution are now.WILLIAM H. and declaring. and certainly do not forget the past. He also advocated McClellan's it claims to the Presidency. as and. party. ENGLISH. " It is known been late 3"ears to you. 359 In 1864 he was a delegate to the Congressional Convention that nominated Michael C. English was engaged continued to increase until it absorbed all his time. and to he could give but little attention to political matters but he was a firm friend and supporter of Governor Tilden. Kerr to Congress. and Constitution. hard-working member of the am ." The business in which Mr. cardinal principles. I nevertheless not an indifferent spectator in this contest. that I have not of an active participant in political affairs. we we hand it down to our children unimpaired as we received it from our fathers. I could not forego a dents and a heart which I is know participant . as we have ever the Constitution stood heretofore. fellow-citizens. always a firm believer in its great and frequently a recipient of its favor at a time when such favors were to me of inestimable value. and presided at the meeting held at Indianap. as ever have been. although in bad health and shrinking from appearing in a pubUc pohtical meeting. ratifying the nomination of Tilden Then he said : — and Hendricks. With such antece- not incapable of gratitude. under and stand ready. Pre- not to ferring the quiet pursuits of private life and intending be drawn into the turmoils of active politics. to do everything that loyal and true citizens should do to maintain that union under the .

but I congratulate the Democratic party still more upon having nominated better men upon a better platform. and placing them upon a creditable platform. but most of those have become reconciled. because they know that train is bound to come in ahead. But I do not wish it am here to-night in a mere partisan capacthat ity. and Mr. but stand squarely upon the platform. who hang on the outskirts of the party. "Even the camp-followers. Louis platform. and that such reform when can now onl}^ election of Tilde n be certainly and effectivelj^ secured by the and Hendricks. I congi'atulate the Republican party understood that I upon having nominated good men for candidates at Cincinnati. for he adiT)itly said : "It was natm-al that in the excitement of the moment some Indiana Democrats should have felt dissatisfied.hing called Republican necessarily bad. considerable dissatisfaction because Mr." The Indiana Democracy felt.360 LITE AJS'D PUBLIC CAREER OF the pressing call that was made upon me to preside upon this occasion because I sincerel}' believe that the time has arrived . the welfare of the people demands thorough reform in the affairs of the general government. Never fear but all the boj's will get on board in due season. English's speech had a good effect. and not only support The the ticket now. claiming everything called Democratic must necessarily be good. few who have not yet got on the platform will hurry to get on board before the lightning-express train of the Democracy is fauiy under way. the dodgers and the trimmers. distracting its . because of the financial views of the platform. Hendricks had not been nominated for President. for they are not going to be left behind in this grand Democratic march to victory. and that it is dangerous to get on the platform when the cars are in motion. and ever3i. at the time of the St. On the contrary'.

oppressive to creditors or injurious to business. in a fine residence." Mr. " I contend there recognized in our own Constitution as well as by the whole civilized world." and more evident it is The financial trouble is he managed with like sagacity : nothing in the St. will be clamoring to get upon it. known as the . the mechanic. ENGLISH. and the laborer a dollar that will have as great a purchasing power as the dollar of the bondholder. which he never can have with a changeable standard of values. gress which fixes a certain day for the resumption of specie payments. 361 counsels and marring its harmony by disparaging the platform for the sake of a little local popularity. party fairly and squarely upon the road to specie payments but it does not propose to accomplish it by such hasty and inconsiderate legislation as will be unnecessarily cratic . English lives in Indianapolis.WILLIAM H. It short. It secures to the farmer. it but reaffirms the old and time-honored doctrine of the Democratic party in favor of a currency of specie and paper convertible into It is true the platform places the Demospecie on demand. It to secure to our own people real dollars that shall proposes is and advocates that standard which have as much purchasing power as the dollars of other nations. as it becomes more going to be adopted by the people. which fronts a beautiful circular park. It repudiates a changeable standard of values. Louis platform upon the subject of the finances about which Democrats should It favors the repeal of that clause of the act of Condiffer. facturer It secures to the manu- and the man of business that reasonable degree of certainty as to the financial future which will enable him to make investments and engage in business with some intelligence and feeling of security.

when Mr. and is the mother of two fine boy-babies. Rosalind. The son is the Hon. children were the issue of this marriage. being the third of the family in lineal descent position and grandson. a son and He was dauirhter. passing events." so called because originally desi "-ned as the site for the residence of the governor of the State. English. English of private life. and whose standard- bearer he had been in many a hotly-contested fight. Ivy. This history of a successful and active the time life comprises the year 1877. W. more. . E. — father. a young man of fine promise.. now a member of the Indiana House of Kepresentatives. The daughter. in the city of BaltiTwo His wife died Nov. married to Miss Emma ]\Iardulia Jackson of Virginia. 1847. 1876. William English Wallson. he continued to manifest his deep solicitude for the success of the Democratic party. sought the retirement But in this retirement jNIr. Willoughby Walling. on Nov. is the wife of Dr. and with his ripe experience Always a close observer of was ever ready to aid it by his counsel. who has occupied that ing and Willoughby George Walling. Md. was not unmindful of his country. crowned with success in every undertaking. 14. and at political and business record up to the very meridian of his powers.362 LIFE AND PUBLIC CAREER OF "Governor's Circle. nor neglectful of the interests of the Democratic party. with a without a blemish. English. whose principles he had espoused in his youth. 17. an eminent physician of Louisville.

UnanPresident. President: By the unanimous instructions of the delegates from Alabama. gentlemen. ENGLISH.WILLIA^l H. there is another principle that ought not to be forYou have had assurance from New York of the union of the Democracy there. General Petus of that State This was Alabama. one opinion as to the proper candidate to add strength and honor to the nomination. Alabama nominates William H. necticut. imously Nominated. — Mr. The Federal army and the Confederate army have met on Mason and Dixon's line as one army. and spoke as follows : — Mr. The Democratic National Convention of 1880. The Nomaintion of Hancock for President is followed by that of English for ViceHe is Named by General Petus of Alabama. in the third day of its session at Cincinnati. We have heard from ConWe have heard from New Hampshire. the National Democratic Convention. Now gotten. — — — the 24th of June. AVinfield Scott Hancock for President. We have had a glorious day to-day. and by permission of the delegates from the State of Indiana. English of Indiana. from . aided by these fair women from the North. English of Indiana. and the choice came upon the proper name to complete the ticket in such a way as to render even more certain the victory which the first name upon it In this contingency there seemed to be but assured. Now. English's Si)eech of Acceptance. The first State called upon the roll named William H. 363 CHAPTER TV. On had nominated Gen. mounted the platform.

but is deeply gTateful. and from the South. I ask to cast the vote of that State for Mr. I thank the States for their offer of this high position to him. The vote was unanimous for Mr. roll was called . and on the part of the delegation from Indiana. most distinguished her distinguished son. . citizens. penetrated by a sense of gratitude for the spontaneous expression of confidence in one of her ablest and Mr. "O' The Iowa delectation announced its choice as that of Hon. I would say to the Convention that Indiana has not had her place upon the Presidential ticket but if Mr. English. President. . a single word. the only interruption to the continuous balloting was the eulo. Bishop but with that exception. from the West. Enghsh. : — Indiana has not been an applicant for the second place upon this ticket. Senator Yoorhees arose and said Mr. you have sung together here that grand old question : — " Shall auld acquaintance "be forgot.364 LIFE ANT> PUBLIC CAREER OF the East. and a man who was never defeated when his name was presented before the people for an}^ position nor will he be defeated now. M. And never brought to mind ? Shall friends all true be remembered not In the days of auld lang syne ? " Where have we looked for true friends ? Where have we had true friends ? Where do we expect true friends ? From the glorious State of Indiana. . there will be placed there a native of that State of commanding capacity for affairs both pubhc and private. English is placed upon that ticket. English as the and when it came the turn of Indiana. R.

ful harvest. gies of fervor. and to illustrate which has been expressed as coming from the State of New York the banishment of all discord. world. Then. English be made unanimous by acclamation? It was so made unanimous. in the coming election of November. again. English of Indiana. from Maine to Texas. amid applause and con- gratulations. ENGLISH. . and like a reaper gathering his bounti- American people will proceed in their career of happiness. 365 Mr. the ballots of this free people shall at last place in office its men who shall restore peace and happiness to this hitherto distracted country. the sons of God will shout together for joy. as at the beginning of the great Republic and the beginning of the Mr.WILLIAM H. In the union of the great soldier. taking the platform : — Mr. in taking advantage of this opportunity to relieve the Convention from further labor. we see bond of harmon}' exemplified.statesman of the Democratic party with the great statesman whose name is presented now for the second place on the ticket. and liberty. move that the nomination of William H. President and Gentlemen of the Convention: I am deputed by the last State upon the list. in order. and the suppression of all division a radiant bow of promise for this happy land. the — stretching South. from the North to the And when. freedom. the order of the Convention is now concluded. then the summer day of our prosperity will rise to its zenith. F. the President. English which followed with increasing When the end of the list was reached and Wisconsin was called. Mr. Might I not. but by no means the last in the devotion of her Democrats to the prmciples Df the party. W. to express the great delight with which Wisconsin seconds the nomination of William H. Vilas responded.

3'our native State. Willia3I H. English : Sm. with whose struggles you have been so long identified. and whose glorious achievements Convention set forth its 3'ou have shared. of government. which was signed by all the committee-men The committee appointed : — Hon. While position. a cop}^ of which we have the honor to present to you. are The views. but as well to testify their profound respect for the Democracy of Indiana. — By direction of the National Democratic Conven- which assembled at Cincinnati on June 22 last.366 LIFE AND PUBLIC CAREER OF to communicate to the candidates their official nomination met Mr. and to which 3'our attention is It is our earnest hope that their respectfullj^ requested. the secretary of the committee read to Mr. on the 13th of July. the action of your public services well the Convention was no doubt desisjned not onlv to indicate their appreciation of 3'ourself. in a series of resolutions. your able discharge of many trusts committed to your hands. New York. . Enijlish at Governor's Island. your steadfast devotion to Demoaffairs and the uprightness of jonr private charassurances to the Democracy that you were acter. gave worthy and well qualified to perform the duties of that high cratic principles. and commended j'ou which they conferred. English the following communication. and had been accepted by him. it becomes our pleasing duty to notify jon that you have been unanimously nominated by that body to the office of ViceYour large experience in President of the United States. After the nomination had been tendered the candidate for President. where he was the guest of General Hancock. which now before the people. to them for the nomination 3'our personal qualities and merited this honor. tion.

views 367 may meet accept the nomination which with your approbation. in conformity with the usual custom in such cases. . ENGLISH. In reply to this communication. very kind and I thank you. the I misrepresentation and abuse which are certain to follow. I will say plainly. and will at an early day make a more formal acceptance in writing. at heart will be successful. This concluded the formal action. bility In doing this I fully realize the great responsi- of this position. which has made Hon. William H. and in a very few words. English said the : — Mi\ Chairman and Gentlemen of Committee: As a practical man of business. for the considerate manner in which 3'ou have dis- charged your duties toward me on this occasion. in one of the earliest and probably the It is an occasion calling greatest battles of the campaign. and that you will is now tendered. the great cause we all have . that I accept the high trust 3'ou have tendered me. gentlemen. my performance of high patiiotic dut}^ not to be declined for personal considerations.WILLI AIH H. native State. and I shall not disregard the unanimous voice of the representatives of the majorit}^ of for the I the American people. understand that the resources and power of our political foes of the whole country are to be centred upon us in Indiana. English the candidate of the constitutional party for the second highest office in the gift of the people. which j^ou represent here to-day. Mr. and profoundly gratified for the high honor conferred upon me and I cannot doubt that under the favor of God and the people. the great turmoil and anxiety. the action with that I am need hardly say deeply impressed of the Convention. not much accustomed to indirect ways or circumlocution of speeches.

is the supreme law of the land. and shall endeavor to maintain in the future. City. fourteenth. The General and State governments. i. are inviolable. and amendment. which in every article. with all of m}' power.368 APPE^'x>IX. define and limit the authority of the general government. The Constitution forms the The powers basis of the government of the United vStates. ) Gentlemen : — I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt New York ] of your letter of July 13. The principles enunthe National Cincinnati. thirteenth. ciated b}' the Convention are those I have cherished in the The past. it the and to judicial departgranted b}' legislative. ments. LETTER OF GEN. I should deem it m}' duty to resist. belong to the States respectivel}'. executive. 1880. stitution of the and fifteenth amendments to the Con- United States. comprising a general government with general . APPENDIX. 1880. section. each acting upon trenching the lawful jurisdiction of the other.i its own sphere without This Union. apprising me formally of my nomination to the office of President of the United States by Democratic Convention. Governor's Island. embod3ing the results of the war for the Union. Powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution. HANCOCK ACCEPTING THE DEMOCRATIC NOMINATION FOR PRESIDENT. lately assembled in I accept the nomination with grateful appreciation of the confidence reposed in me. or to the people. nor prohibited b}' it to the States. any attempt to impair or impede the full force and eflect of the Constitution. constitute the Union. July 29. If called to the Presidency.

and intend at every hazard to pre- serve But no form of government. and which has been so respected abroad and Tried by blood and fire. which constitutes us one people. rightly administered. and prosperity. to-day a model form of free popular government a political S3^stem which. a vital principle in our system that neither fraud nor force must be allowed to subvert the rights of the people. however sound. result will first elective offices. safety. the noblest The baj'onetis not constitutions and wisest laws are useless. Public office is a trust. or incompetence controls. foundation Take awa}^ and the whole structure falls. . the admiration of the world. free ballot. and State governments with State powers for purposes local to the States. justly dear to us it is the main pillar in the edifice of our real independence. they should be promptly basis of a substantial. it. the support of our peace. not a bounty bestowed upon the No incompetent or dishonest persons should ever be holder. is When a fit fraud. will protect the rights of the It people unless the administration is faithful and eflScient. however carefully devised. practical civil-service or. has been. the foundations of which were laid in the profoundest wisdom. May we not say. : ' ' The unity of govern- liberty " we ? so highly prize. The appointed. is a polity. if reform must for office. and will continue to be. rule in fact. It is only by a and fair count. it stands so beneficent at home. full vote.APPENDIX. 3 09 powers. violence. . be established by the people in filling the If they fix a high standard of qualifications reject the corrupt and sternly and incompetent. nearly in the words of Washington ment. instrument for collecting the votes of freemen. and of that is . This is the Union our fathers made. as required this entrusted with ejected. no principles. that the people can by the theory of our government. the whom be decisive in governing the action of the servants they entrust with the appointing power.

of the Union. in order that united efforts. extend our commerce with foreign nations. Stockton. let it are in a state of profound peace. Let us encourage the harmony and generous rivalry among our own industries which will revive our languishing merchant marine. WiNFiELD To the S. I shall. interests. A-aried among our and fellow-citizens. citizen. Stevenson. manufacturers. to enjoy the substantial benefits of recon- As one people we have common interests. and We not of animosity. assist oiir mer- chants. Chairman. progi'essive. with the Divine favor. John P.370 The war fifteen APPENDIX. respectfully yours. Henceforth be our purpose to cultivate sentiments of friendship. fully sensible of the fact that to administer rightly the functions of government is to discharge most sacred duty that can devolve upon an American I am. and others of the Committee of the National Democratic Convention. If elected. President of the Convention Hon. and to see that the laws be faithfully and I will equally executed in all parts of the country alike. Hon. John W. A The time has come ciliation. assume the the responsibility. and shall take care to protect and defend the Union. Our material demand our constant and sedulous and scrupulous care of the public with a wise and economical mana2:ement of our tosfether credit. Hancock. and increase the prosperity and happiness of our people. and are equally concerned in the in blessings its perpetuit}^ and in the proper administration of public affairs. . according to my convictions. . for the Union was successful!}' closed more than All classes of our people must share alike years ago. governmental expenditures. and producers to develop our vast natural resources. should be maintained. labor with what ability I possess to discharge my duties with fidelity. labor ma}' be lightly burdened and that all persons may be protected in their rights to the fruits of their own industry.

371 LETTEE OP HON.. practical man. full and is. a statesman and a pure patriot. . which I cordially approve and I accept it as much because of m}^ faith in the wisdom bility. but a prudent. His eminent services to his countr}'.. Indianapolis. WILLIAM H. a great commander. the Union and the laws correct principles of government as taught by Jefferson his . Ind.APPENDIX. . of unquestioned honesty . in civil as well as military affairs life. I have now to sa}^ that I accept the high trust. he my . Gentlemen : —I have now the honor me that I to reply to 3'our letter of the 13th inst. informing was unanimously nominated for the office of Vice-President of the United States by the late Democratic National Convention which assembled at Cincinnati. and the rights of property . As foreshadowed in the verbal remarks made bv me at the time of the delivery of your letter. trusted often with important public duties. . with a realizing sense of its responsi- profoundly grateful for the honor conferred. and am and patriotism of the great statesman and soldier nominated on the same ticket for President of the United States. 1880. July 30. faithful to every trust. painstaking. all . I accept the nomination upon the platform of principles adopted by the Convention. and his pure and blameless point to him as a man worthy of the confidence of the people not only a brave soldier. in the in meridian of ripe and vigorous manhood. . ENGLISH ACCEPTING THE NOMINATION FOR VICE-PRESIDENT. his fidelity to the Constitu- his clear perception of the tion. scrupulous care to keep the military in strict subordination to the civil authorities his high regard for civil libert}^ personal his acknowledged abilitv rights.

and has alread}^ led to irregularities and corruptions which are not likel}' to be properly exposed under the same party that perpetrated them . judgment. for services often poorh^ performed. The continuance of that party in power four 3'ears longer would not be beneficial to the public or in accordance Laws of with the spuit of our republican institutions. eminenth' fitted for the highest office on earth. It was a grievous wrong to ever3' voter and to our S3'stem of self-government. and presumed sanction of the administration. The money of the people. but the time has come when the best interests of the countrj" require that the party which has monopolized the executive department for the last twenty ^^ears should be retired. which should not be forgotten or Man3' of the men now in office were put in because forgiven. Twenty 3'ears of continuous power is long enough. and the great entail and good men who formed our republican government and its traditions wisel}^ limited the terms of office and in many ways showed their disapproval of long leases of power. the Presidency of the United States. with the knowledge about the countr3" making partisan speeches instead of . taken out of the public treasur3' b3' these men formed at all. should not be forgotten that the four last 3'ears of besides. to confc'ol elections and even the members of the Cabinet are strolling . power held b3' that part3' were procured b3' discreditable means. of corrupt partisan services in thus defeating the fau'h' and legall3" expressed will of the majorit3'.372 APPENDIX. and the hvpocris3' of the professions of that part3' in favor of civil-service reform was shown in placing such men in office and turning the whole brood of federal office-holders loose to influence the elections. Not only is he the right man for the place. and held in defiance of the wishes of a majorit3' of the it people. The perpetuation of property or place in one famil}' or set of men has never been encouraged in this country. or not peris being used in vast sums. — have not been favored by our system of government.

The country is power which rightfully belongs to them. office-holders their backers. The effort to build up what they call a strong government. will. simple. and a hundred thousand federal pampered with place and power. fully understand as . the interference with home rule and with the administration of justice in the com-ts of the several States. the interference with the elections through the medium of paid partisan federal office-holders. which have been made by that part}^ upon the clearly reserved rights of the people and the States.APPEJSTDIX. 373 being in their departments at Washington discharging the public duties for which they are paid by the people. no doubt. read between the lines of their speeches office. But with all their cleverness and ability. and determined to retain them at all hazards. This them. subvert the liberties of the people and the govern- ment of limited powers created b}^ the fathers. if not checked. on the Hence the constant assumption of new and dangerother. to keep themselves and earn theu* daily bread by honesty and industrj^. but that theu' paramount hope and aim their satellites four years longer in is. contest is. economical. interested in keeping their party in power. under the rule of the Republican party. constitutional government of our fathers on the one side. and ous powers by the general government. spite prosperous. in fact. that it is because of their own industry and economy and God's bountiful harvests that the country is comparatively prosperous. no doubt. the constant encroachments fau'ness in the elections . is what the same discerning public will. a discriminating public will. and end in a . and to restore the pure. they will also. That perpetuating the power of chronic federal office-holders four years longer will not benefit the men and women who hold no office. and not because of anything done comparatively not because in of but of them. between the people endeavoring to regain the political by these federal office-holders. and caring more for that than in fact.

It is certain. and the long continuance of political power same hands. government can be used to perpetuate the same set of men in power from term to term. strong indeed for The wise evil. In that event. or interference with the proper exercise of its powers. in the enjo^'ment of tion all the rights guaranteed by the Constitu- and its amendments. The union of States under the Constitution must be maintained and it is well known that this has . The}^ knew there was a tendency in this dhection in all governments. But in resisting the encroachments of the general government upon the reserv^ed rights of the people and the States. men who formed in the our Constitution knew the evils of a strons: government. and consequent danger to repub- from that cause. in eveiy section of the republic. It is acquiesced in ever. is quite apparent. always been the position of both the candidates on the Democratic Presidential ticket. shown in various wa^'s besides the willingness of a large number of that party to elect a President an unlimited number of terms. proper protection will be given in every legitimate way to every citizen. be3^ond all question. native or adopted. that the legitimate results of the war for the Union will not be overthrown or impaired should the Democratic ticket be elected. must be carefully avoided. Encroachments upon the constitutional rights of the general government.374 APPENDIX. and the overthrow of republican institutions. until it ceases to be a republic. and took pains to guard The machinery of a strong centralized general against it. or is such only in name and the tendency of the part}^ now in lican institutions . great consolidated central government. as wish to be distinctly understood as favoring the proper exercise by the general government of the powers to it rightfully belonging under the Constitution. and must satisfy thinking people that the time has come when it will be safest and best for that party to be retired. . I power in that du-ection.y'where now. and finall}^ and forever settled as one of the results of the war.

will be properly restricted. Notification. one people. with great respect. the Hon. Chairman and other members of the Committee of . will be mainThe labor and manufacturing. and make us in fact. and consisting of gold and silver and paper convertible into coin. Its success would bury beyond resurrection the sectional jealousies and hatreds which have so long been the chief stock in trade of pestiferous demagogues and in no other way can this be It would restore harmony and so efl'ectually accomplished. To the Hon. morality. Stockton. English. Very trul}'' j^ours. and therefore do not doubt the success of the Democratic ticket. John P. . Johx W. 375 sound cuiTency of honest money. the promotion of education. President of the Convention. I do not doubt the discriminating justice of the people and theh' capacity for intelligent self-government. and the liberties of the people and the public expenditures property of the people will be protected by a government of law and order. The toiling miUions of our people will be protected from the destructive competition of the Chinese and to that end their immigration to our shores A aged in every legitimate . the enlargement of human rights. William H. liberty.APPENDIX. Stevenson. I am. of a value and purchasing power corresponding substantially with the standard recognized by the conunercial world. and not of corporations and privileged classes. the elevation of labor. be in the race for the development of material prosperity. The public credit will be scrupulously maintained and strengthened by rigid economy in . . administered strictly in the interests of all the people. as The only rivalry" then would well as in name. good feehng between all the sections. commercial and busitained. and all that would tend to make us the foremost nation of the earth in the grand march of human progress. ness interests of the country will be favored and encourway. religion. order.

-V .





APR ] 1 1939 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful