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‹dk
ajr,mrsm;ukd odr;f ykud x
f m;jcif;
&cdi
k jf ynfe,f/ rGejf ynfe,fEi
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&Srf;jynfe,fawmifydkif; ytkd0f;e,fwdk‹ Y ajr,modrf;,lr+rsm;

&cdik jf ynfv;kH qdik &f m ausmif;om;ESihf vli,frsm; tpnf;t&k;H (AASYC)
ytkd0f;vli,f tpnf;t&kH; (PYO)
wdk;wufaomrGefvli,ftpnf;t&kH; (MYPO)
wdk‹rS tpD&ifcH wifjyonf?
u|Ekfyfwkd‹.
ajr,mrsm;ukd odrf;ykdufxm;jcif;
&cdkifjynfe,f/ rGefjynfe,fESifh
&Srf;jynfe,fawmifydkif; ytkd0f;e,fwdk‹ Y ajr,modrf;,lr+rsm;

2009 ck E S p f / rwf v

tk y f a &? ? 500

atmuf y gtzG J @ tpnf ; rsm;rS xk w f a 0jzef @ csd o nf ?
&cd k i f j ynf v H k ; qd k i f & m ausmif ; om;ES i f h vl i ,f r sm;
tpnf;t&kH; (AASYC)
P. O Box -135
Maesot, Tak Province 63110
Thailand
E-mail: aasyc.ghq@gmail.com
Phone: +66 (0) 55 506 618

ytk d 0 f ; vl i ,f tpnf ; t&k H ;
(PYO)
P. O Box -134
Maesot, Tak Province 63110
Thailand
E-mail: pyohq@yahoo.com
Phone: +66 (0) 55 533 115

wd k ; wuf a om rG e f v l i ,f tpnf ; t&k H ;
(MYPO)
P. O Box -26
Sankhlaburi, Kanchanaburi Province 71240
Thailand
E-mail: mypo_office@yahoo.com,
Phone: +66 (0) 34 595 614
rmwd u m

tpD & if c H p ma&;om;ol r sm;ta=umif ;
1? ed ' gef ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (1)
2? wif j yyH k e nf ; pepf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (1)
3? tpD & if c H p m tusOf ; csKyf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (2)
3? 1? jrefrmEdkifiH. aemufcHordkif;tusOf; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (2)
3? 2? avhvmcJhaome,fajrrsm;. aemufcHordkif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (4)
4? jref r mEk d i f i H t ES H @ tjym;rS m ppf w yf r sm; wd k ; csJ @ csxm;jcif ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(7)
4? 1? ppfwyfrsm;tESH@tjym; wdk;csJ@csxm;jcif;ESifh wdkuf&dkuf tusKd;qufrsm; . . . . . . . . . . (7)
4? 2? ppfwyfrsm;csxm;jcif;ESifh ajrodrf;jcif;. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(11)
4? 3? ppfwyfrsm;csxm;jcif;ESifh vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azgufr_rsm;. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (16)
4? 3? 1? twif;t"rR vkyftm;apcdkif;jcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (17)
4? 3? 2? jrefrmZmwfoGif;jcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(20)
4? 3? 3? vdifr_qdkif&m &rf;um;r_rsm;ESifh rk'drf;r_rsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (21)
4? 3? 4? ppfwyfxJodk@twif;tusyfqGJoGif;jcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(22)
5? ajrod r f ; jcif ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(23)
5? 1? pm;usufajrrsm;udk odrf;jcif;. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (23)
5? 2? tdrfeD;csif;wdkif;jynfrsm;odk@ ajymif;a&$@oGm;=ujcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(24)
5? 3? obm0ywf0ef;usif xdcdkufysufpD;r_ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(26)
5? 4? a'oqdkif&mvkyfief;rsm; csKyfcs,fuef@owfcH&jcif;ESifh toufarG;0rf;ausmif;
vkyfief;rsm;qHk;&_H;jcif;. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(29)
6? jref r mh a jr,mOya'ES i f h Ed k i f i H w umOya' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (30)
7? jref r mEd k i f i H . zG H @ òzd ; a&;pD r H u d e f ; rsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (32)
8? avh v mawG @ &S d & aom vuf a wG @ jzpf & yf r sm;. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (35)
9? ed * H k ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (43)
10? t}uH ð ywif j ycsuf r sm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (43)
11? tzG J @ tpnf ; rsm;. aemuf c H t a=umif ;
(AASYC/ PYO/ MYPO). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(45)
aus;Zl ; wif v T m

yxrOD;pGm TtpD&ifcHpmudk yl;wGJa&;om;=uonfh tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;jzpfaom &cdkifjynfvkH;qkdif&m
ausmif;om;ESifh vli,frsm; tpnf;t&kH; (AASYC) / wdk;wufaomrGefvli,f pnf;t&kH; (MYPO) ESifh
ytk0d ;f vli,ftpnf;t&k;H (PYO) wd@k taeESihf aiGa=u;tultnDay;cJah om (Voluntary Service Over-
seas_VSO) ES i f h uG i f ; qif ; ppf w rf ; aumuf o l r sm;tm; aus;Zl ; wif & S d a =umif ; az: jyvd k y gonf ?
TtzGJ@tpnf;ESifh yk*~dKvfwdk@.tultnD/ tm;wufoa&móud;yrf;r_wdk@om ryg&Sdygu TtpD&ifcHpm
ay:xGufvmEdkifvdrfhrnf r[kwfacs? 'kwd,taeESifh TtpD&ifcHpm a&;om;r_udk }uD;=uyfay;jcif;twGuf
(MYPO) ESifh (PYO) wdk@u (AASYC) udk aus;Zl;wif&Sda=umif; az: jyvdkygonf? wwd,taeESifh
apwemh0efxrf; ulnDolrsm;jzpf=uaom 'rD,if qrD; (Damien Smee)/ rufo,l; qrD; (Matthew
Smee)/ u,fvD puJ&dk; (Kelly Scarrow)/ yrf;*&if; (Pam Green) wdk@tm; txl;aus;Zl;wif&Sdyg.?
olw@kd .wefb;kd &Sad om 0dik ;f 0ef;óud;yrf;r_rsm;onf TtpD&ifcpH mjzpfajrmufa&;twGuf t&if;cHta=umif;
wpf&yfjzpfygonf? xdk@jyif TtpD&ifcHpm yHkESdyfxkwfa0&mY pmapmifyHkpHESifh tqiftjyiftwGuf wm0ef
,lay;=uaom (AASYC) tpnf;t&kH;0ifrsm;. aus;Zl;ðyr_udkvnf; txl;az: jytyfygonf?

tpD & if c H p ma&;om;ol r sm;taMumif ;

&cdkifjynfvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;ESifh vli,frsm; tpnf;t&kH; (AASYC)/ wdk;wufaom rGefvli,f
tpnf;t&kH; (MYPO)ESifh ytkd0f;vli,ftpnf;t&kH; (PYO) wdk@onf jrefrmEdkifiH ausmif;om;ESifh
vli,frsm;uGe*f &uf (Students & Youth Congress of Burma - SYCB) wGif yg0ifaom tzG@J tpnf;
rsm;jzpf=u+yD; 'Dru
kd a&pD&&Sad &;/ vl@tcGit hf a&;&&Sad &;/ ppfreS af om zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if aH wmf
wnfaqmufa&;twGuf aqmif&u G af e=uygonf? TtzG@J tpnf;rsm;onf jrefrmEdik if rH mS Edik if aH &;/ pD;yGm;
a&;/ vlr_a&;ajymif;vJr_rsm;jzpfay:a&; &nfrSef;csufjzifh vlrsKd;pk jynfolrsm;t=um;rSm ,Hk=unfr_ESifh
tjyeftvSef em;vnfr_ wnfaqmufa&;vkyfief;udk aqmif&Gufae=uygonf? tem*wfjrefrmEdkifiHrSm
vkyfief;u|rf;usifr_ t&nftcsif;jynfh0aom vli,ftzGJ@tpnf;rsm;&Sdvmapa&;twGuf rdrdwdk@.
tzGJ@0ifrsm;udk ynmaa&;ESifh vkyfief;u|rf;usifr_qdkif&m oifwef;rsm;jzifh pGrf;&nfwnfaqmufay;jcif;
wk@d tm; aqmif&u G af eygonf? xd@k tjyif rwlujJG ym;onfh wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsK;d pkrsm;t=um; w&m;r#wr_EiS hf
wef;wlnDr#a&;udktajccHonfh 'Drdkua&pD vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wpf&yf ay:xGef;vmapa&;twGuf óud;yrf;
aqmif&Gufae=uygonf? TtzGJ@ tpnf;toD;oD;. tao;pdwftcsuftvufrsm;udk od&SdEdkif&ef
pmrsufESm (45) ESifh (46) odk@ =unfyh g?
1? ed'gef;
TtpD&ifcHpmonf jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd jynfolrsm; txl;ojzifh vlrsKd;pktrsKd;om;rsm; }uHKawG@ae=u&aom
jy\emrsm;udk pmzwfy&dowf}uD; *&krlrdap&eftwGuf a&;om;ðypkxm;jcif;jzpfygonf? jyify&Sd
apmifh=unfhavhvmolrsm;tzdk@rl jrefrmEdkifiH. jy\emrsm;udk &_jrif=u&mY wdkif;jynf. 'Drdkua&pD
enf;usa&G;aumufcHxm;&aom acgif;aqmifjzpfol EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qk&Sif a':atmifqef;pk=unfESifh
tjcm;aom a&G;cs,cf EH ikd if aH &;acgi;f aqmiftrsm;tjym; xde;f odr;f xm;cHae&jcif;wnf;[laom abmifxJ
rSmom&Sdaeygonf? odk@&mwGif u|Efkyfwdk@ wifjyrnfrSm Tjy\emonf jynfolwdk@. 'Drdkua&pD&&Sda&;
ar#mfvifhcsuftwGuf t[ef@twm;jzpfapaom vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azgufr_ trsm;tjym;xJu wpfck
r#omjzpfygonf?

TtpD&ifcHpmonf jrefrmEdkifiH. e,fajr (3) ck (&cdkifjynfe,f/ rGefjynfe,f ESifh &Srf;jynfe,f awmifydkif;&Sd
ytkd0f;e,fajr) udk txl;ðywifjyxm;ygonf? ta=umif;rSm bwf*sufaiGa=u;ESifh tcsdeftuef@towf
wdk@a=umifhwpfa=umif;/ ppftpdk;&vufatmufrSm ESdyfpufn‡Of;yrf;cHae&aom Ta'orsm;&Sd jynfolwdk@
taeESihf owif;Xmersm;. tm&Hpk u kd rf u
_ kd aumif;pGmr&&Scd ahJ oma=umifh wpfa=umif; ,ckuo
hJ @kd wifjy&jcif;
jzpfygonf?

rSwfcsuf-jrefrmusyfaiGESifh tar&duefa':vmwdk@. w&m;0ifvJvS,fE_ef; (tar&duef 1 a':vm =
6. 5usy)f / arSmifcakd ps;uGuf vJv,
S Ef e_ ;f (tar&duef 1 a':vm 1˜ 350 usyf ywf0ef;usi)f wd@k t=um;wGif
tvGet f rif; uGm[aer_a=umifh TtpD&ifcpH mwGif aiGa=u;rsm;udk Edi_ ;f ,SOjf y&mY (tar&duef 1 a':vm
- 1˜ 350 usyf) E_ef;udk toHk;ðyxm;ygonf?

(2) wifjyyHkenf;pepf
TtpD&ifcHpmtwGuf t"duusaom ppfwrf;aumuf,lr_udk tzGJ@ (3) zGJ@yl;aygif;I aqmif&GufcJhygonf?
ppfwrf; aumuf,lol (7) OD;udk tcsuftvufpkaqmif;&ef awGqHkar;jref;r_rsm;twGuf oifwef;ay;yg
onf?

xdk@aemuf ppfwrf;aumuf,la&;twGuf oufqdkif&me,fajrrsm;odk@ydk@v$wfygonf? tzGJ@0if (2) OD;u
(AASYC) ESihf ytk0d ;f vli,ftzG@J (PYO) wd@k ukd ud,
k pf m;ðy+yD; (3) OD;u (MYPO)udk ud,
k pf m;ðyygonf?
ppfwrf;aumuf,lr_udk jynfe,ftoD;oD;&Sd atmufyge,fajrrsm;wGif aqmif&GufcJhygonf?

¾ &cdkifjynfe,f/ &rf;+AJu|ef;&Sd ausmufjzLòrd@e,fESifh ykÀm;u|ef;òrd@e,f (AASYC)
¾ &Srf;jynfe,fawmifydkif;/ [dkykef;/ awmif}uD;/ qDqdkifòrd@e,frsm; (PYO)
¾ rGefjynfe,f/ a&;òrd@e,f (MYPO) wd@k jzpfonf?

u|Efkyfwdk@. ppfwrf;aumuf,lolrsm; oGm;a&mufavhvmcJh&m e,fajrrsm;tjyif TtpD&ifcHpm
avhvm&m e,f (3) ck&Sd tjcm;e,fajrrsm;ESifh ywfoufaom owif;tcsuftvufrsm;&&Sda&;twGuf
tjcm;aomowif;Zpfjrpftrsm;tjym;udv k nf; avhvmcJyh gonf? tcsK@d aom owif;tcsut
f vufrsm;
(1)
onf trsm;od+yD; jzpfaeonfhwdkif ajr,modrf;,lr_ESifh ppfwyfrsm;udk ae&mtESH@wdk;I csxm;jcif;wdk@onf
jrefrmEdkifiHrSm a&&SnfjzpfyGm;aeaom jy\emrsm;jzpfa=umif;udk az: jy&eftwGuf ‚if;tcsuftvuf
wdk@udk xnfhoGif;az: jycJhjcif; jzpfygonf? t"duppfwrf;aumuf,lr_udk (2008) ckESpf. (3) v wm
umvtwGif;rSm aqmif&GufcJhjcif;jzpfaomfjim;vnf; tcsKd@aom tao;pdwf tcsuftvufrsm;onf
ukefvGefcJhaomESpfrsm;ESifh oufqdkifygonf? Todk@jzpf&jcif;rSm Te,fajrrsm;&Sd jy\emrsm;udk owif;
rD'D,mXmersm;u aumif;pGm *&krxm;rdcJhaoma=umifh jzpfygonf?

3? tpD&ifcpH m tusO;f csKyf
3? 1? jrefrmEdkifiH\aemufcHordkif;tusOf;

&S r f ; jynf e ,f
&ck d i f j ynf e ,f

rG e f j ynf e ,f

jref r mjynf ajryk H
jrefrmEdkifiH (Burma) udk tm%mvuf&Sd ppftpdk;&jzpfaom EdkifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifh zGH@òzd;a&;
aumifpD (State Peace and Development Council- SPDC) u (1989) ckEpS w f iG f (Myanmar) [k
w&m;0iftrnf ajymif;cJhonf? EdkifiHwum. jypfwifa0zefr_rsm;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;'%fcwfr_rsm; qufvuf
&Sdaeonfh=um;uyif (etz) (SPDC)onf tm%mudk qufvufqkyfudkifxm;um twdkuftcHwdk@udk
tiftm;oHk;vsufESdyfuGyf aeygonf? apmifh=unfhavhvmoltawmfrsm;rsm;uvnf; ppftpdk;&onf
vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azgufr_rsm;udk t}uD;tus,f usL;vGefaeonfhtjyif pDyGm;a&;udkvnf; tvGJvGJ
tacsmfacsmf pDrHaeonf[k pGyfpGJajymqdkae=uygonf? 1

(1988) ckESpf vlxktHkºuGr_ESifh (2007) ckESpf a&$0ga&mifawmfvSefa&;wdk@udk ESdyfuGyfr_onf wdkif;jynf
1
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/country_profiles/1300003.stm, 30th July 2008

(2)
tkyfpdk;olwdk@. &ufpufr_udk az: jyvdkufjcif;jzpfonf? tqufqufaomppftpdk;&wdk@onf vlrsKd;pkrsm;udk
aoG;cGJzdESdyfxm;+yD; oHvufoD;jzifh tkyfpdk;cJh=uonf? jrefrmppfwyf(wyfrawmf)onf tm%mESifh pdk;rdk;r_
wdk@udk jynfolrsm; rvSefEdkifa&;twGuf wdkif;jynftESH@tjym;wGif jzef@csxm;onf? wdkif;jynf. ta&S@ydkif;
wGif txl;ojzifh urBmt h &Snqf ;kH jynfwiG ;f ppfjzpfymG ;ae&m u&ifjynfe,fwiG f awmfveS af &;tiftm;pkrsm;
udk qufvufwdkufcdkufaeygonf?2 aoG;cGJ zdESdyfcHae&aom vlenf;pkwdkif;&if;om;rsm;u bHk&efoludk
qef@usifae=uyg.? odk@&mwGif rdrdwdk@vlrsKd;tkyfpktvdkuf csrSwfxm;aom udk,fenf;udk,fh[ef/ oD;jcm;
OD;wnfcsufrsm;jzifh pcef;oGm;ae=ujcif; jzpfonf? 0rf;enf;zG,f&maumif;vSonfrSmum; jrefrmEdkifiH.
e,fpyfa'orsm;wGif ESpfaygif;axmifESifhcsDI Ttwdkif; jzpfyGm;aecJhjcif;yif jzpfygonf?

+Adwdo#wdk@u ,ae@jrefrmEdkifiH[k ac:qdkaomEdkifiHudk (1885) ckESpfwGif t+yD;tydkifodrf;ydkufcJh+yD;aemuf
tdE, dN Edik if /H umvuwWm;òrd@raS eI +Adwod #-tdE, dN jynfe,fwcktjzpf tkycf sKyfco
hJ nf? (1937) ckEpS w f iG f
rufrdk[ef (McMahon) EdkifiHwum e,fjcm;rsOf;rsm;a&;qGJ owfrSwfaomtcgY +Adwdo# -tdENd,udk
ydkif;jcm;vdkufum +Adwdo# - jrefrmEdkifiH[lI ay:aygufvmcJhonf? (1937) ckESpfaemufydkif;rSm +Adwdo#-
jrefrmEdkifiH[kac:qdkaomukef;ajronf ,ae@acwfopfjrefrmEdkifiH jzpfvmygonf? 3 rufrdk[ef e,fedrdwf
rsOf;a&;qGJvdkufjcif;ESifh wqufwnf;jzpfaom +Adwdo# - jrefrmEdkififiHtjzpfowfrSwfvdkufjcif;wdk@a=umifh
&mpkESpfaygif;rsm;pGm tcsif;csif; wdkufcdkufcJh=u+yD; tcsKyftcsmtm%mydkifpdk;ol bk&ifrsm; tkyfpdk;&me,fajr
rsm;jzifh tpdwfpdwftr$muGJaecJhaom vlrsKd;pkaygif; (130) cef@onf wajrxJrSm pkaygif;aexdkif=u&av
awmhonf? jrefrmEdkifiH. vGwfvyfa&;odk@csDwuf&mY vlrsKd;pkaygif;pHkacgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh jrefrmvlrsKd;
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;wdk@u OD;aqmifcJh=uonf? (1947) ckESpfwGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u vef'efodk@ oGm;
a&mufcJh+yD; +Adwdo# 0ef}uD;csKyf uvD;rifh tufwvD (Clement Attlee) ESifhpmcsKyf csKyfqdkjcif;/ xdk@aemuf
(yifvHkpmcsKyf) csKyfqdkjcif;ponfjzifh e,fpyfa'orsm;udk aygif;pnf;apcJhonf? 4 odk@&mwGif vGwfvyfa&;
tjynfht0r&rSDrSmyif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; vkyf}uHcHcJh&onf? (1948) ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv (4) &ufae@wGif
+Adwdo#wdk@u tm%mv$Jajymif;ay;+yD; jrefrmEdkifiHonf udkvdkeDtkyfcsKyfa&;atmufrSaeI vGwfvyfa&;
&cJah vonf?5 0ef}uD;csKyfO;D Ekonf jrefrmEdik if .
H yxrOD;qH;k 'Dru
kd a&pDenf;us a&G;aumufyrJG aS eI tm%m
&vmcJjh cif;jzpfaomfvnf; vlrsK;d pkjy\emrsm;ESihf vlrsK;d pkrsm;.awmif;qdck surf sm;udk ajz&Si;f ray;Edik cf ahJ cs?
vlrsK;d pkrsm;u rdrw d @kd rawmfrw&m;jyKcHae&onf/ yifvpkH mcsKyfuvkd nf; taumiftxnfaz:ay;jcif;r&S[ d k
jrifcJh=uonf? vlrsKd;pkrsm;. udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifhESifh ywfoufI tuef@towf&Sdaom uwdu0wfrsm;udk
yifv#if xdxda&mufa&muf apmifhpnf;jcif;r&SdcJhacs? wdkif;jynfonf jynfwGif;ppfjzpfyGm;um jrefrmh
wyfrawmf. wyfzGJ@rsm;uvnf; ykefuefcJh=uonf? wdkif;jynf tpdwfpdwftr$mr$m òyduGJrnfhtjzpfrS
u,fwif&ef[k ta=umif;jyum (1962) ckESpfwGif ppfwyfu tm%modrf;cJhonf? 6
2
Ethnic groups in Burma: Development, Democracy and Human Rights Smith, M (1994) Anti-
Slavery International, London
3
The political concept of National United Party of Arakan (NUPA), Khin Maung (1995)
4
The New Panglong Initiative: Re-building the Union of Burma, Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity
and Cooperation Committee
5
Burma, Hall D, 1960, Hutchinson & Co, London
6
The New Panglong Initiative: Re-building the Union of Burma, Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity
and Cooperation Committee

( 3)
Adv
k cf sKyfae0if;acgi;f aqmifaom jrefrmEdik if . H yxrOD;qH;k aom ppftpd;k & tkypf ;kd r_raS eI jzpfay:vmcJah om
tpOftvmwpf&yfonf ,ae@txdqufvufwnfwHhaeygonf? ‚if;rSm jynfolrsm; &uf&ufpufpuf
zdEydS cf aH e&jcif;/ ae@pOfEiS t
hf r# jynfowl @kd . tcGithf a&;rsm; csK;d zsucf aH e&jcif;/ trsm;jynfowl @kd . touf
arG;0rf;ausmif;vkyfief;rsm;ESifh touf&Sifaexdkifa&;wdk@ ra&r&maomtaetxm;odk@ a&mufaejcif;yif
jzpfonf? jrefrmEdkifiHonf vlrsKd;tkyfpktrsKd;rsKd;aexdkif&ma'orsm;tjzpf yx0Dtaetxm;t& tpdwf
pdwt f r$mr$m jzpfae&onft h jyif ,Ofaus;r_/ pD;yGm;a&;ESihf jynfow l @kd tm; tqufqufaom tpd;k &rsm;.
pepfwus zsufqD;jcif;cHxm;&aom EdkifiHwpfckvnf; jzpfygonf? (2008) ckESpf em*pfrkefwdkif; wdkufcwf
csdefrSmvnf; (etz) ppftpdk;&onf jrefrmEdkifiHjynfolwdk@tay: vHk;0*&krxm;a=umif; jyocJhjyefygonf?

rkewf ikd ;f wdu
k af wmhrnft h a=umif; owday;csuf rSeo f r#ukd vspv
f sL&_xm;cJo h nft
h jyif ab;'kujQ zpfaecsed f
rSm 'kuo Q nfrsm;twGuf Edik if w
H umu urf;vSr;f vmonfh a':vmoef;aygi;f rsm;pGmaom tultnDrsm;
udvk nf; jiif;y,fco hJ nf? jrefrmEdik if jH ynfow
l @kd +idr+f idro
f ufouf acgi;f iH@k caH eatmif jyifyurBmESihf tquf
jzwfI&Edkifor# jzwfxm;vdkaom ppftpdk;&.oabmxm;udk Ttcsufuaz: jyaeygonf? vHk;0txD;
usefaeoGm;a&;ay:vpDudk ppftpdk;&u usifhoHk;vmcJhonfrSmvnf; ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm =umcJh+yD jzpfygonf?
,ckwavmESpfrsm;Y ppftpdk;&onf jyifyrS&if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_rsm;udkzdwfac:um ‚if;wdk@ESifh pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;
vkyfvdkaeao;onfh tenf;tusOf;r#aom tpdk;&rsm;xH wdkif;jynf.obm0t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk xkwf
a&mif;pm;aevsu&f o dS nf? Tod@k a&mif;csjcif;rSaeI &&Sv d maomtusK;d tjrwfrsm;udk (etz) . tm%m
vufrvGwfa&;twGufomv#if oHk;pGJae+yD; jrefrmEdkifiHjynfolrsm;tzdk@rl tusKd;cHpm;cGifh vHk;0 r&Sdacs?

3? 2? avh v mcJ h a ome,f a jrrsm;. aemuf c H o rd k i f ;

&cd k i f j ynf e ,f

yk À m;uG s ef ;

ausmuf j zL

&rf ; +AJ u G s ef ;

&ck d i f j ynf e ,f ajryk H

( 4)
"n0wD/ a0omvD/ av;òrd@/ ajrmufOD;wnf;[laom rif;qufav;qufacwf (bDpD 3325 rS at'D 1784
txd) wnf&SdcJh&m &cdkifjynfe,fonf ESpfaygif; (5˜000) ausmf=umr# vGwfvyftcsKyftcsmydkifaom
EdkifiHwpfEdkifiH jzpfcJhonf? (1784) ckESpfwGif jrefrm (Arm) wdk@ usL;ausmfaomtcgY tcsKyftcsmtm%m
qH;k &_;H cJo
h nf? xdt
k csed rf pS I &cdik jf ynfe,fonf jrefrmEdik if .
H jynfe,fwpfe,f jzpfomG ;cJo
h nf? tjcm;wdik ;f
&if;om;vlrsKd;pkrsm;ESifh &cdkif&dk;rawmifwef;}uD;jcm;aeaom &cdkifjynfolwdk@rSm udk,fydkif"avhxHk;pHESifh
udk,fydkifbmompum;/ pmay &Sdonf?

vlOD;a& (3) oef;cGJr# &Sd&m &cdkifjynfe,fvlOD;a&onf jrefrmEdkifiHvlOD;a&pkpkaygif;. (6µ) r#jzpfonf?
b*Fvm;yifv,fatmfwiG w f nf&o dS jzifh opfawm/ yifv,f/ ajr=oZmaumif;aom ukvm;wefEiS hf av;òrd@
jrpf0Srf;rsm;rSaeI obm0t&if;tjrpfrsm; &&Sdonf? vlOD;a&trsm;pkonf qefpyg;pdkufysKd;jcif;ESifh
ig;zrf;jcif;tvkyfwdk@udk vkyfudkif=uonf? Tvkyfief;wdk@onf vlrsKd;.xl;jcm;r_ESifh ae@pOf pm;0wfaea&;
wdk@twGuf tjccHrsm;jzpfonf? &cdkifjynfe,fwGif c&dkif (4) ck/ òrd@e,f (17) +rdK@e,f/ òrd@e,fcGJ (3)+rdK@k/
&yfuGuf (132) &yfuGuf/ aus;&Gmtkyfpk aygif; (1˜ 040) ESifh aus;&Gmaygif; (3˜864) &Gm &Sdonf? (Akyab)
[kvnf; odxm;=uaom ppfawGòrd@awmfonf vlOD;a& (2) odef;cef@&Sd+yD; ukvm;wefjrpf/ av;òrd@jrpf/
ar,kjrpfwdk@aygif;qHk&m ajrEku|ef;ay:rSm wnf&dSonf?

obm0t&if;tjrpfºuG,0f jcif;ESihf ouf&o dS wW0grsm; pHv
k ifaxGjym;r_w@kd a=umifh &cdik jf ynfe,fonf (etz)
. ppfwyfrsm;ae&mtESH@csxm;a&;ESifh obm0t&if;tjrpfrsm;wl;az:a&;ay:vpDrSm t}uHK;0ifaom
ajr,modrf;ydkufr_.'%fudk qdk;qdk;&Gm;&Gm; cHae&onf?

rG e f j ynf e ,f

&J + rd K @e,f
rG e f j ynf e ,f a jryk H
(5)
crmvlrsKd;wdk@ESifh tEG,fwEG,fwnf;jzpfaom rGefvlrsKd;wdk@onf bDpD (2˜500)rS bDpD (1˜500) twGif;rSm
rGef*dk;vD;,m;a'orSaeI jrefrmEdkifiHodk@ajymif;a&$@vmcJhjcif;jzpfonf? (14) &mpkwdkifonftxd rGefbk&ifh
EdkifiHawmfrsm;onf {&m0wDjrpf0u|ef;ay:a'orSaeI ta&S@bufwv$m; uarBm'D;,m;a'oodk@
a&mufatmif ysH@ESH@ cJhonf? yk*Hrif;qufðywf+yD;aemufwGif (1287) ckESpfrS (1539) ckESpftxd jrefrmEdkifiH
atmufydkif;udk rGefrif;quf wpfquf tkyfpdk;cJhonf? xdkrSwzef (1550-53) ckESpfrsm;wGifvnf; tkyfpdk;cJh
ao;onf? aemufqHk; rGefbk&ifhEdkifiHawmfonf [Hom0wDjynfjzpfonf? (1740) ckESpfrS jrefrm (Arm)
bk&ifodrf;ydkufaom (1757) ckESpftxd wnfwHhcJhonf?

rGefvlOD;a&onf cef@rSef;ajctm;jzifh (2² 5) oef;&Sdonf? rGefvlrsKd;trsm;pkonf pdkufysKd;a&;vkyfief;udk
vkyfudkif=uonf? jrpfrsm;pD;qif;&m ajr=oZmxufoefaomae&mrsm;Y pyg;pdkufv,fuGif;rsm;/ &mbm
+cHrsm;/ opfoD;+cHrsm;ESifh [if;oD;[if;&Gufcif;rsm;jynfhESufaeygonf? rGefjynfe,fonf yifv,fESifh
xdpyfaeojzifh ig;zrf;vkyfief;onfvnf; ta&;ygaom toufarG;0rf;ausmif;vkyfief;wpfckjzpfonf?
jrpf (3) oG,fjzpfaom oHvGif/ *sKdif;/ twˆ&Hjzpfwdk@rSmvnf; ig;rsm;udk zrf;,l&&Sdygonf?

&S r f ; jynf e ,f / ytk d 0 f ; a'o

ytk d 0 f ; a'o
&S r f ; jynf a wmif y k d i f ;
&Srf;jynfe,f ajrykH
&Srf;jynfe,fawmifydkif;rSm aexdkif=uaom aus;vufjynfoltrsm;pkonf awmifolv,form;rsm; jzpf
onf? toufarG;r_twGuf v,fajr/ ,majrrsm;udk trSDo[JjyKum pm;yiftrsKd;rsKd;udk pdkufysKd;=uonf?
ytkd0f;olykefrsm; ppftpdk;&ESifh typftcwf&yfpJa&; oabmwlnDr_rvkyfrSDu aus;vufae awmifol
v,form;rsm;tzdk@ at;at;aq;aq;ESifh tqifajyajy vkyfudkifpm;aomufEdkifjcif; r&SdcJhacs? typf
tcwf&yfpJa&;vkyf+yD;aemufwGif aus;vufa'orsm;rSm tawmftwef +idrfouf at;csrf;vmcJhonf?

(6)
okd@aomfvnf; a'ozGH@òzd;a&;[laomta=umif;jycsufjzifh [dkykef;/ awmif}uD;/ qDqdkife,fajrrsm;udk
odrf;ydkuf+yD;aemuf xdka'orsm;rSm ppfpcef;rsm;aqmufcJhonf? ppfpcef;rsm;aqmuf+yD;oGm;aomtcgY
teD;tem;&Sd aus;&Gmrsm;udk twif;t"rR ae&ma&$@ajymif;apcJo
h nf? Tod@k ae&ma&$@ajymif;cdik ;f jcif;a=umifh
a'oaejynfolwdk@. toufarG;0rf;ausmif;vkyfief;rsm; t}uD;tus,f xdcdkufysufpD;cJhonf?

4? jrefrmEdkifiH tESHYtjym;rSm ppfwyfrsm; wdk;csJYcsxm;jcif;
4? 1? ppf w yf r sm;ES H @ tjym; wd k ; csJ @ csxm;jcif ; ES i f h wd k u f & d k u f tusKd ; quf r sm;

“wyfrawmf”[kvnf; trsm;odxm;=uaom (etz) ppftpdk;&. ppfwyfrSm tiftm; (490˜ 000)
cef@&o dS nf? (1989) ckEpS f rSpI ESpqf ausmaf usmt
f xd wd;k vmcJjh cif;jzpfonf?7 xd@k jyif jrefrmEdik if &H dS &Jwyfz@JG
rSmvnf; t&ef&Jtiftm; (4˜ 500) tygt0if tiftm; (72˜ 000) cef@&Sdonf?8 jynfy&efol[lI r&Sd
aomfvnf; t=urf;zsif;tm;jzifh vlOD;a& (100) v#if ppfom; (1) a,mufE_ef;cef@ jzpfaeonf? jrefrm
EdkifiHwGif jynfyrS txl;ojzifh w&kwf/ xdkif;ESifh &k&Sm;EdkifiHwdk@rS vufeufa&mif;csr_ESifh &if;ESD;jr‡yfESHr_rsm;
wdk;jr‡ifhjcif;r&Sdygu ppfwyfwdk;csJ@a&;udpPonf jzpfEdkifrnf r[kwfacs?9

(2008) ck E S p f rwf v (27) &uf / wyf r awmf a e@wG i f jref r mppf w yf ppf a &;jyaeyH k 10
7
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tatmadaw
8
Asia Briefing No. 21 – “Mynamar: The Future of the Armed Forces” – International Crisis
Group, 27/09/2002 – p3, footnote 5
9
Burma‘s Arms Procurement Program”, Working Paper N°289 (Strategic and Defence Studies
Centre, Australian National University, Canberra, 1995); Andrew Selth, Burma‘s Secret
Military Partners, Canberra Papers on Strategy and Defence N°136 (Strategic and Defence
Studies Centre, Australian National University, Canberra, 2000).
10
BBC News: Day in Pictures, 27th March 2008

(7)
ppfwyfudkwdk;csJ@&ef (etz) ppftpdk;&u t&l;trl;jzpfaeyHkudk ay:vGifapaom tcsufrSm (1993 rS 2004)
ckEpS t
f wGi;f use;f rma&;ESihf ynma&;toH;k pm;&dwu
f kd (3 µ) ESihf (8 µ) toD;oD;r#omwd;k +yD; umuG,af &;
toHk;p&dwfudk (29µ) wdk;onf[laomtcsufyifjzpfygonf? 11

ppfwyfrsm;wdk;Icsjcif;onf qufwdkufvkyfaeaomudpP jzpfonf?12 TonfrSm zGJ@òzd;a&;pDrHcsufrsm;az:
aqmifaeaome,fajrrsm;wGif tm%mpuf+rJaeap&efjzpfonf? òrd@jyrsm;Yvnf;aumif;/ ppfwyf. topf
xde;f csKyfxm;aome,fajrrsm;Yvnf;aumif; r+idrrf oufrr_ sm;&Sad eonf?13 ppfwyfrsm;wd;k Icsxm;jcif;ESihf
wygwnf;rSmyif ppfwyfrsm;u ppfwef;vsm;/ ppfwyfpcef;ESihf tjcm;ppftaqmuftOD;rsm; aqmufvyk jf cif;
a=umifh ajrodrf;jcif;/ twif;t"rRtvkyfapcdkif;jcif;ESifh taxGaxG vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azgufr_rsm;jzpfyGm;
avonf? tm&Svl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sif (1999) (Asian Human Rights Commission-1999) .
aw@G@&Sdcsuft& jrefrmEdkifiHrSm pm;eyf&duQm&Sm;yg;r_onf wdkif;jynfw0Srf;vHk;rSm ppfwyfrsm;csxm;jcif;.
wdkuf&dkuftusKd;quf jzpfonf? 14

ppfwyfrsm;wdk;Icsxm;aom e,fajrrsm;wGif w&m;0if ppfaq;a&;pcef;rsm;a&m w&m;r0if ppfaq;a&;
*dwfrsm;yg tajrmuftjrm;&SdaeonfudkawG@&onf? Tpcef;rsm;onf vHk+cHKa&;udkapmifh=unfh&eftwGuf
csxm;jcif;jzpfaomfvnf; w&m;r0ifenf;vrf;jzifh 0ifaiGaumif;aumif;&&Sd&mae&mrsm;jzpfa=umif;
awG@&onf? rGefjynfe,frSm ppfwrf;aumuf,lr_t& armfawmfqdkifu,ftcGefESifh vpOfay;aqmif&aom
tcGef15 rSaeI *dwfrSL;rsm;onf vpOf (3˜ 000) usyf (tar&duef 2²2 a':vm) &&Sdae=ua=umif; od&
onf? xdk@jyif ppfaq;a&;pcef;opfwckudk vlwpfOD; jzwfoef;oGm;vdkygu aiG (100) usyfaumufonf?16
jrefrmEdik if w
H 0Sr;f vH;k rSm a'ocHjynforl sm;ESihf ukeo
f nfrsm;xHrS Tod@k w&m;r0if tcGeaf umufcaH er_rsm;
udk rSwfwrf;jyKxm;+yD;jzpfygonf? &cdkifjynfe,frSm (2008) ckESpf/ =o*kwfv qef&Sm;yg;r_tusyftwnf;
jzpfaepOfumvtwGif;Y qefukeful;&mvrf;a=umif;&Sd w&m;r0if ppfwyfppfaq;a&;pcef; (4) ckudk
jzwf&eftwGuf aiG (2˜ 500) usyfESifh qeftawmf rsm;rsm;udk ay;cJh&a=umif;od&onf?17 (1992) ckESpf
wGif ta&S@ykdif;wkdif;pmXmecsKyf wkdif;A[kdtrSwf (3) avhusifha&;wyf [kdykH;+rdK@ ta&S@ajrmufbufwGif
11
http://www.unicef.org/view_chart.php?sid=764c6063cd1e1a2ab44da6cc6b654cce&cre
ate_chart=Create+Table+%3E%3E&submit_to_chart=1&layout=1&language=eng
12
jrefrm ppfwyf wyf&if;w&if;. tjynfzh @JG pnf;yHo
k nf w&m;0if 700 OD; jzpfonf? od@k aomf tiftm; 400-500 jzifv
h nf;
v_y&f mS ;wwfonf? od@k aomfvnf; owif;rsm;t& jrefrmppfwyf wyf&if;rsm;onf vlO;D a&tiftm; 200- 300 r#jzifh
om v_yf&Sm;ae=uonf[kvnf; qdkonf? (“My Gun Was As Tall As Me” – Kevin Heppner & Jo
Becker): see Human Rights Watch link below:- http://www.hrw.org/reports/2002/burma/
Burma0902 -04.htm
13
Dammed by Burma’s Generals: the Karenni experience with hydropower development –
From Lawpita to the Salween, Karenni Development Research Group 2006
14
Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC), 1999, Voice of the Hungry Nation, Hong Kong:
AHRC
15
jrefrmppfwyfu vpOf ukeo
f nfrsm;xHrS aumuf,al omtcGeaf iGrmS uket
f rsK;d tpm;tay:rlwnfI ppfaq;a&;*dwrf sm;
wGif aumuf,l=uonf?
16
Primary field research MYPO
17
FBR Arakan team report: Relief team brings food to famine victims as the Burma Army tries
to stop assistance in Western Burma, 19 July, 2008

(8)
ppfAsL[muGif;twGuf ajr (18˜ 982) {uESifh ppfa&;avhusifhuGif;twGuf (6˜ 420) {uudk odrf;,lcJh
onf?18 (1999) ESifh (2002) ckESpftwGif;Y (etz) ESifh jrefrmppfwyfonf rGefjynfe,f/ a&;òrd@e,ftwGif;
rSmyifv#if ajcjrefwyf&if;aygif; (10) &if;cef@csxm;+yD; oHjzLZ&yfESifh teD;tem;e,fajrrsm;Y aemufxyf
tajrmufwyf&if;aygif; (10) &if; csxm;csxm;cJhonf? (1995) ckESpfu a&;òrd@t0ifY ppfwyfppfaq;a&;
pcef; (2) ckom &Scd o
hJ nf? ppfwyfrsm;wd;k Icsxm;r_a=umifh acgZmESihf vrdik ;f òrd@e,fct
JG wGi;f rSm ppftajcpdu
k f
pcef;rsm;aqmufvyk +f yD;(2003)ESihf (2004)ckEpS t
f wGi;f Tòrd@e,fcJG (2) ckwiG f w&m;0if ppfwyfppfaq;a&;
pcef;opf (4) ckcsxm;cJhonf?19 a&;òrd@e,ftwGif;rSm ppfwyfrsm; wdk;Icsxm;jcif;onf rGefcGJxGuftkyfpkudk
wdkufcdkufp&m&Sdaoma=umifh jzpfonf?20 TESpfwpfESpfwnf;rSmyif yvuf0òrd@e,f (Tòrd@e,fudk csif;jynf
e,f. òrd@e,fwpfcktjzpf ,lqxm;=uaomfvnf; &cdkif/ crGD;ESifh csif;paom tjcm;vlrsKd;pkrsm; aexdkif&m
e,fajrwpfckjzpfonf?)Y jrefrm ppfwyfrsm;udk wyf&if; (1) &if;rS rSaeI (3) &if;txd wdk;Icsxm;onf
udk awG@&onf?21

&cd k i f j ynf e ,f t wG i f ; ppf w yf r sm;wd k ; I csxm;jcif ;

&cdkifjynfe,fESifh csif;jynfe,f. yvuf0òrd@wdk@yg0ifaome,fajrwpfckjzpfonfh taemufydkif;wdkif; ppfXme
csKyftajcpdkuf ajcvsifwyf&if;rsm;. ta&twGufonf wyf&if; (3) &if;rSaeI (1988) ckESpf aemufydkif;
wGif (43) &if;txd wd;k vmcJo h nf? xd@k jyif (tif*sief ,
D mwyf/ qufo, G af &;wyfuohJ @kd aom) txl;wyf&if;
(10) &if;/ enf;AsL[mXmecsKyfrsm;ESihf a&wyftajccHpcef;rsm;vnf;&Sad o;onf? &cdik jf ynfe,f/ trf;òrd@wiG f
XmecsKyfziG x
hf m;aom taemufyikd ;f wdik ;f ppfXmcsKyfonf 0ifaiGaumif;aom pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;rsm;udk csKyfuikd f
xm;um vkyfief;vkyfcGifhvdkifpifESifh vkyfief;aqmif&Gufr_rsm;twGuf ‚if;.cGifhjyKrdef@udk ,l=u&onf?
jref r mEd k i f i H taemuf y d k i f ; a'o&S d jref r mppf w yf & if ; rsm; (1988 rS 2006) ck E S p f a jryH k

43-IB

1988
3-NC HQ
C
3-Infantry Battalion W
1-
1-Western Command HQ 2006
3-Navy 3-Strategic Commands

18
Primary field research PYO
19
Primary field research MYPO
20
Primary field research MYPO
21
FBR Arakan team report: Hunger and Malnutrition in Arakan & Chin States, November 2008

(9)
4?2? ppf w yf r sm;csxm;jcif ; ES i f h ajrod r f ; jcif ;

rnfonfah vsmaf =u;rS ray;bJajrodr;f jcif;onf jrefrmEdik if rH mS &d;k ae+yDjzpfaomudpw P pf&yfjzpfonf? txl;
ojzifh ppftpd;k &ESihf Edik if jH cm;aumfyakd &;&Si;f rsm;u zG@H òzd;a&;pDru
H ed ;f rsm; taumiftxnfaz:&mae&m a'o
rsm;wGif jzpfonf? 22

vlrsKd;pkrsm;aexdkif&mjynfe,frsm;wGif ppfwyfrsm;udkwdk;csJ@csxm;aeor#umvywfvHk; ydkif&Sifrsm;udk
avsmaf =u; rjzpfpavmufay;Iaomfvnf;aumif;/ vH;k 0ray;bJaomfvnf;aumif; ajr,mrsm;udk twif;
t"rRodrf;aernfom jzpfygonf? odrf;,lxm;aomajr,mrsm;udk ppfwef;vsm;rsm;/ uif;pcef;rsm;ESifh
ppfoifwef;uGif;rsm;tjzpf toHk;ðyonf? xdk@jyif ppfom;rsm;twGuf&duQmaxmufyHha&;ESifh tydk0ifaiG
&&Sda&;twGuf v,fvkyf&ef ESifh O,smOfpdkufysKd;&efvnf; ajr,mtawmfrsm;rsm;udk odrf;,lao;onf?23

jrefrmppfwyfonf ‚if;wdk@tajcpdkufpcef;rsm;ESifh eD;&mae&mrsm;rS ajr,m/ pm;a&&duQmESifh tjcm;aom
t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk vk,al =umif; taxmuftxm;rsm;t& od&&dS onf?24 Ttaxmuftxm;rsm;onf
wdkif;jynftESH@tjym;rSm ppfwyfrsm;csxm;jcif;ESifh eD;eD;pyfpyfqufpyfaeum ppfwyfrsm;csxm;r_ wdk;vm
onfEiS t hf r# e,fajra'otwGi;f &Sd yk*v
~ u
d ydik Ef iS hf trsm;ydik af jr,mrsm;udk odr;f ,lro
_ nfvnf; wd;k vmcJh
ygonf? Todk@ wdk;vm&jcif;rSm ppfwyftaeESifh rdrdwdk@vdktyfaom&duQmESifh tajccHypPnf;rsm;udk rdrdwdk@
25

bmom xkwfvkyf&rnf[laom udk,fh'l;udk,fc|ef udk,fxludk,fx ay:vpDa=umifh jzpfonf?26

ppfwyfrsm;taeESifh vdktyfaom&duQmESifhywfoufI udk,fh'l;udk,fc|ef&Sm&rnf[k (1998) ckESpfupI
rGefjynfe,f&Sd wyf&if;rsm;udk trdef@xkwfxm;onf? Ttrdef@a=umifh a'ocH&Gmom;rsm;xHrS &duQmESifh
ypPnf;rsm;udk vk,lr_rsm; wdk;IvmcJhonfhtjyif ppfwyftwGufajrodrf;r_rsm;vnf; wdk;vmcJhonf?27
(1998) ckEpS f wpfEpS w
f nf;rSmyif ppfwyfu ajr{uaygi;f (3˜ 000) ausmu
f o
kd rd ;f ,lco
hJ nf? t"dutm;jzifh
ppfom;rsm;. &duQmvdktyfcsufrsm;udk jznfhqnf;ay;&efjzpfonf? (2000) ckESpfwGif ajr{u (100) r#
om odrf;,lcJhaomfvnf; (2001) ckESpfwGif aemufxyf ppfwyfrsm;wdk;Icsxm;vmojzifh aemufxyf
ajr{u (2˜ 000) odrf;,lcJhonf? (2002) ckESpfwGifrl aemufxyfI {u (1˜ 000) ausmf odrf;jyefyg
onf? 28
22
“Our Land and Our Natural Resources in Burma”, The Nationalities Youth Forum, 2005
23
“The Impact of the confiscation of land, labour, capital assets and forced relocation in
Burma by the militaryregime”, Dr. Nancy Hudson-Rodd Dr. Myo Nyunt, Saw Thamain Tun,
and Sein Htay, 2003
24
“A conflict of interests: the Uncertian future of Burma’s Forests”, Global Witness, 2003, p. 28
25
“No Land to Farm”, Human Rights Foundaction of Mon Land, 2002
26
“Developments concerning the question of observing the Government of Myanmar of the
Forced Labour Convention”, ILO Report of the high Level Team 2001
27
Primary Field research MYPO
28
“Our Land and Our Natural Resources in Burma”, The Nationalities Youth Forum, 2005

(10)
(2003) ckESpfaESmif;ydkif;ESifh (2004) ckESpf/ ESpfqef;ydkif;wGif rGefjynfe,f/ a&;òrd@e,ftwGif;Y acgZmESifh
vrdkif;òrd@e,fcGJrsm;udk zGJ@pnf;cJhonf? ppftpdk;&u rGefcGJxGuftkyfpkrsm;udk wdkuf&ef[laom ta=umif;
jycsujf zifh Te,fajrtwGi;f rSm ppfwyftrsm;tjym;udk csxm;cJo h nf? Tod@k jzifh ajrrsm;udk {u axmifEiS hf
csDI odrf;,lcJhonf? 29

(2005) ckESpf/ =o*kwfvtwGif;Y Zmuv,faus;&Gmvl}uD; Edkif (——) qdkolu (cr&) (587) ESifh aygif;
I vrdkif;òrd@e,fcGJ&Sd rdom;pk (6) pkxHrS ajr{u (160) cef@udk odrf;,lcJhonf? TajruGufrsm;onf
&mbm/ uGrf;oD;ESifh 'l;&if;yifwdk@pdkufxm;aom +cHrsm;jzpfonf? +cHydkif&Sifrsm;u e,fajrtm%mydkifrsm;udk
wdkif=um;cJhaomfvnf; ta&;,lay;jcif; r&SdcJhacs? (2004) ESifh (2007) ckESpftwGif;rSm (cr&) (586) ESifh
(587) wdk@u {uaygif; (1˜ 500) &Sdaom &mbm+cHrsm;udk odrf;,lcJhonf?30

a&;òrd @ e,f & S d (cr&) (587). =uuf q l y if p d k u f c if ;

(2006) ckESpf/ arvY &cdkifjynfe,f/ ykÀm;u|ef;òrd@e,fawmifydkif; ppfawG-&efukef ta0;ajy;vrf;r}uD;
ay:&Sd a'oaejynfolrsm;. bdk;ab;ydkifpdkufcif;rsm;udkppfwyfuodrf;,lcJhonf? Tpdkufcif;rsm;Y u|ef;yif/
ysO;f uwd;k yif/ o&ufyif/ ydEyJM if/ iSuaf ysmyifEiS hf [if;oD;[if;&Guyf ifuo
hJ @kd aom tyifrsm;&So
d nf? ppfwyfu
+cHrsm;udk odrf;t+yD;wGif ydkif&Sifrsm;tm; ypPnf;ESifh oD;ESHrsm;odrf;qnf;&ef oDwif;ywf (1) ywfr#om cGifh
ðycJhonf? oDwif;ywf ukefqHk;oGm;onfESifh ydkif&Sifrsm;tm; +cHrsm;xJodk@jyefvmcGifhrðyawmhacs?

+cHxJodk@ jyefvmonfudkawG@&Sdygu '%faiG usyf (100˜ 000) &dkufrnf[k ppfwyfu trdef@xkwfxm;
29
Primary Field research MYPO
30
Primary Field research MYPO

(11)
onf? tu,fI '%faiGray;aqmifEikd yf gu e,fjrppfwyfpcef;rSm (3) v csKyfaESmifc&H rnfjzpf+yD; +cHpnf;&d;k
umjcif;/ jrufckwfjcif;/ ppfwyftwGuf xrif;/ [if;csufay;jcif; tvkyfrsm;udk vkyf&rnf[k qdkygonf?
T+cHrsm;onf umvaygufaps; usyfoef; (5˜ 000 rS 10˜ 000) (tar&duefa':vm 3˜ 700 rS 7˜
400 a': vm)wefa=u;&Sd+yD; +cHydkif&Sifrsm;tzdk@ pm;0wfaea&;twGuf T+cHrsm;udk rSDcdktm;xm; aecJh
=u&onf? 31

ukvm;wefjrpf taemufbufurf;&Sd ta0;ajy;vrf;r}uD;wav#muf yef;eDvmESihf usicf ifaus;&Gm t=um;
ESifh ykÀm;u|ef;òrd@e,ftwGif;&Sd ajr{u (1˜ 000) udk ppfawG ppfXmecsKyf trSwf (20) u xyfrHI
odrf;jyefonf? 32

ajr{u (1000)ausmf o d r f ; ,l a =umif ; tao;pd w f a z: jyxm;aom qk d i f ; bk w f w pf c k

&cdkifjynfe,f/ ausmufjzLòrd@e,f/ tkef;awm&GmESifh +ydKif;aphauaus;&Gmrsm;&Sd (15) {u&Sdaom O,smOf+cHajr
rsm;udk (2005) ckESpfwGif opfawm0ef}uD;Xme vufatmufcH òrd@e,fopfawmXmeu odrf;,lcJhonf?
ajrodrf;,laomae&mudk 'dk;'ef;awmif[k ac:ygonf? T&GmESpf&GmrS &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;onf yJESifh tjcm;
[if;oD;[if;&Gufrsm;pdkuf=uonf? &Gmom;rsm;onf avsmfa=u;r&cJh=uacs?33

&cdik jf ynfe,f ausmufqyd Ef iS hf ,d;k ilaus;&Gmt=um;&Sd v,fajr{u (100)udk trSwf (908) ppftif*sief ,
D m
wyfqG,fu rdk;pyg;pdkufysKd;&eftwGuf (2005) ckESpf/ ZlvdkifvwGif odrf;,lcJhonf? tu,fI v,fydkif&Sif
rsm;u rdrdwdk@v,fudkjyefvkyfvdkygu ppfwyfudk pyg;wif; (60) ay;&rnfjzpfonf?
31
Primary Field research AASYC
32
Primary Field research AASYC
33
Primary Field research AASYC

(12)
xdkvtwGif;rSmyif trSwf (962) ppftif*sifeD,mwyfqG,fu xdke,fajrY v,fajr (35) {uudk
odrf;,l+yD; trSwf (8) ppfajrjyif aq;wyf&if;uvnf; ppfawG-&efukef ta0;ajy;vrf;ay:&Sd ,dk;ief;ESifh
o&ufcsKad us;&Gmt=um;rS v,fajr (31² 5) {uudk odr;f cJo h nf? ae&mwdik ;f rSmyif v,form;rsm;taeESihf
rd r d w d k @ . tod r f ; cH x m;&aom v,f u d k j yef v k y f v d k y gu “pyg;wif ; (60)”ay;aqmif & rnf [ k
owfrSwfonf?34

ausmuf j zLòrd @ &S d / (15){u&S d a om =uuf q l y if pd k u f c if ;

ausmuf j zLòrd @ e,f t wG i f ; &S d (5){u&S d a om =uuf q l y if p d k u f c if ;
34
Primary Field research AASYC

(13)
ausmuf j zLòrd @ e,f Y (cr&) (232) u pyg;pd k u f & ef t wG u f ajr{u (100)ud k od r f ; ,l c J h o nf ?

atmufygwdk@onf rsm;r=umao;rDSu &cdkifjynfe,f/ ykÀm;u|ef;òrd@e,fESifh ajrmufOD;òrd@e,fwdk@wGif jrefrm
ppfwyf. ajrodrf;,lr_tcsKd@ jzpfonf?

• ykÀm;u|ef;òrd@e,f oJwufaus;&GmrS OD; (u) ydkifaom O,smOf (7) {uudk (2008) ckESpf/
atmufwdkbmv (27) &ufae@wGif tusOf;OD;pD;Xme tm%mydkifrsm;u odrf;,lcJhonf?
• oJwufaus;&GmrS OD; (c) (touf 60) ydik /f o&ufyif(3˜ 000) ygaom wefz;kd (700˜ 000)usyf
(tar&duefa':vm 520) &Sd o&ufO,smOfukd (2008) ckEpS f atmufwb kd mv (27) &ufae@wiG f
tusOf;OD;pD;Xme tm%mydkifrsm;u odrf;,lcJhonf?
• oJ w uf a us;&G m rS OD ; (*) (touf 40) yd k i f / (o&uf / iS u f a ysm/ oH y k , mES i f h tjcm;
oD;yifpm;yifrsm;ygaom) O,smOfajr {uwpf0ufudk (2008) ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv (15)
&ufae@wGif tusOf;OD;pD;Xme tm%mydkifrsm;u odrf;,lcJhonf?
• oJwufaus;&GmrS OD;(*) (touf50)ESifh ‚if;.ZeD;a': (u) wdk@. O,smOfudk (2008) ckESpf/
atmufwdkbmv (13) &ufae@wGif tusOf;OD;pD;Xme tm%mydkifrsm;u odrf;,lcJhonf?
• oJwufaus;&GmrS OD;(C) ESihf a': (c) wd@k yikd f (4) {u&Sad om o&uf+cHukd (2008) ckEpS /f atmufwkd
bmv (12) &ufae@wGif tusOf;OD;pD;Xme tm%mydkifrsm;u odrf;,lcJhonf?
• oJ"mwfaus;&GmrS r (u) ESifh OD; (i) wdk@. o&ufyif (2˜ 400)ygaom O,smOfudk tusOf;OD;pD;
Xme tm%mydkifrsm;u odrf;,lcJhonf?
• ykÀm;u|ef;òrd@e,f/ oJ"mwfaus;&GmrS OD; (p) ydkifaom o&ufjcHudk (2008) ckESpf/ atmufwdk
bmv (15) &ufae@wGif tusOf;OD;pD;Xme tm%mydkifrsm;u odrf;,lcJhonf?
• v,form;wpfO;D jzpfaom OD; (q) . EGm;u tusO;f OD;pD;Xme. &mbm+cHteD;wGif jrufpm;rd&m
(2008) ckESpf/ atmufwdkbm v(5) &ufae@wGif tusOf;OD;pD;Xme tm%mydkifrsm;u OD; (q)
tm; '%faiG usyf (5˜ 000) (tar&duefa':vm 3² 7 a':vm)&dkufcJhonf?
• OD;a&$qef;onf ausmufqdyf&Gm. OuUÏjzpfonf? olonf ol@&Gmodk@ tvnfa&mufvmolrsm;
tm; “cGifhðyvufrSwf”wpfapmifv#if (3˜ 000)usyf (tar&duefa':vm 2² 2 a':vm) jzifh
0,fcikd ;f onf? ol@ &Gmod@k vma&muforl sm;u TudpEP iS yhf wfoufI ar;=unf&h m olu olonf
OuUÏ&mxl;twGuf aiGuek cf cH &hJ ojzifh TaiGtwGuf tpm;jyef&&efvakd oma=umifh jzpfonf[k
jyefajzcJhonf?
• ajrmufOD;òrd@e,f/ cs,f&Dy&ef;aus;&Gmom;rsm;ydkifaom v,fajr {u (700) udk (2008) ckESpf/
atmufwdkbmv/ (13) &ufae@wGif jrefrmppfwyf (cr&) (540) u odrf;,lcJhonf? xdk@jyif
v,fydkif&SifwpfOD;csif;taeESifhvnf; v,fwpf{uv#if pyg;wif; (100) E_ef;jzifh ppfwyfudk
ay;&rnf[k awmif;ao;onf?
• vdyqf efy&rf;aus;&GmESihf omya&uef;aus;&Gmwd@k rS v,f{u (700) udk (2008) ckEpS /f atmuf
wdkbmv (15) &ufae@wGif jreefrmppfwyf (cr&) (540)u odrf;,lcJhonf? 35
35
FBR Arakan team report: Hunger and Malnutrition in Arakan & Chin States, November 2008

(14)
ausmuf j zLòrd @ &S d v,f { u (100) ud k (cr&) (543) u od r f ; xm;yk H

&cd k i f j ynf e ,f / ausmuf j zLòrd @ e,f w G i f v,f { u (250) ud k (cr&) (542) u od r f ; xm;yk H

“ tif t m;wd k ; csJ @ aevsuf & S d a om ppf w yf t wG u f t&yf o m;rsm;onf
rd r d w d k @ .v,f , majrrsm;rS a eI armif ; xk w f c H a e=u&onf ? 36
36
Nancy Hudson-Rodd: “Housing, Land, and Property Rights in Burma”, October 2004 Centre
for Housing Rights and Evictions (COHRE) Collingwood, Victoria, Australia

(15)
&cdkifjynfe,f/ ausmufjzLòrd@? ? (etz) ppftpdk;&onf ausmufjzLòrd@e,f/ t0ajyaus;&GmY
pcef;wnfaqmufaeaom "n0wDa&wyfpcef;XmecsKyfvufatmufcH trSwf (3) AsL[m
a&,mOfpkpcef;twGuf taqmuftOD; trsm;tjym; aqmufvkyfvsuf&Sdonf? ppfwyfonf
a'G;csm/ rtljyifESifh pefayacsmif&Gmrsm;tygt0if ywf0ef;usifaus;&Gmrsm;rS v,fajrrsm;udk
vnf; odrf;,lvsuf&Sdonf?

avsmfa=u;wpHkw&m ray;bJ v,fajr{u (200) cef@udk odrf;,lvdkuf&m &Gmom; (50) ausmfwdk@
ajr,mvufrJh jzpfukef=uonf? ppfwyftaqmuftOD;rsm;aqmufvkyf&mY twif;t"rR
vkyftm;apcdkif;onfhtjyif &Gmom;rsm;u (300) eD;yg;cef@&Sdaom ppfom;rsm;twGuf &duQmrsm;
udkvnf; ay;&ao;onf?

“'D a e&mrS m ppf w yf p cef ; aqmuf w mu ppf w d k u f z d k @ r[k w f b l ; ? &cd k i f u rf ; &d k ; wef ; rS m
a&eH e J @ "gwf a iG @ wl ; az:aewJ h Ed k i f i H j cm;uk r ` % D a wG u d k umuG , f a pmif h a &S m uf a y;zd k @ ygyJ ? ”
[k aus;&Gmom;wpfOD;uajymygonf? 37
4? 3? ppf w yf r sm;csxm;jcif ; ES i f h vl @ tcG i f h t a&;csKd ; azguf r _ r sm;

(etz) ppftpdk;&. ppfwyfrsm;wdk;I csxm;a&;ay:vpDa=umifh ppfwyfrsm;wdk;Icsxm;r_wGif vlrsKd;pk
aus;&Gmom;trsm;tjym;tzdk@ rdrdwdk@.ajr,mESifh tdk;tdrfypPnf;rsm;udk pGef@v¸wfxGufajy;=u&ygonf?
useaf e&pforl sm;tzd@k rmS vnf; rdrwd @kd pu
kd yf sK;d Iroifah wmfaom oD;ESrH sm;udk twif;t"rRapcdik ;f I pdu k yf sK;d
&jcif;ESihf roifah wmfaomenf;rsm;udk toH;k ðy&jcif;wd@k a=umifh &d;k &mpdu k yf sK;d enf;rsm;udk pGe@f vw
¸ =f u&onf?
=uufqyl ifpu kd yf sK;d a&;ay:vpDu Ttcsuu f kd txif&mS ;qH;k jyqdyk gonf? TtpD&ifcpH m.aemufyikd ;f wGif
Ttcsufudk ydkItao;pdwf az: jyygrnf?

wcsdefwnf;rSmyif jrefrmppfwyf.rdom;pkrsm;u rGefjynfe,f/ ta&S@ydkif;e,fjcm;a'orsm;ESifh jrefrmjynf
ajrmufydkif;wdk@wGif ajr,mrsm;udk wae@wjcm;wdk;Iodrf;,laevsuf&Sdonf? xdkrdom;pkrsm;u tdrfrsm;
aqmufvkyf+yD; tjcm;olrsm;xHa&mif;pm;avh&Sd&m tdrf&mvufrJhjzpfoGm;olrsm;tzdk@ rdrdwdk@ ydkifcJhaom
ajrESifhywfoufI ydkifqdkifcGifhr&Sdawmhacs? “'DudpPudk=unfh&if A[dktpdk;&&J@ay:vpD/ ppfwyf&J@ ajr,m
odrf;,lr_/ odrf;,lcJhwJhajrawGudk tjrwfeJ@jyefa&mif;pm;r_awG[m wqufwnf; jzpfaewmudk awG@&
w,f?”38

Oya't&qdkv#if EdkifiHawmftpdk;&u ajr,mtm;vHk;udkydkif+yD; v,fvkyfolonf v,fvkyfydkifcGifhudk tarG
ay;cGi&hf adS omfvnf; olonf v,fvyk yf ikd cf iG &hf o
dS rl #omjzpfonf? ajr,mudk w&m;0iftm;jzifh a&mif;0,fciG hf

37
http://www.narinjara.com/details.asp?id=2002 (Narinjara News - 18th December 2008)
38
“Displacement & Dispossession: Forced Migration and Land Rights in Burma”, The Centre
on HousingRights & Evictions (Switzerland)

(16)
r&Sdacs? odk@&mwGif (1990) ckvGefESpfrsm;twGif;rSm ppfwyfrsm;wdk;Icsxm;&m e,fpyfa'orsm;ESifh vlrsKd;pk
a'orsm;wGif ajrpm&if;tif;Xmet&m&Srd sm;u òrd@e,f/ aus;&Gm/ &yfuu G af umifprD sm;ESiahf ygi;f um ajr,m
ydik q
f ikd cf iG hf pm&Gu/f pmwrf;rsm;udk ajymif;vJjcif; (od@k r[kw)f ajr,mvkyyf ikd cf iG u
hf kd jyefvnfowfrw
S jf cif;rsm;
ðycJh=uonf? Todk@ vkyfEdkifjcif;rSm pdkufysKd;ajr/ u|JEGm; pm;usufajr/ zHkqdk;ajrwdk@ESifhywfoufI Oya'
jyXmef;csufcsif; rwluGJjym;aeaoma=umifh jzpfonf? Tta=umif;ESifhywfoufI aemufydkif;rSm tao;
pdwfaz: jyygrnf?39

ajr,modrf;,ljcif;ESifh uajymif;ujyef vkyfxm;aomajr,mydkifqdkifr_pmcsKyfpmwrf;rsm;a=umifh
jrefrmEdkifiH. tem*wfEdkifiHa&;tul;tajymif;wGif t}uD;tus,f &dkufcwfr_rsm;&SdEdkifygonf? (etz)
ppftpdk;&.ay:vpDonf jrefrmr[kwfaom vlrsKd;pkrsm;udk twif;t"rRae&ma&¸@ajymif;apum xdkvlrsKd;
pkrsm;. ydkifqdkifaom tdk;tdrfypPnf; OpPm/ 0ifaiGESifh t&if;tESD;ypPnf;rsm;udk ppftpdk;&. tcGifhxl;cH
vlwef;pm; vuf0,fodk@ a&mufapygonf? EdkifiHa&;tul;tajymif;jzpfaomtcgY vltawmfrsm;rsm;u
rdrdwdk@.ajr,mudk pm&Gufpmwrf;ESifhwuG tydkifpD;xm;onfh ydkif&Sifopfrsm;udk oGm;a&muf&ifqdkif
=uayvdrfhrnf? 40

4? 3? 1? twif ; t"rR v k y f t m;apcd k i f ; jcif ;

aemufw;kd ppfwyf (od@k r[kw)f wyf&if;rsm;a&mufvmonfEiS w hf òydief uf ppfwef;vsm;rsm;/ uif;pcef;rsm;
ESihf tjcm;aom ppfbufqikd &f mtaqmuftOD;rsm;twGuf twif;t"rRvyk t f m;apcdik ;f r_rsm;ESihf ajrodr;f
,lr_rsm;wdk;I jzpfyGm;vmcJhonf? aiGESifhypPnf;rsm;udk tEdkifusifhawmif;jcif;/ vlrsKd;pkjynfolrsm;ESifh
trsKd;orD;rsm;tay: t=urf;zufjcif;wdk@onfvnf; wdk;IjzpfyGm;vmcJhonf? tusKd;qufum; vGwfvyf
pGmv_y&f mS ;cGi/hf vGwv
f yfpmG pka0;cGi/hf vGwv
f yfpmG ajymqdck iG Ehf iS hf vGwv f yfpmG yHEk ydS x
f w
k af 0cGi[ hf Il bmwpfcrk #
r&Sdjcif;yif jzpfonf? 41

rGefjynfe,f/ acgZmòrd@e,fcGJrSm ppfwyfrsm;csxm;r_a=umifh vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azgufr_rsm; t}uD;tus,f
wd;k I jzpfymG ;cJo
h nf? aus;&Gmrsm;rSaeI oDwif;wpfywfv#if ay:wm (5) a,mufa&G;I yd@k vw ¸ af y;&onf?
xdkay:wmrsm;onf ppfwyftwGuf &duQmESifh cJ,rf;rD;ausmufrsm;o,fay;&+yD; rdrdwdk@. tvkyfysuf
onfhtwGuf tca=u;aiGaomfvnf;aumif;/ avsmfa=u;aomfvnf;aumif; r&&Sd=uacs? e,fcH&Gmom;
rsm;onf a&;òrd@/ acgZmòrd@e,fcEJG iS hf a&;òrd@e,ftpGe;f tzsm;ESihf qufo,
G af omvrf; udak zguv
f yk &f mYvnf;
tca=u;aiGr&bJ twif;t"rR vkyftm;qifhqdkcH&onfhtjyif ppfwef;vsm;rsm;aqmufvkyf&mYvnf;
tvkyfvkyfay;&onf? tu,fI cdkif;onfhtwdkif; vkyfray;ygu olykefudkaxmufcHtm;ay;olrsm;tjzpf
pGyfpGJ+yD; zrf;vm; qD;vm;vkyfum jyif;jyif;xefxef '%fcwfta&;,lonf? 42
39
ibid
40
ibid
41
“Supply and Command: Natural Gas in Western Burma Set to Entrench Military Rule” –
AASYC, July 2006. p 22
42
Primary field research MYPO

(17)
jref r mppf o m;rsm;u ay:wmwpf O D ; ud k ypP n f ; rsm;o,f c d k i f ; aeyH k 43

(2008) ckESpf/ arvwGif e,fajrppfwyfu &cdkifjynfe,f/ wdrfndKaus;&GmrS &Gmom;rsm;tm; ppfawG-
&ef u k e f ta0;ajy;vrf ; r}uD ; jyif q if & mY twif ; t"rR t vk y f a pcd k i f ; cJ h o nf ? &G m om;rsm;onf
tca=u;aiGr&bJ tvkyfvkyfay;=u&onf? tu,fI ysufuGufygu '%faiGusyf (5˜000) (tar&duef
a':vm 3² 7 a':vm) &dkufonf? '%faiGray;aqmifEdkifygu ppfwyfpcef;xJrSm (7) &uf tcsKyfcH&+yD;
tvkyf=urf;ESifh xrif;csuftvkyfrsm;udk vkyf&onf? 44

&cdkifjynfe,f/ rif;jym;òrd@e,f/ pGef&J/ a=umif&Dacsmif;/ acsmif;&D/ yvDaygufaus;&Gmwdk@rS &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;
tm; rdk;&moDrSm ysufpD;oGm;cJhaom ta0;ajy;vrf;r}uD;udk ðyjyif&eftwGuf tm%mydkifrsm;u
twif;t"rR tvkyfapcdkif;cJhonf? &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;onf vkyfcr&onhftjyif tu,fI tvkyf
vkyfray;ygu '%faiG (5˜000) usyf (tar&duefa':vm 3²7 a':vm)ay;aqmif&rnf[kvnf; +cdrf;
ajcmufcH&ao;onf? “'D&Gm (4) &Gmwiff b,f[kwfOD;rvJ/ vrf;eJ@eD;wJh wjcm;&GmawGu vlawGudkyg
vrf;jyif&mrSm cdkif;vdkufao;w,f?”[k a'ocHausmif;q&mwpfOD;uajymjyygonf?45

tvm;wlyif rGefjynfe,f/ ,if;&J&GmrSaeI [avmhceD pcef;odk@xGufajy;vmcJh=uaom &Gmom;rsm;.
ajymjycsuft& oDwif;wpfywfv#if ppfwyftwGuf xrif;[if;csufay;&ef vl (5) a,mufuspD xrif;
csufay;&+yD; ae@pOf qDtjynfh xnfhxm;aom armfawmfqdkifu,f (2) pD;udk ppfwyfokd@ ydk@ay;xm;&onf
[kod&onf?46
43
www.prayforburma.org/.../images/2008_pfe_01.jpg
44
Primary field research AASYC
45
Narinjara News 10/11/2008 (http://www.narinjara.com/details.asp?id=1965)
46
Primary field research MYPO

(18)
&cd k i f j ynf e ,f w G i f &G m om;rsm;tm; vrf ; jyif & mY twif ; t"rR tvk y f a pcd k i f ; aeyk H

(2007) ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmvrS (2008) ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv (1) &ufae@txd/ &Srf;jynfe,f/ axma';aus;&GmrS
&Gmom;rsm;udk jrefrmppfwyfu oDwif;wywfv#if (2) }udr/f (3) }udrf ay:wmvdu k cf ikd ;f ae&m aemufq;kH Y
&Gm&Sd tdrfaxmifpk (16) pkteuf (9) pk xGufajy;oGm;&awmhonf? 47

qD q d k i f & J w yf z G J @ u od r f ; xm;aomv,f , majrrsm;rS m
ytk d 0 f ; &G m om;rsm;tm; tvk y f a pcd k i f ; aeyk H

47
Free Burma Rangers Lahu Relief Team Report, September 2008

(19)
&Srf;jynfe,fawmifydkif;&Sd qDqdkife,fajrtwGif;Y ppfwyfu aus;&Gmydkifajrrsm;udk odrf;,lum &Gmom;
rsm;tm; =uufqEl iS hf tjcm;oD;ESyH ifrsm;udk rpdu
k rf ae& pdu
k cf ikd ;f cJo
h nf? oD;ESrH ay:rSD ppfwyfu &Gmom;rsm;
udk aygif;/ jruf &Sif;cdkif;jyefonf? xdk@aemuf oD;ESHay:aomtcgY oD;ESHrsm;udk &dyfodrf;cdkif;+yD; wyf&if;
pcef;xJodk@ ta&mufo,fydk@apcJhonf? 48

(2008) ckESpf/ ZlvdkifvwGif trSwf (903) ppfajrjyif tif*sifeD,mwyf&if;u yif;yufowWKwl;az:a&;
pDrHcsufe,fajr teD;ywf0ef;usif&Sd aus;&Gm (6) &Gmtm; xdk&Gmom;rsm;. ,majrxJrSmyif =uufqlyif
rsm;udk pdkufysKd;&rnf[k trdef@xkwfonf? ,majr (4) {u ydkifolonf =uufqlyifudk (2) {u pdkufay;&
onf? trde@f ukd remcHygu xdrk emcHo.l ,mcif;rsm;udk ajrwl;pufjzifh xd;k ypf+yD; ppfwyfu =uufqyl ifrsm;
pdkufypfrnf[k qdkonf? 49

4? 3? 2? jref r mZmwf o G i f ; jcif ;

jrefrmppftpdk;& }uHqxm;aom tm%m+rJa&;enf;vrf;wpfckrSm “jrefrmZmwfoGif;a&;” ay:vpDyif
jzpfonf? ppfwyf trsm;tjym;udk vlenf;pk wdkif;&if;om;rsm;aexdkif&m e,fpyfa'orsm;wGif wdk;csJ@
csxm;ojzifh &Gmom;rsm;xHrS odrf;,lxm;aomajr,mrsm;odk@ ppfom;rsm;u ‚if;wdk@.rdom;pkrsm;udk
ta0;rS ac:oGif;vmjcif;jzifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ e,fcHtrsKd;orD;rsm;ESifh tdrfaxmifðy&ef tm;ay;
jcif;aomfvnf;aumif; ArmvlrsKd; rsm;vmapa&; ðy=uonf? ppfom;rsm;tm; vkyfief;uefx&dkufrsm;
csay;onf? vkyfief;ydkifqdkifcGifhrsm;udk e,fcHjynfolrsm;. vuf0,frSaeI a'o (odk@) e,fajrtm%m
ydkifrsm;. vuf0,fodk@ w&m;r0ifenf;vrf;jzifh v$Jajymif;ay;onf? xdk@jyif jrefrmbmompum;omv#if
wdik ;f jynf.wpfcw
k nf;aom bmompum; jzpfvmatmif Oya'rsm;xkwI f wdik ;f &if;om;bmom pum;
oif=um;r_udk w&m;r0if jzpfaponf? odk@wnf;r[kwf wdkif;&if;om;bmompum;rsm;udk qufvuf
oif=um;ygu ausmif;rsm;udkydwfypfrnf[k +cdrf;ajcmufonf? T0g;òrda&;ay:vpDjzifh (etz) ppftpdk;&
onf vlenf;pk wdkif;&if;om;rsm;. ,Ofaus;r_rsm; a&maESm wdrfaumoGm;atmifESifh jrefrm (Arm) rsKd;
EG,f. =oZmt&Sdeft0g ysH@EHSatmifóud;pm;onf?

(2003) ESifh (2004) ckESpfwGif rGefjynfe,fY acgZmESifh vrdkif;òrd@e,fcGJwdk@udk zGJ@pnf;+yD;aemufwGif ppftpdk;&
onf vrdkif;òrd@e,fcGJESifh warmhueifaus;&Gmt=um; armfawmfum;vrf;wav#muf&Sd ajr{u (100)
udk odrf;,l+yD;aemuf ppfwyfrdom;pkrsm; tajccsaexdkifap&eftwGuf “pGef@ypfxm;aom ajr,mrsm;”[k
qdkif;bkwfrsm;udk vdkufvH pdkufxlxm;vdkufonf? xdk@aemufwGifrS ppfom;rdom;pkrsm;udk Tajrrsm;wGif
ae&mcsxm;ay;jcif;jyKonf? “'DArmawGa&muf+yD;wJhaemufrSm Armpum;ajymwJhvlawG wae@wjcm;
ydkrsm;vmw,f? ArmawGeJ@ tdrfaxmifðywJh vli,fawGvnf; renf;awmhbl;? 'gha=umifh Armjynftv,f
ydkif;u ArmawGvmae=uvdk@ wdk@rGefpum;/ rGefpm[m aysmufoGm;awmhr,fh tE W&m,f&Sdaew,f?”[k
touf (60) t&G,f&Sdol [ef*H aus;&Gmom;wpfOD;u qdkygonf? 50
48
Primary field research PYO
49
Primary field research PYO
50
Primary field research MYPO

(20)
wyf&if;wpf&if;onf e,fajrwpfcw k iG f (4) vom tajccsae+yD; tvSnu hf s ajymif;a&$@aeaponf? (cr&-
20) wm0efuspOfumvtwGif;Y &cdkifjynfe,f/ ‘*** * **aus;&Gm/ r**aus;&Gm/ u**aus;&Gm/
e**aus;&GmESifh o**aus;&Gm (owif;ay;olrsm;. vHk+cHKa&;twGuf aus;&Gmtrnfrsm;udk uG,f0Suf
xm;ygonf) wdk@rS trsKd;orD; (5) OD;onf jrefrmppfom;rsm;ESifh tdrfaxmifðycJhonf? ESpfOD;rSm rdbrsm;u
qif;&J+yD; tiwfab;'%fcHae&=u&aoma=umifh olwdk@.orD;rsm; vufxyfvdkuf&jcif; jzpfonf? wpfOD;
url rdrdcspfcifESpfoufI vufxyfjcif;jzpfaomfvnf; tjcm;wOD;rSmrl twif;t"rR vufxyfcdkif;I
vufxyfvdkuf&jcif;jzpfonf? 51

4? 3? 3? vd i f r _ q d k i f & m &rf ; um;r_ r sm;ES i f h rk ' d r f ; r_ r sm;

wdkif;jynfw0Srf;vHk;rSm ppfwyfrsm;wdk;I csxm;jcif;a=umifh aemufxyfjzpfyGm;aomtE W&m,fwpfckrSm
vHk+cHKa&;twGuf tE W&m,fwdk;vmjcif;jzpfonf? òrd@xJ/ &GmxJwGif pcef;csaom ppfom;rsm;onf trsKd;
orD;ESifh rdef;uav;i,frsm;udk rk'drf;usifhr_rsm;ESifh vdifr_qdkif&m &rf;um;r_jzpf&yfrsm; trsm;tjym; jzpf
ay:vmaponf?

om"utm;jzifah z: jy&aomf (2004) ckEpS /f atmufwb kd mvtwGi;f Y (cr&-424) rS ppfom; (4) a,muf
onf ausmif;v$wf+yD;csdefY tv,fwef;ausmif;ol (3) OD;udk rk'drf;usifhcJhonf? xdkrdef;uav; (3) OD;onf
&SufvGef;aoma=umifh ausmif;xGuf+yD; ynma&;udk pGef@v$wfvdkufcJh=uonf? (2005) ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv
twGif;uvnf; qDqdkifòrd@/ jruefom&yfuGufrS trsKd;orD;wpfOD; a&csKd;aepOfrSm jrefrmppfom; wpf
a,mufu tEdkifusifh &rf;um;cJhonf? &Gmom;rsm;u tr_udkppfaq;ay;yg&ef xdkppfom;. t&m&SdxH
wdkif=um;cJhaomfvnf; ta&;,lay;jcif; r&SdcJhacs? 52

xdk@tjyif yvuf0òrd@e,f. txufydkife,fajrY (cr&-20) . wyf&if;rSL; oef@ZifxGef;onf rk'drf;r_
jzifh tr_zGifhcH&um w&m;&Hk;rSm w&m;pGJqdkcHcJh&onf? 53

rd o m;pk w pf p k t a=umif ;

&cdkifjynfe,f aygufawmòrd@rS rdom;pkwpfpkonf jrefrmppfwyfrS wyf=uyfwpfOD;u zsm;a,mif;
aoG;aqmif +yD; ppfwyfxJ qGo
J iG ;f cHxm;&aom om;jzpfou
l kd ppfwyfxrJ S jyefEw
_ ,
f El ikd af &;twGuf
aiGusyf (900˜000) (tar&duefa':vm 666²67 a':vm) ukefuscHcJh&onf?

ppfwyfxJodk@0if&ef zsm;a,mif;cHcJh&olrSm aygufawmòrd@e,f y&defawmifaus;&GmrS OD;jrifhxGef;/
a':pef; ESif;wdk@.om; armifxGef;a0 (touf 19-ESpf) jzpfonf?

51
Free Burma Rangers Arakan Relief Team Report, July 2008
52
Primary field research PYO
53
Free Burma Rangers Arakan Relief Team Report, July 2008

(21)
bwfpfum;apmifhaepOfrSm armifxGef;a0udk vlwpfa,mufu ol@tdrfodk@ vdkufvnf&ef ac:oGm;
cJhonf? armifxGef;a0udk tdrfodk@ac:oGm;&rnfhtpm; jynfòrd@&Sd ppfom;pkaqmif;a&; wyfzGJ@
wpfzGJ@qDodk@ac:oGm;+yD;aemuf wyfom;opftjzpf pm&if;oGif;vdkufonf? &efukefòrd@&Sd 'nif;ukef;
wyfzGJ@odk@rydk@rD ppfom;pkaqmif;a&;wyfwGif wpfveDyg;=umr#aecJh&onf? xdk@aemuf tajccH
ppfoifwef;trSwfpOf (12§2008) twGuf azgif}uD;&Sd trSwf (1) tajccH ppfavhusifha&;wyfodk@
tydk@cHcJh&onf? aemufwpfvt=umwGif armifxGef;a0u ol@rdbrsm;ESifh qufoG,fvdkuf&m
avhusiahf &;wyfo@kd tajy;tv$m; a&mufvmcJ=h u onf? aemufq;kH Y ol@rb d rsm;u ppfwyfypJG m;rS
wqifh oifwef;rSL;udk usyf (300˜ 000)/ oifwef;ausmif; tkyf}uD;udk usyf (400˜ 000)/ yGJpm;udk
usyf (200˜ 000) vmbfx;kd vdu k rf o
S m yGpJ m;u v$waf y;rnf[k tmrcHco
hJ nf? vmbfx;kd +yD;aemuf
armifxGef;a0onf usef;rma&; nHhzsif;vGef;aoma=umifh ppfwyfrSm wm0efxrf;aqmif&ef roifh
[lI aq;ppfcsufudk xkwfay;um v$wfay;cJhonf?

4? 3? 4? ppf w yf x J o d k @ twif ; tusyf qG J o G i f ; jcif ;

(1988) ckESpf 'Drdkua&pD awmif;qdkaom qENjyyGJrsm;udk &uf&ufpufpufESdyfuGyf+yD;aemufydkif;wGif jrefrm
ppfwyftzdk@ wyfom;opfrsm; vdkoavmuf&&Sda&;rSm tcuf}uHKoGm;awmhonf? wcsdefwnf;rSmyif
(e0w) ppftpdk;&. tm%mquf+rJa&;twGuf ppfwyfrsm;wdk;I csxm;a&;ay:vpDt& ppftiftm;udk
qufvuf wdk;csJ@oGm;&ef rjzpfrae vdktyfaeygonf? wwdkif;jynfvHk;&Sd vli,ftrsm;udk ppfwyfxJodk@
twif;tusyf qGJoGif;jcif;tm;jzifh ppfom;pkaqmif;onfh (uav;ppfom;pkaqmifjcif; tygt0if
jzpfonf) ay:vpD jzpfay: vmcJyh gonf? (etz) ppftpd;k &u “jrefrmh wyfrawmfonf rdrq d ENtavsmuf
ppfr_xrf;olrsm;. wyfrawmf jzpfonf”[k vnf;aumif;/ “wyfom;opftjzpf owfrSwfxm;aom
tedrfhqHk;toufonf (18) ESpfjzpfonf” [k vnf; w&m;0ifqdkygonf?54 odk@&mwGif Tpum; rrSef
a=umif; jyoEdkifaom taxmuftxm;rsm;pGm &Sdaeyg onf? ukvor*~. (1995) ckESpf avhvmcsuf
pmwrf;wpfapmifY jrefrmppfwyfrSm touf (18) ESpfatmuf uav; (50˜ 000) yg0ifaeonf[k
xnfhoGif;az: jyxm;cJhonf? xdktcsdefum vu ppfom;tiftm;onf (265˜ 000) &Sdonf[k cef@rSef;
xm;cJh&m uav;ppfom;OD;a&onf ppftiftm; tm;vHk;. (19µ) jzpfaeygonf? 55

(2007) ckESpfwGif pkpkaygif;ppfom;tiftm; (350˜ 000)cef@teuf uav;ppfom;OD;a&onf (70˜ 000)
txd wdk;vmcJhonf?56 (etz)onf ppfwyftiftm;ESifhywfoufaom udef;*%ef;twdtusudk
b,faomtcgur# trsm;od xkwfaz:cJhjcif; r&SdcJhacs? odk@aomfvnf; vl@tcGifhta&;apmifh=unfha&;tzGJ@
(Human Rights Watch)u ppfom;a[mif;rsm;udk awG@qHkar;jref;&mwGif &&SdcJhaomajz=um;csufrsm;
t& =unfhrnfqdkv#if jrefrmppfwyf. wyfom;opf (35 µ rS 45µ) onf (18) ESpfatmuf t&G,frsm;
54
“My Gun Was As Tall As Me” – Kevin Heppner & Jo Becker: Human Rights Watch:
http://www.hrw.org/ reports/2002/burma/Burma0902-04.htm
55
“Children: The Invisible Soldiers” - Rachel Brett and Margaret McCallin, Save the Children
Sweden, 1998.
56
“Despite Promises: Child Soldiers in Burma’s Armed Forces” – Human Rights Education
Institute of Burma, March 2006 p.12

(22)
jzpf+yD; (15µ rS 20 µ) onf (15) ESpfatmuf t&G,frsm;jzpfonf[k qdkEdkifonf?57 ,ae@wGif
jrefrmEdkifonf urBmay:wGif uav;ppfom;trsm;qHk;wdkif;jynf jzpfonf[k ,lq&onf?

5? ajrodrf;jcif;
5? 1? pm;usuf a jrrsm;ud k od r f ; jcif ;

[dkykH;/ awmif}uD;/ qDqdkifòrd@e,frsm;ESifh rGefjynfe,fwdk@wGif aus;&Gmol/ aus;&Gmom; tawmfrsm;rsm;onf
pm;/ 0wf/ aea&;twGuf u|J EGm;/ qdwf/ 0uf/ odk;ESifh =uufiSufwd&p>mefrsm; arG;jrL=uonf? ppfwyfu
aus;&GmteD;tem;&Sd ajr,mrsm;udk odrf;,lvdkufaomtcgY wd&p>mefrsm;twGuf v$wfausmif;p&m
pm;usufajrrsm; r&SdawmhbJ jzpfcJh&onf? odk@jzpf&m u|JEGm;wd&p>mefrsm;udk &GmESifh a0;a0;rSm xm;=u
&ojzifh u|J/ EGm;cdk;r_rsm; jzpfyGm;vmcJhonf? Ttcsufa=umifh &Gmom;rsm;tzdk@ u|J EGm;ausmif;ay;rnfh
EGm;ausmif;om;rsm;twGuf tca=u;aiG tydk tukeftus cH=u&avonf?

vG,ftGef;/ vG,fay:/ usef;ifusKwf/ erf;aAmf[Gef (&Srf;jynfawmifykdif; [kdykH;+rdK@e,f&Gm) aus;&Gmrsm;.teD;
tem;&Sd pm;usufajr trsm;tjym;udk ppftpdk;&u odrf;,lcJhonf? xdk@tjyif =uufqlyifpdkufcif;rsm;ESifh
ppfwyf pcef;e,fajrxJo@kd 0ifa&mufaom u|/J EGm;rsm;udv k nf; zrf;qD;cJo h nf? zrf;rdaomEGm; (od@k r[kw)f
u|Jwpfaumifudk jyefv$wfay;a&; twGuf '%faiG (6˜000) usyf rS (8˜000) usyf (tar&duefa':vm
4²50 rS 6 a':vm) owfrw S f onf? 58 pm;usuaf jrrsm;udk odr;f ,lvu kd f jcif;a=umifh aus;&Gmom;rsm;tzd@k
u|JEGm;rsm;udk 00vifvif rau|;Edkifawmhacs? u|JEGm;csKd@wJhr_a=umifh awmifolv,form;rsm;. v,f,m
pdkufysKd;xkwfvkyfr_udk xdcdkufapygonf? ta=umif;rSm u|JEGm;rsm;. tnpfta=u;rsm;udk obm0 ajr
=oZmtjzpf toHk;ðyae&aoma=umifh jzpfonf?

e,fjrppftm%mydik rf sm;ESiahf ygi;f I tif;aygu0f (Impaukwa)ukr% ` u
D atmifjzLjyifEiS hf yef;eDvmaus;&Gm
t=um;&Sd a'ocHjynfolrsm;ydkifaom pm;usufajr{u (800) udk odrf;,lcJhonf? Tpm;usufajronf
(2005) ckESpfu ukvm;wefjrpf taemufzufydkif; ta0ajy;vrf;r}uD;av#mufESifh ykÀm;u|ef;òrd@e,f
ajrmufydkif;wGif wnf&SdcJhjcif; jzpfonf? ydkif&Sifrsm;udk avsmfa=u;wpHkw&may;jcif; r&SdcJhacs? wu,hf
vufawG@rSmrl TajruGufrsm;udk oHql;óud;um&eftwGuf aus;&Gmom;trsm;tjym;tm; rvkyfrae&
vkyftm;ay;&ef apcdkif;cJhonfhtjyif “Tod Tod r f ; ,l x m;aom ajray:od k @ usL;ausmf j cif ; rðy&
rðy&”
[laom pmwef;rsm;pdkufxlxm;cJhonf? 59

&cdkifjynfe,f/ ausmufjzLòrd,f/ t0ajyaus;&GmwGif trSwf (3) AsL[ma&,mOfa&pkpcef;udk wnfaqmuf
&mY ppfwyfu a'ocHaus;&Gmom; trsm;tjym;. pm;usufajrrsm; odrf;,lcJh=uonf? “usaemfwdk@&J@
u|JEGm;awG pm;usufxJrSmpm;aewmawG@&if ppfwyftm%mydkifawGu tjypfay;wmwdk@ '%f &dkufwmwdk@
vkyfw,f? odrf;xm;wJh ajruGufxJrSm EGm;wpfaumifudk zrf;rd&if ppfwyfudk '%faiGtaeeJ@ aiG (5˜000)
57
“Despite Promises: Child Soldiers in Burma’s Armed Forces” – Human Rights Education
Institute of Burma, March 2006 p.12
58
Primary field research PYO—Interview 13
59
Primary field research AASYC

(23)
ay;&w,f? ppfwyfawG usaemfwdk@e,fxJudk a&mufvm+yD;wJhaemuf olwdk@ppfwef;vsm;awG aqmuf
ay;&r,fhudpP[m usaemfwdk@tzdk@ {&mr 'kuQ}uD;ygyJAsm?”60 [k &Gmom;wpfOD;u qdkonf?

v,f o rm;rsm;onf rd r d w d k @ . pm;usuf a jrrsm; tod r f ; cH & +yD ; aemuf y d k i f ;
u|J E G m ;rsm;ud k avS m if j cH r sm;xJ r S m avS m if x m;=u&yk H

pm;p&mpm;usuf r&S d a om &cd k i f j ynf e ,f r S u|J E G m ;rsm;

5? 2? td r f e D ; csif ; wd k i f ; jynf r sm;od k @ ajymif ; a&$ @ oG m ;=ujcif ;

qnf/ vrf;/ wHwm;/ rD&xm;vrf;uJhodk@aom trsKd;om;zGH@òzd;a&;pDrHudef;}uD;rsm; az:aqmifr_twGuf
60
http://www.narinjara.com/details.asp?id=2002 (Narinjara News - 18th December 2008)

(24)
vltrsm; twif; t"rR ae&ma&$@ajymif;cH&jcif;rsm;ESihf jynfwiG ;f ppfa=umifh td;k tdrt
f ajcysu&f jcif;rsm;udk
=unfhv#if ppftpdk;&u vlwpfOD;csif;. vl@tcGifhta&;udk vHk;0ta&;rxm;a=umif; ay:vGifaeygonf?
xdk@tjyif vltawmfrsm;rsm;onf ynma&;ESifh tvkyftudkiftcGifhtvrf;r&Sdjcif;a=umifhvnf;aumif;/
rawmfrw&m; tcGefaumufcHjcif;ESifh ajr,modrf;,ljcif;a=umifhvnf;aumif; xGufajy;=u&onf?
vlenf;pk trsKd;om;rsm;. e,fpyfa'orsm;udk ppftpdk;&u xdef; csKyf&efóud;yrf;r_a=umifh jynfwGif;rSm
rdrdwdk@aus;&Gmrsm;udk pGef@cGmae xdkif&olaygif; (1) oef;ESifh (600˜ 000) =um;wGif &Sdonf[k
cef@rSef;&onf?61

TjynfwiG ;f 'kuo Q nfrsm; (IDP) tjyif onfx h ufyrkd rkd sm;jym;aomvlrsm;uvnf; tvky&f mS &efEiS hf tEdik f
usifhr_ rSvGwfajrmuf&eftwGuf xdkif;EdkifiH/ b*Fvm;a'h&Sf/ rav;&Sm;ESifh puFmyluJhodk@aom tdrfeD;csif;
wdik ;f jynfrsm;od@k xGuaf jy;=uonf? e,fpyfrsm;rSaeI 0if&xGu&f vG,u f jl cif;ESihf aps;aygaom tvkyrf sm;
vdt
k yfaejcif;wd@k a=umifh xdik ;f Edik if o
H nf jrefrmEdik if rH S a&$@ajymif; tvkyo
f rm;rsm;trsm;qH;k oGm;a&muf&m
ae&m jzpfonf? atmufaz: jyygZ,m;onf (8) ESpfausmfumvtwGif; xdkif;EdkifiHodk@ w&m;0if
0ifa&mufvmcJhaom a&$@ ajymif; tvkyform;rsm; rSwfyHkwifpm&if;udkaz: jyxm;ygonf? jrefrmEdkifiHrS
tvkyform;OD;a&udkyg xnfhoGif; az: jyxm;ygonf? 62
rS w f y H k w if a om rS w f y H k w if o l rS w f y H k w if a om
jref r m (µ)
ck E S p f OD ; a&pk p k a ygif ; jref r mOD ; a&

puf - Edk0ifbm/ 1996 323˜ 123 293˜ 652 90² 9

puf-atmufwdkbm/ 2001 568˜ 249 451˜ 000 79² 4

az - rwf/ 2002 430˜ 074 349˜ 000 81² 1

ZGef -Edk0ifbm/ 2004 1˜ 280˜ 053 921˜ 482 72² 0

txufyg w&m;0ifudef;*%ef;rsm;ESifhywfoufI okawoeðy avhvmolrsm;u xdkif;EdkifiH&Sd jrefrm
a&$@ajymif; tvkyform;rsm;. trSefwu,f ta&twGufonf (2) oef;cef@&Sdonf[k ,Hk=unfae=u
onf? xdk@tjyif xdkif;EdkifiHbuf e,fpyfa'o&Sd 'kuQonfpcef;rsm;rSm aexdkifae=uvsuf ukvor*~
'kuQonfrsm;qdkif&m r[mrif;}uD;u 'kuQonftjzpf todtrSwfðyxm;olaygif;onf (150˜000) cef@&Sd
onf? 63 trSefwGif Tudef;*%ef;onf pcef;aeolrsm;tjzpf w&m;0ifrSwfyHkwifxm;olrsm;udkom
todtrSwfðyxm;jcif; jzpfonf? rSwfyHkwif rxm;olrsm;udkom xnfhaygif;vdkufygu 'kuQonfpcef;rsm;
rSm &Sdaeaomvuf&Sd'kuQonf OD;a&xufrsm;pGm ydkoGm;ayvdrfhrnf? TtpD&ifcHpmyg vltkyfpkrsm;ESifh
61
Norwegian Refugee Council, 2004
62
The Mekong Challenge – “Working Day and Night: The Plight of Migrant Child Workers in
Mae Sot,Thailand” – Federation of Trade Unions: Burma, edited by Phillip S. Robertson Jr.,
2006 – p. 17
63
http://www.refugeesinternational.org/content/country/detail/2894

(25)
ywfoufI owfowfrSwfrSwfaz: jy&ygv#if xdkif;EdkifiHY &cdkifjynfe,frS a&$@ajymif;tvkyform;
(50˜000)/ ytdk@0ftvkyform; (40˜000) ESifh rGeftvkyform; (200˜000) &Sdonf[k twnfðy az: jy
Edkifygonf? 64

5? 3? obm0ywf 0 ef ; usif xd c d k u f y suf p D ; r_

vrkawmESihf aus;&Gmydik o
f pfawmrsm;tygt0if {&mropfawmuGurf sm;udk ppfwyfu ‚if;wd@k . pD;yGm;a&;
vkyfief;rsm;twGuf twif;t"rR odrf;,lcJhonf? ukvm;wefjrpf0Srf;Y ppfwyf. ykZGefarG;jrLa&;vkyfief;
ESifh tjcm;pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;twGuf vrkawmrsm; t}uD;tus,f ðyef;wD;oGm;cJhonf?

&cd k i f j ynf e ,f & S d ppf w yf E S i f h a'ovk y f i ef ; &S i f r sm;yd k i f a om yk Z G e f a rG ; jrLa&;vk y f i ef ; rsm;

Topfawmrsm;u urf;ajrudk 'Dvi_d ;f rsm;/ ajrqDvm$ wdu
k pf m;r_EiS hf rkew
f ikd ;f uJo
h @kd aom obm0ab;&efrsm;
. '%fwdk@rS umuG,fay;ygonf?

&cd k i f j ynf e ,f uk v m;wef j rpf a =umif ; wav#muf & S d +cd r f ; ajcmuf c H a e&aom 'D a &a&muf a wmrsm;
64
Primary research AASYC, PYO & MYPO

(26)
xdk@tjyif opfawmrsm;u ig;rsKd;pdwfrsm;/ iSufrsm;ESifh &cdkif awmvdyfrsm;twGufvnf; cdkv_H&mae&m
jzpfonf? “Tae&mY ckavmavmq,ftcsdeftxd ykZGefarG;jrLa&;vkyfief;rsm;ESifh xif;ckwfr_rsm;a=umifh
pwk&ef; uDvdk rDwm (60˜000) cef@ opfawmðyef;wD;oGm;cJh+yD; jzpfonf?”65

uk v m;wef j rpf 0 S r f ; &S d +cd r f ; ajcmuf c H a e&aom opf a wmrsm;

+cd r f ; ajcmuf c H a e&aom &cd k i f a wmvd y f r sm;

(1990) ckvGefESpfrsm;Y &cdkifjynfe,f/ ajryHkòrd@e,f&Sd a'ocHaus;&Gmrsm;ydkifaom uGef;acsmif;awmifwef;
wGifopfrsm;udk tvkt,uf ckwfcJh=uonf? opfawmrsm;xJrS u|ef;ESifh tjcm;opfrmrsm; tygt0if
opfrSefor#udk ckwf+yD; tdENd,ESifh b*Fvm;a'h&SfEdkifiHrsm;odk@ a&mif;cscJhonf? Tvkyfief;wGif e,fcHvlxk
rsm;udk tvkyform;tjzpf iSm;&rf;cJhaomfvnf; vkyfief;udk csKyfudkifrsm;rSmum; e,fajrtm%mydkifrsm;/
e,fcpH ;D yGm;a&;vkyif ef;&Sirf sm;ESihf axmufvrS ;f a&;t&m&Srd sm; jzpfonf? opfawmrSaeI tjrwftpGe;f rsm;
&cJh=uaomfvnf; wm0ef&Sdolrsm;u ckwfvSJcJhaom opfawmrsm;ae&mwGif tpm;xdk; jyefpdkufay;jcif;
65
“Supply and Command” - AASYC, July 2006, p.38

(27)
rðycJhacs? Todk@jzifh e,fajr. a*[pepfudk t}uD;tus,f xdcdkufapcJhonfrSm xif&Sm;vSygonf?

a'ocH jynf o l r sm; xif ; o,f , l a e=uyH k

xdk@tjyif a'ocHjynfolrsm;ydkifaom &dk;&ma&eHwGif;rsm;ESifh a&eHcsuf&Hkrsm;.ae&mwGif yifv,f&yfjcm;
ukr%` rD sm;u ae&m0if,cl ohJ nf? a'ocHjynforl sm;. toufarG;0rf;ausmif; vkyif ef;rsm; qH;k &_;H cJ&h onfh
tjyif obm0ywf0ef;usifvnf; xdcdkufysufpD;cJh&onf? ta=umif;rSm (e0w) ppftpdk;&u T
ukr`%Drsm;tm; obm0ywf0ef;usif xdef;odrf;&efaomfvnf;aumif;/ usiffh0wfpnf;urf;vdkufem&ef
aomfvnf;aumif; owfrw S f jyXmef;ay;jcif;r&Scd ahJ oma=umifh jzpfonf? txl;ojzifh Tukr%
` rD sm;onf
wGif;wl;&mrS xGufvmaom tnpfta=u;rsm;udk pepfwus pGef@ypf jcif;r&Sdacs? Ttnpfta=u;rsm;udk
jrpfrsm;xJodk@ usa&mufapcJh+yD; a'ocHaus;&Gmrsm;. a&ESifh tpm;tpmrsm;udk npfnrf;apygonf?

wG i f ; wl ; &mrS x G u f v maom &$ H @ EG H r sm;a=umif h
&cd k i f j ynf e ,f / ausmuf j zLòrd @ e,f & S d acsmif ; wpf a csmif ; npf n rf ; aemuf u sd a eyk H

(28)
(2004) ESifh (2005) ckESpfrsm;wGif (cr&-423)ESifh (424) wdk@onf &Srf;jynfe,f. ytdk@0fe,fajrjzpfaom
qDqdkifòrd@e,f xD;ref;&Gm.awmifbufwGif obm0a&uef (5) uefteD; ywf0ef;usifrS ajruGufrsm;udk
odrf;,lcJhonf? xdk@tjyif a&uefrsm;.ywf0ef;usifrS opfyiftm;vHk;udk ckwfypfvdkufonf? xdk@aemuf
&Gmom;rsm;udk xdak e&mwGif opfyifrsm;udk jyefpu kd cf ikd ;f onf? ppfwyfu xdu
k efrsm;rS a&udk wyfpcef;xJo@kd
oG,f,lcJhonf? Todk@vkyfvdkufjcif;a=umifh e,fcHaus;&Gmom;rsm;tzdk@vnf; opfyif/ oD;ESHrsm; pdkufysKd;
Edkifjcif;r&Sdawmhonfhtjyif wd&p>mefrsKd;pdwfaygif;rsm;pGmtzdk@vnf; cdkv_Hp&mrJhoGm;apcJhonf? 66

ppfwyfu [dkyHkòrd@e,f/ ewfawmfaus;&GmteD;&Sd v,fajrrsm;udk odrf;,lvdkuf+yD;
e,fcHopfukr`%DwpfckESifhaygif;I opfckwfpcef;wpfck
5? 4? a'oqd k i f & mvk y f i ef ; rsm; csKyf c s,f u ef @ owf c H & jcif ; ES i f h touf a rG ; 0rf ; ausmif ;
vkyfief;rsm;qHk;&_H;jcif;
(1998) ESifh (2002)ckESpftwGif;rSm tpdk;&u ajr,mrsm;udk odrf;,lvdkufjcif;a=umifh rGeft&yfom;
rsm;tzdk@ ajr {u (7˜000) ausmf vufv$wfcJh&+yD; usyfoef; &mcsDwefaom oD;ESHESifh +cHrsm;qHk;&_H;cJh&onf?
vltrsm;tjym; tvkyfvufrJhjzpfoGm;cJhonf? ta=umif;rSm olwdk@.toufarG;0rf;ausmif;vkyfief;rsm;
onf +cHESifh v,f,mwdk@tay:rSm tajccHxm;cJh=uaoma=umifh jzpfonf? vltawmfrsm;rsm;tzdk@
ajr,mrsm;om rubJ xdkajr,mrsm;rSm &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHxm;aom aiGrsm;yg qHk;&_H;cJh=u&jcif; jzpfonf?
om"utm;jzifh az: jy&ygv#if &mbmpdu k yf sK;d olwpfO;D onf &mbmpdu
k yf sK;d aom yxrESpw
f iG f ajrwpf{u
v#if tenf;qHk; usyf (20˜ 000)cef@ tukefuscH&onf? (tyifrsm;rS 0ifaiG&vmonfhtcsdeftxd 7-
ESp/f 8-ESpcf ef@=um avh&o
dS nf?) aemufxyfI "gwaf jr =oZmzd;k / aygi;f &Si;f c/ rD;ab;umuG,af &;pm;&dwrf sm;
&Sad o;onf? uGrf;oD;ESifh 'l;&if;+cHrsm;um; 0ifaiG&onfh tcsdefa&muf&ef onfhxufyif ydkI=umwwf
67

ao;onf? ppfwyfonf bmwpfckr#pOf;pm;jcif;r&SdbJ +cHorm;rsm;xHrS +cHrsm;udkodrf;,l+yD;aemuf olwdk@
tusK;d twGuf oD;ESrH sm;udk qGwcf ;l jcif;ðyonf? TtoufarG;0rf;ausmif;r_vyk if ef;qH;k &_;H r_. tusK;d quf
wGif &mZ0wfr_rsm;wdk;vmjcif;ESifh tvkyf&Sm&ef tdrfeD;csif;EdkifiHrsm;odk@ xGufoGm;=ujcif;yif jzpfonf?
66
Primary Research PYO
67
Interviews with villagers from Koe-mile village, Southern Ye Township – featured in “No
Land to Farm” -Human Rights Foundation of Mon Land, 2002

(29)
ajrtodr;f cH&aom jynforl sm;tzd@k pdwu f sa&m*gEiS hf vlra_ &;b0ysuof Ok ;f jcif; '%fw@kd ukd cHpm;&avonf?
T'%fudk +cHydkif&Sifrsm;omru +cHydkif&Sifwdk@qDrSm tvkyfvkyfaeaom usbrf;tvkyform;ESifh yifwdkif
tvkyform;rsm;yg cHpm;=u&onf? rdom;pktrsm;tjym;onf om;orD;rsm;.ynma&;twGuf
raxmufyHhEdkifawmhonfhtjzpfudkvnf;aumif;/ tdrfom;rsm;. usef;rma&;twGuf jzpfjzpfajrmuf
ajrmuf rwwfEdkifawmhonfhtjzpfudkvnf;aumif; a&muf=u&avonf? ppfwyf. ajrodrf;a&; ay:vpD
onf wduk &f u
kd t
f m;jzifh ajr,mqH;k &_;H &aomolrsm;udo k mru &yf&mG wpfcv k ;kH udyk g xdcu
kd ef pfemap ygonf?

Tjy\emudk rGefjynfe,fw0Srf;vHk;rSm awG@ae&onfjzpfaomfjim;vnf; rGefu,fq,fa&;ESifh zGH@òzd;
aumfrwDtaeESihf awG@&adS e&onfrmS ajr,mtodr;f cH&aom jynfwiG ;f 'kuo Q nftrsm;pkonf a&;òrd@e,f
rS vmolrsm; jzpfae=uonf [laomtcsufyifjzpfonf? ppfwyfrsm;wdk;Icsxm;jcif;ESifh ajrodrf;,lr_
68

rsm; trsm;qHk; jzpfyGm;ae&jcif;.ta=umif;&if;rSm Tòrd@e,fwGif rGefcGJxGufolykeftkyfpk v_yf&Sm;aejcif;
a=umifhjzpfonf?

&cdik Ef iS hf jrefrmvlrsK;d wd@k . vltrsm;pkonf pdu
k yf sK;d jcif;;ESihf ig;zrf;jcif;vkyif ef;rsm;jzifh toufarG;0rf;ausmif;
ðy=uonf? v,f,mESifh O,smOf+cHajrrsm;udk ppfwyfu odrf;,ljcif;a=umifh rdom;pk trsm;tjym;tzdk@
}uD;pGm aom twd'kuQrsm;ESifhñuHawG@=u&ygonf? 0ifaiG&&Sd&mvkyfief;rsm;qHk;&_H;r_a=umifh pm;a&;
aomufa&;rSmaomfvnf;aumif;/ om;orD;rsm;udk ausmif;xm;a&;rSmaomfvnf;aumif; tcuftcJ
awG@=u&onf? odr;f ydu k x f m;aomajr,mrsm;ay:wGif ppfwef;vsm;rsm;/ uif;pcef;rsm;ESihf ppfaq;a&;pcef;
tajrmuftjrm;udk aqmufxm;vdu k =f uonf? tjctaeudk ydI k qd;k &Gm;apaomtcsurf mS e,fcu H ek o
f nf
rnfolrqdk ppfaq;a&;pcef;rsm;udk jzwfoGm;vsuf vkyfief;vkyfvdkygu Tppfaq;a&;pcef;rsm;a&S@rSm
&yfwef@+yD; “tcGef”ay;=u&jcif;yif jzpfonf?69

,ae@jrefrmEdkifiHtESH@tjym;Y ppfwyfrsm;wdk;Icsxm;jcif;ESifh wygwnf;vdkufI jzpfyGm;aeonfwdk@rSm
ppfwyfpcef;rsm;wnfaqmufa&;twGuf twif;t"rRvyk t f m;apcdik ;f jcif;/ topfcsxm;aom ppfwyfrsm;
twGuf e,fcHjynfolwdk@. pm;eyf&duQmrsm;udk tEdkifusifhawmif;,lr_rsm; wdk;I jzpfyGm;vmjcif;/ e,fcH
aus;&Gmom;rsm; . vGwfvyfpGmoGm;vmr_ESifh pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm; tay:csKyfcs,fuef@owfr_rsm;
wdk;vmjcif;wdk@yifjzpfygonf?

6? jrefrmh ajr,mOya'ESifh EdkifiHwumOya'

Oya'teuf wpfckwnf;aom ta&;}uD;qHk;Oya'rSm (1953) ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv(26) &uf ae@pGJyg/
v,f,majr EdkifiHydkifðyvkyfa&;ESifh v,f,majr tufOya'yifjzpfonf? TOya'u ajrtm;vHk;udk EdkifiH
awmftpdk;&u ydkifonf[k jyXmef;xm;cJh+yD; (1974) ckESpf tajccHOya'rSmvnf; xnfhoGif;jyXmef;xm;
cJhonf? ,ae@jrefrmEdkifiHrSm Oya'usifhoHk;aer_onf a,bk,stm;jzifh TtufOya'udk y,fvSefxm;
a=umif; awG@& onf? TOya'onf v,f,majr yk*~vduydkifqdkifr_tcsKd@udk todtrSwfðyxm; (yk'fr-
68
“No Land to Farm” - Human Rights Foundation of Mon Land, 2002
69
Primary Research AASYC

(30)
38) aomfvnf; a&mif;0,fr_ESifh v$Jajymif;r_udk uef@owfydwfyifxm;+yD; tpdk;&tzdk@ yvyfv,f,m
ajrrsm;udk odr;f ,lciG ahf y;xm;onf (yk'rf -9-12)?70 xd@k tjyif (1963) ckEpS /f oD;pm;csxm;a&; tufOya'/
(1963) ckESpf/ v,f,majr vkyfydkifcGifh umuG,fa&; tufOya' ESifh trdef@a=ujimpm trSwf (4§78)
wd@k uvnf; jynfow l @kd . ajr,m ydik q
f ikd cf iG u
hf kd qufvufI uef@owfyw d yf if xm;cJo h nf? ydIk qd;k onfrmS
tu,fI v,form;rsm;taeESifh tpdk;&owfrSwf ay;xm;aomoD;ESHudk pdkufysKd;&ef ysufuGufv#if
(od@k r[kw)f owfrw S x f m;aom txGuEf e_ ;f twdik ;f xGu&f adS tmif rpdu
k rf sK;d Edik v
f #if (od@k r[kw)f owfrw S f
xm;aomcGJwrf;twdkif;/ óudwifowfrSwfxm;aom aps;E_ef;jzifh tpdk;&odk@a&mif;cs&ef ysufuGufv#if
v,f,majrudk odrf;,l&efvnf; TOya'u tpdk;&udk cGifhðy xm;onf? 71

(1974) ckESpf/ zGJ@pnf;yHk tjccHOya'. yk'fr (18) wGif atmufygtwdkif; qufvufaz: jyxm;onf-

Ed k i f i H a wmf t pd k ; &onf ajray:ajratmuf / a&ay:a&atmuf obm0o,H Z mwypP n f ;
tm;vH k ; ES i f h w uG ajr,mtm;vH k ; ud k yd k i f q d k i f a om tjrif h q H k ; yd k i f q d k i f o l j zpf o nf ?

TOya'ud k Ed k i f i H a wmf . tajccH r l } uD ; wck t jzpf (2004) ck E S p f Zef e 0g&D v wG i f
xyf a vmif ; twnf ð yxm;cJ h o nf ?

urBm@ukvor*~ vl@tcGifhta&;a=ujimpmwrf; (1948-ckESpf/ 'DZifbmv) . yk'fr(17) wGif atmufyg
twdkif; az: jyxm;onf?
(1) vlwdkif;onf wpfOD;csif;aomfvnf;aumif;/ trsm; oligESifh aygif;zGJ@Iaomfvnf;aumif;
OpPmypPnf; ydkifqdkifcGifh &Sdonf?
(2) rnfol. OpPmypPnf;udkr# tEdkiftxufðyI vufvGwfqHk;yg;apjcif; rðy&?

onfhaemufydkif; EdkifiHwum a=unmpmwrf;rsm;ESifh EdkifiHwum oabmwlpmcsKyfrsm;uvnf; yk*~vdu
OpPmypPn;f ydik q
f ikd cf iG Ehf iS phf yfvsO;f I tumtuG,af y;xm;onf? ydI
k ta&;}uD;onfrmS TudpEP iS hf pyfvsO;f
I pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&; ESifh ,Ofaus;r_qdkif&m EdkifiHwum oabmwlnDcsuf (ICESCR) yk'fr 11 (1)
wGif “æ rnfolrqdk rdrdESifhwuG rdrd.rdom;pktzdk@ vHkavmufaom tpm;tpm/ t0wftxnf/ tdk;tdrf
wdk@tygt0if vHkavmufaom aexdkifr_tqifhtwef;jzifh aexdkifcGifh” udk twnfðy ay;xm;onf? 72

jrefrmEdkifiHonf (ICESCR) . tzGJ@0ifEdkifiH wEdkifiHr[kwfaomfvnf; yk'fr (11) onf EdkifiHwum
xHk;wrf;Oya'. tqifhtwef;rsKd;&SdEdkifI jrefrmEdkifiHudkvnf; tñuH;0ifapygonf? xdk@jyif obm0 Oya'
t&qdkv#if EdkifiHwumpmcsKyfOya'atmufrSm&Sdaeaom rnfonfhtpdk;&. jyXmef;csufrsm; &Sdaeonf
jzpfap vlom;tm;vHk;onf vlom;jzpfonf[laom ta=umif;tcsufa=umifh vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh
oufqdkifaeygonf?
70
Primary Research AASYC
71
“Mission Impossible” - Moo Ko Htee: Burma Issues Newsletter, April 2008
72
http://www.cohre.org/store/attachments/COHRE%20Burma%20Country%20Report.pdf (p24)

(31)
tcsKyftm;jzifq h &kd v#if tqufqufaom Edik if w H umoabmwlpmcsKyfrsm;ESihf a=unmcsurf sm;u vlwpf
OD;csi;f . OpPmypPn;f ydik q
f ikd cf iG hf cdik rf mvmatmif óu;d yrf;cJah omfvnf; tqufqufaom jrefrmEdik if H ppftpd;k &
rsm;url ‚if;wdk@. avsmfa=u;ay;jcif; jyefvnfukpm;r_vkyfay;jcif; r&SdbJ jynfolwdk@xHrS ajr,mrsm;
odrf;,lcGifh udk cdkifrmvmatmif óud;yrf;vmcJhonf? Todk@óud;yrf;&mY ppftpdk;&onf wurBmvHk;t}uHK;
0ifaom Edik if w
H umOya'rsm;udk ajzmifah jzmif}h uD;qef@usiu f m jrefrmEdik if o
H m;wd@k . td;k tdrv
f akH vmufpmG
&SdcGifh/ toufarG;0rf;ausmif;cGifh/ rdrdwdk@.aetdrfrsm;odk@ jyefvnfajymif;a&$@aexdkifcGifh (odk@r[kwf) avsmf
a=u;&&SdcGifh wdk@udk csKd;zsufcJhonf?

jref r mEd k i f i H . wpf c k w nf ; aomOya'onf u m;
Ad k v f c sKyf r sm;u tm%mwnf a p[k ae@pOf qH k ; jzwf a om Oya'yif jzpf o nf ? 73

7? jrefrmEdkifiH\ zGHYjzdK;a&;pDrHudef;rsm;

r=umao;cifESpfrsm;twGif;Yvnf; ajrodrf;jcif;/ twif;t"rRae&ma&$@ajymif;jcif;/ ppfwyfrsm;wdk;I
csxm;jcif;/ (etz) ppftpdk;& taumiftxnfaz:aom zGH@òzd;a&;vkyfief;pDrHudef; trsKd;rsKd;ESifhywfoufI
t"rRvyk t f m; apcdik ;f jcif;wd@k jzpfymG ;cJo h nf? TpDru H ed ;f rsm;wGif a&eHw;l jcif;/ a&eHcsujf cif;/ obm0"gwaf iG@
ydkufvdkif;rsm;oG,fjcif;/ a&tm;v#yfppfxkwfrnfhqnfrsm;aqmufvkyfjcif;/ rD;&xm;vrf;/ armfawmfum;
vrf;azguv f yk jf cif;ESihf wHwm;aqmmufvyk jf cif;vkyif ef;rsm; yg0ifonf? rsm;r=umao;rSu D yif =uufqyl if
pdu
k cf if;rsm;udk rpdu k rf ae& pdu k cf ikd ;f cJo
h nf? TpDru H ed ;f rsm;udk Edik if jH cm;ukr%
` rD sm;u trsm;tm;jzifh rdrw
d @kd
wdkif;jynftpdk;&rsm;. pD;yGm;a&;ydwfyif'%fcwfr_udk zDvmðyIaomfvnf;aumif;/ vufwpfvHk;jcm;
a&Smifwdrf;Iaomfvnf;aumif;/ pDrHaqmif&Gufae=ujcif; jzpfonf? wenf;qdk&v#if (etz) ppftpdk;&
onf aps;òydifpepft& aps;trsm;qHk;ay;olrsm;udk wdkif;jynf. obm0t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk a&mif;cs
jcif;tm;jzifh jrefrmEdik if EH iS hf pD;yGm;a&; vkyu f ikd v
f akd e=uaom Edik if jH cm;tpd;k &rsm;ESihf qufqaH ejcif; jzpfonf?
Todk@jzifh rdrdjynfolwdk@jynfolrsm;pGmudk tusKd;cHpm;cGifhrJhapcJhonf? pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rS &&Sdavmaom
aiGrsm;jzifh ppftoHk;pm;&dwf wdk;jr‡ifhaejcif;jzpf&m TaiGrsm;onf ppftpdk;& tm%m\qufvuf+rJae
apa&;udk taxmuftulðyaeygonf?

&cdkifjynfe,f taemufbufurf;vGef/ b*Fvm;yifv,fatmf&Sd obm0"gwfaiG@wGif;rsm;rSaeI w&kwf
jynfawmifydkif;/ ,leefjynfe,fodk@oG,fwef;&ef&nf&G,fxm;aom a&$ "gwfaiG@ydkufvdkif;onf ta&S@
awmiftm&S. obm0"gwfaiG@ydkufvdkif;rsm;wGif t&Snfvsm;qHk;jzpfvm&ef&Sdonf? ae&mtESH@tjym;
ajr,modrf;,lr_rsm;/ vHk+cHKa&;twGuf ppfwyfcsxm;r_rsm;/ owfrSwfxm;aom vrf;a=umif;wav#muf
wGif awm&Si;f &eftwGuf twif;t"rRvyk t f m;apcdik ;f r_rsm; jzpfvmawmhrnf[k apmif=h unfah 0zefow l @kd u
óudwu G xf m;cJ=h uonf? Tpd;k &drrf r_ sm;onf jrefrmEdik if t
H a&S@yikd ;f / weoFm&Dwikd ;f udk jzwfomG ;aom &wem
ESifh &JwHcGef"gwfiG@ydkufvdkif; tawG@t}uHKwdk@rSaeI ay:xGufvmcJhjcif; jzpfonf? TpDrHudef;rsm;wGif
&if;ESD;jr‡yfESHr_. wdkuf&dkuftusKd;quftjzpf pepfwus vl@tcGifhta&; csKd;azgufr_rsm; jzpfyGm;cJha=umif;
awG@&onf? om"utm;jzifh wifjy&aomf (2000) ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmv (27) &ufae@Y rGefaus;&Gmwpf&Gm
73
P. Gutter & B. K. Sen, “Burma’s State Protection Law: An Analysis of the Broadest Law in the
World” (Burma’s Lawyer Council 2001).
(32)
jzpfaom 0Ju&wf aus;&GmrS tdrf (20)onfvnf; aumif;/ 0JoGef;acsmif; aus;&GmrS tdrf (10) tdrfonf
vnf;aumif;/ obm0"gwfaiG@ydkufvdkif;twGuf vrf;&Sif;ay;&mY avsmfa=u;r&bJ zsufypfcHcJh&onf?
aus;&Gmom;rsm;onf tdrfrJh/ ajrrJhrsm; jzpfoGm;cJh=uonf?74

(etz) ppftpdk;&ESifh tdENd,/ b*Fvm;a'h&Sftpdk;&wdk@ oabmwlnDr_rsm;vkyf+yD;aemufwGif (2009) ckESpfrS
pI &cdkifjynfe,f/ ukvm;wefESifh av;òrd@jrpfrsm;Y a&tm;v#yfppfqnfrsm;wnfaqmuf&ef pDrHudef;rsm;
csrSwfcJhonf? ukvm;wefpDrHudef;t& qnfaqmufvkyf+yD;pD;oGm;v#if ukefwifoabFmrsm; oGm;vm
0ifxGufEdkifa&;twGuf ukvm;wefjrpfrSma&m/ ppfawGqdyfurf;rSmyg aomifwl;vdrfhrnf jzpfonf? ppfawG
(&cdkifjynfe,f.òrd@awmf) e,fajr&Sd tdrfrsm;tzsufcH&rnfhtjyif jrpfurf;rsm;wav#muf&Sd a&aeowW0g
rsm;ESifh vrkawmrsm;rSmvnf; qdk;qdk;&Gm;&Gm; xdcdkufayvdrfhrnf? a'oaejynfol trsm;tjym;.
toufarG;0rf;ausmif;r_vkyfief;rsm;vnf; xdcdkufOD;rnfhtjyif Te,fajrrSmomawG@&wwfaom ouf&Sd
owW0grsm;. cdkv_H&mae&mrsm;onfvnf; +cdrf;ajcmufcH&ayOD;rnf? TpDrHudef;rsm;ESifhywfoufI
apmif=h unfah 0zeforl sm;u oHviG q
f nfEiS hf avmydwqnf pDru
H ed ;f rsm; taumiftxnfaz:pOfu ajrodr;f
r_rsm;a&m qnfaqmufvkyf&mY twif; t"rRvkyftm;apcdkif;r_rsm;yg jzpfyGm;cJhaom tawG@t}uHKrsm;udk
axmufjy=uonf?75

r=umao;rSD (2005) ckESpf/ 'DZifbmvY (etz) ppftpdk;&u "gwfqDaps;usqif;a&;twGuf[kqdkum
tpm;xdk;avmifpmqDtaeESifh ZD0'DZ,fxkwfvkyfa&;twGuf wpfEdkifiHvHk;rSm =uufqlqDyif pdkufysKd;&ef
trdef@xkwfcJhonf? (3) ESpftwGif; =uufqlyif {u (8) oef;pdkufysKd;&ef &nf&G,fvsuf e,fajrtus,f
t0ef;ao;onfjzpfap }uD;onfjzpfap/ pdkufysKd;&ef oifhawmfonfjzpfap/ roifhawmfonfjzpfap jynf
e,f (odk@r[kwf)wdkif;toD;oD;rSm {u (500˜000) uspD pdkufysKd;aponf? odk@jzpfI &efukefwdkif;u
‚if;.pkpkaygif;ajrtus,ft0ef;teuf ajr (20µ)udk vnf;aumif;/ u,m;jynfe,fu (17µ) udk vnf;
aumif; =uufqlyifpdkufysKd;&rnfjzpfonf? Trwefr&m &nfrSef;csufjynfhajrmufapa&;twGuf
tjcm;aomzG@H òzd;a&;pDru
H ed ;f rsm;enf;wlyif ajrodr;f ,lrr_ sm;ESihf t"rRvyk t
f m;apcdik ;f r_rsm; jzpfymG ;cJo
h nf?76

74
“No Land to Farm” - Human Rights Foundation of Mon Land, 2002. (for full information on
the Yadana & Yetagun Projects see “Total Denial” & “Total Denial Continues” – Earth
Rights International, 1996 & 2000)
75
For full information on the Lawpita and Salween Dam projects see “Dammed by Burma’s
Generals: the Karenni Experience with Hydropower Development – From Lawpita to the
Salween” - Karenni Development Research Group, 2006
76
“Biofuel by Decree” – Ethnic Community Development Forum (2008) p7

(33)
(2008) ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv (4) &ufae@wGif/ &cdkifjynfe,f/ acsmif;0aus;&GmtkyfpkY ajcjrefwyf&if;trSwf
(542) u aus;&Gmom;rsm;ydkif pm;usufajr {u (40) ay:wGif =uufqlyif (48˜ 000) pdkufysKd;cdkif;cJhonf?

a&;òrd @ e,f & S d / od r f ; ,l x m;onf h ajrauG u f a y:wG i f
pd k u f y sKd ; xm;aom =uuf q l y if (15) {upd k u f c if ;

om"utaeESifhaz: jy&ygv#if a&;òrd@e,frS acgZmòrd@e,fcGJodk@oGm;&m um;vrf;ab;wav#mufwGif
e,fajrqdkif&m wyf&if;rsm;u &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;tm; =uufqlyifrsm;udk rpdkufrae& pdkufcdkif;cJhonf?
a'ocHjynfolrsm; onf tyifaygufwyifv#if (1˜000) usyf (ar&duefa':vm 7²5 a':vm) E_ef;jzifh
e,fajrtm%mydkifrsm;xHrS 0,f=u&onf? tcsKd@&Gmrsm; txl;ojzifh uavmhaus;&GmESifh udk;rdkifaus;&Gm
wdk@onf tyifrsm; rpdkufrDrSm ajr udk xGef,ufðyjyif ay;=u&onf? 77

(2008) ckEpS f {+yDvwGif ppftpd;k &u tdE,
dN Edik if o
H @kd qDtek ;f ESihf ukvm;yJpu
kd yf sK;d &eftwGuf ajr[uf
wm aygif; (40˜000) udk tiSm;csay;cJhonf? (2008) ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmvwGifvnf; (etz)
ppftpdk;&u b*Fvm;a'h&Sftpdk;&xHodk@ &cdkifjynfe,f&Sd pyg;pdkufajr {u (50˜000) udk tiSm;cs
ay;cJhonf?

pyg;pdkufajr trsm;pkonf ajrmufOD;ESifh rmefatmifu|ef;wdk@rSjzpfonf? Tajrrsm;onf w&m;0if
tm;jzifh ppf wyfydkifajrrsm;[k qdkaomfvnf; trSefwu,ftm;jzifhrl e,fjrv,form;rsm;xHrS
odrf;,lxm;jcif; jzpfonf? rnfonfhavsmfa=u;r#ay;jcif; r&Sdonfhtjyif aemufxyfI ajrodrf;
OD;rnfvm;[k pdk;a=umuf ae=u&onf? Todk@ vkyfvdkufjcif;a=umifh e,fajra'otwGif; 0rf;pm
&duQmESifhywfoufI qdk;qdk;&Gm;&Gm;xdcdkuf vmEdkifp&m ta=umif; &Sdaeonf?

77
Primary field research by MYPO

(34)
“v,fajr{u (50˜000) udk tiSm;csvdkufw,fqdkawmh &cdkifjynfe,fu vlawG iwfukefrSm
aocsmygw,f?” [k trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf (&ckdifjynfe,f). wGJbuftwGif;a&;rSL;
OD;odef;vd_ifu ajymygonf? 78

8? avhvmawGY&Sd&aom vufawGYjzpf&yfrsm;

vuf a wG @ jzpf & yf (1)

trnf - (az: jyjcif;rðyyg)
usm;§ r - (az: jyjcif;rðyyg)
ae&yfvdyfpm - qDqdkifòrd@/ &Srf;jynfe,f?
tcif;jzpfyGm;aomae@ - (2007-2008)ckESpf

&Srf;jynfawmifydkif;/ qDqdkifòrd@e,ftajcpdkuf/ ajcjrefwyf&if; (cr&-423) ESifh (424)wdk@onf (1992-
93) ckESpfwGif vma&muf tajcpdkufcJh=uonf? Twyf&if;rsm;onf aus;&Gmom;rsm;. v,fajrrsm;ESifh
ajruGufrsm;ukd avsmfa=u;aiGwpfjym;wcsyfr# ray;bJ ‚if;wdk@. wyfpcef;rsm;twGuf odrf;,lcJh=uonf?
(1996) ckESpf/ pufwifbmvwGif (cr&-424) onf wyfpcef;wdk;csJ@a&;twGuf ‚if;wyfpcef;. taemuf
buf&Sd aemifvHk aus;&Gmom;rsm;udk wpfvtwGif;ajymif;a&$@oGm;&ef trdef@xkwfcJhonf?

(2005) ckESpfwGif (cr&-423) ESifh (424) wdk@onf &Gmom;rsm;ydkifaom v,f (odk@r[kwf) ,majr{u
(5˜ 000) udk odrf;,lcJhonf? odrf;,laomajr,mrsm;teuf (8) {utwGufomv#if avsmfa=u;ay;
cJhonf? xdk@tjyif (2007) ESifh (2008) ckESpfrsm;twGif;Y awmifolv,form;rsm; rdrdwdk@v,f,mrsm;rSm
jyefvnfpdkufysKd;cGifh&a&;twGuf wpf{uv#if (5˜ 000) usyf (tr&duefa':vm 3² 7 a':vm) E_ef;jzifh
oD;pm;cay;&onf?

“v,fcif;&SifawGu tyifawGpdkufzdk@ tqifoifhjzpfaecsdefrSmyJ Armppfwyfu 'Dv,fawGudk odrf;vdkuf+yD
qdkwJhta=umif; ppfAdkvfwpfa,mufa&;xm;wJhpmwapmifa&mufvmw,f”[k bmoma&; acgif;aqmif
wpfOD;uajym jycJhonf? 79

vuf a wG @ jzpf & yf (2)
trnf - (az: jyjcif;rðyyg)
usm; §r - (az: jyjcif;rðyyg)
ae&yfvdyfpm - ukvm;ukef;&yfuGuf/ [dkyHk;òrd@/ &Srf;jynfe,f?
tcif;jzpfyGm;aomae@ - (2004) ckESpf
78
Democratic Voice of Burma: http:/english.dvb.no/news.php?id=1849 (10th October 2008)
79
Primary field research by PYO

(35)
(2004) ckESpfwGif jynfaxmifpk}uHhcdkifa&;ESifh zGH@òzd;a&;toif; (USDA) u ukvm;ukef;&yfuGuf upm;
uGi;f udk odr;f ,lco
hJ nf? a'ocHvil ,facgi;f aqmifrsm;u uef@uu G af eonfh =um;xJuyif }uHch ikd af &;toif;
u tdrrf sm; ESiahf ps;qdik rf sm;udk aqmufco
hJ nf? Tod@k uef@uu
G &f jcif;jcif;rSm taqmuftOD;rsm;aqmufvyk f
+yD;oGm;onfESifhwòydifeuf jrefrmt&m&Sdrsm;u ajr,mOD;ydkif rSwfyHkwif+yD; tjrwfwifI jyefa&mif;pm;
vdrrhf nf[k a'ocHvx l rk sm;u odae=uaoma=umifh jzpfonf? od@k jzpf&m a'ocHvil ,frsm;u taqmuf
tOD;rsm;udk zsufqD;ypf=uum ajrudk jyefodrf;,l=uonf? xdktcgY &Jt&m&Sdrsm;/ ppfom;rsm;/ }uHhcdkifa&;
toif;ESifh òrd@tm%mydkiftcsKd@ wdk@u upm;uGif;udk jyefodrf;,l&onfhtjzpfodk@a&mufcJhonf?

xdkESpfxJrSmyif/ [dkyHk;òrd@e,f/ òrd@e,fat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifh zGH@òzd;a&;aumifpD (rtz) u Zdkrde,fajr&Sd/
txufwef;ausmif;. taemufbuf ajr{u (1˜ 400) udk odrf;,l&ef tpDtpOfvkyf=uonf? TtpD
tpOfudk }uHhcdkifa&;toif;/ ppfwyf/ &JwyfzGJ@ESifh ajrwdkif;t&m&Sdrsm;u taumiftxnfaz:=uonf?
[dyk ;kH òrd@ taemufbuf&/dS vGKd ifteG ;f aus;&Gmom;rsm;ydik o
f nfh u|EJ mG ;pm;usuf {u (500) udv
k nf; odr;f ,l
vdkuf=uonf? xdk@aemuf [dkyHk;tm%mydkifrsm;u xdk{u (500) udk OD;ydkifrSwfyHkwifvdkuf=u+yD;v#if
wdk;eD;,m;ukr`%Dodk@a&mif;vdkuf=u&m/ ukr`%Du ajruGufudk ‚if;.u|JEGm;wd&p>mefrsm; twGuf
toHk;csavonf?

“}uHhcdkifa&;toif;/ &JwyfzGJ@/ rD;owfwyfzJG@ 'grSr[kwf ppfwyfxJu vlwpfa,mufa,mufjzpfr,f
qdk&if óudufwJhajruGufudk ,lvdk@&w,f? &Srf;jynfom;awGuawmh ydkif&Sif&J@cGifhðycsufr&bJ/ b,f
ajruGufudkrS r,lcsif =uygbl;?”[k [dkyHk;òrd@om;vli,fwOD;u ajymygonf?80

vufawG@jzpf&yf (3)

trnf - Edkifxxxxx(ESifh nDtpfudkarmifESpfrrsm;)?
usm;§r - trsKd;om;?
touf - 45?
tvkyftudkif - &mbm+cHydkif&Sif?
ae&yfvdyfpm - a&;+rKdh/ rGefjynfe,f?
tcif;jzpfyGm;aomae@ - rwfv (2008) ckESpf?

zcifxHrS Edkif xxxxx ESifh nDtpfudkarmifESpfrrsm; tarG&xm;aom ajr (15) {uudk (2008) ckESpf/
rwfvwGif ppfwyfu odrf;,lcJhonf? TajruGufwGif &mbmyiftawmfrsm;rsm;&Sdonf? +cHudktarG&+yD;
aemuf nDtpfudk wawGu vmrnfhrdk;&moDwGif +cHudkckwfxGif&Sif;vif;um &mbmyiftopfrsm; xyfrHI
pdkufrnf[k pDpOfxm;cJh =uonf? TwGif ajcjrefwyf&if; trSwf (586) u ajrwdkif;t&m&Sdjzpfol OD;vSxl;
atmif/ &Gmvl}uD;jzpfol Edkifvlat;wdk@ESifh aygif;um óudwifowday;jcif;/ avsmfa=u;ay;jcif;r&SdbJ +cHudk
odrf;,lvdkufonf?

80
Primary field research by PYO

(36)
&Gmvl}uD; Edik v
f al t;tm;ar;jref;pHpk rf;=unf&h m tqdyk g ajruGuu f kd (2006) ckEpS u
f wnf;u ajr&dik ;f tjzpf
owfrw S x f m;cJ+h yD; ajrpm&if;&H;k . ajryHx
k rJ mS ydik &f iS rf t
hJ jzpf owfrw
S x f m;cJah =umif; Edik v
f al t;u ajymjycJh
onf? “rif;wdk@ajrudkjyefvdkcsif&if rif;wdk@nDtpfudkawG wa,muf (5˜ 000) (tar&duefa':vm 3² 7
a':vm)pDay;&r,f” [k Ekdifvlat;u vdk&if;udk ajymjyonf? Edkifxxxxxx wdk@ nDtpfudk wawGu
oabmwlum aiGay;+yD;/ ajr udk jyef,lcJh=uonf? odk@&mwGif olwdk@udk ay;xm;onhfuwd twdkif; w&m;
0ifpm&Gufpmwrf;rsm;udkawmh r&&Sd ao;acs? jynfe,ft&m&SdxHrSm arwWm&yfcHcJhaomfvnf; tqJcH
&&Hkom&SdcJh onfhtwGuf aejynfawmfokd@ oGm;a&mufoifjycJhaomfvnf; bmta=umif;rS r&&SdcJhay? 81

vufawG@jzpf&yf (4)
trnf-roef;vS?
usm; §r-trsKd;orD;?
touf- (18)ESpf?
tvkyftudkif- O,smOftvkyform;?
ae&yfvdyfpm- ykZGefazaus;&Gm/ ajrmufOD;òrd@e,f/ &cdkifjynfe,f?
tcif;jzpfyGm;aomae@ - Zlvdkif (7) &uf/ (2006) ckESpf

ajrmufOD; òrd@e,f/ ykZGefaz&GmrS touf (18) ESpft&G,f&Sdol roef;vSudk ppfom;wpfpku &uf&uf
pufpuf t"rR ðyusifhcJhonf?

rdbrsm;. +cHrS jyefvm&mvrf;wGif roef;vSonf e,fjrtwGif; uif;vSnfhaeaom ppfom;wpfpkESifh
yufyif; wdk;rdcJhonf? ppfom;rsm;u olrtm; b,fujyefvmovJ[k ppfvm;ar;vm;vkyfonf? olru
rdbrsm;. +cHrSm tvkyfvkyf&mrS jyefvmjcif;jzpfonf[k jyeftajzwGif ppfom;wapf,mufu olr.
vufudkqGJum ajr}uD;ay:odk@ twif;vSJcsvdkufonf? olr idk,dk/ toem;cHaeonfh=um;xJuyif ppfom;
rsm;u T (18) ESpf t&G,f rdef;uav;udk wpfa,muf+yD; wpfa,muf t"rRðyusifhcJh=uonf? +yD;awmh
rSyif olrudk teD;tem;&Sd +cHawmxJrSm ypfxm;cJh=uonf? xdkae@aESmif;ydkif;wGif &Gmom;wpfOD;u rdef;
uav;. tavmif;udkawG@&Sd+yD; rdbrsm;xH oGm;a&muf today;cJhonf? rdbrsm;u olr. tavmif;udk
ajrmufO;D aq;&Ho k @kd o,f,o
l mG ;cJ=h uonf? rk'rd ;f r_ukd ajrmufO;D tajcpdu
k f wyf&if; (227) rS ppfom;rsm;u
usL;vGefcJh=ujcif;jzpfonf? Tppfom; (7) a,mufudk ta&;,lay;&ef roef;vS.rdbrsm;u tr_zGifh
wdkif=um;cJhaomfvnf; oufqdkif&mu rnfol@udkr# w&m;&Hk;odk@ pGJqdkwifydk@jcif;r&SdcJhacs? 82

vuf a wG @ jzpf & yf (5)
trnf - Edkif—- (vHk+cHKa&;twGuf trnfudkv#dK@0Sufxm;ygonf)?
touf - (58) ESpf?
tvkyftudkif - &mbm+cHKydkif&Sif?
ae&yfvdyfpm - uGef'l;aus;&Gm/ rGefjynfe,f?
81
Primary field research by MYPO
82
Primary field research by AASYC

(37)
tcif;jzpfyGm;aomae@- =o*kwfv (2005) ckESpf?

Edkif—- ESifhZeD;wdk@onf [ef*efaus;&GmrSm aexdkif=uolrsm;jzpfonf? ol@ZeD;onf uGef'l;aus;&GmrSjzpf+yD;
xdk &GmrSm olw@kd yikd af om &mbm+cH (10) {u&So
d nf? (2005) ckEpS /f =o*kwv
f wGif 'kAv
kd rf LS ;}uD; cifarmiftek ;f
OD;pD;aom (cr&-587) u T&mbm+cHajr. (7) {uudk odrf;,lcJhonf? xdktcsdefu &mbm+cH (7) {u
. umvwefbdk;rSm usyf(20˜000˜000) (tar&duefa':vm 15˜000 a':vm) jzpfonf?

“'D&mbm+cHawGtukefvHk;udk EdkifiHawmfu vdktyfvdk@ ppfwef;vsm;aqmufr,fqdk&if wdkif;jynftwGuf
odr;f vd@k &w,fv@kd Adv
k rf LS ;}uD;u ajymw,f? usaemfah jrudk Edik if aH wmfu ydik w
f mjzpfv@kd olw@kd ord ;f ,lwmvd@k
usaemfhudk ajymw,f?”[k Edkif— u ajymjycJhonf?

Edkif— u ol@ +cHjyef&a&;twGuf ajrpm&if;XmerSm tultnDoGm;awmif;cJhonf? odk@&mwGif ajrpm&if;
XmerS wm0ef&Sdolu T+cHajrtm;vHk;udk EdkifiHawmfuydkifojzifh olwdk@vnf; rnfodk@r#rwwfEdkifa=umif;
ajymjycJhonf?

Edkif— rSm om;orD; (7) a,muf&Sdonf? (5) a,mufu xdkif;EdkifiHxJrSm tvkyfvkyfaeonf? usef (2)
OD;u tdrfaxmifus+yD;jzpfae=uum rdbrsm;udk tultnDray;Edkif=uacs? olu touft&G,f}uD;&ifh+yD
jzpfI +cHtvkyfudk oludk,fwdkif rvkyfEdkifawmhacs? odk@jzpfI usef &mbm+cH (3) {utwGuf tvkyfvkyf&ef
tvkyform; (3) OD;udk iSm;&rf;&onf? tvkyform; (3) OD;udk vkyfc &Sif;ay;+yD;aemufwGif ol@rdom;pk
twGuf aiG jzpfjzpf ajrmufajrmuf rusefawmhacs?83

vuf a wG @ jzpf & yf (6)
trnf - (az: jyjcif;rðyyg)?
usm;§r - trsKd;orD;?
touf - (50)?
tvkyftudkif - v,form; O,smOfydkif&Sif?
ae&yfvdyfpm - rl&if;aus;&Gm/ rl&if;aus;&Gmtkyfpk/ ausmufjzLòrd@e,f?
tcif;jzpfyGm;aomae@ - (30) &ufae@/ ZGefv (2008) ckESpf?

(2006) ckESpfwGif "n0wDa&wyfpcef;onf =uufqlyifpkdufysKd;&eftwGuf ausmufjzLòrd@e,f/ rl&if;aus;
&Gmtkyfpk/ ukef;abmifawmf[kac:aom txufawm e,fajrudk odrf;,lcJhonf? Te,fajrudk a'ocH
aus;&Gmrsm;u ajryJESifh oD[dkVfyifrsm;pdkufysKd;&m ajr,mtjzpf toHk;ðycJh=uonf? &Gmom;rsm;tzdk@
avsmfa=u; wpfjym;wpfcsyfr# r&bJ/ "n0wDa&wyfpcef;XmecsKyf('&c)u Tajrudk ,ck =uufqlqDyif
rsm; pdkufysKd;xm;vdkuf+yDjzpfonf? &Gmom;rsm;tzdk@ todrf;cHxm;&aomajrrSm ajryJpdkufysKd;Edkifjcif;
r&Sdawmhojzifh toufqufvuf &SifoefEdkifa&;twGuf tonf;toef vHk;yrf;ae=u&onf?

83
Primary field research by MYPO

(38)
ydI
k qd;k onfrmS &Gmom;rsm;onf a&wyf. pdu k cf if;twGuf xGe,
f ufay;&jcif;jzpf+yD; wpf{uv#if aiGusyf
(10˜ 000) cef@wefa=u;&Sod nf[k qdyk gonf? Tod@k xeG ,
f ufay;jcif;twGuf tca=u;aiG wpfjym;wpfcsyf
r# r&&Sd=uacs? tu,fI pdkufcif;xJodk@ EGm;wpfaumif 0ifpm;rdyguvnf; '%faiGusyf (10˜ 000)
(tar&duef a':vm 7 ² 4 a':vm) ay;&onf?

rl&if;aus;&Gmtkyfpk uef‹vef‹wJ aus;&Gm/ OD;bwif. oD[dk+cHY ppfom;wtkyf}uD; pcef;csae=uonf?
oD[dk+cHtrsm;tjym;udk ppf wyfrsm;u odrf;xm;=uojzifh aus;&Gmrsm;tzdk@ ESpfpOf cef@rSef;ajc 0ifaiG
usyf (10) oef; (tar&duefa':vm 407² 40 a':vm) cef@qHk;&_H;ae=u&onf? ppfwyf. =uufqlqDyif
pdkufcif;vnf; rjzpfxGef;acs? uef‹vef‹wJ bwfpfum;*dwfrS rl&if;*dwft=um;&Sd pdkufysKd;ajr{u (100)
ausmfudk e,fcHaus;&Gmrsm;xHrS odrf;,lxm;onf? todrf;cH&aomajrrsm;wGif aus;&Gm. pD;yGm;a&;
vkyfief;rsm;twGuf toufaoG;a=umjzpfaom O,smOf+cHrsm; ESifh pm;usufrsm;yg0ifygonf? u|JEGm;pm;
usufr&Sdawmhjcif;a=umifh e,fcHaus;&Gmrsm;twGuf t}uD;tus,f tcufawG@ae&onf? 84

OD ; bwif . tod r f ; cH & aomajray:rS m pd k u f y sKd ; xm;onf h =uuf q l y if p d k u f c if ;

vuf a wG @ jzpf & yf (7)

trnf - (az: jyjcif;rðyyg)?
usm;§r - usm;
touf - (27) ESpf?
tvkyftudkif - e,fcHa&eHwl;orm;?
ae&yfvdyfpm - a&eHawmifaus;&Gm/ rif;jyifaus;&Gm tkyfpk/ &cdkifjynfe,f?
tcif;jzpfyGm;aomae@ - (12) &ufae@/ {+yDv (2008) ckESpf?

84
Primary field research by AASYC

(39)
&d k ; &menf ; jzif h w l ; aoma&eH w G i f ;

at;&Sm;a0g ukr`%DvDrdwuf (Asia World Ltd) onf tjcm;aom jrefrmukr`%DwckESifhtwl (2004)
ckESpfwGif ausmufjzLòrd@e,fodk@ a&mufvmcJhonf? at;&Sm;a0g ukr`%DvDrdwufonf ausmufwpfvHk;
bk&m;teD;&Sd &rRm0wDukr`%DvdrdwufwGif pcef;csonf? tjcm;ukr`%Du ausmufajymufaus;&Gmtkyfpk/
0ajr‡mifaus;&Gm rlvwef; ausmif;Y pcef;csonf? vrf;twGufawm&Sif;&ef &Gmom;rsm;udkiSm;+yD;/
wae@vkyfctjzpf(1˜200) usyf ay;onf?

a&eHtprf;wGif;rsm;wl;+yD;aemuf (2005) ckESpf/ arvwGif ukr`%Drsm;jyefoGm;=uonf? xdkESpf
pufwifbmv wGif jyefvm=u+yD;aemuf atmufwdkbm/ Edk0ifbmESifh 'DZifbmvrsm;wGif aemufxyf
tprf;wGif;rsm;ukd &rf;+AJuGsef;tESH wl;=ujyefonf? xkdtprf;wGifrsm;wGif ,rf;bDvl;rsm;jzifh azgufcGJ
r_rsm;a=umifh pyg;cif;rsm;ESifh O,smOfjcHajr trsm;tjym; ysufpD;oGm;cJh onf? v,fcif;ESifh +cHydkif&Sifrsm;udk
avsmfa=u;ay;rnf[k ukr`%Drsm;uajymcJhaomfvnf; rae@txdr&&SdcJhacs?

(2006) ckESpfqef;ydkif;wGif/ at;&Sm;a0g ukr`%DvDrdwufonf a'otm%mykdifrsm;ESifhyl;aygif;+yD;
a&eHawmif&GmrS OD;armifapmatmif/ OD;armifa0wif/ OF;armifvSESifh OD;armifvSwifwdk@ydkifaom ajr (2)
{uausmfausmfudk odrf;,lcJhonf? Tajrae&mrsm;onf t*Fvdyftpkd;&vufxufuwnf;u &dk;&menf;
jzifh a&eHwl;&mae&mrsm;jzpfonf? ukr`%Donf wGif;wl;&mae&mrsm;tjyif &Gmom;rsm;ydkifaom
&dk;&ma&eHwGif;trsm;tjym;udkyg zsufqD;ypfcJhojzifh a'ocHa&eHawmif&Gmom;rsm;. pD;yGm;a&;ukd
rsm;pGmxdcdkufcJhygonf?

xdk@jyif ausmufjzL+rdKhrS OD;0if;aZmfv_difydkifaom &dk;&ma&eHcsufpuf&Hkudkvnf; zsufqD;ypfcJhonf? OD;pae
atmifESifh ‚if;.tvkyf orm;rsm;tm; ay;rnfqdkaom vkyftm;c aiGusyf (1) oef;udkvnf; r&&SdcJhacs?
at;&Sm;a0gukr`%DvDrdwufrS jrefrmtvkyform;wpfOD;u TaiGudk xkwf,l+yD; xGufajy;oGm;cJhonf?
ukr`%Du TaiGjyef&a&;twGuf ta&;,l aqmif&Gufay;jcif;vnf; r&SdcJhacs? odk@jzpf&m OD;paeatmif

(40)
taeESifh ol@tvkyform;rsm;twGuf ay;p&m&Sdonfrsm;udk rdrdtdwfxJrSaiGjzifh pdkufay;cJh&+yD; ol@rSm
vkyfief;t}uD;tus,fxdcdkufcJh&onf?

&d k ; &ma&eH w G i f ; rsm;

&d k ; &ma&eH c suf p uf & H k

wGi;f wl;&mrS xGuv
f maom &$@H ErHG sm;udk acsmif;0acsmif;xJo@kd pD;0ifnpfnrf;apcJu
h m a'owGi;f &Sd ig;rsK;d pdwf
rsm;udk aoa=uysufpD;apcJhonf? (2007) ckESpfqef;ydkif;Y wGif;wl;&mrSm toHk;ðycJhaomypPnf;rsm;

(41)
yvyfpwpf trd_ufrsm;udk rD;&_d@cJh&m tqdyfoifhapaom rD;cdk;rsm;xGufvmcJh+yD; a&eHawmifteD;&Sd aus;&Gm
om;rsm;. usef;rma&;udk qdk;qdk;&Gm;&Gm; xdcdkufapcJhonf? xkdjzpf&yfrsm;a=umifh a'ocH&Gmom;rsm;ESifh
at;&Sm;a0gukr`%DvDrdwufwkd‹jy\emjzpf=u&m &Gmom;trsm;tjym;ukd zrf;qD;cJhonf? (2007) ckESpf/
{+yD - arvrsm;wGif pDrHudef; &yfqdkif;oGm;cJhonf?

&cd k i f j ynf e ,f / ausmuf j zLe,f a jr. v,f u G u f w pf c k x J w G i f at;&S a 0guk r ` % D v D r d w uf u
a&eH @ wG i f ; wl ; +yD ; aemuf pG e f @ ypf x m;cJ h a om trd _ u f o &d k u f y pP n f ; rsm;

,cktcgY odrf;,lxm;+yD; v,fajrrsm;udk oHql;óud;jzifh 0if;cwfum&Hxm;+yD; &Gmom;rsm; teD;tem;
odk@rvm a&mufEdkifatmif e,fajr&JwyfzGJ@tygt0if tapmifhwyf wwyfjzifh wif;wif;usyfusyf apmifh
=uyfxm;onf? 85

oH q l ; }ud K ;rsm;jzif h um&H x m;aom od r f ; yk d u f c H a jr,m

85
Primary field research by AASYC

(42)
9? ed*Hk;

(etz) ppftpdk;&. ppfwyfrsm;wdk;Icsxm;a&;ESifh OD;a&wdk;vmaom ppfwyfrsm;twGuf ae&mxdkifcif;
ay;&ef twGufa&m/ au|;xm;&eftwGufyg ajr,modrf;,la&;wnf;[laom ESpfcGay:vpDudk qufvuf
usifhoHk;aer_ a=umifh jrefrmjynfwjynfvHk;tESH@rSm jy\emrsm;jzpfyGm;cJhygonf? avsmfa=u;ray;bJ
aomfvnf;aumif;/ rjzpfpavmufr#aomavsmfa=u;ay;vsufaomfvnf;aumif; trsm;jynfolwdk@
vkyfudkifpm;aomufp&m ajr,mrsm;udk vk,ljcif;a=umifh trsm;jynfolwdk@rSm &duQmESifh aomufoHk;a&
csKd@wJhjcif;/ om;orD;rsm;udk ausmif;rxm;Edkifawmhjcif;/ tvkyfvufrJhjzpf&jcif;uJhodk@aom qdk;qdk;&Gm;&Gm;
jy\em}uD;rsm;ESifh }uHKawG@=u&avonf?

xd@k tjyif tpd;k &. aqmufvyk af &;ESihf zG@H òzd;a&;pDru H ed ;f rsm;wGif twif;t"rRvyk t
f m; apcdik ;f jcif;ay:vpDukd
usio hf ;kH jcif;ESihf wpfygwnf;rSmyif TpDru
H ed ;f rsm;a=umifh obm0ywf0ef;usirf mS qd;k qd;k &Gm;&Gm;xdcu kd cf u
hJ m
wdik ;f jynfw0Sr;f vH;k rSmvnf; }uD;rm;aom use;f rma&;jy\emrsm; jzpfymG ;cJo h nf? Tta=umif;w&m;rsm;
. pkpkaygif;tusKd;qufum; a&=unf&mjrufEk&m&Smaomtm;jzifh vltrsm;tjym; wdkif;jynfrS xGufajy;
oGm;=ujcif;om jzpfawmhonf?

10? tBuHKjyK wifjycsufrsm;

wdik ;f &if;om; vlrsK;d rsm;zG@H òzd;a&;qdik &f m qH&k yf (Ethnic Community Development Forum – ECDF)
. zGH@òzd;a&;vkyfief;rsm;qdkif&m tajccHrl (3) &yfudk vdkufem usifhoHk;jcif;r&SdbJ rnfonfhzGH@òzd;a&;vkyfief;
udkr# rvkyfoifhacs?
(1) trsm;jynfolwdk@. ydkifqdkifr_rsm; zGH @òzd;a&; vlwdkif;onf rdrdwdk@. obm0t&if;tjrpfrsm;/
yk*u
d~ ydik yf pPn;f ESihf ,Ofaus;r_w@kd ukd trSew f u,ftm;jzifv
h nf;aumif;/ Oya't&vnf;aumif; ydik q
f ikd cf iG /hf
toHk;ðycGifh/ pDrHcGifhESifh xdef;odrf;cGifh &Sd&rnf?

(2) zGH@òzd;a&;vkyfief;wGif trsm;yg0ifcGifh&Sda&; - vlwdkif;onf rdrdwdk@ESifhoufqdkifaom zGH@òzd;a&;
vkyif ef; (od@k r[kw)f pDru
H ed ;f wpHw
k &mESihf ywfoufI wufwufºuGºuG yg0if aqmif&u G cf iG hf &S&d rnft
h jyif
aumif;pGmyg0ifEdkifjcif;vnf; &Sd&rnf? xdk@tjyif xdkzGH@òzd;a&;vkyfief;rsm;rS tusKd;aus;Zl;rsm;udk wef;
wlnDr#cHpm;cGifhvnf;&Sd&rnf? vlxkw&yfvHk;tm; óudwiftoday;xm;+yD; xdktodjzifh vlxk}uD;u
oabmwljcif;jzpf&rnft h jyif vlx}k uD;. b0ESihf toufarG;0rf;ausmif;r_qikd &f m vHðk cHru_ v kd nf; tjynfh
t0 tmrcH&rnf?

(3) a&&SnfwnfwHhzGH@òzd;a&; - zGH@òzd;a&;pDrHudef;rsm;onf trsm;jynfolwdk@. vwfwavm vdktyfcsuf
rsm; jznfh qnf;ay;a&;udk OD;wnfaqmif&u G &f rnfth jyif trsm;jynfow
l @kd . ,Ofaus;r_tarGtESprf sm;udk
ysufpD;apjcif; r&Sd&? xdk@tjyif tem*wfrsKd;qufrsm;. vdktyfcsufrsm;udkvnf; xdcdkufapjcif;r&Sd&?

(43)
(etz) ppftpdk;&odk@

♦ avsmfa=u;ray;bJ ajrodrf;ydkufaom ay:vpDudk csufcsif;&yfypf&ef?
♦ ajr,mESifh aetdrfqHk;&_H;cJholrsm;udk xdkufoifhaom avsmfa=u;rsm; ay;aqmif&ef?
♦ trsm;jynfolwdk@tm; yHkpH (105) jzifh ajr,mrSwfyHkwif&efvdktyfa=umif; ynmay;jcif;tm;jzifh
ajr,mESifh tdk;tdrfypPnf; w&m;0ifydkifqdkifr_udk Oya'jzifh oifhavsmfpGm tumtuG,fay;&efESifh
todtrSwfðyay;&ef?
♦ EdkifiHjcm;tpdk;&rsm;/ ukr`%Drsm;ESifh zGH@òzd;a&;pDrHudef;pmcsKyfrsm; oabmwlvufrSwf rxdk;rDwGif
oifhawmfaom ywf0ef;usifxdcdkufr_ tuJjzwfcsufrsm; (Environment Impact
Assessments) vkyf&rnf?

EdkifiHjcm;om; &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHolrsm;odk@

♦ vuf&Sd&if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_rsm;udk csufcsif; &kyfodrf;oGm;&ef?
♦ jrefrmEdkifiHrSm vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azgufr_rsm;tqHk;owfoGm;+yD; 'Drdkua&pDenf;us a&G;aumuf
wifajr‡mufjcif;cH&aom tpdk;&wufvmonfhtcsdeftxd aemufxyf&if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_rsm; quf
rvkyf&ef?

EdkifiHwumtodkif;t0dkif;odk@ tpdk;&rsm;tm;vHk;odk@

♦ jrefrmEdkifiHESifh ukefoG,fr_ odk@r[kwf jrefrmEdkifiHrSm &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_udk ydwfyifaomtm;jzifh
pD;yGm;a&;'%fcwfr_rsm;csrSwf&ef? txl;ojzifh (etz) ppftpdk;&xHodk@ ppfvufeuf ypPnf;rsm;
a&mif;csjcif; rðy&ef?
♦ vuf&SdcsrSwfxm;+yD;jzpfaom pD;yGm;a&;'%fcwfr_rsm;ESifhywfoufI csrSwfxm;onfh twdkif;
xdxda&mufa&muf aqmif&Guf&ef?
♦ 'Drdkua&pDodk@ trSefwu,fa&S@&_oGm;atmif ppftpdk;&tm; (TpD;yGm;a&;'%fcwfr_rsm;r&kyf
odrf;rcsif;) zdtm;ay;oGm;&ef?

tmqD,Hodk@
♦ 'Drdkua&pDenf;usa&G;aumufwifajrmufxm;aom tpdk;&wufvm+yD; vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azguf
r_rsm; tqHk;owf roGm;rcsif; - jrefrmEdkifiHudk tzGJ@0iftjzpfrS raES;tjref xkwfy,fypf&ef?

(44)
11? tzGJYtpnf;rsm;\ aemufcHtaMumif;

&cd k i f j ynf v k H ; qk d i f & m ausmif ; om;ES i f h vl i ,f r sm; tpnf ; t&k H ; (AASYC)

AASYC onf jrefrmEdkifiHtaemufydkif;/ &cdkifjynfrS ausmif;om;ESifh vli,frsm;udk udk,fpm;ðyonfh
oD;jcm;vGwfvyfaomtzGJ@tpnf;wpfckjzpfonf? (1995) ckESpf atmufwdkbmvwGif zGJ@pnf;cJhonf jzpf
aomfvnf; jrefrmEdkifiHrSm ppfwyftm%modrf;cJhonfh (1988) ckESpfrSm pwif t&if;cHcJhonf? XmecsKyfudk
rJaqmufrSm xm;&Sd+yD; b*Fvm;a'h&SfEdkifiHwGif &Hk;cGJxm;&Sdonf? rav;&Sm;EdkifiH/ puFmyl/ awmifudk&D;,m;/
,lEdkufwufuif;'rf/ tar&duefjynfaxmifpk/ qGD'ifESifh e,fomvefEdkifiHwdk@wGifvnf; a'oqdkif&m
tquftoG,frsm;&Sdonf? (2000) ckESpfwGif a&$"gwfaiG@v_yf&Sm;r_ (www.shwe.org) jzifh yGJOD;xGuf
v_yf&Sm;cJhonf? &cdkiftrsKd;om;aumifpD (Arakan National Council-ANC)/ wdkif;&if;om;
vli,frsm;qkH&yf (Nationalitieas Youth Forum-NYF) / jrefrmEdkifiH ausmif;om;ESifh vli,frsm;
uGe*f &uf (Students & Youth Congress of Burma - SYCB)/ wdik ;f &if;om; vlrsK;d rsm; vlxzk @HG +zdK;a&;
qk&H yf (Ethnic Community Development Forum - ECDF) / vltcGit hf a&;rSww f rf;Xme (jrefrmEkid if )H
(Network for Human rights Documentation Burma – ND-Burma) ESifh jrefrmEdkifiHjrpfrsm;
qdkif&m uGef&uftzGJ@ (Burma Rivers Network – BRN) wdk@. tzGJ@0ifjzpfonf?

&ckdifjynfvkH;qkdif&m ausmif;om;ESifh vli,frsm; tpnf;t&kH; (AASYC) .
OD ; wnf c suf r sm;rS m

(1) &ckdifausmif;om;ESifh vli,frsm; Avig;wefzGH+zdK;a&;?
(2) &ckdifh a*[pepfESifh ,Ofaus;r_ItarGtESpfrsm;ukd xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufa&;?
(3) &ckdifwpfrsKd;om;vkH; aoG;pnf;nDnGwfa&;?
(4) e,fcsJ@vlrsKd;}uD;0g'ESifh ukdvkdeDpepf wkdufzsufa&;?
(5) tzdESdyfcHwkdif;&if;om;jynfolwpf&yfvkH; vGwfajrmufa&;?
(6) 'Drkdua&pDESifh vl@tcGifhta&;&&Sda&;?
(7) &ckdifwpfrsKd;om;vkH; ukd,fh=urRmukd,fzefwD;cGifhESifh ukd,fykdifjyÏmef;ykdifcGifh&&Sda&;?

(AASYC) onf jrefrmEdkififiHrSm 'Drdkua&pDusifhoHk;a&;tjrifESifhywfoufI vlrsKd;pktzGJ@tpnf;trsm;
tjym;. rJoa0gxmoabmwlnDcsufrSmyg0if oabmwlvufrSwfa&;xdk;cJhaom tzGJ@tpnf;wpfck
jzpfonf? (AASYC) onf 'Dru kd a&pDtzG@J tpnf;rsm;ESihf r[mrdwzf @JG vsuf jrefrmppftpd;k &qef@usiaf &;
t=urf;rzufay:vpDudk usifhoHk;onf? jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif;&Sd rdrd.owif;&yfuGufrsm;udk tm;udk;
tm;xm;ðyvsuf &cdkifESifh jrefrmvlrsKd;todkif;t0dkif;udkvnf;aumif;/ EdkifiHwumtodkif;t0dkif;udk vnf;
aumif; owif;tcsuftvufrsm;ay;&efESifh ynmay;&eftwGuf pmapmiftrsm;tjym;udk xkwfa0jzef@
csDcJhonf?

(45)
ytkd0f;vli,f tpnf;t&kH; (PYO)

ytkd0f;vli,ftpnf;t&kH;ukd jrefrmEkdifiHa'otESH@tjym;rS jynfyokd@a&muf&Sdvmaom ytkd0f;&[ef;
oHCmESifh ytkd0f;vli,farmifr,frsm;u 1998 ckESpf 'DZifbm (4) &ufae@wGif jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;cJhonf?
ytkd0f;vli,ftzGJ@onf jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;ESifhvli,frsm;uGef*&uf (Students & Youth Con-
gress of Burma-SYCB) ESifh wdkif;&if;om;vli,frsm;qkH&yf (Nationalitieas Youth Forum-NYF)
wdk@. tzGJ@0ifvnf; jzpfonf?

ytk d 0 f ; vl i ,f tpnf ; t&k H ; (PYO) . t"d u &nf r S e f ; csuf r sm;rS m
(1) +idrf;csrf;vGwfvyf+yD; w&m;r#wr_ tjynfht0&Sdaom vl@abmifopfwpf&yfukd wnfaqmuf
oGm;&ef?
(2) tem*wfacgif;aqmifaumif;rsm;twGuf rsKd;qufopf ytkd0f;vli,frsm;ukd jyKpkysKd;axmif
oGm;&ef?

ytk d 0 f ; vl i ,f t pnf ; t&k H ; . &nf & G , f c suf
(1) ytkd0f;vlrsKd;wkd@. pmayESifh ,Ofaus;r_"avhxkH;pHrsm;udk xdef;odrf;apmifha&SmufoGm;&ef?
(2) ytkd0f;vli,fxkrsm;t&nftaoG;ESifh zefwD;Ekdifr_pGrf;tm; ykdrkdjrifhrm;vmap&ef?
(3) vl@tcGit hf a&;ESihf obm0ywf0ef;usif xde;f odr;f a&;qkid &f mwk@d udk ytk0d ;f a'otwGi;f &Sd jynfol
wkd@ ykdrkdem;vnfod&Sdvmap&ef?
(4) jrefrmEkdifiHwGif wef;wl+yD; ukd,fykdifjyÏmef;cGifhtjynfht0&Sdaom zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk
ay:aygufvmap&ef?

wk d ; wuf a omrG e f v l i ,f t pnf ; t&k H ; aemuf c H o rk d i f ;

wdk;wufaom rGefvli,ftpnf;t&Hk; (MYPO) udk rGefjynfe,f&Sd/ òrd@e,ftoD;oD;rS vli,frsm;
ESifh 2001 ckESpfwGif zGJ@pnf;cJhjcif;jzpfonf? tzGJ@.t"du&nf&G,fcsufrsm;rSm jrefrmEkdifiH. 'Drdkua&pD
ESifh vl@tcGifhta&;wdkufyGJudk tm;ay;a&;ESifh jrefrmEdkifiH.+idrf;csrf;onfh 'Drdkua&pDtoGiful;ajymif;a&;
twGuf tm;aumif;aom vlxktajcjyKtzGJ@tpnf; ay:aygufa&;jzpfonf?

wk d ; wuf a omrG e f v l i ,f t pnf ; t&k H ; (MYPO). t"d u &nf r S e f ; csuf r sm;rS m
(1) vli,frsm;ESifh wuf=uGvSKyf&Sm;olrsm;. t&nftaoG;jr‡ifhwifa&;
(2) rGefvlrsKd;wkd@. t&HekdifiHa&;tiftm;pktjzpf vli,frsm;ukd jyKpkysKd;axmifa&;
(3) vlxktajcjyKtzGJG@tpnf;rsm;. uGef,ufrsm;tm;aumif;a&;
(4) 'Drdkua&pDESifh vlxktajcjyKtzGJ@tpnf;qdkif&m t,ltqrsm;udk us,fus,fjyef@jyef@
jzef@csda&;?
(5) rGefpmay/,Ofaus;rSkukd xdef;odrf;jrSifhwifa&; wkd@jzpfonf//

(46)
"mwf y k H
a&S ‹ rsuf E S m zk H ;
rGefjynfe,frS rdom;pkwpfpk (MYPO)

aemuf r suf E S m zk H ;
[kdykH;+rdK‹ ajrmufbuf *sKHpkduf&majr,mtm;
ppfwyfuodrf;,l+yD; =uufqlyifrsm; pkdufysKd;xm;ykH (PYO).

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