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James Kelly Director of Technology November, 2002
Heat Resistant Alloy Welding Carbon Steel versus Stainless Surface Preparation Shielding Gases Cold Cracking versus Hot Cracking Distortion Penetration Fabrication Time Welding Austenitic Alloys Alloys Under 20% Nickel Alloys Over 20% Nickel Age Hardening Alloys 17-4 718 Welding Processes Gas Metal Arc Welding Flux Cored Arc Welding Shielded Metal Arc Welding Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Plasma Arc Welding Submerged Arc Welding Resistance Welding Weld Fillers Suggested Weld Fillers Guidelines for Dissimilar Metal Joints Dissimilar Metal Welds Involving Carbon Steel Schaeffler—de Long diagram (from AvestaPolarit) Heat Resistant Weld Filler Chemistries Heat Resistant Alloy Specifications, Base Metal Weld Filler Specifications & Tradenames, American vs. German Bolts Weld Filler Consumption References
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Bulletin 200 ©2002 Rolled Alloys
Revised November 2002. Issued March 10, 2001
Heat Resistant Alloy Welding is based on Rolled Alloys’ experience and information from suppliers such as AvestaPolarit Welding and Sandvik AB. For additional copies of this pamphlet, contact Marketing Services, FAX +1-734-847-3915 e-mail email@example.com
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Disclaimer Clause: The information in this document represents Rolled Alloys experience and opinions, and is believed to be reliable. However, this material is not intended as a substitute for competent professional engineering assistance which is a requisite to any specific application. Rolled Alloys makes no warranty and assumes no legal liability or responsibility for results to be obtained in any particular situation, and shall not be liable for any direct, special or consequential damages. This material is subject to revision without prior notice.
James Kelly Director of Technology November 26, 2002
stringer beads. and covered in more detail in Bulletin Numbers 201 & 207 for RA330®. E312 should be reserved for weldments to be used near room temperature—never for austenitic heat resistant alloy. Make reinforced. Do not ever preheat. use RA330-04 or RA330-80-15 weld fillers. Keep heat input low. and a DIFFERENT approach than stainless. 211 for RA alloy X. as well as brittle. However. except to dry moisture off of the metal. 209 for RA 353 MA ®. These alloys are all weldable but they do require more shop time. Shallow fillet welds or broad. E309.WELDING AUSTENITIC HEAT RESISTANT ALLOYS Welding heat resistant alloys is touched on in our Bulletin No. A few important rules: 1. Because of its very high Ferrite Number. Do not use AWS E330 weld wire. 3. 2. E312 electrodes are often sold under various tradenames for general shop repair welding and dissimilar metal welds. and Bulletin 120 for RA333® welding products. 205 for 20Cb-3® stainless and 1071 for RA2205 duplex stainless. Corrosion resistant alloy welding is discussed in Bulletins 203. E312 weldments are not suited for high temperature service. 202 for RA 253 MA ®. 1 . as it will be crack sensitive. Do not try to weld RA330 with stainless rods such as E308. Cover or fill in craters. Keep the temperature of the metal between weld passes low. below 212°F (100°C). For RA330 specifically. to prevent them from cracking. Do not weave. 115. flat weld beads tend to crack down the center as they solidify. E312 may make a sound weld in RA330. for alloy AL-6XN®. or carbon steel. or E310 as they are very likely to crack. At red heat E312 welds are very weak. They embrittle severely with exposure above 600°F (1100°C).
shielding gas or surface contamination—this cracking will not occur. i. because of its usual location. Welding higher strength carbon steel requires a somewhat different procedure. Even without hydrogen. To prevent hardening. and first describe some of the differences between welding carbon steels. Welding is essentially a heat treating operation. as far as the steel is concerned.e. CARBON STEEL This book is written assuming the reader understands how to weld ASTM A 36 structural steel (plain low carbon steel). must be fully penetrated. along with manganese. the steel may be pre-heated a few hundred degrees. If the steel near the weld bead hardens. in particular. This is not an issue with A 36 steel. it is subject to hydrogen induced cracking. that it not harden. This is also called “underbead cracking”. In order to keep the weldment from cracking. within a few hours after the weld cools.. and especially when chromium and molybdenum are added. Weld joints in fans. Incompletely welded areas will open up as cracks during normal heat treat thermal cycles. Make full penetration weld joints. this pre-heated steel now has time to transform to some phase other than martensite by the time it reaches room temperature. it is important that it not form martensite on cooling. If there is no source for hydrogen—such as moisture in the flux coating. a hard martensitic zone in the weldment may be unable to withstand impact loading in service. This reduces hardness and internal stresses. Let us back up a bit. along with low hydrogen welding practice. to ensure that the weld does not crack. Then. and welding either stainless or nickel alloys. the potential for hardening during welding increases. Steel in the range of 0.4. we will cover the important differences between stainless (under 20% nickel) and the higher nickel alloys.50% carbon usually requires some preheat. 2 . On cooling.30—0. Incompletely penetrated weld joints are the most common cause of weld failures in high temperature service. As the carbon content increases.
Part 2. stainless normally comes from the mill with a white or bright finish. CARBON STEEL VERSUS STAINLESS Some important differences between welding the carbon or low alloy structural steels and the austenitic stainless and nickel alloys include: A. or crater cracking. Volume 4. must be clean and free of any black scale from hot rolling. including required post-weld heat treatments. Fabrication Time. is in the Welding Research Council bulletin 191. This scale is thought to provide additional environmental protection at red heat.1 Structural Welding Code. melts at a lower temperature. such as manganese and silicon. A so-called “mill finish” is a layer of blue-black oxide. Iron oxide. This is usually a crack down the center of the weld bead. on the metal surface. Alloy steels such as 4130 may require preheat in the 300—450°F range. and 4140 350—500°F. The higher preheats are suggested for thicker sections.Preheat and interpass temperatures in the 200—400°F range cover most medium carbon steels. A higher manganese weld filler is suggested in such cases. 3 . with a required post-weld heat treatment range of 1150— 1350°F. Eighth Edition. plate with the mill hot rolling scale intact. One can see this in a steel mill when a large ingot is removed from the soaking pit for forging—the molten scale literally drips off of the white hot steel. March 1978. though. Shielding Gases C. to reduce these surface iron oxides back to metallic iron. by contrast. Surface Preparation B. or scale. than does the steel itself. Penetration F. ASTM A 387 Grade 11 preheat may range up to450°F. Stainless steel. High sulphur free-machining steels. may also be subject to solidification cracking. Distortion E. red rust and even paint. More detail. This subject is covered well in the AWS Welding Handbook. air cool. do prefer “black plate”. Of course. Some pre. Surface Preparation When fabricating carbon steels it is common practice to weld right over scale. such as the AISI 11xx and 12xx series. A few users of heat resistant alloys. A.and post-heats are given in the ANSI/AWS D1. or “scale”. The resultant Mn-Si slag floats to the weld surface. forging or annealing operations. 2500°F (1371°C)1. Carbon steel weld fillers normally contain sufficient deoxidizing agents. Cold cracking vs Hot Cracking D. that is.
subject to cracking in service. One exception to this high CO2 prohibition is when using flux cored wire. . ENiCrFe-3. such as 400 alloy (Monel® . These are suitable with carbon or low alloy steel welding wire but far. UNS N04400). Any higher carbon will reduce the metal’s corrosion resistance if welded.Stainless steel melts at a lower temperature than does its chromium oxide scale. to minimize the hard martensitic layer on the steel side. With SMAW a weld of sorts can be made. Metallic zinc paint is a common way to protect structural steel from corrosion.k. E309 electrodes are commonly used but may leave a hard layer on the steel side. . heavy spatter. A fine gas for carbon steel but absolutely not for stainless. . 4 . Also the very high nickel alloys. the best weld fillers for this particular joint. or commercially pure nickel 200/201. as the coating fluxes away most of the scale.” and then learn that the shielding gas used was 75%Ar 25%CO2.03% and sometimes less than 0. far too oxidizing for use with stainless or nickel alloys. are sensitive to weld cracking from the sulphur in grease. on both sides of the joint. MIG) carbon steel the shielding gases are usually 95% argon 5% oxygen. . Alloy 62 bare wire. and the stainless weld filler chemistry is not capable of reducing this scale back to metallic chromium. or alloy 82 bare wire. 75% argon 25% CO2 (carbon dioxide) or 100% CO2. or stick to. clouds of red smoke are coming off when I weld your 310. Keep inorganic zinc paint away from any austenitic alloy! B. Consider completing all stainless welding before painting the structural steel in the area. either stainless or nickel alloy. mill scale. . free of all rust. It is not unknown to hear the complaint “. ERNiCr-3. That is because in this dissimilar metal joint it is necessary to grind that carbon steel to bright metal. Both those stainless and high nickel alloys which are designed for corrosion resistance are produced to very low carbon contents. ERNiCrFe-5. a scaled piece of stainless. . Even a small amount of that zinc paint overspray on stainless or nickel alloy will cause the metal to crack badly when welded. grease and paint. As a result. Shielding Gases For gas metal arc welding (a. Incidentally.01% carbon. For this reason it is necessary to clean these alloys thoroughly of all traces of grease and oil before welding. The need to clean or grind down to bright metal is more likely to cause trouble when stainless is being joined to carbon steel. and ENiCrFe-2 covered electrodes are also appropriate.a. less than 0. are alloy 182 covered electrode. Some of these cored wires are specifically formulated to run best with 75%Ar 25%CO2. with gas shielded processes it is difficult to get the weld bead to even “wet”.
A very small amount of CO2. it is for “MAG” welding. Short-circuiting arc welding generally requires the 75%Ar 25%He mix. tends to stabilize the arc (prevents arc wander). C. The heat resisting alloy RA 602 CATM requires a nitrogen addition to the shielding gas to avoid hot cracking.. or stress relief. is also applied to some steels. molybdenum. and the resulting cracking. Two proprietary gases from Air Liquide.Stainless and nickel alloys have been GMAW spray-arc welded with 100% argon. but a 90%He 7 1/2%Ar 2 1/2%CO2 “tri-mix” is commonly used. Cold Cracking versus Hot Cracking Carbon steel weldments may harden. Stress relief 1100-1200°F (600650°C) as applied to carbon steel is only partially effective with stainless or nickel alloys. are more likely when the steel contains over 0.25% carbon. The potential for carbon pick-up from the CO2 is not an issue when welding heat resistant alloys. With plate it may be necessary to grind starts and stops to minimize lack of fusion defects. by increasing emissivity of electrons from the work surface. such as manganese. and from Linde Gas AG in Europe. although it will not give a true spray-arc. Metal Active Gas. High hardness. or for certain applications . Hydrogen pickup from moisture in the air causes underbead cracking in steels that harden as they cool from welding. Short-circuiting arc welding is used for sheet gages. Strictly speaking. a patented gas available from AGA and HOLOX in the USA. are designed specifically for stainless and nickel alloy GMAW. Alloying elements which increase hardenability. 5 . This is an argon-based gas with significant nitrogen. etc. can make steels of lower carbon content also harden. and may be damaging to the aqueous corrosion resistance. as they cool from welding. it is not necessary to preheat stainless. which helps to burn away that oxide. and crack. chromium. To prevent such cracking the steel is usually preheated before welding. to retard the cooling rate of the weld and avoid martensite formation. Weldability may be greatly improved by adding from 10 to 20% helium. A helium addition provides a little hotter arc. So. The weldability of stainless steel is impaired by the stable oxide film which exists on the metal. can be positively harmful. 75% argon 25% helium is used. It is required for gas metal arc welding RA 602 CA. The recommended gas is CRONIGON® HT. ArcalTM 121 and BlueShield TM 20. At this lower level of argon. nor to post weld heat treat it. Austenitic stainless and nickel alloys do NOT harden no matter how fast they cool from welding. Postweld heat treatment. in European terminology. arc transfer somewhat resembles globular transfer. As a matter of fact preheating stainless. Carbon dioxide helps reduce “arc wander”. and small additions of active gases. about 1% or less. beyond what may be necessary to dry it. CRONIGON HT may also be used for other highly alloyed heat resistant grades.
Stainless steel welds generally do not crack unless contaminated. This means the welding heat tends to remain concentrated. not a cold crack. or heavy sections. This is a hot tearing (solidification cracking). The faster a nickel alloy weld freezes solid. hence minimize distortion. the less time it spends in the temperature range where it can tear. Stainless also expands with heat about half again as much as does carbon steel. Back step welding is also helpful. Distortion2. as well 1 6 4 7 3 8 5 9 2 6 . such as A 36 structural steel. Welds should be sequenced about the ne utral axis of the fabrication to balance welding stresses. only about one fourth that of plain carbon steel. That is. The combination of these two factors means that stainless or nickel alloy fabrications distort significantly more than similar designs in carbon steel. D. rather than spread out. For this reason preheating. the weld bead tears rather than stretching. as it permits more opportunity for hot tearing to occur. Tacks should be done in sequence.3 Stainless steel has poor thermal conductivity. This may be from a surface smear of zinc or copper. Among other things. as the weld bead contracts upon solidifying. is actually harmful. High nickel alloys are susceptible to cracking in restrained joints. This hot tearing/hot cracking has nothing to do with hardness. less commonly by aluminum. tack welds need to be more closely spaced in stainless or nickel alloy welds. which slows down the cooling rate.
the plate edges close up 1 2 3 4 5 Weld runs should be done symmetrically about the joint's center of gravity to balance stresses 12 8 4 1 3 6 9 7 11 5 2 10 Double V .If the tacks are simply done in order from one end.joint 1 4 3 2 Flange to cylinder 7 .
Inc reasing welding current will not solve the problem! Stainless. single or double beveled. maybe even three times as long. so that the weld metal may be placed in the joint. Fabrication Time Cleanliness. A good carbon steel shop encountering stainless or nickel alloys for the first time can easily spend twice as long. with a root gap. Penetration The arc will not penetrate a stainless nearly as deeply as it will carbon steel. Lack of weld penetration is the single most important reason why austenitic alloy weldments fail in high temperature service. 8 . maintaining low interpass temperatures and even machining add up to more time spent fabricating stainless than carbon steel. F. as in carbon steel. Penetration is even less in high nickel alloys. as it would the same job in carbon steel.6 times as long to complete the same fabrication in stainless. and especially nickel alloy. to do the stainless fabrication. distortion control measures.Back step welding helps reduce distortion 3 2 1 E. joints must be more open. A shop experienced with stainless may require 1.
WELDING AUSTENITIC ALLOYS The fundamental problem to be overcome in welding austenitic nickel bearing alloys is the tendency of the weld to hot tear upon solidification. Whatever phosphorus comes from the raw materials. to about 1/10%. over about 20% nickel. Low silicon.5% in 347 stainless. Foremost among these is to use high purity raw materials in the manufacture of weld fillers. must be kept below 0. in particular. A low level of columbium. mostly from the iron. is harmful. is desirable. The one welding electrode specifically using high carbon to promote sound welds is the heat resistant grade RA330-80-15 (UNS W88338). In these stainless grades the weld metal composition is adjusted. The amount of ferrite in the weld may be measured magnetically. Carbon is slightly elevated in 310 weld fillers. when feasible. These elements are chiefly phosphorus. Sulphur is easily removed by the AOD refining process. 9 .85% carbon permits this electrode to make sound welds in both wrought and cast 35% Ni high silicon heat resistant alloys. columbium (niobium). 2% Mo contributes to 316 as being the most weldable of the stainless steels. A weld deposit chemistry of some 0. sulphur. This matter is readily handled in alloys under about 15% or so nickel. silicon and boron. Manganese ranges from about 2% in AWS E310-15 covered electrodes to 5% in RA330-04 wire & electrodes and 8% in alloy 182 (ENiCrFe-3) covered electrodes. will end up in the weld wire. Certain alloy additions such as manganese. In higher nickel grades. usually by slightly higher chromium and reduced nickel. Molybdenum isn’t necessarily added specifically for weldability but it does enhance the properties of RA333-70-16 covered electrodes. Therefore other means of minimizing hot cracking must be used. molybdenum and carbon serve in one way or another to reduce the austenitic propensity for weld hot cracking. Phosphorus cannot be removed from stainless steel by current refining methods.015% in the weld wire itself. FN. This ferrite acts to nullify the effects of the elements responsible for hot cracking in the Ni-Cr-Fe austenitics. to form a small amount of ferrite upon solidification. whereas 2 to 4% columbium is quite beneficial in many nickel base weld fillers. Phosphorus. and is reported as a Ferrite Number. such as the 0. it is metallurgically impossible to form any measurable amount of ferrite. High molybdenum may be responsible for the popularity of the various “C type” electrodes (15Cr 15Mo balance Ni) in repair welding.
With respect to welding there are some distinctions between those alloys intended for use above 1000°F (540°C). In both classes of material. or tying it up with a stabilizing element (Cb or Ti) is necessary to prevent heat affected zone (HAZ) intergranular corrosion and polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking (PASCC) due to carbide precipitation. Restriction of carbon. In the absence of a wet corrosive environment a little intergranular carbide precipitation is not particularly harmful. RA310. Usually this point is addressed in fabricating corrosion resistant alloys. as dilution of the weld bead with nickel f rom the base metal eliminates this ferrite. and those meant for aqueous corrosion service. where a higher alloy weld filler is often used. 321.010% carbon for good hot strength. crevices are where carbon (soot) can deposit. Serious aqueous corrosion can begin in crevices. RA309. ALLOYS UNDER 20% NICKEL Most austenitic grades containing less than 20% nickel are joined with weld fillers that utilize perhaps 4-12 FN (Ferrite Number) to ensure weldability. 10 . For either heat or corrosion resistant alloys. Wrought heat resistant alloys with 20% or less nickel include 304H.2%. All save RA310 depend upon some level of ferrite in the weld bead to prevent solidification defects. The weld filler must also have the mechanical and environmental resistance required for its intended service. 316L or carbon steel base metal. is an important one to remember. which require high purity weld fillers. and typically much lower. and the high nickel alloys. incompletely penetrated welds and open crevices must be avoided in fabrication design. and pry the joint apart like tree roots in rock. They may have small additions of columbium or titanium.4% carbon. such as ER320LR. Corrosion resistant grades are generally limited to 0. In high temperature carburizing service. RA 253 MA.The distinction between the lower nickel stainless grades. One difference is in carbon content.0. which depend upon ferrite to ensure weldability. It is even less often considered in repair of high temperature alloy fixturing.03% carbon maximum. may be not quite so crack resistant when contaminated by phosphorus from use on cast alloy 20 (CN-7M). while RA330HC belt pin stock and the cast heat resista nt alloys have a nominal 0. Heat resistant alloys by contrast typically require 0. Most ferrite containing (stainless) weld fillers are useless with nickel alloy base metal.04 . weldability alone is not the entire issue. grow. It is sometimes overlooked in heat resistant alloy fabrication. RA 602 CA is even higher. Likewise a high purity nickel alloy weld filler. near 0.
RA 602 CATM. usable only with direct current. sulphur. and HR-160 may be treated in similar fashion with appropriate weld fillers. Such electrodes have good welder appeal. Many nickel alloys are joined with matching composition weld fillers. Heats on the high side of silicon and phosphorus were a problem to weld (Rolled Alloys had traditionally limited silicon in RA310 to 0. Not surprisingly. RA310 stands in an odd position between the stainless and the nickel alloys.50% silicon in the ASTM/ASME specifications. RA333®. 600. 803. Haynes alloys HR-120. become increasingly important to ensure the soundness of fully austenitic welds. An E310-16 AC/DC electrode is a poor choice for welding 310 base metal. the preferred choice in E310 covered electrodes are the DC lime-type electrodes. then.030% phosphorus maximum. The covered electrodes used to weld stainless steel are almost invariably AC/DC titania coated. silicon and boron.Ferrite does a good job of ensuring sound weldments. alloy X (UNS N06002). high carbon. The lime coating tends to ameliorate the effects of impurities such as phosphorous. designated either –16 or –17.015% maximum. Neither do they contain any particular alloy addition for weldability. In the past it was possible for 310S (UNS N031008) base metal to contain as much as 1.75% maximum as well. With the advent of 310H (UNS S31009). L605. ASTM limited silicon to 0. Because 310 is a difficult alloy to weld. RA310 welds contain no ferrite—see page 28. 188. The cobalt alloys N155. In practice all 310 varieties now melted in North America have less than 0. Cleanliness includes NOT using oxygen additions to the GMAW shielding gases for nickel alloys. Welding technique and attention to cleanliness. Such chemistry modifications are rarely as effective as is the use of ferrite in the lower nickel stainless weld fillers. RA 353 MA ®. and Nimonic® 75. Not so with a titania coating. 556. 601.75% Si. 310 welds have a reputation for fissuring. RA330®. and run exceptionally well when direct current is used. convex stringer beads and low interpass temperature. Titanium may be added for deoxidation. This is too high. 11 . The current AWS specification for ER310 weld wire permits 0.75% max). columbium or molybdenum to improve resistance to fissuring and hot cracking. Techniques include reinforced. Other nickel weld fillers contain manganese. 230 and 214. modified only by restrictions on phosphorus. For ER310 welding wire to be of practical use the phosphorus must be kept under 0. ALLOYS OVER 20% NICKEL Heat resistant alloys in this category include RA800H/AT. which is of some benefit to weldability. 617.
It is strengthened by a four hour aging (precipitation hardening) treatment. 17-4PH is normally sold in the annealed condition. electrode positive. the stainless weld bead. Shops accustomed to stainless welding need to remember to switch to direct current. with no ferrite at all. treatments in the 950 to 1025°F range are often used.) depends upon a small amount of deposited ferrite to ensure a sound weld. Without ferrite. Light gage 17-4PH may be welded in the annealed condition. and less likely to crack from welding stresses. When a stainless rod is deposited on a high nickel base metal. So after welding. Normally one uses Reverse Polarity. While stainless steel welding electrodes are usually AC/DC titania. When making welds in heavy cross-sections. But since “annealed” 17-4PH is really untempered martensite. For this reason it runs well. and tends to be readily accepted by welders. The heat of welding will leave some zone of the base metal in the annealed condition. Stainless steel (308. This is followed by a post-weld precipitation hardening treatment of 4 hours. it is generally best to first age the metal to condition H-1100 or H-1150. It may be possible for that additional nickel to make the weld bead fully austenitic. AGE HARDENING ALLOYS The two age hardening (also called precipitation hardening) alloys to be covered here are 17-4PH® stainless. to calculate ferrite number. and the nickel alloy 718. already typically a little high in phosphorus. Usually we think of “annealed” as meaning soft and ductile. typically about Rockwell C30. any matching 17-4PH filler metal will be in the annealed condition. the fabrication should again be aged for 4 hours.It is worth repeating here that high nickel alloys cannot be reliably welded using stainless steel weld fillers. the resultant weld bead will include some nickel from the base metal. Temperature should be in the range of 950 to 1150°F. to regain strength and ductility in the weld area. Annealed 17-4PH isn’t especially hard. RA333-70-16 is an exception among the high nickel electrodes. For heavy sections. having an AC/DC titania coating. See the diagram on page 28. 17-4PH metallurgy and welding 17-4PH is a low-carbon martensitic stainless steel. 12 . it has very low ductility and notch impact strength. nickel alloy covered electrodes are often produced with a lime-type DC coating. Likewise. workpiece negative. that is. and to pay attention to polarity. may crack down the center. This makes the base metal more ductile. 309. etc.
H 1025. In practice. UNS S17480. the structure is untempered martensite that has low fracture toughness and ductility.4 E630. most 17-4PH fabrications are simply age hardened only. as the weldment cools and contracts. with poor resistance to stress-corrosion cracking. it would be preferable to give the welded fabrication a 1900°F solution anneal. However that 1900°F treatment becomes quite impractical with a large fabrication. Superior service performance is assured by using 17-4PH in the age hardened condition. AMS 5827. and for cryogenic applications to –320°F.From the strict metallurgical viewpoint. H 1100 H 1150-M * For most applications. Condition A material heated at 1400 ± 25°F for 2 hours. These high nickel fillers have thermal expansion coefficients more closely matching those of the 17-4PH. UNS W37410. This is true even though the desired tensile strength may be provided by that condition. The specifications for matching covered electrodes are AWS A5. Bare welding wire is in AWS A5. H 1075. air cooled. then heated at 1150 ± 15°F for 4 hours and air cooled. Weld Fillers for 17-4PH 17-4PH is welded with fillers similar. after welding.9 ER630. H 925. to the base metal. Condition A material which has been heated at the specified temperature for 4 hours and air cooled. but not identical. and age harden. air cooled or oil quenched to below 90F. Their lower strength and good ductility reduce the welding strains on the base metal. This heat treatment is used for maximum toughness. or solution treatment. Heat treatments for 17-4PH and their designations Designation Condition A* Processing Heated at 1900°F ± 25F for 12 hour. AMS 5826 13 . normally performed by the steel mill. This is the anneal. The preferred fillers are alloy 82 (ENiCrMo-3) bare wire or the covered electrodes 182 (ERNiCrFe-3) and INCO-WELD® A (ENiCrFe-2). 17-4PH should not be used in Condition A. Then cool to room temperature. For dissimilar welds involving 17-4PH stainless fillers such as 309 have been used. While the alloy is relatively soft in Condition A.
then air cool. Strength is achieved by aging at 1325°F for 8 hours. This reduces the strength and toughness of weldments. air cool. fillers such as 625 (ERNiCrMo-3) or Hastelloy W (ERNiMo-3) are sometimes used. For many non-aerospace applications the only heat treatment required after welding is the 1325/1150°F aging. relatively low strength. Cleanliness of both the base metal and the weld wire affect welding this grade. to strengthen the weld bead and base metal near the fusion line. Following this higher temperature solution anneal the normal aging treatment is 1400°F 10hours. Heat input and interpass temperature should be low. This does leave a zone near the weld in an over-aged. fillers such as 625 (ERNiCrMo-3) or Hastelloy W (ERNiMo-3) are sometimes used.a. and remove all oxide film before depositing the next bead. GTAW shielding is commonly argon torch and back-up gas. furnace cool to 1200°F. age hardening) reaction involving columbium. Freshly cleaned 718 may be covered with plastic wrap to maintain cleanliness before welding. A commonly used heat treatment is to anneal 1700-1850°F. 718 may be welded either in the annealed. rapid air cool or quench. hold at 1200°F for a total aging time in the furnace of 18 hours. The effect is more pronounced in plate gauges (over 3/16”) than in sheet. for material up to 1/4” thick. followed by 1325/1150°F age.k. For highly restrained joints where some reduction in weldment strength is permitted. Helium torch and back-up gas is preferred for heavier sections. E-Grade 718 weld wire GTAW wire with thoroughly mechanically cleaned surface is available from stock for critical welding applications. For highly restrained joints where some reduction in weldment strength is permitted. condition. or in the precipitation hardened condition. hold at 1150°F for a total time of 18 hours in the furnace. furnace cool to 1150°F. It is strengthened by a precipitation hardening (a. 14 . 625 offers more strength than alloy W. To maximize the properties of the weldment it is necessary to re-anneal sheet gauges 1700-1850°F. 625 offers more strength than alloy W.718 Metallurgy and Welding 718 is a fully austenitic nickel alloy. Solution annealing 1900-1950°F should re-dissolve the Laves phase and increase the tensile ductility of the weldment. Do not preheat. Make small stringer beads. This is the condition in which 718 normally is provided by the mill or by Rolled Alloys. Weldments in 718 are sub ject to formation of a brittle Laves phase during solidification.
furnace cool to 1200°F. Solution annealing 1900-1950°F should re-dissolve the Laves phase and increase the tensile ductility of the weldment.GTAW shielding is commonly argon torch and back-up gas. and Constant Potential. formerly called TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) and originally trade named Heliarc®. or just plain “stick” welding. is often used in heat resistant alloy fabrication. Two other methods are Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) and Submerged Arc Welding (SAW). for material up to 1/4” thick. WELDING PROCESSES Five different arc welding processes are generally used with heat resisting alloys. The most common. 15 . with covered electrodes. Constant Current. Practically speaking it won’t work for GMAW (MIG) welding. This reduces the strength and toughness of weldments. in North America. The dial regulates voltage. There are two basic types of welding machines. They don’t work well with covered electrodes (SMAW). Next in popularity is Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW). and the current is regulated by this dial. The effect is more pronounced in plate gauges (over 3/16”) than in sheet. Constant Potential (voltage) machines are used for GMAW (MIG) welding. Following this higher temperature solution anneal the normal aging treatment is 1400°F 10hours. The least volume of work is done by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). In addition resistance welding. Helium torch and back-up gas is preferred for heavier sections. is Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW). hold at 1200°F for a total aging time in the furnace of 18 hours. The dial on a Constant Current machine reads in amperes. using spooled bare wire filler. particularly cross wire resistance welding. air cool. and is marked with numbers in the 20-40 range. formerly known as MIG (Metal Inert Gas). A constant current machine is used for GTAW (TIG) and SMAW (stick) welding. Weldments in 718 are subject to formation of a brittle Laves phase during solidification.
89 mm) and 0.035” (0. It can be automated.59 mm) are also stocked. molten weld metal crosses the arc to the work as a fine spray. or short-circuiting arc. characterized by a noisy arc. respectively. there may be feeding problems. CO2 above 5% adds carbon to the low carbon stainless grades. with 75% argon 25% helium shielding. do not use oxygen additions to the gas when welding nickel alloys and NEVER use 75% argon 25% carbon dioxide for GMAW welding either stainless or nickel alloys. at above 15% CO2 in argon the arc transfer mode is no longer spray. For spray-arc welding the most common gas has been 100% argon. spatter. 16 . appropriately.14 mm). usually argon. typically on 25-30 pound (11-14 kg) spools. The GMAW process is fast and well suited to high volume work. The most common size is 0. The result can be a tangle of wire known. and argon shielding is used for the spray-arc transfer mode. The metal is protected from oxidation by a continuous flow of shielding gas.89 mm) wire. direct current reverse polarity). then. This is known as short-arc. their BlueShield TM 20 is a nominal 81% argon 18% helium and 1% carbon dioxide. The manufacturer. Welding with relatively high current. the weld filler metal is bare wire. Current is always Electrode Positive (DCRP. and low heat input. However. Choice of shielding gas is important. ranging from 10 to 15 feet (3 to 4 1/2m) long. The arc between weld wire and workpiece melts the metal. roughly 100 amperes for 0. Wire is fed continuously through a hollow cable to the welding gun. as for welding long tubes. about 190-220 amperes for 0. though 0. but rather a hot globular transfer with a great deal of spatter. proper attention to machine set up will ensure freedom from “bird’s nests”. or as larger globs. To improve bead contour and reduce arc wander. welding. A mix of 75%Ar 25%He is also used. where it makes electrical contact. One such gas from Air Liquide. although the transfer mode will then not quite be a true spray-arc. from 10 to 20% helium and a small amount of CO2 may be added to the argon. First.0625” (1. is often blamed for feeding problems. This shuts down the operation until the welder clears it. For short-circuiting arc transfer 75% Ar 25% He is used. Although very small amounts of CO2 may be used in argon. Molten weld filler transfers as either a spray of fine drops.Gas Metal Arc Welding In this process. In this mode.035” (0. Because the welding wire must be pushed through a cable. through the weld torch and around the wire. as a “bird’s nest”.045” (1. Oxygen above 2% starts burning out major alloying elements. individual drops. The care with which the filler metal is wound on the spool does affect how smoothly the wire feeds.14 mm) wire. more often than not. as is the commonly available 90% He 7 1/2% Ar 2 1/2% CO2 . the molten weld metal transfers as large. At lower current.045” (1.
instead of a 0.g. Rise above the flat surface no more than 1 in. typically has 36 to 42 inch (915 to 1070mm) cast and 1/2 inch (12. there is not enough pressure. inlet guide and outlet guide all clean? Incidentally.. will do the following: 1.Smooth feeding depends on the cast and helix of the spooled wire.7mm) helix. and serrated rolls for flux cored wire. and can handle more heat. When spray-arc welding the tip runs hot.6mm) conduit. for example. Both AWS A5. For 0. (1300mm) in diameter 2.045”/1. Use minimal pressure on the feed rolls—more is not better. When tangling. The following discussion is based on information from Ron Stahura. Adjust the pressure until you just can not hold the wire. ER308. ER316L).045 inch (1. and the wire may swell into the tip and jam it. the more tension in the feed rolls. If you can hold it back. (380mm) in diameter and not more than 50 in. Are the feed rolls. U groove for copper or aluminum. consider using a 1/16 inch (1. or bird’s nest. The oversize conduit won’t hurt. occurs the first thing we suggest is to examine machine set-up. V groove rolls are used with solid stainless/nickel alloy wire. Does this problem occur on more than one machine? How long is the cable—the longer the cable. 17 . Form a circle not less than 15 in.14 for nickel alloy wire require cast and helix of wire on 12 inch (300mm) spools to be4 “such that a specimen long enough to produce a single loop. and A5. The heavy duty tip simply has more copper. and therefore require more care to feed smoothly. A heavy duty contact tip is preferred instead of a standard contact tip. and will give more room for the wire to flex. when cut from the spool and laid unrestrained on a flat surface. Inc. A rule of thumb is to hold the wire between the fingers as it enters the feed rolls. (25mm) at any location” Our RA 253 MA wire.14mm) wire. then give it another half turn beyond that.9 for stainless. Avesta Welding Products.14mm conduit.: Many heat and corrosion resistant alloy weld wires are much higher in strength than stainless wire (e.
and should be left in its sealed plastic bag until ready to use.Gas Metal Arc Welding GMAW. with flux and metal alloy powders inside. Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) 18 . gas shielding may be 75% Argon 25% CO2. Because this wire contains its own flux.a.k. and the arc is “softer”. a. “MIG”) Flux Cored Arc Welding FCAW is similar to GMAW except that the wire used is tubular. even with nickel alloys! The advantage of flux cored wire is greater overall productivity than when solid wire is used. Flux cored wire is sensitive to moisture pickup.
so that the weld bead chemistry will not be the same as the chemistry of the core wire itself. not unless that AC current is turned up so high that the whole electrode glows red and the coating spalls off. but not on AC. the electrode is the positive. This would seem to be very basic knowledge. important when alternating current (AC) is used 3. 4. That is. The additional carbon. and most RA330-04-15 covered electrodes.Shielded Metal Arc Welding Covered welding electrodes consist of an alloy core wire and a flux coating. or Electrode Positive). manganese and chromium required in the weld deposit are added to the flux coating. If the welder attempts to use a DC electrode with an AC (alternating current) setting on the welding machine. The AC/DC titania coated electrodes are designated -16. but not always. affects out-of-position weldability. it will indeed run on DC current. a 35%Ni 15%Cr AWS E330 core wire is used. This means that these electrodes can ONLY be used with direct current. There are three types of coatings used on Rolled Alloys electrodes. The core wire is usually. however. a “-16”. the electrode simply won’t run. These electrodes may be used with 19 . In the case of RA330-80-15 or -16. a “-17”. 2. Normally the current is reverse polarity (DCRP. or. During welding. Coating type is designated by a “-15”. more recently. Provides a gas that shields the metal crossing the arc from oxidation Produces a molten slag which further protects the molten weld bead from oxidation. but every couple of years someone complains that RA330-04-15 “won’t run”. and the workpiece is negative electrical pole of the circuit. DC lime-type coatings are designated -15. these additions melt in and adjust the chemistry of the weld bead to the specified composition. RA333-70-16 and RA330-80-16 both have AC/DC coatings. and controls the bead shape Adds more alloying elements. Often. carbon or chromium Promotes electrical conductivity across the arc and helps to stabilize the arc. Well. That is. Electrons are emitted from the work and go toward the electrode. RA330-04-15 and RA330-80-15 both have DC (Direct Current) lime coatings. similar to the base metal in composition. The electrode coating does four basic jobs: 1. various alloy additions are made in the coating. RA333-70-16 electrodes do use RA333 core wire. He will not be able to keep the arc going. such as manganese.
In carburizing environments. The result will be one form or another of hot corrosion. AC/DC electrodes may also be used with direct current. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding In GTAW. which remains unmelted. This process used to be called TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas). direct current straight polarity. and was originally patented as Heliarc ®. The newer coating designation is -17. they run the best when using DC. DC. reverse polarity (DCRP). For welding aluminum the electrode is pure tungsten. Rare earth oxides are also used. The electrode is usually thoriated tungsten. In fact. Weld repair with RA333-70-16 covered electrodes is best accomplished using direct current. the arc is struck between the workpiece and a tungsten electrode. Remove all slag or flux after welding! If there is any residual weld flux on the fabrication. For both stainless and nickel alloys the current used is DCSP. Rolled Alloys’ experience has been that the flux will promote rapid carburization. that flux will continue to do its job when put into high temperature service. used with AC (alternating current). now Special Metals. a name still used occasionally. which also operates on alternating current. dependent upon the atmosphere. At this writing RA 253 MA-17 is the only electrode we stock with this coating. is brought in through a nozzle or gas cup which surrounds the electrode. Fluoride containing fluxes are wonderful getters for sulphur. hence embrittlement. The work is electrically positive and the tungsten electrode is the negative electrical pole. Residual flux may lead to local sulphidation attack even though the sulphur level is quite low in the surrounding atmosphere. which protects both the hot tungsten electrode and the molten weld puddle. This has been well illustrated in work published by the former Huntington Alloy Products Division. tungsten metal with 1 or 2% thorium oxide added to improve the emissivity of electrons. In carbon and sulphur free oxidizing environments that flux will increase local oxidation rates. 20 . The argon shielding gas. They ha ve compounds of potassium and titanium in the coating which stabilize the arc.alternating current (AC). This means it will not extinguish itself as the current reverses direction (and goes to zero) 60 times a second on normal 60 cycle current (50 cycle in Europe). as well as on direct current. that is.
a wire screen which serves to reduce turbulence of the shielding gas flow. 6 to No. No. This AWS ER330 will make a crack-sensitive weld. and not RA330-04 chemistry. making the arc hotter. The welder has the most control when using gas tungsten arc.5% nitrogen to the argon. The arc between the tungsten electrode and the work is what melts the workpiece. The longer the arc length. Remember—the core wire of RA330-04-15 covered electrodes is AWS ER330.5-12. 7 (11mm) being about right. shielding gas flow rates. 8 cup (9. no more than 1/4 to 3/8 inch (6-9. A helium addition may be used for automated welding. In this particular alloy. 8 (12. 21 . cup size and consider the use of a gas lens.7mm cup dia). The rest of the weld may be built up with either GMAW or SMAW. where a hotter arc is preferred. just like GMAW wire. it is necessary to add 2. and this process makes the best quality weld. The weld filler metal is fed by hand into the molten puddle. In automatic GTAW the wire is fed into the joint from a spool of wire. in 10 pound (4 1/2 kg) tubes. the shielding gas will be just that much more sensitive to atmospheric contamination. GTAW is often used to make the root pass in pipes or whenever the joint can only be made from one side. is a potential cause of porosity. An 1/8 inch (3. Welders sometimes knock the coating off an electrode and use the core wire as GTAW filler. GTAW weld wire for heat or corrosion resistant alloys is sold as 36” (914 mm) straight lengths of bare wire. Argon is used for manual welding. A 3/32” (2. Look at work to tip distance. When using a 2—4% nitrogen addition for welding RA 602CA or some of the corrosion resistant alloys. No oxygen or carbon dioxide can be tolerated or the tungsten electrode would literally burn up. both of which are faster. Consider using a gas lens. For faster welding speed helium is added to the argon shielding gas. nitrogen reduces hot cracking susceptibility. but it is relatively slow. Do not do this with RA330-04-15 or the RA330-80 electrodes. the greater the opportunity to entrain air into the shielding gas. It is this turbulence which causes air to get mixed in with the argon shielding gas. as from strong winds or too long an arc length. For the new heat resistant nickel alloy RA 602 CA.7mm) cup.4mm) electrode should use anywhere from a No.5mm). Gas cup size depends upon what diameter tungsten electrode is being used.Shielding gas is normally pure argon or helium. Minimize the arc length. It may be automated for volume production. without the benefit of the alloying elements which were in the coating.2mm) electrode requires a No. Atmospheric contamination.
045” (1.2 mm) wire is not suggested with nickel heat resistant alloys.4 mm) are generally preferred.k. With plasma arc welding so little filler is used that the weld bead is heavily diluted with base metal and has reduced corrosion resistance due to molybdenum micro segregation. PAW is an excellent welding process for heat resisting alloys.Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW.14 mm) dia. ® Submerged Arc Welding Submerged arc uses a spool of weld wire. a hopper feeds granulated flux into the arc to shield the arc and molten weld puddle. Heat input must be as low as possible. and for this reason 1/8” (3. Absolutely do not use acid fluxes or any flux meant for stainless steel. larger sizes such as 1/16 or 3/32” (1.6 or 2. wire. Instead of shielding gas. such as Avesta Flux 805 or Böhler-Thyssen’s RECORD NiCrW. to maintain corrosion resistance in the weld bead. typically ERNiCrMo -3. For the corrosion resistant alloy AL-6XN . a. and has been used to weld RA330 without added filler (with GTAW this would be extremely difficult). TIG) Plasma Arc Welding The plasma arc torch is roughly analogous to a GTAW torch. much like GMAW. plasma welding is less desirable. A full 2150ºF (1177ºC) anneal is necessary to restore full corrosion resistance in plasma welds of AL-6XN. 22 . This 6% molybdenum grade requires the use of an over-alloyed weld filler.a. It generates intense heat in a very narrow zone. While it is possible to use 0. For nickel alloys such as RA330 a strongly basic flux must be used.
4mm). It is for this reason that 3/32” (2. but this heat must be kept to a minimum to avoid centerbead cracking in fully austenitic alloys. wire is suggested for use with nickel heat resistant alloys.SAW is process naturally inclined to high heat input. rather than 1/8” (3. 23 .2mm).
Likewise cool time should be sufficient that welded areas are not remelted. 24 . to avoid porosity and cracking. and markedly from those used for carbon steel. Electrode force. Average dome radius may be 3 inch (76 mm) for material up to 11 gage (3mm). welding current and time. A restricted-dome electrode is suggested for spot welding. or a sound weld cannot be made. In seam welding heat time should be adjusted to ensure that the wheel maintains pressure until the weld nugget has solidified.Resistance Welding3 Spot and seam welding parameters for heat resistant alloys will differ from those used with stainlesses such as 304L or 316L. For a larger nugget size in material 16 to 11 gage (1. The metal must be clean and free of all grease.6 to 3mm) a 5 to 8 inch (127 to 203mm) radius dome is sometimes preferred. Heat resistance alloys may have twice the yield strength of stainless and considerably higher electrical resistivity. and electrode tip contours may all need to be modified accordingly.
ERNiCrCoMo-1) -- S 6025 6225 Al (SG-. RA 602 CA). RA600. The welds will crack. RA601.. We suggest not using alloy X (ERNiCrMo-2.Suggested Weld Filler Selections Base Metal RA330® RA333® RA 602 CATM Preferred bare wire covered electrodes RA330-04 -RA333 RA330-04-15 RA330-80-15 RA333-70-16 Alternates RA333® .g. Alloy 617 (ERNiCrCoMo-1) welds are strong.NiCr25FeAlY) S 6025 RA333 82 RA 353 MA RA 253 MA RA333 556 6225 Al RA601 RA600 RA 353 MA ® RA 253 MA ® RA800H/AT 182 RA 353 MA RA 253 MA-17 RA333-70-16 -- RA330-04 -RA333. ENiCrFe-2 RA 253 MA-17 RA330-04* E312-16 RA309 RA310 RA446 ER309 ER310 ER309 ER310 E309-16 E310-15 E309-16 E310-15 HK.4627. RA330-04-15 General: Do choose the weld filler for its performance under the expected service conditions. RA333-70-16 ERNiCrCoMo-1 RA330-04 82. HU RA330-80-15 DC lime is the preferred 35% nickel rod for cast heat resistant alloys. RA333. do not use weld fillers with more than 20% nickel Do not use—any stainless weld filler on nickel alloys (e. HT. The X weld bead may be subject to catastrophic oxidation at the higher service temperatures where RA333 is commonly used. on RA330. *Where sulphidation is an issue. ENiCrMo-2) weld fillers on RA333 base metal. EL. but they significantly lack oxidation resistance compared with RA 602 CA for extreme temperature service. as well as for weldability issues. Alternates RA333-70-16. RA82 RA333-70-16 ERNiCrWMo-1 617 (2. 25 . RA 353 MA.
All rust. 602 CA is a new alloy. HP 617A RA330-04 617A RA330-80-15 RA333-70-16 182 RA 353 MA RA 353 MA 182 82 RA 253 MA -RA 353 MA RA330-80-15 S 6025 6225 Al 617A 617A RA333-70-16 RA330-80-15 RA333-70-16 RA330-80-15 RA333-70-16 RA330-80-15 RA330-80-15 RA330-80-15 RA333-70-16 RA333-70-16 -- RA 602 CATM 182 82 RA 253 MA® E309-16 RA600 RA601 RA309 RA310 RA446 82 182 82 182 E309-16 182 E309-16 182 E309-16 E310-15 82 182 82 182 E309-16 ER309 E309-16 E310-15 E309-16 E310-15 82 182 S 6025 6225 Al 82B 182B 82B 182B 82B 182B Note: The carbon steel joint must be ground to bright metal. A “mill finish” is not acceptable. Suggested Weld Filler Guidelines Considerations in selecting a filler metal for a dissimilar metal weld joint include the expected service conditions at the joint. data incomplete Base Metals RA330® RA800H/AT RA333® RA 353 MA® Carbon Steel 182 RA330-04 182 RA333 Stainless (304. A 617 (ERNiCrCoMo-1) lacks the oxidation resistance of RA 602 CA B These high nickel fillers are quite unsuitable for sulphur bearing environments 26 . These suggestions are from experience and general metallurgical knowledge. Nickel alloy weld wire lacks the deoxidation characteristics of carbon steel weld wires.316) RA330-04 RA330-04 RA333 RA 253 MA RA333 RA333 RA330-04 RA 353 MA 617A RA 253 MA RA333 RA333 RA333-70-16 RA333 RA333-70-16 E309-16 RA 253 MA RA 253 MA -E309-16 RA 253 MA-17 RA 602 CA Cast Alloys HK.Dissimilar Metal Joints. and freedom from weld metal hot cracking. HT. relative thermal expansion coefficients of the three metals involved. The final selection should be approved by the end user and weld procedures qualified by the fabricator. blue-black hot rolling scale and paint must be removed before welding with any stainless or nickel alloy weld wires.
The use of high nickel fillers is suggested here as a precaution. The first matter is to ensure that the weld bead remains austenitic. it is important to minimize the thermal expansion mismatch between the stainless/nickel alloy and the carbon steel. In utility boilers life is measured in decades. including armor plate. Both RA330-05-15 DC lime type electrodes. and the covered electrodes 182 or Inco-Weld A® (ENiCrFe-3. ENiCrFe-2). Here standard practice is to use alloy 182 (ENiCrFe-3) covered electrodes to join tube supports and spacers to the chrome-moly steel boiler tubes. where life is measured in years. and does not harden (form martensite). some portion of that weld bead may become an air-hardening martensitic steel. On the carbon steel side of the joint the bead will be diluted by iron. one may use a diagram such as the one below. ENiCrMo-5 covered electrodes) or Inco-Weld 686 CPT (ERNiCrMo-14) to tolerate high iron dilution. or to one or the other type of stress corrosion cracking. Whether any martensite formed. With these 65—72% nickel fillers a very high amount of iron dilution may be tolerated without martensite formation on cooling. A ny weld bead is an alloy of the weld metal. How particular one becomes over these concerns are depends upon the expected life of the equipment. mixed with both base metals. 1. In order to predict the possibility of martensite in the weld.com/template/page_2389. the structures performed well. Commonly that would be alloy 82 bare wire (ERNiCr-3). If enough iron is added to a stainless weld.avestapolarit. a zone of hard martensite remains in the weld.asp-16x 27 . For heat treating equipment. This may be subject to brittle failure under impact.or post-heat. including in battle. It should be noted that tons of alloy steel. have been successfully welded with stainless fillers. 2. One would also expect the corrosion resistant weld fillers such as alloy C-276 (ERNiCrMo-5 wire. and RA333-70-16 AC/DC electrodes have been used quite successfully to join radiant tubes. taken from AvestaPolarit’s web site. Where it is most important that this does not happen. say 600°F for discussion. Regardless of any reasonable pre. that the weld bead remain austenitic and not form martensite. especially for field welding where conditions and joint configurations may be less than ideal.Dissimilar Metal Weldments Involving Carbon Steel There are two fundamental concerns when joining stainless or nickel alloys to carbon steel. Failure is extremely costly. it is almost unheard of to have any failures of alloy components to carbon steel. www. if this joint is to operate at any elevated temperature. muffles and salt pots to carbon steel flanges. the use of a high nickel weld filler is suggested.
and averages out the relative expansion coefficients of the two metals to be joined. the solubility of carbon in 65% nickel is low. that of A 387 Cr-Mo steel 7.9x10-6 inch/inch°F. In addition. approaching that of carbon steel. With covered electrodes a rather sloppy weld to hot rolled carbon steel may be possible. the coefficient of expansion of 304 stainless is 9.4x10-6. 29 . continued Thermal expansion is the second issue. The state of the art in minimizing these problems is to use alloy 182 (ENiCrFe-3) covered electrodes. These weld fillers do not contain the deoxidizing additions present in carbon or alloy steel weld fillers. and a brittle carbide rich zone in the stainless. worth repeating. Possible. This is because the electrode coating will flux away much of the steel scale and rust. With a nominal 65% nickel the expansion coefficient of 182 is relatively low. When the dissimilar metal joint operates at some elevated temperature. but not recommended—grind off all that scale and rust from carbon steel before welding to it with stainless or nickel alloy. Eventually that causes shear failure on the carbon steel side of the joint. The carbon steel must be ground to bright metal on both sides of the joint. reducing the possibility of diffusing carbon away from the Cr-Mo steel. That is. stainless/nickel alloy weld wire cannot be used successfully to weld over the hot rolling scale and rust normally present on carbon steel. The use of ENiCrFe-3 is the best current practice. that means a continual thermal strain in the region of the joint. The thermal expansion coefficient of stainless is roughly 50% greater than that of carbon or alloy steel. for example. This minimizes the thermal strain. With a stainless filler such as E308 or E309. not an absolute solution to the matter. At 600°F. This leaves a thin layer of weak ferrite on the steel side. carbon will diffuse from the steel into the stainless weld bead. There is a third matter.Dissimilar Metal Weldments Involving Carbon Steel. Otherwise the weld bead will not fuse completely to the base metal.
10 0.5 --W ----3 3 --------14 ---Si 0.5 0.1 0.5 25 25 21 21 28 28 23 26 25 25 22 22 19 16 Ni 35 33.2 5.03 0.5 0.5 33.08 0.85 0.18 0.25 0.22 0.8 C 0.05 0.04 Fe 39 43 45 45 17 18 66 65 35 34 61 51 9 10 1.6 0.6 1.5 45 45 10 11 34 35 13 20 63 62 59 52 72 65 Mo ----3 3 --------2 9 --Co ----3 3 ---------12.1 0.5 0.7 3 2.4 0.1 0.RA 353 MA-15 .8 0.6 Mn 5.05 0.8 0.03 0.5 0.309-16 W30910 310-15 W31010 S 6025 N06025 6225 Al -230-W N06231 617 N06617 82 N06082 182 W86182 30 .2 2.Heat Resistant Alloy Weld Filler Metals Grade UNS AWS ----------E309-16 E310-15 ERNiCrFe-12 ENiCrFe-12 ERNiCrWMo-1 ERNiCrCoMo-1 ERNiCr-3 ENiCrFe-3 Cr 19 17.05 0.5 0.9 1.5 33.5 17.8 0.2 0.06 0.10 0.8 0.5 1.85 0.6 0.7 1.5 RA330-04 N08334 RA330-04-15 W88334 RA330-80-15 W88338 RA330-80-16 W88338 RA333® N06333 RA333-70-16 W86333 RA 253 MA ® S30815 RA 253 MA-17 W30816 RA 353 MA ® .5 3 7.5 17.07 0.5 2 7.2 0.5 1.5 0.7 1.02 0.2 1.8 1 1 1.7 0.7 0.
Nr . bar.4893 SA-479 A 479 1.2. strip Bars and shapes Pipe Plate. strip Rod. strip Bar Smlss pipe & tube Welded pipe Welded tube N08330 Plate.4763 SB-168 B 168 . sheet.4816 SB-166 B 166 5665 SB-167 B 167 SB-168 B 168 5870 2.sheet. sheet. forgings.4833 SA-479 A 479 1.4845 SA-312 A 312 -A 176 .1. sheet.4886 SB-511 B 511 5716 -B 512 SB-535 B 535 SB-710 B 710 -B 739 -B 546 -B 168 .1.4833 SA-312 A 312 SA-240 A 240 5521 1. strip Bars and shapes Pipe Plate. sheet Rod. strip Rod and bar Smlss pipe & tube Plate.4854 SA-479 A 479 SA-312 A 312 SB-409 B 409 . sheet. sheet.(1.4851 SB-166 B 166 --5715 SB-167 B 167 31 .1.4633 -B 166 SA-240 A 240 . EN RA330® RA 602 CATM RA 253 MA ® N06333 Plate.4608 -B 719 5717 -B 722 -B 723 -B 726 SB-536 B 536 5592 1.-SB-408 B 408 .4835 SA-312 A 312 SA-249 A 249 ASME Code Case 2033-1 SA-240 A 240 .Heat Resistant Alloy Specifications alloy RA333® UNS Product Form ASME ASTM AMS W. wire Bar. strip Plate.wire S30815 Plate. strip Bars & shapes Billets & bars Smlss pipe & tube Welded pipe Welded tube Fusion weld pipe N06025 Plate. bar. sheet.1.rings Smlss pipe & tube RA 353 MA ® RA800H/AT N08811 (N08810) S30908 RA309 RA310 S31008 RA446 RA600 S44600 N06600 RA601 N06601 -B 718 5593 2. wire Smlss pipe & tube Plate. sheet. strip Rod.4876) SB-407 B 407 SA-240 A 240 . strip Bars and shapes Pipe Plate. sheet. bar.4845 SA-479 A 479 5651 1.2. strip Bars and shapes Pipe Welded tube S35315 Plate. sheet.
--------ERNiCrMo-2 ERNiCrFe-11 -ERNiCrFe-12 -ENiCrFe-12 -ERNiCrCoMo-1 ENiCrFe-2 ERNiCrFe-5 ERNiCr-3 43 ENiCrFe-3 43 ERNiCr-6 W. N08334 W88334 N06333 W86333 N06002 N06601 --N06617 W86113 N06062 N06082 W86182 N06076 AWS ----A5. American versus German Grade RA330-04 RA330-04-15 RA333 RA333-70-16 Alloy X 601 S 6025 6225 Al 617 Inco-Weld ® A 62 82 182 80-20 UNS No.4613 -2.4649 -2. --2.11 A5.11 A5.11 “ Classification ASME F No.Weld Filler Specifications & Tradenames. Nr.4608 -2.4806 2.4951 DIN Designation --NiCr26MoW -SG-NiCr21Fe18Mo -SG-NiCr25FeAlY EL-NiCr25FeAlY SG-NiCr22Co12Mo -SG-NiCr20Nb EL-NiCr16FeMn NiCr 20Ti 32 .14 “ “ A5.14 A5.4627 -2.14 “ A5.4620 2.
RA330® alloy threaded rod. What appear to us as insufficiently conservative alloy selection suggestions are offered by the Industrial Fasteners Institute as7: Below 450°F (230°C). Molten copper alloys will embrittle or eat holes through any austenitic alloy they touch. is sometimes suggested but its temperature capability may be limited to about 1000F (540C). Bolted connections are often difficult or impossible to disassemble after high temperature exposure. This will calcine to magnesium oxide. in various bar sizes. From 900 to 1200°F (480 to 650°C). 450 to 900°F (230 to 480°C). There are ways to minimize the strength of this bond. One of the reasons is that a chromium oxide scale forms on the alloy. Never. Zinc or galvanized coatings embrittle austenitics and can also embrittle steel bolts at moderately elevated temperatures. www. Above 1150F (620C). so that the assembly is loose once it comes back down to room temperature. quite inert and harmless to heat resistant alloys. ASME bolting design stresses are published though this temperature. If the metal to be clamped expands faster than the bolt. a less expensive age hardening stainless. One is to coat both parts with magnesium hydroxide. low alloy steel. A-286. This oxide tends to bond male and female threads together. Above 1200°F up to 1600°F (650 to 870°C). The magnesia simply acts as a parting compound. The most common alloy choice for applications up to 1150°F (620°C) is RA718. Another approach is to use a braze stop-off. For example. If some of tha t copper gets carried into an area where the metal is operating above 1981°F (1083°C) it will melt. At high temperatures relaxation is the primary limitation to the use of threaded fasteners to maintain a clamping load. such as one of those available from Wall Colmonoy Corporation. A good discussion of fasteners in the chemical process industry has been presented by Robert Smallwood6. commonly available from the local drug store as Phillips® Milk of Magnesia. that expansion will add to the tensile load in the bolt and may stretch it. nuts and washers are used to assemble high temperature equipment where loose joints are desired to accommodate thermal expansion & contraction during thermal cycling.Bolts—another means of joining heat resistant alloys Bolts are commonly used at elevated temperature to withstand a shear load. NEVER use anti-seize compounds containing copper anywhere near high temperature equipment. to about 1400-1500°F (760-816°C) the choices narrow down to René 41® or WASPALOYTM.com. More of this high temperature bolting experience has been with WASPALOY. Some cautions. A-286 is not so readily available as is 718. and the alloy from which the bolt is made. 33 . In addition to selecting a strong bolt material it is important to look at the relative expansion coefficients of the alloy to be clamped. even without melting the zinc (melting point 787°F/419°C). one of the grades in ASTM A 193. Rene 41 or WASPALOY. an age hardening nickel base alloy. A286 and 718 .colmonoy.
032 0. APPROXIMATE WEIGHT.064 0.90 2.73 1. GTAW WIRE REQUIRED (B) 0. inch WELD METAL DEPOSITED PER LINEAL FOOT WITH REINFORCEMENT 0.15 0.83 COVERED ELECTRODES REQUIRED.00 0.58 1.55 2.12 1.038 0.26 0.80 0. PER FOOT (A) 0.94 0.65 GMAW.90 1.60 0.77 0.61 0.32 1.23 1.95 1.144 0.85 0.53 1.63 3.085 0.29 0.Weld Filler Consumption Filler metal requirements range from about 2-1/2 to 5 percent of the weight of plate involved in a fabrication.34 0. IN POUNDS.73 1.52 0.16 SINGLE FILLET 1/8 3/16 1/4 3/8 1/2 5/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 1/2 5/8 3/4 1 "V" GROOVE DOUBLE "V" GROOVE (A) Assumes 50% deposition efficiency (B) Assumes 85% deposition efficiency 34 .7 1. OF JOINT DESIGN PLATE THICKNESS.62 0.43 0. Estimated weight of covered electrodes and spooled wire for various joint configurations is given below.072 0.13 0.03 1.37 0.
Philadelphia.S. Castro & J. ISBN 0 -87171-543-0.14/A5. T.S.A. ed. Florida. Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams. Trademarks 353 MA and 253 MA area registered trademarks of AvestaPolarit 602 CA is a trademark of ThyssenKrupp VDM INCO-WELD is a registered trademark of Special Metals. 1505 East Ohio Building. ANSI/AWS A5. Bailey. 5. J. Sandvik AB. ISBN 0 521 20431 3. Inc.E. ISBN 0-9624382-0-0. as: Métallurgie du soudage des aciers inoxydables et résistant à chaud.S. Patterson & K. 1989 9. Volume 1. 161. Specification for Nickel and Nickel-Alloy Bare Welding Electrodes and Rods. Smallwood.14M-97. Pennsylvania 19103 USA. Fastener Problems in the Process Industry . 1717 East Ninth Street. Thaddeus B. Ohio 44114 U.W. Welding Metallurgy of Stainless and Heat-resisting Steels. 1900 Arch Street. Cleveland.F. 35 . Inf. Sweden June. ed. Fastener Standards.34 E.G.J. Ball.References 1.A. The Welding Institute. March 1982 AWS 8. Sandviken. Texas 10. 1968. available from: Industrial Fasteners Institute. 1977 4. Mahin. E. Editor-in-Chief. ISBN 0-87170-262 American Society for Metals. R. The best general reference we know for welding this class of materials is: R. Houston. Nippes & D. R. Sandvik publication 0. Avesta Welding AB. 8901. Welding Research Supplement. NACE. American Welding Society. Ohio. 6th Edition. Avesta handbook for the welding of stainless steel. Cambridge University Press. Corrosion 91 Paper No.A. Resistance Welding Manual . Resistance Welder Manufacturers’ Association. 1975.J. 1986 6. Paris. SANDVIK Welding Handbook. Metals Park. Massalski. 4th Edition. pp31-40. N. First published. Sweden 1989 3. Miami. Solidification Cracking of Austenitic Stainless Steel. Copper-Contamination Cracking: Cracking Mechanism & Crack Inhibitors.A. in French. pp75-s to 81-s. by Dunod.. 1986 2. Weldability of Materials. U. Welding Dissimilar Metals. ISBN: 0-87170-401-3 ASM International 1990 7. U. S-74401 Avesta. de Cadenet. Gooch. Berthold Lundqvist.
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