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2-Selection phase

Selecting starter mode

Motor starter basic functions

A motor starter unit has four basic functions: -- Isolation of the load from the main power supply, -- Protection against short-circuit, -- Protection against overload, -- Control (start, stop, speed). Each motor starter unit can be enhanced with additional functions depending on its system requirements: -- Power: speed controller, soft starter, phase reversal, etc, -- Control: auxiliary contacts, time-delay, communication, etc. Starter are selected based on the power and control specifications

Power specifications related to the load

The choice of starter is determined by: -- Mechanical characteristics of the load (torque, inertia, speed. -- Power and electrical motor characteristics -- Necessary protections These criteria are used to define one of the following solutions -- Direct on line starter -- Progressive start-up with soft starters -- Start-up at variable speed with variable speed drive (VSD) The step for selecting and dimensioning the power part of the starter will not be developed in this document. Readers can refer to the specific guides and Schneider Electric catalogs.

Direct on line starter

bb Direct on line starter This solution comprised a magneto-thermal breaker and a contactor that covers the power range up to 110kW. It provides the following basic functions: Protection against short circuit Protection against overload On/Off commutator

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bb TeSys U starter controller is an integrated Direct On Line starter up to 15kW which performs the following functions: vv protection and control of single-phase or 3-phase motors: -- breaker function, -- overload and short-circuit protection, -- thermal overload protection and power switching,
C.U.

vv control of the application: -- protection-function alarms, -- application monitoring (running time, number of faults, motor current values, ...), -- logs (last 5 faults saved, together with motor parameter values). These functions can be added by selecting control units and function modules which simply clip into the power base. The product can therefore be customised at the last moment.

2-Selection phase

Selecting starter mode

Direct on line starter

bb TeSys T motor management system The capability of over-current relay is limited when problems associated with voltage, temperature or special applications must be taken into account. TeSys T provides complete management of the motor and its load. It incorporates below functions: -- current and voltage sensors -- hybrid analog and digital electronic technology, -- the use of communication buses for data exchange and control, -- powerful motor modelling algorithms, -- application programs whose parameters can be set.

Soft starter

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bb ATS 48 Soft Starter Soft start - soft stop unit is a controller with 6 thyristors which is used for the torque-controlled soft starting and stopping of three-phase squirrel cage asynchronous motors in the power range between 4 and 1200 kW. It offers soft starting and deceleration functions along with machine and motorprotection functions as well as functions for communicating with control systems. These functions are specially designed for use in applications such as pumps, fans, conveyors, which are primarily to be found in the construction, food & beverage and chemical industries. The highperformance algorithms of the Altistart 48contribute significantly to its robustness, safety and ease of setup. Contactor and circuit breaker could be replaced by a TeSys U controler associated with a specific module for soft starter or variable speed drive.

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Variable speed drive starter

bb ATV 31 variable speed drive is a frequency inverter for single and 3-phase squirrel cage asynchronous motors rated between 0.75 and 15kW. The Altivar 31 is robust, compact and easy to use. It incorporates functions that are suitable for the most common applications, including pumps, fans, conveyors, mixers... Modbus and CANopen protocols are integrated into the ATV31 as standard. Altivar 31 drives are supplied with a heatsink for normal environments and ventilated enclosures. Multiple units can be mounted side by side to save space.
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bb ATV61 variable speed drive is a frequency inverter for 3 phase asynchronous motors rated between 0.75 and 630kW. The Altivar 61 includes specific functions for pumping and ventilation application: -- energy saving -- automatic catching of a spinning load with speed detection -- adaptation of current limiting according to speed -- noise and resonance suppression (adjustment of switching frequency) -- Integrated PID regulator -- Electricity and service hours meterdetection of absence of fluid, -- detection of zero flow rate, limiting of flow rate -- customer settings with display of physical values (bar, I/s, C, etc) -- The contactor and the circuit breaker can be replaced by a TeSys U controller.

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2-Selection phase

Selecting motor control devices

Introduction

The starter mode is closely linked to the load carried by the motor. The table below presents several typical applications in process control, part of which are used in processes such as water treatment or cement production. The examples illustrate how the selection is made.

Selecting devices

Type of actuator Centrifugal Pump

Description/ comment . Centrifugal pumps are used to cover a wide range of volume and pressure conditions. . The flow can be controlled by using valves on the pump discharge manifold or by changing the rotation speed.

Power Range 1 kW to 10 Kw

Torque

Direct On Line

Soft Speed starter Drive

quadratic 10kW to >1MW

Dosing pump

. Dosing pumps are frequently used to inject fluids that may be difficult to mix efficiently in batch-tank systems because of their low < 10 kW Constant volume.

Screw pump

. Screw pumps are also known as Archimedes' screw. . They are used for lifting large volumes of 1 to fluid or material to a limited height. 50 kW . They are driven through a speed reduction gear . Mixers are used to give homogeneity to fluids. . Agitation is also used to speed up chemi1 to cal process. . Mixing is performed by a propeller rotating 50 kW in the fluid driven by a speed reduction gear . Moving devices drive various types of mechanical systems such as: rotators, scrapers, shields, compressors, conveyors

Constant

Mixer

Constant

Moving devices

1 to 10kW

Constant

Air blower and . Air blowers or fans are used to provide air fan or oxygen for ventilation or aeration tank Flow can be adjusted using a mechanical system (fixed speed) or variable speed drive. Energy savings are possible by operating at reduced speed. Mills and crushers are used to grind materials. They are typically high torque.

Quadratic 10 kW or to 1 MW constant

Mill and crusher

50kW to variable 2 MW

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2-Selection phase

Selecting motor control devices

Control starter functions

Depending on needs, it is necessary to control some or all functions of a starter. The principal function groups are: Motor control performance Control on power, torque, speed, reversing, start time, and risk of jamming are required.. Next table summarizes the main characteristics of pumps found in process applications. Motor protection Its purpose is to avoid operating motors in abnormal conditions which could result in negative events such as: overheating, premature ageing, destruction of electrical windings, damage to coupling or gear box,. Motor metering and monitoring functions The purpose of implementing measurement devices is to ensure continuous supervision of motor operating conditions. The collected data can be used with great benefit on improving energy efficiency and extending motor lifetime. Monitoring functions allow you to control costs, schedule maintenance operations and keep historical information for legal requirements. The table on the next page presents a synthesis of different device functions.

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