Air Muscles

[2008]

Air Muscles
Contents Title Abstract Introduction History Construction Working Theoretica !ode #sti$ation o% %rictiona e%%ects 'yna$ic (ro)erties #*)eri$enta resu ts +)erationa Characteristics ,)eci%ications %or ,hado- Air !usc es 'i%%erences %ro$ )neu$atic cy inders Ad/antages o% Air !usc es 'isad/antages A)) ications Hu$anoid 0obots Arti%icia i$bs The 'e*terous hands 1urther de/e o)$ents Conc usion 0e%erences (ub ished (a)ers 3ooks Websites Page 4 5 5 6 6 " &0 && && &2 &. &4 &5 &5 &6 &6 &" &" &8 &2 20 20 2& 2&

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.Air Muscles About This is a se$inar to)ic use%u %or $echanica engineering students4 Page .

Air Muscles Abstract Air $usc e is essentia y a robotic actuator -hich is re) acing the con/entiona )neu$atic cy inders at a ra)id )ace4 'ue to their o.)roduction costs and /ery high )o-er to -eight ratio5 as high as 4006&5 the )re%erence %or Air !usc es is increasing4 Air !usc es %ind huge a)) ications in biorobotics and de/e o)$ent o% %u y %unctiona )rosthetic i$bs5 ha/ing su)erior contro ing as -e as %unctiona ca)abi ities co$)ared -ith the current $ode s4 This )a)er discusses Air !usc es in genera 5 their construction5 and )rinci) e o% o)eration5 o)erationa characteristics and a)) ications4 Page 4 .

ater in &252 <ose)h4.cost and can be integrated -ith hu$an o)erations -ithout any arge sca e sa%ety re7uire$ents4 1urther $ore they o%%er e*tre$e y high )o-er to -eight ratio o% about 4006&4 As a co$)arison e ectric $otors on y o%%er a )o-er ration o% &66&4 Air !usc es are a so ca ed !c8ibben actuators na$ed a%ter the researcher -ho de/e o)ed it4 History It -as in &258 that 04H49ay ord in/ented a )neu$atic actuator -hich:s origina a)) ications inc uded a door o)ening arrange$ent and an industria hoist4 .4!c8ibben de/e o)ed Air !usc es4 The source o% ins)iration -as the hu$an $usc e itse %5 -hich -ou d s-e -hen a %orce has to be a)) ied4 They -ere de/e o)ed %or use as an orthotic a)) iance %or )o io )atients4 C inica tria s -ere rea isd in &260s4 These $usc es -ere actua y $ade %ro$ )ure rubber ate*5 co/ered by a doub e he ica -ea/e =braid> -hich -ou d contract -hen e*)anded radia y4 This cou d actua y be considered as a biorobotic actuator as it o)erates a $ost si$i ar to a bio ogica $usc e4 Air !usc e .che$atic? !c8ibben !ode The current %or$ air $usc es -ere de/e o)ed by the 3ridgestone Co$)any5 %a$ous %or its tires4 The )ri$ary $ateria -as rubber i4e4 the inner tube -as $ade %ro$ rubber4 Page 5 .o)erationa % e*ibi ity5 high sa%ety re7uire$ents5 and high cost o)erationa as -e as constructiona etc4 The search %or an actuator -hich -ou d satis%y a these re7uire$ents ended in Air !usc es4 They are easy to $anu%acture5 o.Air Muscles Introduction 0obotic actuators con/entiona y are )neu$atic or hydrau ic de/ices4 They ha/e $any inherent disad/antages ike o.

hado.another co$)any ca ed The !er in Hu$ani%or$ de/e o)s air $usc es %or the sa$e a)) ications5 a though their design is so$e-hat di%%erent %ro$ the .Air Muscles Hence these actuators -ere ca ed @0ubbertuators:4 These de/e o)$ents took ) ace around &280s4 .$usc es4 Construction The Air !usc e consists o% an inner rubber tube5 -hich is o%ten $ade %ro$ )ure rubber ate*4 It is surrounded by a braided $esh4 Air $usc e construction [.air into or out o% the $usc e4 The $usc e is su)) ied -ith t-o 'e rin %ittings a so4 Working The inner rubber tube is in% ated by entering air at a )ressure5 usua y i$ited to .hado.hado.0obotic Co$)any o% the Anited 8ingdo$ began de/e o)ing Air !usc es4 These are the $ost co$$on y used air $usc es no.45 bar4 The $o/e$ent o% this tube is constrained by the braid4 When the tube gets in% ated it e*)eriences Page 6 .0$$] The header at each end o% the $usc e consists o% an A u$iniu$ ring5 and a 'e rin ) astic bung5 -ith a %e$a e thread4 This thread can be used as a $eans o% attach$ent5 and to a o.hado.air $usc e6 .and are associated -ith a $ost a hu$anoid robotic a)) ications -hich -ere de/e o)ed recent y4 A)art %ro$ .ater in &220s .

Air Muscles a ongitudina contraction4 This -ou d create a )u at both ends o% the tube4 Asua y one end o% the tube -i be attached to so$e-here so that %orce can be a)) ied %ro$ one end4 This )u -hen e%%ecti/e y uto ised cou d )ro/ide the necessary $otion4 The -orking o% the Air !usc e c ose y rese$b es that o% the natura $usc e and hence the na$e !usc e gi/en to it a ong -ith Air4 The %igure be o.sho-s the )hysica a))earance o% the $usc e at di%%erent stages o% its -orking4 Air !usc e at di%%erent stages Theoretical Model Page " .

Bb dW ? ? ? ? ? the in)ut actuation )ressure5 the change in the actuator:s interior /o u$e the change in the actuator:s ength the /o u$e occu)ied by the b adder the change in strain energy density=change in stored energyDunit /o u$e>4 1f describes the u$)ed e%%ects o% %riction arising %ro$ sources such as contact bet-een the braid and the b adder and bet-een the %ibers o% the braid itse %4 Eeg ecting the second and third ter$s on the right hand side o% abo/e e7uation and assu$ing the actuator $aintains the %or$ o% a right circu ar cy inder -ith an in%initesi$a y thin b adder yie ds kno-n so utions4 The so ution to the second ter$ on the right side o% the e7uation is based on a non? inear $ateria s $ode de/e o)ed by !ooney and 0i/ in in the &240:s and &250:s )ro)osed a re ationshi) bet-een stress =F > and strain =G > gi/en by F H dW dG -here W is the strain energy density %unction4 Asing the assu$)tions o% initia isotro)y and inco$)ressibi ity5 W can be described as a %unction o% t-o strain in/ariants = I& and I2 >6 -here Cij are e$)irica constants4 +n y t-o !ooney?0i/ in constants =C&0 H&&844 k(a and C0& H&054" k(a> -ere necessary %or accurate resu ts -ith the natura ate* rubber b adder5 ho-e/er5 other $ateria s $ay re7uire additiona constants4 1or the case o% the !c8ibben actuator5 the e*)eri$enta $ethods re7uired to deter$ine these constants are dra$atica y si$) i%ied because the !c8ibben actuator:s strain in/ariants5 constrained by braid kine$atics5 are near y the sa$e as the strain in/ariants %or unia*ia tension 4This %ortuitous re ationshi) Page 8 .Air Muscles Asing conser/ation o% energy and assu$ing the actuator $aintains dB d( e7ua to Cero5 reasonab e %or actuators bui t -ith sti%% braid %ibers that are a -ays in contact -ith the inner b adder5 the tensi e %orce )roduced can be ca cu ated %ro$6 _____a Where5 ( dB d.

o5 -here Li is the actuator:s instantaneous ength and Lo is the origina 5 resting state ength4 Page 2 .Air Muscles e i$inates the need %or $u ti?a*ia testing that -ou d other-ise be necessary4 .iD .o /ing e7uation a using the non? inear !ooney?0i/ in $ateria s $ode resu ts in a !c8ibben actuator $ode -hose structure is a o-ed to de%or$ as -e as store e astic energy in a non? inear %ashion4 This $ode is gi/en by6 -here F$r is the )redicted %orce5 and )ara$eters N 5 Lo 5 B. and Ro are sho-n in %igure & and %igure 24 3 adder thickness is denoted by to and is used in the b adder /o u$e ca cu ation4 I& re%ers to the actuator:s ongitudina stretch ratio and is gi/en by I& H .

Air Muscles 1igure6 & 1igure6 2 !c8ibben actuators are %abricated %ro$ t-o )rinci) e co$)onents6 an in% atab e inner b adder $ade o% a rubber $ateria and an e*terior braided she -ound in a doub e he i*4 At a$bient )ressure5 the actuator is at its resting ength =%igure6 &>4 As )ressure increases5 the actuator contracts )ro)ortiona y unti it reaches its $a*i$a y contracted state at $a*i$u$ )ressure =%igure6 2>4 The a$ount o% contraction is described by the actuator:s ongitudina stretch ratio gi/en by I& H Li Lo -here L is the actuator:s ength5 and subscri)t i re%ers to the instantaneous di$ension and the subscri)t o re%ers to the origina 5 resting state di$ension4 Page &0 .

454 The %igure sho-s a reasonab y c ose %it %or each o% the %our acti/ation )ressures tested4 . !yna"ic Pro#erties Techalone.i$i ar resu ts -ere obtained %or the t-o s$a er actuators =no$ina braid dia$eters o% L and &D2> but are not sho-n4 1igure6 .com Page && .Air Muscles #sti$ation o% 1rictiona #%%ects The third ter$ on the right o% e7uation a re)resents these %rictiona osses -hich are a %unction o% =1> braid $ateria 5 =2> b adder $ateria 5 =3> )ressure5 and = > actuator ength4 In ieu o% a $ode that incor)orates a %unction %or each o% these5 -e ha/e taken the inter$ediate ste) o% u$)ing a o% these e%%ects into a sing e )ara$eter = Ff > as a si$) e %unction o% )ressure4 Ana ysis o% the e*)eri$enta data and theory )redictions = F$r > suggests a inear %or$ gi/en by6 Ff H mP J b -here m and b are e$)irica y deter$ined constants4 The actuator $ode 5 -hich no.inc udes the geo$etry o% the braid and b adder5 the $ateria )ro)erties o% the b adder5 and a ter$ %or %rictiona e%%ects =a three ter$s o% e7uation a> is gi/en by6 F H F$r K Ff A co$)arison o% this $ode /ersus e*)eri$enta resu ts %or the argest actuator =no$ina braid dia$eter o% &?&D4 in4> is )resented in %igure .

4A4> tensi e testing instru$ent4 Actuators o% three siCes -ere constructed and tested4 #ach e*)eri$ent $easured the %orce out)ut at a constant )ressure o/er the contraction range at /arious /e ocities4 +ne end o% the actuator -as rigid y attached to the oad ce -hi e the other end -as $o/ed in res)onse to the instru$ent:s digita contro er4 .00 $$Ds and 6 )ercent at 200 $$Dsec4 This ano$a y is thought to arise %ro$ the hydrau ic )u$)4 #*)eri$enta 0esu ts The e*)eri$enta y $easured out)ut %orce o% a sing e !c8ibben actuator5 ) otted as a %unction o% both ength and /e ocity5 is sho-n in %igure 44 The resu ts sho-n are %ro$ an actuator -hose no$ina braid dia$eter -as L inch and constructed -ith a natura ate* b adder4 The actuator )ressure -as 5 bar and the origina 5 resting state ength o% the actuator -as &80 $$4 The out)ut %orce is c ear y a %unction o% ength5 but not o% /e ocity4 .i$i ar resu ts -ere obtained at o-er )ressures and -ith the other t-o siCed actuators5 but are not sho-n4 1igure6 4 $#erating Characteristics Page &2 . .te) /e ocity )ro%i es -ere a)) ied such that one end o% the actuator -as ra)id y acce erated and he d to a constant /e ocity unti the end o% the actuator:s -orking ength -as reached4 In)ut ste) /e ocity )ro%i es tested inc uded &5 &05 255 505 &005 &505 2005 2505 and .Air Muscles To $easure the %orce?/e ocity )ro)erties o% the !c8ibben actuator5 a series o% e*)eri$ents -ere conducted -ith the a*ia ?torsiona 3ioni* =!T.00 $$Ds %or concentric contractions and &5 &05 255 505 &005 and &50 $$Ds %or eccentric contractions4 A) to 500 $$Ds is )ossib eM ho-e/er5 instantaneous % uctuations in /e ocity o% &5 )ercent -ere $easured during trai s at 500 $$Ds4 The $agnitude o% these % uctuations decreased at o-er /e ocities5 and -as ess than 2 )ercent at .yste$s Cor)45 !innesota5 A4.

Air Muscles The characteristics o% !usc es as gi/en by the .0obotic co$)any4 45 N load Techalone. .com Page &.hado.

ength 220$$ 250$$ 2.ength Acti/e .0 $$ Weight 80 g Pull '3*+ bar) .bar5 -ith a oad o% 50E4 Ho e N Ho e .Air Muscles %#eci&ications &or a ty#ical Air Muscle 'the %hado( co"#any) !ia"eter .i"u" #ull "0 kg -ength 220 $$ =stretched> stretched %or$ These $easure$ents are taken -hen the $usc e is %u y stretched out5 under a oad o% at east 50E5 and a )ressure o% 0 bar4 Ho e N Ho e .ength is the ength o% the -ho e $usc e5 e*c uding the %ittings4 .0$$ &6 The Ho e?Ho e s)acing is the distance bet-een the ho es in the %ittings at either end o% the $usc e4 This is adOustab e5 as the %ittings can be scre-ed in or out4 They can a so be re$o/ed entire y5 creating a $ore co$)act $usc e4 Ase an !&0 screinstead5 and re$e$ber to use (T1# ta)e to ensure a good sea 4 26 The Tota !usc e .ength Acti/e .ength is the ength o% the )art o% the $usc e -hich contracts under )ressure5 and does not inc ude the headers4 These $easure$ents are taken -hen the $usc e is )ressurised to .ength 2&0$$ &"0$$ &50$$ Techalone.)acing Tota !usc e .com Page &4 .)acing Tota !usc e .5 kg Ma.6 The Acti/e .

)ressure actuator -ith a set o% o)erationa %eatures uni7ue in the %ie d o% robotics and auto$ation kno-n in air o)erated a) ? %"ooth .com Page &5 .Air Muscles Contracted %or$ !i&&erences &ro" #neu"atic cylinders The Air !usc e is a o.erk &ree "otion %ro$ start to %inish due to the co$) ete ack o% stiction5 the %eature o% standard actuators -hich )roduces the characteristic Oerk so -e de/ices4 b) / Co"#liance ? A though they can )roduce the %orce needed to $o/e a %unction the Air !usc e -i a so yie d -hen an obstac e is encountered5 thus )re/enting da$age to the obOect and the PAr$P ? a distinct ad/antage -here robots $i* -ith hu$ans4 c) / -ight (eight ? The $ateria s %ro$ -hich the Air !usc e is $ade are non?$eta ic and gi/e it a re ati/e y high )o-er?to?-eight ratio ? a critica %eature in choosing an actuator %or a $obi e robot Techalone.

and /ery high )u ing %orces The )ossibi ity o% direct connection to a robotic Ooint5 i.ible ? Air !usc es can be o)erated -hen t-isted a*ia y5 bent round a corner5 and need no )recise a igning4 Po(er&ul ? Air !usc es )roduce an incredib e %orce es)ecia y -hen %u y stretched4 !a"#ed ? Air !usc es are se %?da$)ening -hen contracting =s)eed o% $otion tends to Cero>5 and their % e*ib e $ateria $akes the$ inherent y cushioned -hen e*tending4 Co"#liant ? 3eing a so%t actuator5 Air !usc es syste$s are inherent y co$) iant4 2&&icient ? a $usc e ength can be $aintained -ith $ini$a energy in)ut4 1ast ?%u contraction can be achie/ed in ess than one second %ro$ rest4 !isad0antages The %orce -hich can be a)) ied is on y tensi e in nature4 1or both kinds o% %orces additiona $echanis$s are re7uired4 than other actuators and Techalone.Air Muscles Ad0antages o& Air Muscles (o-er to -eight ratios in e*cess o% & kWDkg5 by -ay o% co$)arison5 e ectric dri/es ty)ica y has so$e &00 WDkg A /arying %orce?dis) ace$ent re ation at constant gas )ressure5 contrary to )neu$atic cy inders5 -hich resu ts in a $usc e? ike beha/iorM an adOustab e co$) iance5 due to gas co$)ressibi ity and the dro))ing %orce?dis) ace$ent characteristics A $a*i$u$ dis) ace$ent or stroke o% u) to 50Q o% initia ength The absence o% %riction and hysteresis5 as o))osed to other ty)es o% (A!s The abi ity to o)erate at a -ide range o% gas )ressures5 and thus to de/e o) both /ery o.co$)any ty)ica to their )roducts are6? -ight(eight ? Air !usc es -eigh as itt e as &0 g$ ? )articu ar y use%u %or -eight? critica a)) ications -o(er Cost ? Air !usc es are chea)er to buy and insta )neu$atic cy inders %"ooth / Air !usc es ha/e no RstictionR and ha/e an i$$ediate res)onse4 This resu ts in s$ooth and natura $o/e$ent4 1le. e. -ithout ha/ing to use any gears5 because o% their high out)ut %orces at a s)eeds4 .com Page &6 .o$e o% the ad/antages s)e t out by the shado.

Air Muscles The e%%iciency o% Air !usc es is not as good as e ectric $otors Its tota dis) ace$ent is on y about 20Q to .-hich the actuator -i si$) y not o)erate 0ubber de%or$ation5 ike any $ateria de%or$ation5 needs energy5 this -i %orce out)ut o% this ty)e o% $usc e u) to 60Q4 o-er the A##lications Hu$anoid robots The $aOor a)) ication o% Air !usc es is in the %ie d o% hu$anoid robots4 As these actuators near y rese$b e the characteristics o% actua ske eta $usc es5 they can )er%or$ a /erity o% %unctions as is )er%or$ed by the hu$an hand4 Cou) ed -ith the i$) e$entation o% neura net-orks and )o-er%u 5 )recise sensors they are ca)ab e o% high end a)) ications such as asse$b ing o% /ery $inute co$)onents etc4 Techalone.0Q o% its initia ength 1riction bet-een the netting and the tube eads to a substantia hysteresis in the %orce? ength characteristicsM this ob/ious y has an ad/erse e%%ect on actuator beha/ior and necessitates using co$) e* $ode s and contro a gorith$s 0ubber is o%ten needed to a/oid the tube %ro$ bursting5 this co$es at the cost o% a high thresho d )ressureSty)ica y about 20 k(a Sthat has to be o/erco$e in order to start de%or$ing the rubber $ateria and be o.com Page &" .

4 Tuieter o)eration 44 Aser satis%action 54 Eo $aintenance or o.Air Muscles Hu$anoid robot $anu%actured by .ab5 Ani/ersity o% Washington4 At the bio robotic ab o% uni/ersity o% Washington the i$b as sho-n %igure -as de/e o)ed4 The $aOor re7uire$ents o% their research tea$ -ere6 &4 Continuous and e*tended o)eration %or about 8?&0 hours4 24 .-eight .o.robotic co$)any Arti%icia i$bs Arti%icia i$b de/e o)ed at the bio robotics .i ustrates this4 !er in Hu$ani%or$ Air !usc es attached to hu$an hand Techalone.com Page &8 .e/e s o% $aintenance4 To satis%y a the %ore $entioned re7uire$ents to be satis%ied5 a research tea$ $ight s)end years4 3ut )artia y these %eats -ere acco$) ished4 The %igure gi/en be o.hado.

com Page &2 . g.Air Muscles The 'e*terous hands The de*terous hand -as de/e o)ed by the .hado.by using on? board s$a siCe interna co$bustion engines4 .robotic co$)any4 The hands o)erate Oust ike hu$an hands -ith %i/e %ingers4 It is )o-ered by 28 Air !usc es4 The siCe is a $ost sa$e as hu$an hands as they c ose y %it into a hu$an hand4 The %igure sho-n i ustrates this %act4 The $usc e can )er%or$ any %unction the hu$an hand )er%or$s4 3esides it is e7ui))ed to s-i/e its %ingers4 It $akes use o% 28 Air $usc es %or these $o/e$ents4 The hu$an hand has 24 $usc es4 The additiona %our in case 'e*terous hands due to the s-i/e ing $otion4 1urther de0elo#"ents The ( eated (neu$atic Air !usc es [((A!s]6 As a resu t gro-ing research in the %ie d o% Air !usc es5 another /ariant ca ed ) eated )neu$atic air $usc es -ere de/e o)ed4 ( eated )neu$atic arti%icia $usc es are strong and ight-eight actuators that )er%or$ /ery -e in )osition contro and other auto$ation and robotic tasks4 They are easy to use5 re7uire no gearing and are easy to connect and re) ace4 A high degree o% )ositioning accuracy is acco$) ished -ith the$ and this Oust by using o%%?the?she % )ressure regu ating ser/o?/a /es together -ith si$) e (I contro techni7ues4 1urther$ore5 they can easi y be $ade to ha/e a so%t touch so as not to da$age %ragi e obOects or to e%%ect a sa%e $an?$achine interaction4 3ecause o% their inherent characteristics ((A!s are suitab e %or )o-ering -a king and running $achines4 Autono$ous $achine o)eration can then be guaranteed in a nu$ber o% -ays5 e.o$e o% the stated ad/antages o% ((A!s are6? Techalone.

Air Muscles A $a*i$u$ dis) ace$ent or stroke o% u) to 50Q o% initia engthM The absence o% %riction and hysteresis5 as o))osed to other ty)es o% (A!4 The ) eated )neu$atic Air !usc es Conclusion #/en though Air !usc es are not ca)ab e o% o%%ering an e*tre$e y -ide range o% o)erations5 but in the case o% arti%icia egs5 hu$anoid robots etc they o%%er a -ide range o% )ossibi ities4 With %urther de/e o)$ents in neura net-orks and sensor e7ui)$ents5 it $ight be )ossib e re) ace an entire i$b %or an a$)utee and %unction nor$a y ike a natura i$b -ou d do4 The on y dra.back ies in de/e o)ing a co$) ete theoretica $ode %or ca cu ating the characteristics such as %atigue etc4 0esearch is a so directed to-ards substituting %or Air -ith nitrogen or other gases %or $a*i$u$ e%%iciency and better da$)ing4 Techalone.com Page 20 .

A htt)6DDeecs4/anderbi t4eduDCI.eatt e5 Washington 28&25 Pleated Pneu"atic Arti&icial Muscles6 Co"#liant 3obotic Actuators 1rank !A23!278 !irk -2125238 5.com Page 2& .D Ooachi$4schroederU/anderbi t4edu !uygun 2rol Center %or Inte igent .yste$s Banderbi t Ani/ersity Eash/i e5 TE5 A.IT#IT 30A.yste$s Banderbi t Ani/ersity Eash/i e5 TE5 A.ue Controller <oachi" %chr9oder= Center %or Inte igent .D 4a>uhiko 4a(a"ura8 Ph*!* Center %or Inte igent .ongkh a5 THAI.9orn :2332-%T8 3onald :A7 HAM B0I<# AEIB#0.Air Muscles 3e&erences (ub ished (a)ers Measure"ent and Modeling o& Mc4ibben Pneu"atic Arti&icial Muscles Ching/Ping Chou 5lake Hanna&ord 'e)art$ent o% # ectrica #ngineering 1T?&0 Ani/ersity o% Washington .AE' 20&&2 [source6 The internet] Techalone.A htt)6DDeecs4/anderbi t4eduDCI.D 39udiger !ill"ann8 !r*/Ing* Industria A)) ications o% In%or$atics and !icrosyste$s Ani/ersity o% 8ar sruhe =TH> 8ar sruhe5 9er$any htt)6DD---iai$4ira4uka4deD !esign and Construction o& An Arti&icial -i"b !ri0en by Arti&icial Muscles &or A"#utees %unton Wongsiri 'e)art$ent o% +rtho)aedic .A htt)6DDeecs4/anderbi t4eduDCI.yste$s Banderbi t Ani/ersity Eash/i e5 TE5 A.urgery (rince o% .#.ongk a Ani/ersity5 Hat Vai5 . 'e)art$ent o% !echanica #ngineering D !u tibody !echanics 9rou) ( ein aan 25 &050 3russe 5 3e giu$ %rank4daerdenU/ub4ac4be !yna"ic Pneu"atic Actuator Model &or a Model/5ased Tor..

t 5ook o& Metallurgy and Material %cience $ P 4hanna 'han)at 0ai (ub ications5 Ee.Uk$itnb4ac4th Arti&icial Muscles6 Actuators &or 5iorobotic %yste"s ?lenn 4enneth 4lute A dissertation sub$itted in )artia %u %i $ent o% the re7uire$ents %or the degree o% 'octor o% (hi oso)hy5 Ani/ersity o% Washington 5&222 1atigue Characteristics o& Mc4ibben Arti&icial Muscle Actuators ?lenn 4* 4lute 'e)art$ent o% 3ioengineering Ani/ersity o% Washington .i$ited5 Ee.D Accounting &or 2lastic 2nergy %torage in Mc4ibben Arti&icial Muscle Actuators ?lenn 4* 4lute 'e)art$ent o% 3ioengineering gk uteUu4-ashington4edu 5lake Hanna&ord 'e)art$ent o% # ectrica #ngineering b akeUee4-ashington4edu Ani/ersity o% Washington .'e hi4 A Te.eatt e5 WA 28&25?2500 b akeUee4-ashington4edu htt)6DDrcs4ee4-ashington4eduD30.eatt e5 WA 28&25?2500 htt)6DDrcs4ee4-ashington4eduD30.% %rinath Tata !c9ra-?Hi (ub ishing Co$)any .'e hi Websites ---4shado-4org4uk ---4br 4-ashington4edu ---4robotstoreuk4co$ ---4kis4uiuc4edu htt)6DDtea$s4ki)r4org htt)6DDbiorobotics4c-ru4edu Techalone.com Page 22 .D 3ooks Ad0anced Mechanics o& %olids .eatt e5 WA 28&25?"262 gk uteUu4-ashington4edu 5lake Hanna&ord 'e)art$ent o% # ectrica #ngineering Ani/ersity o% Washington .Air Muscles (hone6 66?"445?&60&5 1a*6 66?"42&?22&5 #$ai 6 -suntonU$edicine4)su4ac4th %atha#orn -aksanacharoen !echanica #ngineering 'e)art$ent5 8ing !ongkut:s Institute o% Techno ogy Eorth 3angkok5 &5&8 (ibu songkra$ 0d5 3angsue5 3angkok THAI.?25005 1a*6 66?2586?254& #$ai 6 .T.AE' &0800 (hone6 662?2&.

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