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1. Plant extracts for preventing and treating hair loss and scalp disorder

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By Choi, Cheol Hui; Cho, Hun; Sandeep, Karna; Moon, Yeong Suk; Kim, Gwon Cheon; Choi, Eun Seo From Repub. Korean Kongkae Taeho Kongbo (2013), KR 2013068307 A 20130626, Language: Korean, Database: CAPLUS The present invention relates to a compn. comprising exts. of various plants, such as Glochidion hirsutum, Glochidion velutinum, Cinnamomum tetragonum, Memecylon edule, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Allospondias lakonensis, Commersonia bartramia, Syzygium, Syzygium formosum, Choerospondias axillaris, Lumnitzera racemosa, Osbeckia stellata, Trema orientalis, Lithocarpus gymnocarpus, Planchonella obovata, Triumfetta grandidens, Triumfetta bartramia, Mallotus apelta, Baccaurea ramiflora, and Sonneratia alba. The compn. is formulated as oral, topical or cosmetic formulation. The compn. comprising the plant exts. is used for preventing or treating scalp disorder, peptic ulcer, stomatitis or mouth ulcer, wound, burn, fracture, peripheral vascular disease and hair loss due to hormonal causes, nutritional imbalance stress and diseases, by inhibiting the activities of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase. ~0 Citings
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.

2. Proximate composition and antioxidant activity of dried Belimbing dayak (Baccaurea angulata) fruits By Jauhari, Nurhazni Khir; Ibrahim, Darina; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Yahya, Mohammad Nor Adros; Nor, Norazmir Md.; Isa, Khairil Anuar Md.; Ayob, Mohd. Khan; Omar, Muhammad Nor; Hazali, Norazlanshah From Sains Malaysiana (2013), 42(2), 129-134. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS Baccaurea angulata or locally known as 'belimbing dayak' or 'belimbing hutan' is an underutilized fruit indigenous to Borneo with its proximate anal. and antioxidant values are yet to be explored. Proximate anal. and antioxidative properties of oven-dried B. angulata fruits of three fractions; whole fruit, skins and berries were evaluated. From the anal. conducted, whole fruit, berries and skins fraction of B. angulata contained 2.83%, 5.15% and 0.28% of total fat; 3.11%, 3.43% and 3.89% of protein; 16.66%, 19.09% and 11.37% of moisture; 4.57%, 3.68% and 7.28% of total ash and water activity (Aw) of 0.41, 0.44 and 0.44, resp. Evaluation of antioxidant activities using ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Trolox/ABTS equiv. antioxidant capacity (TEAC) revealed that the skins fraction exhibits highest antioxidant activities (p<0.05) followed by whole fruit and berries fractions. The antioxidant activities were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with total phenolic and total flavonoid content but not to anthocyanins. Considering the nutritional values it contained, B. angulata is another good source of natural antioxidants with significant health benefits and high value for commercialization. ~0 Citings
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.

3. Effect of solvent extraction system on the antioxidant activity of some selected wild edible fruits of Meghalaya state in India By Seal, Tapan; Chaudhuri, Kaushik; Pillai, Basundhara From Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research (2013), 5(1), 276-282. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS The present communication deals with the antioxidant activity of the benzene, chloroform, acetone and methanol exts. of five wild edible fruits e.g. Zanthoxylum armatum, Gomphogyne cissiformis, Gymnopetalum cochinensis, Artocarpus gomeziana, and Baccaurea sapida collected from Meghalaya state in India. The total phenolic content varied from 0.72 0.34 to 4.30 0.53 mg/g, 0.19 0.11 to 4.89 0.86 mg/g, 1.58 0.21 to 34.24 0.25 mg/g and 21.14 0.23 to 96.19 1.18 mg/g dry material in the benzene, chloroform, acetone and methanol exts. of the fruits resp. Flavonoids and flavonols content were found highest in the acetone ext. of Gymnopetalum cochinensis whereas least amt. of flavonoids present in the acetone ext. of Baccaurea sapida. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of the exts. was detd. spectrophotometrically. The highest radical scavenging was obsd. in the methanol ext. of Artocarpus gomeziana with IC50 = 0.19 0.0005 mg dry material. The greater amt. of phenolic compds. leads to more potent radical scavenging effect as shown by the methanol ext. of Artocarpus gomeziana. The reducing power of the exts. of the plants were also evaluated as mg AAE (ascorbic acid equiv.)/g dry material. The results indicate that these wild edible fruits can be utilized as natural antioxidant. ~0 Citings

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4. Antioxidant activity of some selected wild edible fruits of North-Eastern region in India and effect of solvent extraction system By Seal, Tapan; Chaudhuri, Kaushik; Pillai, Basundhara From Global Journal of Environmental Research (2012), 6(3), 84-90. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.5829/idosi.gjer.2012.6.3.390 The present communication deals with the antioxidant activity of the benzene, chloroform, acetone and methanol exts. of five different wild edible fruits viz, Zanthoxylum armatum, Gomphogyne cissiformis, Gymnopetalum cochinensis, Artocarpus gomeziana and Baccaurea sapida collected from different places of North-Eastern region in India. The total phenolic content varied from 0.72 0.34 to 4.30 0.53 mg/g, 0.19 0.11 to 4.89 0.86 mg/g, 1.58 0.21 to 34.24 0.25 mg/g and 21.14 0.23 to 96.19 1.18 mg/g dry material in the benzene, chloroform, acetone and methanol exts. of the fruits resp. Flavonoids and flavonols content were found highest in the acetone ext. of Gymnopetalum cochinensis whereas least amt. of flavonoids present in the acetone of Baccaurea sapida. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of the exts. was detd. spectrophotometrically. The highest radical scavenging was obsd. in the methanol ext. of Artocarpus gomeziana with IC50 = 0.19 0.0005 mg dry material. The greater amt. of phenolic compds. leads to more potent radical scavenging effect as shown by the methanol ext. of Artocarpus gomeziana. The reducing power of the exts. of the plants were also evaluated as mg AAE (ascorbic acid equiv.)/g dry material. The results indicate that these wild edible fruits can be utilized as natural antioxidant. ~1 Citing
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.

5. Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits: Cheapest nutritional source for the rural people of Bangladesh By Tariqul Islam Shajib, Md.; Kawser, Mahbuba; Nuruddin Miah, Md.; Begum, Parveen; Bhattacharjee, Lalita; Hossain, A.; Fomsgaard, Inge S.; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul From Food Chemistry (2013), 140(3), 466-470. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.11.035 Ten minor indigenous fruits were analyzed for nutrient compn. The levels of ascorbic acid, total carotenoids (as carotene), and minerals (Ca, Mg, K, P, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) were detd. The obtained data were compared with literature and ref. values. The ascorbic acid levels were highest in wood apple (Aegle marmeleos) and lowest in roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa). Monkey jack (Artocarpus lakoocha) contained the highest amts. of carotenoids, zinc, and copper. Antidesma velutinum had the highest contents of calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus. Wood apple and monkey jack had the highest potassium levels. Most of the minor fruits had much higher amts. of ascorbic acid than the major local fruits (Jackfruit, mango) and exotic fruits (apple, grape, orange, pomegranate). The local people should be made aware of the nutritional value of the minor fruits for their mass consumption and for growing more of the minor fruit trees to protect them from extinction and to maintain biodiversity. ~0 Citings
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.

6. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some promising wild edible fruits By Prakash, D.; Upadhyay, G.; Gupta, C.; Pushpangadan, P.; Singh, K. K. From International Food Research Journal (2012), 19(3), 1109-1116. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS

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In order to identify the potential sources of natural polyphenols with promising antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA) some under utilized edible fruits were studied for total phenolic contents (TPC), AOA and FRSA. The TPC varied from 7.3 (Ficus hookeri, fruits) to 119.2 mg/g GAE (Emblica officinalis, fruits), fruit pericarp of Castanopsis tribuloides (46.8 mg/g), fruits of Spondias axillaries (69.4 mg/g) and seeds of Emblica officinalis (81.5 mg/g) were found to have good amts. of TPC. The AOA varied from 8.6 (Citrullus colocynthus, seeds) to 80.3% (Emblica officinalis, fruits). The fruits of E. officinalis, Spondias axillaries and Baccaurea sapida were found to have good amts. of TPC and high AOA; low IC50, low EC50, reasonably good values of antiradical power (ARP) that support their effectiveness towards protection of DNA nicking and indicating strong FRSA. The IC50 values for inhibition of lipid per oxidn. measured by ammonium thiocyanate assay ranged from 0.50 to 4.30 mg/mL; fruits (0.50 mg/mL) and seeds (0.92 mg/mL) of Emblica officinalis, fruits of Spondias axillaries (0.66 mg ml) and Baccaurea sapida (0.84 mg ml) showed better inhibition of peroxide formation compared to ref. std., quercetin (1.27 mg/mL). The ferrous ion-chelating capacity in terms of IC50 values varied from 0.28 (E. officinalis, fruits) to 2.83 mg/mL (Spondias axillaries, seeds). Further, the ferric ion chelating capacity of fruits of Baccaurea sapida (0.47 mg/mL) and E. officinalis (0.15 mg/mL) were obsd. to be better as compared to std. quercetin (0.66 mg/mL). Non enzymic reactive oxygen species scavenging activity of the fruit exts. of E. officinalis (1.56 mg/mL), B. sapida (1.09 mg/mL) and S. axillaries (1.24 mg/mL) were found to be potent superoxide radical scavengers. Fruits of E. officinalis, B. sapida and S. axillaries showed reasonably good site specific inhibition of hydroxyl radical induced deoxyribose degrdn. on the other hand the non site specific inhibition exhibited IC50 values of 0.45 (E. officinalis, fruits) to 4.01 mg/mL (Cyphomandra betacea, seeds). Promising samples were further assayed for their specific phenolic compn. through HPLC and MS/MS which showed that fruits of E. officinalis were found to be potential source of caffeic acid; fruits of B. sapida of ellagic acid, fruits of S. axillaries and B. sapida of gallic acid. ~0 Citings
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.

7. Tree species diversity of a 20-ha plot in a tropical seasonal rainforest in Xishuangbanna, southwest China By Lan, Guoyu; Zhu, Hua; Cao, Min From Journal of Forest Research (Tokyo, Japan) (2012), 17(5), 432-439. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1007/s10310-011-0309-y We censused all free-standing trees 1 cm diam. at breast height (dbh) in a 20-ha plot established in a tropical seasonal rainforest in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, southwest China. A total of 95,834 free-standing trees 1 cm dbh were recorded, and 95,498 individuals (accounting for 99.65% of the total), including 468 morphospecies in 213 genera and 70 families, were identified. Thirteen of 468 species (2.78%) had more than 1,000 individual 1 cm dbh, which represented 56.36% individuals of the total. On the other hand, 230 of 468 species (49.14%) had a mean d. of 1 tree per ha, and 69 of 468 species (14.74%) were singletons in the 20-ha plot. The mean species richness, d. and basal area per ha were 216.50 species, 4,791.70 stems and 42.34 m2, resp. Pittosporopsis kerrii (20,918 stems, 1 cm dbh) of Icacinaceae and Parashorea chinensis (7,919 stems, 1 cm dbh) of Dipterocarpaceae were the two most abundant species dominating the emergent layer and treelet layer, resp. Compared with other 50-ha plots established in other equatorial regions, tree species richness per ha and tree abundance per ha of the plot were at the moderate level. ~0 Citings
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.

8. Carbon monoxide enhances the chilling tolerance of recalcitrant Baccaurea ramiflora seeds via nitric oxide-mediated glutathione homeostasis By Bai, Xue-gui; Chen, Jin-hui; Kong, Xiang-xiang; Todd, Christopher D.; Yang, Yong-ping; Hu, Xiang-yang; Li, De-zhu From Free Radical Biology & Medicine (2012), 53(4), 710-720. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.05.042 Both CO and NO play fundamental roles in plant responses to environmental stress. Glutathione (GSH) homeostasis through the glutathione-ascorbate cycle regulates the cellular redox status and protects the plant from damage due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Most recalcitrant seeds are sensitive to chilling stress, but the roles of and cross talk among CO, NO, ROS, and GSH in recalcitrant seeds under low temp. are not well understood. Here, we report that the germination of recalcitrant Baccaurea ramiflora seeds shows sensitivity to chilling stress, but application of exogenous CO or NO markedly increased GSH accumulation, enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes involved in the glutathione-ascorbate cycle, decreased the content of H2O2 and RNS, and improved the tolerance of seeds to low-temp. stress. Compared to orthodox seeds such as maize, only transient accumulation of CO and NO was induced and only a moderate increase in GSH was shown in the recalcitrant B. ramiflora seeds. Exogenous CO or NO treatment further increased the GSH accumulation and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) activity in B. ramiflora seeds under chilling stress. In contrast, suppressing CO or NO generation, removing GSH, or blocking GSNOR activity resulted in increases in ROS and RNS and impaired the germination of CO- or NO-induced seeds under chilling stress. The authors propose that CO acts as a novel regulator to improve the tolerance of recalcitrant seeds to low temps. through NO-mediated glutathione homeostasis. ~3 Citings

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9. Manufacture of herbal koji By Zhu, Fuyin; Wang, Zhimei; Wang, Xin From Faming Zhuanli Shenqing (2012), CN 102618416 A 20120801, Language: Chinese, Database: CAPLUS The title herbal koji comprises the raw materials of: Paris polyphylla, Acanthopanax trifoliatum, Homalomena occulata, Eleutherine plicata, Embelia subcoriacea, Nidus Vespae, Portulaca oleracea, Gossampinus malobaricum, Rubia yunnanensis, Solanum nigrum, Daemonorops draco, Alpinia conchigera, Carthamus tinctorius, Melothria heterophylla, Zanthoxylum phanispinum, Polygonatum odoratum, Aloe, Houttuynia cordata, Cibotium barometz, Cyperus rotundus, Cymbopogon citratus, Cinnamomum camphora, Phyllanthus urinaria, Foeniculum vulgare, Fructus Amomi, Tinosprora sinensis, wild ginger, Solanum coagulans, Scoparia dulcis, Zanthoxylum simulans, Perilla frutescens, Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Santalum album, and Eclipta prostrata each 1-2 wt. parts. The raw materials further comprise: Asplenium antiquum, Schisandra henryi, Acorus calamus, Achyranthes bidentata, Cassytha filiformis, Plumbago zeylanica, Curculigo capitulata, Arundina graminifolia, Zanthoxylum nitidum, Celosia cristata, Paederia scandens, Dendrobium primulinum, Caesalpinia sappan, Celosia argentea, Dioscorea cirrhosa, Lygodium japonicum, Fagopyrum tataricum, Piper longum, Maytenus hookeri, Tamarindus indica, Leonurus japonicus, Pegia nitida, Pegia sarmentosa, Michelia champaca, Cassia occidentalis, Basella rubra, Cassia fistula, Eleusine nindica, Epipermnum pinnatum, Trema tomentosa, Stemona tuberosa, Plantago major, Sambucus chinensis, Vernonia volkameriifolia, and Verbena officinalis each 2-4 wt. parts. The raw materials further comprise Homalomena occulta, Helicteres angustifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Ilex latifolia, Gendarussa ventricosa, Ageratina adenophora, Gouania leptostachya, Sargentodoxa cuneata, Penthorum chinensis, Cajanus cajan, Holarrhena pubescens, Stelmatocrypton khasianum, Alocasia macrorrhiza, Thladiantha nudiflora, Ervatamia divaricata, Mappianthus iodoies, Stephania hernandifolia, Cinnamomum porrectum, Fissistigma polyanthum, and Amomum maximum each 4-8 wt. parts, and Baccaurea ramiflora, Scindapsus aureus, Cissus repens, Agrimonia pilosa, Ficus hispida, corbcob, sugarcane, Jasminum nervosum, Chloranthus elatior, Clerodendranthus spicatus, Sambucus chinensis, and Coix lacryma-jobi each 6-12 wt. parts. The grain liquor brewed with said herbal koji is good for health. ~0 Citings
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.

10. Seasonal variability in the sources of particulate organic matter of the Mekong River as discerned by elemental and lignin analyses By Ellis, Erin E.; Keil, Richard G.; Ingalls, Anitra E.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Alin, Simone R. From Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences (2012), 117(March), G01038/1-G01038/15. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1029/2011JG001816 The Mekong River ranks within the top ten rivers of the world in terms of water discharge and sediment load to the ocean, yet its org. matter (OM) compn. remains unstudied. This river is experiencing anthropogenically forced changes due to land use and impoundment, and these changes are expected to intensify in the future. Accordingly, we monitored the compn. (including vascular-plant signatures) of Mekong River fine particulate org. matter (FPOM) over a one-year period. Autochthonous prodn. comprises a greater proportion of FPOM during the dry season than in the rainy season, as demonstrated by higher percent org. carbon values (7.9 2.4 vs. 2.2 0.4%), lower yields of lignin normalized to carbon (0.40 0.05 vs. 1.1 0.3 mg (100 mg OC)-1), and an increase in N:C ratios toward phytoplankton values during the dry season (from 0.06 to 0.12). Changes in the lignin-phenol compn. of FPOM suggest that gymnosperms contribute more toward FPOM compn. during the dry season, with angiosperms dominating in the wet season. This is supported by calcns. of the lignin phenol vegetation index of riverine FPOM, which increases between the dry to wet seasons (dry: 29.4 15.0 vs. wet: 74.6 17.3). These changes likely reflect seasonal differences in the proportion of flow that is coming from the Upper and Lower Basin, corresponding to compositional differences between the vegetation of these regions. Therefore, this work provides a baseline understanding of FPOM variability that can be used to assess how future change will affect this river. ~0 Citings
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11. Removal of nickel ion from aqueous solution using Rambai stem (Baccaurea motleyana) adsorbent By Khuzaimah, Noor; Nour, Usama M.; Maitra, Saikat From Journal of Environmental Science & Engineering (Nagpur, India) (2011), 53(3), 257-262. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS

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The potential of Rambai stem (Baccaurea motleyana) of Malaysia in removing Ni ion from aq. soln. was evaluated. The raw material was obtained from local orchard. The collected material passed through phys. prepn. and treatment process. The adsorbent was thoroughly characterized by SEM, EDX, and FTIR studies. The effect of initial Ni concn., dosage of adsorbent, and pH on the adsorption process were investigated. The highest adsorption capacity obtained at weak acidic conditions (pH 4-5) when dosage and initial concns. are 0.1 and 30 ppm resp. The percentage of removal of Ni from the soln. was found to be 51%. The exptl. data fitted well in Freundlich isotherms indicating the adsorption of Ni on Rambai stem followed heterogeneous surface phenomena. ~0 Citings
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12. Anticancer properties and phenolic contents of sequentially prepared extracts from different parts of selected medicinal plants indigenous to Malaysia By Ismail, Maznah; Bagalkotkar, Gururaj; Iqbal, Shahid; Adamu, Hadiza Altine From Molecules (2012), 17, 5745-5756. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.3390/molecules17055745 Different parts of four edible medicinal plants (Casearia capitellata, Baccaurea motleyana, Phyllanthus pulcher and Strobilanthus crispus), indigenous to Malaysia, were extd. in different solvents, sequentially. The obtained 28 exts. were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer properties, using the MTS assay, on four human cancer cell lines: colon (HT-29), breast (MCF-7), prostate (DU-145) and lung (H460) cancers. The best anticancer activity was obsd. for the Et acetate (EA) ext. of Casearia capitellata leaves on MCF-7 cell lines with IC50 2.0 g/mL and its methanolic (MeOH) ext. showed an outstanding activity against lung cancer cell lines. Dichloromethane (DCM) ext. of Phyllanthus pulcher aerial parts showed the highest anticancer activity against DU-145 cell lines, while significant activity was exhibited by DCM ext. of Phyllanthus pulcher roots on colon cancer cell lines with IC50 value of 8.1 g/mL. Total phenolic content (TPC) ranged over 1-40 mg gallic acid equiv. (GAE)/g. For all the samples, highest yields of phenolics were obtained for MeOH exts. Among all the exts. analyzed, the MeOH exts. of Strobilanthus crispus leaves exhibited the highest TPC than other samples (p < 0.05). This study shows that the nature of phenol dets. its anticaner activity and not the no. of phenols present. ~1 Citing
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13. Agricultural by-product biomass for removal of pollutants from aqueous solution by adsorption By Sen, Tushar Kanti From Journal of Environmental Research and Development (2012), 6(3), 523-533. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS In this work author presented the up-to-date development on the various non-conventional low cost biomass adsorbent for the removal of inorg./org. pollutants from aq. soln. Author also presented the adsorptive properties of various agricultural byproducts such as rambai tree leaves in the removal of Hg (II), castor hull in Zn (II) and Cd (II) removal, physic seed in heavy metal ion removal and finally pine cone biomass in the removal of dye and surfactants from their aq. soln. This was studied by lab. batch adsorption kinetic and equil. expts. It was found that the implied mechanisms in this adsorption differ qual. and quant. according to the type of biomass, its origin and its processing. The results showed that the amt. of adsorption of inorg./orgs. depends on various physico-chem. factors such as inorg./org. ion concn., contact time, soln. pH, temp. and the amt. of adsorbent. Overall the kinetic studies showed that the adsorption process followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and it is a two steps process, a very rapid adsorption of ion to the external surface is followed by possible slow decreasing intraparticle diffusion in the interior of the adsorbent. ~0 Citings
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14. Arsenic contamination in soils, water and plants surrounding gold mine at Wangsaphung, Loei Province, Thailand By Weerasiri, Thanes; Wirojanagud, Wanpen; Srisatit, Thares From Journal of Environmental Research and Development (2012), 6(3), 381-388. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS

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Arsenic contamination has been come across as the adverse problem in the area surrounding gold mine at Wangsaphung District, Loei Province, Northeast Thailand since starting operation in 2006. Detn. of arsenic in surface water by responsible agencies found that the concn. was very low, less than 0.01 mg/L designated by USEPA as the Maximum Concn. Level (MCL). However, there has been no investigation of arsenic levels in soil and plants in such area. This paper reports investigations of arsenic contamination in plants, soil and water in the area surrounding gold mine. A total of 23 root-zone soil samples, 9 surface water samples and 125 plant samples were taken from 5 stations within the catchment where gold mining located (inside catchment) and 1 station at the nearby catchment (outside catchment) for total arsenic anal. The anal. results present that all samples were contaminated with arsenic. For soil samples, arsenic content was in the range of 1.21-56.17 mg As/kg of soil compared to the MCL as 3.90 mg As/kg of soil for agriculture use designated by Office of National Environment Board of Thailand. Arsenic concn. in water samples was not evident as in soil, its level was mostly in the range of 0.001-0.021 mg/L. However, it indicated that some locations had higher concn. exceeded the MCL (US.EPA). Regarding the plant investigation, contaminant levels were in the range of 0.01-1.04 mg/kg in both annual crop and perennial plants, and the range of 0.16-0.67 mg/kg in oak fern. As arsenic contamination was found at both inside and outside catchments, it indicated arsenic naturally exist throughout the area. However, the significant high level of arsenic in soil, plants and water at Phulek Creek located nearby the gold mine area, implying that such higher level of arsenic was possibly caused by mining activities. ~0 Citings
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15. Removal of mercury(II) from aqueous solutions using the leaves of the rambai tree (Baccaurea motleyana) By Sen, Tushar Kanti; Bin Azman, Amir Farid; Maitra, Saikat; Dutta, Binay K. From Water Environment Research (2011), 83(9), 834-842. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.2175/106143011X12989211841098 This study was undertaken to evaluate the biosorption potential of a natural, low-cost biosorbent, Rambai leaves (Baccaurea motleyana), to remove trace amts. of Hg(II) from aq. solns. The amt. of Hg(II) biosorption by Rambai leaves increased with initial metal ion concn., contact time, and soln. pH but decreased as the amt. of biosorbent increased. The max. biosorption capacity was 121.95 mg/g for an initial concn. range of 5 to 120 ppb. Overall, kinetic studies showed that the Hg(II) biosorption process followed pseudo-second-order kinetics based on pseudo-first-order and intraparticle diffusion models. Isotherm data revealed that the biosorption process followed both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The value of sepn. factor, RL, from the Langmuir equation and rate of biosorption, n, from the Freundlich model also indicated favorable adsorption. ~1 Citing
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16. Cyclic tetrapyrrolic photosensitisers from the leaves of Phaeanthus ophthalmicus By Tan, Pei Jean; Ong, Cheng Yi; Danial, Asma; Yusof, Hirzun Mohd.; Neoh, Bee Keat; Lee, Hong Boon From Chemistry Central Journal (2011), 5, 32. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1186/1752-153X-5-32 Twenty-seven exts. from 26 plants were identified as photo-cytotoxic in the course of our bioassay guided screening program for photosensitizers from 128 exts. prepd. from 64 terrestrial plants in two different collection sites in Malaysia Royal Belum Forest Reserve in the State of Perak and Gunung Nuang in the State of Selangor. One of the photocytotoxic exts. from the leaves of Phaeanthus ophtalmicus was further investigated. The ethanolic ext. of the leaves from Phaeanthus ophtalmicus was able to reduce the in vitro viability of leukemic HL60 cells to <50% when exposed to 9.6 J/cm2 of a broad spectrum light at a concn. of 20 g/mL. Dereplication of the photo-cytotoxic fractions from P. ophthalmicus exts. based on TLC Rf values and HPLC co-injection of ref. tetrapyrrolic compds. enabled quick identification of known photosensitizers, pheophorbide-a, pheophorbide-a Me ester, 132-hydroxypheophorbide-a Me ester, pheophytin-a and 151-hydroxypurpurin 7-lactone di-Me ester. In addn., compd. 1 which was not previously isolated as a natural product was also identified as 7-formyl-151-hydroxypurpurin-7-lactone Me ester using std. spectroscopic techniques. Our results suggest that the main photosensitizers in plants are based on the cyclic tetrapyrrole structure and photosensitizers with other structures, if present, are present in very minor amts. or are not as active as those with the cyclic tetrapyrrole structure. ~0 Citings
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17. Effect of different drying rates on desiccation tolerance and antioxidant enzyme activities of Baccaurea ramilfora (Euphorbiaceae) seeds By Lu, Xin; Luo, Yinling; Wang, Yifan; Lan, Qinying; Yang, Mingzhi; Tan, Yunhong From Yunnan Zhiwu Yanjiu (2010), 32(4), 361-366. Language: Chinese, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10039

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The effects of different drying rate on desiccation tolerance and antioxidant enzyme activities of Baccaurea ramilfora seeds were studied in this paper. The initial water content (WC) of B. ramilfora seeds was high 1.72 g H2O g-1DW, and germination was 86.67%, resp. When the seeds dehydrated to the same water content (0.90 g H2O g-1DW), the germination of seeds increased with slow-dehydrated method (97.78%), while decreased with rapid-dehydrated method (64.44%). The germination of rapid-dehydrated seeds with 0.76 g H2O g-1DW WC was 21.67%, while that of slowdehydrated seeds with 0.68 g H2O g-1DW WC was 55.56%. The B. ramilfora seeds were recalcitrant seeds which showed higher tolerance to slow dehydration. Both of relative electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidn. increased following redehydration, and the increase rate of slow-dehydrated seeds were slower than rapid-dehydrated seeds. Among these antioxidant enzymes, the activities of SOD, DHAR and APX were higher in rapid-dehydrated seeds than slow-dehydrated seeds, while CAT was lower, and GR was not found. These results indicated that CAT played more important role in desiccation tolerance of B. ramilfora seeds than the other antioxidant enzymes. ~0 Citings
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.

18. Natural skin products containing dairy and processes By Panasenko, Oksana From U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ. (2010), US 20100233128 A1 20100916, Language: English, Database: CAPLUS A skincare product contg. one or more dairy products, and one or more ingredients such as a natural oil, an herb, a fruit, a vegetable, a grain, honey, sea salt, egg yolk and mixts. thereof, for application to human skin in order to improve the well-being of said skin. The skincare product is applied to the skin in order to cleanse, beautify, promote attractiveness, and/or alter the feel or appearance of the skin. Furthermore, the skincare product is applied to the skin by rubbing, pouring, sprinkling, and/or spraying the skincare product onto the skin. ~2 Citings
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.

19. Evaluation of nutritional and physico-chemical properties of several selected fruits in Bangladesh By Haque, M. Nazmul; Saha, Barun Kanti; Karim, M. Rezaul; Bhuiyan, M. Nurul Huda From Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research (2009), 44(3), 353-358. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.3329/bjsir.v44i3.4410 In this study, various parameters on nutritional and physico-chem. characteristics of eight different fruits (five minor and three major fruits), namely melon, guava, papaya, karanda, burmese-grape, velvet apple, wood-apple and pomelo of Bangladesh were analyzed to det. the edible portion of whole fruit, pH, titratable acidity, moisture, total sol. solid, reducing sugar, total sugar, crude fiber, total carbohydrate, total protein, total fat, total energy, vitamin C, ash, sodium, potassium, iron and arsenic content. The largest amt. of iron, 5.34 mg/100g was obsd. in Burmese-grape. The pomelo contained the highest amt. of potassium, 233.07mg/100g and the lowest amt. of sodium, 2.25mg/100g. The max. amt. of fiber, 6.21% was found in wood-apple and the richest quantity of vitamin C, 80mg/100g was found in guava. In general arsenic was not found in karanda, burmese grape, guava, pomelo, wood-apple, and papaya and only negligible amt. of arsenic was revealed in velvet apple, 0.01 mg/kg, followed by melon, 0.005 mg/kg. ~1 Citing
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.

20. Fatty Acid Composition of Baccaurea courtallensis Muell. Arg Seed Oil: An Endemic Species of Western Ghats, India By Mohan, Srinivasa From Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society (2009), 86(10), 1017-1019. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1007/s11746-009-1430-3 Baccaurea courtallensis Muell. Arg., a moderately sized evergreen tree of the Euphorbiaceae, is endemic to Western Ghats. Its fruits are edible, sour in taste, and contain 2-4 seeds. The native residents harvest the fruits for their medicinal value and for pickling. The seed wt. is 0.28 g or 1.0 kg contains 3,500 seeds with a seed coat. The fruit to seed wt. ratio is 34:1. Virtually, no work on the chem. of the seeds or fruit of the species has been reported. Seeds of the species contain 22.5% oil on a dry kernel wt. basis. Anal. of the compn. of the oil revealed two major fatty acids palmitic acid (42.59%) and oleic acid (36.15%). Stearic acid content was 16.20% and myristic acid was 4.28% of the oil. Two minor acids present were lauric acid (0.40%) and linoleic acid (0.38%) and also including traces of linolenic acid. Physico-chem. properties of the oil showed an acid value of 1.402, a sapon. value of 166.89, a refractive index of 0.4239, a sp. gr. of -0.938, and an optical rotation of at 29 C + 0.35 ( = 589 nm). ~1 Citing

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21. Organic matter accumulation in hill forests of Chittagong region, Bangladesh By Haque, S. M. Sirajul; Karmakar, Nirmal Chandra From Journal of Forestry Research (Harbin, China) (2009), 20(3), 249-253. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1007/s11676-009-0037-8 Litter fall and its effect on forest soil properties at each decompn. stages were investigated in tropical monsoon climatic conditions of three plantations (7-yr acacia plantation, 15-yr acacia plantation and 18-yr mixed plantation) and one natural forest (Sitapahar forest) from Chittagong hilly region of Bangladesh. Results showed that total accumulation of org. matter increased with plantation age, accompanying with a decrease of annual accumulation rate. Within the same vegetation type, the org. accumulation of both fresh and partially decompd. litter with humus varied significantly (p0.05) on hill positions, being highest on bottom slope and decreased gradually towards hilltop in the forest. Reverse trend in accumulation of soil org. matters was shown in 15-yr Acacia auriculiformis plantation, from where fuel wood collected. In 7- and 15-yr acacia and 18-yr mixed broadleaved plantations, rates of total org. matter prodn. consisting of fresh, partially and completely decompd. litter as well as incorporated org. matter in soil were 2554.31, 705.79 and 1028.01 kgha-1a-1, resp., and the corresponding contribution from fresh litter were 38.23, 19.40 and 30.48 kgha-1a-1, resp. In the three plantations and the natural forest, on an av. fresh litter constituted 32.45%, partially decompd. litter with humus 13.50% and incorporated org. matter in soil 54.56% of the total org. matter prodn. with mean litter thickness of 0.90 cm. Soil acidity increased with the increase of decompn. stage of org. matter. ~0 Citings
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.

22. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of Malaysian underutilized fruits By Ikram, Emmy Hainida Khairul; Eng, Khoo Hock; Jalil, Abbe Maleyki Mhd.; Ismail, Amin; Idris, Salma; Azlan, Azrina; Nazri, Halimatul Saadiah Mohd.; Diton, Norzatol Akmar Mat; Mokhtar, Ruzaidi Azli Mohd. From Journal of Food Composition and Analysis (2009), 22(5), 388-393. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1016/j.jfca.2009.04.001 The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity (AC) and total phenolic content (TPC) of selected Malaysian underutilized fruits. The 58 underutilized fruits of 32 different species from 21 genera were analyzed for AC and TPC. AC was measured using -carotene bleaching, ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) assays, and TPC was detd. using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay. Our findings showed that the fruits from genera of Pometia, Averrhoa, Syzygium, Sallacca, Phyllanthus, Garcinia, Sandoricum and Maipighia had higher AC compared to other studied genera. Among the underutilized fruits, Sandoricum and Phyllanthus fruits contained the highest TPC (>2000 mg/100 g edible portion). The correlation between AC and TPC varied. The study indicated that some of these underutilized fruits have the potential to be sources of antioxidant components. ~29 Citings
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23. Investigation on phytochemical screening and antibacterial potential of methanol extract of Baccaurea courtallensis Muell.-Arg and Prosopis juliflora DC By Sujatha, M. L.; Yadav, Namitha C.; Jain, S. H.; Mohan, S.; Kekuda, T. R. Prashith From BioTechnology: An Indian Journal (2009), 3(3), 161-164. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS The present investigation highlights phytochem. screening and antimicrobial activity of methanolic ext. of bark of Baccaurea courtallensis and Prosopis juliflora. The dried and powd. materials were subjected to soxhlet extn. using methanol solvent and subjected to preliminary phytochem. anal. The exts. were dissolved in DMF and the antimicrobial efficacy of exts. was tested using well diffusion method against bacteria and fungi. Results of phytochem. anal. showed the presence of tannin, terpenoids, saponins and flavonoids in the methanol exts. of both the plants. A marked antibacterial and antifungal activity was obsd. as revealed by inhibition zone around the well. The antimicrobial property could be attributed to the presence of phytoconstituents present in the exts. The plant ext. could be used against bacteria causing food poisoning, enteric infections, and nosocomial infections. The ext. could be employed in the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections caused by Aspergillus species. Further investigations have to be carried to isolate active constituents and validate the antimicrobial potential of crude exts. and individual constituents in vivo in animal models. ~0 Citings
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24. Chemical constituents of essential oils from Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. fruit, leaf and root By Xu, Jing; Lin, Qiang; Liang, Zhenyi; Deng, Shiming; Zhong, Chongxin From Shipin Kexue (Beijing, China) (2007), 28(11), 439-442. Language: Chinese, Database: CAPLUS

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The essential oils from Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. root, leaf and fruit were extd., and their chem. constituents were analyzed by GC-MS for the first time. Totally 37 compds. in the Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. root essential oils were extd., and 34 of them were identified, which accounted for over 98.46% of the essential oils. Ten compds. of essential oils from leaves and roots of Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. were the same with the content of 76.66%. Seven compds. of essential oils from fruits and roots of Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. were the same with the content of 69.82%. The study offers theoretic base for utilization of Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. fruit, leaf and root. ~1 Citing
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25. A new sesquiterpene lactone from root of Baccaurea ramiflora By Xu, Jing; Guan, Huashi; Lin, Qiang From Zhongcaoyao (2007), 38(10), 1450-1452. Language: Chinese, Database: CAPLUS The chem. constituents in the root of Baccaurea ramiflora were studied. Various chromatog. techniques were used to sep. and purify the constituents. The structures of the compds. were elucidated by physicochem. properties and spectral analyses (UV, IR, ESI-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, Dept90, Dept135, 1H-1H COSY, 1H-1H NOESY, HMQC and HMBC). A new compd. was isolated and identified. In conclusion, this compd. was a novel compd. and named as epidihydrotutin. ~0 Citings
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.

26. Carotenoid Content of Underutilized Tropical Fruits By Khoo, Hock Eng; Ismail, Amin; Mohd-Esa, Norhaizan; Idris, Salma From Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (New York, NY, United States) (2008), 63(4), 170-175. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1007/s11130-008-0090-z This study was conducted to evaluate the total carotene content (TCC) and beta carotene (BC) in the selected underutilized tropical fruits. TCC of underutilized fruits estd. by spectrophotometric method was in the range of 1.4-19.8 mg/100 g edible portion. The TCC of these fruits decreased in the order: Jentik-jentik > Durian Nyekak 2 > Durian Nyekak 1 > Cerapu 2 > Cerapu 1 > Tampoi Kuning > Bacang 1 > Kuini > Jambu Mawar > Bacang 2 > Durian Daun > Bacang 3 > Tampoi Putih > Jambu Susu. BC contents estd. by HPLC method were highest in Jentik-jentik, followed by Cerapu 2, Durian Nyekak 2, Tampoi Kuning, Durian Nyekak 1, and Cerapu 1, which had a range of 68-92% of BC in TCC. These underutilized fruits have an acceptable amt. of carotenoids that are potential antioxidant fruits. ~10 Citings
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.

27. Analysis of essential oil components from Baccaurea ramiflora Lour by GC-MS By Xu, Jing; Lin, Qiang; Liang, Zhenyi; Gao, Ling From Huaxue Fenxi Jiliang (2007), 16(3), 42-43. Language: Chinese, Database: CAPLUS The essential oils extd. from Baccanrea ramiflora Lour and its chem. constituents were analyzed by GC-MS. Nineteen kinds of compds. were identified, which accounted for 100% of the essential oils. The relative contents were detected by area normalization. The major compns. were consist of n-hexadecenoic acid (29.53%), butylated hydroxytoluene (17.49%), and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (11.59%), and all were 58.59%. ~1 Citing
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.

28. Bioactive phenols from the leaves of Baccaurea ramiflora By Yang, Xian-Wen; Wang, Jun-Song; Ma, Yan-Lin; Xiao, Hai-Tao; Zuo, Yi-Qing; Lin, Hua; He, Hong-Ping; Li, Ling; Hao, Xiao-Jiang From Planta Medica (2007), 73(13), 1415-1417. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1055/s-2007-990235

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Two new phenols, 6'-O-vanilloylisotachioside (1) and 6'-O-vanilloyltachioside (2), together with 9 known compds., were isolated from the leaves of B. ramiflora (Euphorbiaceae). The structures of the new compds. were elucidated mainly by anal. of phys. and spectroscopic data. Compds. 1 - 10 were tested for antioxidant activities by using MTT and DPPH assays. Seven compds., 1, 2, and 4 - 8, revealed potent antioxidant activities against H2O2-induced impairment in PC12 cells, and exhibited significant DPPH radical-scavenging activities with IC50 values of 86.9, 142.9, 15.2, 37.6, 35.9, 30.2, and 79.8 M, resp. ~5 Citings
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29. A wild fruit juice beverage prepared from wild fruit materials and the corresponding wild fruit wine By Li, Zhongming From Faming Zhuanli Shenqing (2004), CN 1470629 A 20040128, Language: Chinese, Database: CAPLUS A wild fruit wine and the corresponding wild fruit juice beveragemade of wild fruit materials. Fruits of materials is selected from: Fructus Hippophae, Mori Fructus, branch Loquat fruit, Fructus Phyllanthi, Fructus Rosae Davuricae, Pyracantha, Fructus Rosae Normaliz, peppermint Fructus Pruni Salicinae, Fructus Tamarindi Indicae, thorny elaeagnus, Fructus Pruni Pseudocerasi, Radix Berberidis Amurensis, wood milk fruit, and four film flower, Cowberry Fruit, CHABIAOZI (Ribes sativum), Fructus Rosae Davuricae, Fructus Rubi Corchorifolii Immaturus, Crataegi Fructus, birch-leaf pear or bean Fructus Pyri, and Fructus Chaenomelis. It may also be added with health promotion components. Health promotion effects component may be: inositol, choline, tea polyphenols, taurine, Lac Regis Apis, Caulis Lonicerae, Rhizoma Cibotii, Herba Albiziae, Ginseng Radix, Fructus Ligustri Lucidi, Radix Asparagi, Radix Morindae Officinalis, Rhizoma Polygonati Odorati, Arillus Longan, Bulbus Lilii, Eucommiae Cortex, Semen Astragali Complanati, Rhizoma Drynariae, Radix Codonopsis, Herba Taxilli, Semen Cuscutae, Astragali Radix, Polygonati Officinalis Rhizoma, Herba Cynomorii, Corni Fructus. Said product contains nutrient components, and can be used for the supplement vitamins and mineral elements, ensure human basic nutrition and health. ~0 Citings
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30. Transgenic plants with enhanced agronomic traits By Abad, Mark From PCT Int. Appl. (2007), WO 2007044043 A2 20070419, Language: English, Database: CAPLUS This invention provides transgenic plant cells with recombinant DNA for expression of proteins that are useful for imparting enhanced agronomic trait(s) to transgenic crop plants. Plant expression constructs were designed for corn and soybean transformation with 83 candidate genes. This invention also provides transgenic plants and progeny seed comprising the transgenic plant cells where the plants are selected for having an enhanced trait selected from the group of traits consisting of enhanced water use efficiency, enhanced cold tolerance, increased yield, enhanced nitrogen use efficiency, enhanced seed protein, enhanced seed oil, enhanced herbicide tolerance, and enhanced resistance to disease. BLASTp anal. public domain databases with the protein sequences encoded by the 83 test genes identified 9862 homolog proteins among 1773 different organisms and strains. Also disclosed are methods for manufg. transgenic seed and plants with enhanced traits. ~8 Citings
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.

31. Molecular phylogenetics of Phyllanthaceae inferred from five genes (plastid atpB, matK, 3'ndhF, rbcL, and nuclear PHYC) By Kathriarachchi, Hashendra; Hoffmann, Petra; Samuel, Rosabelle; Wurdack, Kenneth J.; Chase, Mark W. From Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (2005), 36(1), 112-134. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.12.002

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Phyllanthaceae are a pantropical family of c. 2000 species for which circumscription is believed to be coincident with subfamily Phyllanthoideae of Euphorbiaceae sensu lato (Malpighiales) excluding Putranjivaceae. A phylogenetic study of the family using DNA sequence data has delivered largely congruent results from the plastid atpB, matK, ndhF, rbcL, and the nuclear PHYC. Our analyses include sampling from 54 of 59 genera, representing all tribes and subtribes of Phyllanthoideae. The family falls into two major clades characterized by inflorescence and leaf anatomical features. Several traditional taxonomic groupings were retrieved with minor modifications, but most clades recovered are considerably different from previous non-mol. based ideas of relationships. The enigmatic genus Dicoelia and the geog. disjunct genus Lingelsheimia are shown to be embedded in Phyllanthaceae. The taxonomic status of Leptopus diplospermus (=Chorisandrachne) and the debated placement of Andrachne ovalis have been clarified, and Protomegabaria and Richeriella are newly placed. Paraphyly of Cleistanthus and Phyllanthus is confirmed, having three and four other genera embedded, resp. Petalodiscus is also paraphyletic, including all other Malagassian Wielandieae. ~9 Citings
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32. Molecular phylogenetics of Phyllanthaceae: Evidence from plastid matK and nuclear PHYC sequences By Samuel, Rosabelle; Kathriarachchi, Hashendra; Hoffmann, Petra; Barfuss, Michael H. J.; Wurdack, Kenneth J.; Davis, Charles C.; Chase, Mark W. From American Journal of Botany (2005), 92(1), 132-141. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.3732/ajb.92.1.132 Plastid matK and a fragment of the low-copy nuclear gene PHYC were sequenced for 30 genera of Phyllanthaceae to evaluate tribal and generic delimitation. Resoln. and bootstrap percentages obtained with matK are higher than that of PHYC, but both regions show nearly identical phylogenetic patterns. Phylogenetic relationships inferred from the independent and combined data are congruent and differ from previous, morphol.-based classifications but are highly concordant with those of the plastid gene rbcL previously published. Phyllanthaceae is monophyletic and gives rise to two well-resolved clades (T and F) that could be recognized as subfamilies. DNA sequence data for Keayodendron and Zimmermanniopsis are presented for the first time. Keayodendron is misplaced in tribe Phyllantheae and belongs to the Bridelia alliance. Zimmermanniopsis is sister to Zimmermannia. Phyllanthus and Cleistanthus are paraphyletic. Savia and Phyllanthus subgenus Kirganelia are not monophyletic. ~21 Citings
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.

33. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Phyllanthaceae (Phyllanthoideae pro parte, Euphorbiaceae sensu lato) using plastid rbcL DNA sequences By Wurdack, Kenneth J.; Hoffmann, Petra; Samuel, Rosabelle; de Bruijn, Anette; van der Bank, Michelle; Chase, Mark W. From American Journal of Botany (2004), 91(11), 1882-1900. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.3732/ajb.91.11.1882 Anal. of plastid rbcL DNA sequence data of the pantropical family Phyllanthaceae (Malpighiales) and related biovulate lineages of Euphorbiaceae sensu lato is presented. Sampling for this study includes representatives of all 10 tribes and 51 of the 60 genera attributed to Euphorbiaceae-Phyllanthoideae. Centroplacus and Putranjivaceae (PhyllanthoideaeDrypeteae) contg. a paraphyletic Drypetes are excluded from Phyllanthaceae. Croizatia, previously thought to be a "basal" member of Euphorbiaceae-Oldfieldioideae (Picrodendraceae), falls within Phyllanthaceae. Phyllanthaceae with the mentioned adjustments form a monophyletic group consisting of two sister clades that mostly correspond to the distribution of tanniniferous leaf epidermal cells and inflorescence structure. With the exception of bigeneric Hymenocardieae and monotypic Bischofieae, none of the current Phyllanthoideae (Phyllanthaceae) tribal circumscriptions are supported by rbcL. Antidesma, Bischofia, Hymenocardia, Martretia, and Uapaca, all of which have previously been placed in monogeneric families, are confirmed as members of Phyllanthaceae. Savia is polyphyletic, and Cleistanthus appears paraphyletic. Paraphyly of Phyllanthus is also indicated, but this pattern lacks bootstrap support. Morphol. characters are discussed and mapped for inflorescence structure, tanniniferous epidermal cells, breeding system, and fruit and embryo type. A table summarizes the main characters of six euphorbiaceous lineages. ~8 Citings
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34. A process for the extraction of tetrahydrofuranolactone meroisoprenoid sapidolide from the plant Baccaurea sapida By Bordoloi, Manobjyoti; Barua, Nabin Chandra; Mohan, Srinivasan; Mathur, Raj Kumar; Dutta, Subhas Chandra; Ghosh, Anil Chandra From Indian (2001), IN 185385 A1 20010113, Language: English, Database: CAPLUS

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A process for the extn. of tetrahydrofuranolactone meroisoprenoid sapidolide of formula 1 (formula insert) from the plant Baccaurea sapida and its derivs. wherein 1. R=H, R'=-CH=CH2 2. R=OAC, R'=-CH=CH2 3. R=p-BrC6H4CO, R'=CH=CH2 4. R=H, R'=- which comprises: (a) Extg. the parts of the plant B. sapida with a polar org. solvent. (b) Concg. the ext. by distg. at reduced pressure, (c) recovering & purifying tetrahydro-furanolactone meroisoprenoid sapidolide of the formula 1, from the concd. ext. obtained in step (b) by repeated crystn. ~0 Citings
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35. Diterpenes obtained from Euphorbiaceae for the treatment of prostate cancer By Aylward, James Harrison; Parsons, Peter Gordon From PCT Int. Appl. (2002), WO 2002011743 A2 20020214, Language: English, Database: CAPLUS The invention discloses a chem. agent of the diterpene family obtained from a member of the Euphorbiaceae family of plants for use in the treatment of prophylaxis of prostate cancer or a related cancer or condition.

~9 Citings
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36. Euphorbiaceae macrocyclic diterpenes for the treatment of inflammation By Aylward, James Harrison; Parsons, Peter Gordon; Suhrbier, Andreas; Turner, Kathleen Anne From PCT Int. Appl. (2001), WO 2001093885 A1 20011213, Language: English, Database: CAPLUS The invention relates generally to chem. agents useful in the treatment and prophylaxis of inflammatory conditions or in the amelioration of symptoms resulting from or facilitated by an inflammatory condition in a mammalian animal, including humans and primates, non-mammalian animal, and avian species. More particularly, the invention provides a chem. agent of the macrocyclic diterpene family obtaining from a member of the Euphorbiaceae family of plants or botanical or horticultural relatives thereof or derivs. or chem. analogs or chem. synthetic forms of the agents for use in the treatment or prophylaxis of an inflammatory condition or in the amelioration of symptoms resulting from or facilitated by an inflammatory condition in a mammal, animal or avian species. The invention further provides a method for the prophylaxis or treatment of mammalian, animal or avian subjects for inflammatory conditions including chronic or transitory inflammatory conditions or for ameliorating the symptoms of an inflammatory condition by the topical or systemic administration of a macrocyclic diterpene obtainable from a member of the Euphorbiaceae family or botanical or horticultural relatives thereof or a deriv., chem. analog or chem. synthetic form of the agent. The chem. agent of the invention may be in the form of a purified compd., mixt. of compds., a precursor form of one or more of the compds. capable of chem. transformation into a therapeutically active agent, or be in the form of a chem. fraction, sub-fraction, or prepn. or ext. of the plant. ~2 Citings
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37. Macrocyclic diterpenes for treatment and prophylaxis of PKC-related conditions By Aylward, James Harrison; Parsons, Peter Gordon; Suhrbier, Andreas; Turner, Kathleen Anne From PCT Int. Appl. (2001), WO 2001093884 A1 20011213, Language: English, Database: CAPLUS

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The present invention relates generally to chem. agents useful in the treatment and prophylaxis of protein kinase C (PKC)-related conditions in mammals, including humans and primates, non-mammalian animals and avian species. More particularly, the present invention provides a chem. agent of the macrocyclic diterpene family obtainable from a member of the Euphorbiaceae family of plants or botanical or horticultural relatives thereof or derivs. or chem. analogs or chem. synthetic forms of the agents for use in the treatment or prophylaxis of PKC-related conditions in mammalian, animal and avian subjects. The subject chem. agents are also useful for modulating expression of genetic sequences including promotion and other regulatory sequences. The present invention further contemplates a method for the prophylaxis and/or treatment in mammalian, animal or avian subjects with PKC-related conditions by the topical or systemic administration of a macrocyclic diterpene obtainable from a member of the Euphorbiaceae family of plants or their botanical or horticultural derivs. or a deriv., chem. analog or chem. synthetic form of the agent. The chem. agent of the present invention may be in the form of a purified compd., mixt. of compds., a precursor form of one or more of the compds. capable of chem. transformation into a therapeutically and/or genetically active agent or in the form of a chem. fraction, sub-fraction, prepn. or ext. of the plant. For example, an exts. of Euphorbia peplus sap (PEP003) reduced replication kinetics of HIV-1 virus in infected T-cells in a dose dependent manner. PEP003 at concns. of 500, 50, and 5 nM reduced the replication rate by approx. 99.9%, 95% and 47%, resp., relative to untreated, infected cells. Also, diterpene esters obtained from E. peplus activated human peripheral blood leukocytes to produce, in a PKC-dependent manner, phagocytosis and respiratory burst which are potentially lethal to microorganisms and other cells, e.g., tumor cells.

~2 Citings
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38. Euphorbiaceae macrocyclic diterpenes for the treatment of infection and PKC-related conditions By Aylward, James Harrison; Parsons, Peter Gordon; Suhrbier, Andreas; Turner, Kathleen Anne From PCT Int. Appl. (2001), WO 2001093883 A1 20011213, Language: English, Database: CAPLUS The invention relates generally to chem. agents useful in the treatment and prophylaxis of infection by pathogenic or potentially pathogenic entities, or entities capable of opportunistic infection in mammals, including humans and primates, non-mammalian animals and avian species. More particularly, the invention provides a chem. agent of the macrocyclic diterpene family obtainable from a member of the Euphorbiaceae family of plants or botanical or horticultural relatives thereof or derivs. or chem. analogs or chem. synthetic forms of the agents for use in the treatment or prophylaxis of infection by pathogenic entities in mammalian, animal and avian subjects. The invention further provides a method for the prophylaxis and/or treatment in mammalian, animal or avian subjects of infection or potential infection by pathogenic entities by the topical or systemic administration of a macrocyclic diterpene obtainable from a member of the Euphorbiaceae family of plants or their botanical or horticultural derivs. or a deriv., chem. analog or chem. synthetic form of the agent. The chem. agent of the invention may be in the form of a purified compd., mixt. of compds., a precursor form of one or more of the compds. capable of chem. transformation into a therapeutically active agent or in the form of a chem. fraction, subfraction, prepn. or ext. of the plant. ~3 Citings
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39. Desiccation sensitivity of recalcitrant seeds. A study on tropical fruit species. By Normah, M. N.; Ramiya, Saraswathy D.; Gintangga, Mainah From Seed Science Research (1997), 7(2), 179-183. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1017/S0960258500003512

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Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), rambai (Baccaurea motleyana Muell.- Arg.) and jelentik (Baccaurea polyneura Hook. f.) are tropical fruit species having recalcitrant seeds. The seeds showed no dormancy; they germinated easily. At harvest, the mean moisture contents (fresh wt. basis) were 53.54, 51.20 and 44.90% for G. mangostana, B. motleyana and B. polyneura, resp. G. mangostana seeds lost viability when their moisture content fell to about 24% while B. motleyana seeds lost viability below 35.5% moisture content. However, for B. polyneura, the seeds could be dried to low moisture content with high survival. The viability was still high when the moisture content was reduced to 13.46%. At this moisture content, the percentage germination was 91.76% and it was found that the seeds survived cytopreservation with 8.3% viability. For B. motleyana axes, the loss of viability occurred when their moisture content fell to about 36% (15% viability with predominantly callus formation) while for B. polyneura axes, viability was reduced to 33-67% when the moisture was 27-30%. At various moisture contents, the seeds of the fruit species studied were exposed for 48 h to 7 and -4. G. mangostana seeds did not survive either temp. Baccaurea seeds survived 7 but failed to survive -4. No axes from B. motleyana seeds at various moisture contents survived cryopreservation. However, some viability (2030%) was obsd. in B. polyneura axes cryopreserved at a moisture content of about 27%. At this moisture content no normal growth was obtained; callus formation was obsd. It appears that the seeds vary in the degree of desiccation sensitivity. They also vary in size. Seeds of G. mangostana are larger than Baccaurea seeds and thus, more sensitive to desiccation. Seed and embryonic axis structure may also play a role in desiccation sensitivity. ~0 Citings
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40. Sapidolide A: an unprecedented spherical carbocyclic lactone from Baccaurea sapida seed kernels: is it a meroisoprenoid? By Bordoloi, Manobjyoti; Barua, Nabin C.; Mohan, Srinivasa; Dutta, Subhas C.; Mathur, Raj K.; Ghosh, Anil C.; Rychlewska, Urszula From Tetrahedron Letters (1996), 37(37), 6791-6792. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1016/S00404039(96)01480-3 A novel tetrahydrofurano-lactone meroisoprenoid, sapidolide A (I), was isolated from the tropical plant Baccaurea sapida, and its structure was elucidated on the basis of DEPT, 1H-1H COSY, 1H-13C COSY, (+)-FABMS, low energy EIMS, and ion desorption chem. ionization mass spectrometry, and was confirmed by single crystal x-ray crystallog.

~4 Citings
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41. Survey of seed oils for use as diesel fuels By Kalayasiri, Piyaporn; Jeyashoke, Narumon; Krisnangkura, Kanit From Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society (1996), 73(4), 471-4. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1007/BF02523921 Fifty-one out of 364 plant seeds being surveyed had fatty acid contents greater than 15% (dry wt.), and their Me esters had cetane indexes higher than 50. Rambutan seed was an exception, with a lipid content of only 14.7%, but a high cetane index (67.1); thus, it was included in this report. Twenty seed oil Me esters had cetane indexes greater than 60. Three seed oils from the Sapindaceae family not only had high cetane indexes but also contained long-chain fatty acids of 20 carbon atoms. Gross heats of combustion of the fatty acid Me esters were slightly higher than those of neat oil, ranging from 38.2 to 40.8 J/g, whereas the heating values of the oils ranged from 37.4 to 40.5 J/g. Thus, these plant seed oils have great potential for development as diesel fuel or diesel fuel extender. ~48 Citings
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42. Studies on polysaccharides from the fruit peels of Baccaurea sapida (Bengali-Latkan)

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By Haq, G. N.; Nabi, M. N.; Hannan, A.; Kashem, A. From Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research (1994), 29(3), 83-7. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS Alk. extn. of pretreated fruits Peels of B. Sapida afforded a polysaccharide mixt. which on hydrolysis gave (mainly) DXylose and trace of D-Galactose, L-arabinose and an acidic substance. Fractionation of polysaccharides gave D-Xylan. Methylation of xylan followed by hydrolysis and chromatog. examn. gave the evidence for the presence of 2,3,4-tri-0-Me xylose, 2,3-di-0-Me xylose and 2-0-Me xylose. ~0 Citings
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43. Volatile constituents of the fruits of Lansium domesticum Correa (Duku and Langsat) and Baccaurea motleyana (Muell. Arg.) Muell. Arg. (Rambai) By Wong, K.C.; Wong, S.W.; Siew, S.S.; Tie, D.Y. From Flavour and Fragrance Journal (1994), 9(6), 319-24. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1002/ffj.2730090608 The volatile constituents of the fruits of L. domesticum (duku and Landsat) and B. motleyana (rambai) were isolated by vacuum distn. with subsequent extn. of the distillates with dichloromethane. The concd. exts. were analyzed by capillary gas chromatog. (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. The volatile constituents of both duku and Landsat fruits were dominated by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, the most abundant of which was germacrene-D. (E)-Hex-2-enal was the major component of rambai fruit volatiles which also contained high levels of Me hydroxy-3-methylbutanoate, Me 2hydroxy-3-methylpentanoate, and Me 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate. ~2 Citings
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44. Determination of iron in foods by the atomic absorption spectrophotometric and colorimetric methods By Siong, Tee E.; Choo, Khor Swan; Shahid, Siti Mizura From Pertanika (1989), 12(3), 313-22. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS A comparative study of the detn. of iron in a wide variety of foods was carried out using the at. absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) and phenanthroline colorimetric methods. A total of 156 goods, belonging to 8 food groups were studied. For each food (detd. in duplicate), ash soln. was prepd. and an aliquot subjected to AAS anal., another aliquot was analyzed by the phenanthroline method. Mean values for duplicate anal. of each food are tabulated according to food groups. Results obtained by the AAS and phenanthroline methods showed good general agreement, with a correlation coeff. of 0.987. For 5 food groups, there was no significant difference in results given by the 2 methods. Although a significant difference was obsd. for the remaining 3 groups, the t-statistics calcd. were just above the significance level. Recovery values given by the 2 methods were satisfactory, and were not significantly different. Variance for the phenanthroline method was, however, slightly higher. Both methods can be used satisfactorily for the detn. of this mineral. ~7 Citings
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45. Analysis of carbohydrates in seven edible fruits of Bangladesh By Nahar, Nilufar; Rahman, Shakila; Mosihuzzaman, M. From Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (1990), 51(2), 185-92. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1002/jsfa.2740510206 Dry matter, ash, lignin, starch, and sol. and insol. dietary fiber contents of the edible parts of seven fruits of Bangladesh were detd. Anal. of the low mol. wt. carbohydrates showed that all the fruits, except lukluki (Flacourtia indica) and hogplum (Spondias dulcis), contained substantial amts. of these materials, of which glucose and fructose were the main components. The dietary fiber contents of dry fruits ranged 29-79%. Lukluki has by far the best combination of low free sugars and high dietary fiber, and pineapple the worst. ~17 Citings
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46. Chemical composition and proposed use of two semi-wild tropical fruits By Kermasha, S.; Barthakur, N. N.; Mohan, N. K.; Arnold, N. P. From Food Chemistry (1987), 26(4), 253-9. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1016/03088146(87)90068-9

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The edible fruits of two native species of Southeast Asia, Baccaurea sapida and Flacourtia jangomas, were analyzed for sugars, amino acids and minerals. The values obtained (B. sapida and F. jangomas, based on dry wt.) are: protein 5.5%, 3.9%; vitamin C 178, 218 mg/100 g; fructose, - and -glucose and sucrose 21%, 21% total; Ca 169, 175; K 137, 158; P 177, 147; Fe 100, 118; Mg 105, 57 mg/100 g. Concns. of amino acids, Na, Mn, Cu and Zn were also detd. These fruits would be useful as supplements to a balanced diet. ~2 Citings
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47. Chemical investigation of Indian plants: part X By Desai, H. K.; Gawad, D. H.; Joshi, B. S.; Parthasarathy, P. C.; Ravindranath, K. R.; Saindane, M. T.; Sidhaye, A. R.; Viswanathan, N. From Indian Journal of Chemistry, Section B: Organic Chemistry Including Medicinal Chemistry (1977), 15B(3), 291-3. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS Several compds. of known structures belonging to the classes alkaloids, flavonoids, quinones, steroids, and terpenoids were isolated from a no. of plants of Indian origin. ~9 Citings
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48. New tropical seed oils. IV. Component acids of leguminous and other seed oils including useful sources of crepenynic and dehydrocrepenynic acid By Gunstone, F. D.; Steward, S. R.; Cornelius, J. A.; Hammonds, T. W. From Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (1972), 23(1), 53-60. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1002/jsfa.2740230108 The component acids of seed oils from 40 legumes and from 43 other species are reported. Attention is drawn to a series of Afzelia oils which provide a useful source of crepenynic acid and dehydrocrepenynic acid and to several Khaya and other oils of potential com. value. ~13 Citings
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49. Terpenoids and related compounds. V. Chemical investigation of Baccaurea sapida Muell By Misra, Debranjan; Khastgir, Hari N. From Journal of the Indian Chemical Society (1967), 44(8), 728-30. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS cf. CA 67: 32833y. Dried and powd. bark of B. sapida (1 kg.) was extd. 18 hrs. with C6H6, the ext. stripped of solvent, the residue taken up in ether, and the soln. filtered. The insol. material was acetylated with Ac2O and pyridine to give a solid, m. 162-4, which was not investigated further. The ether soln. was washed with 10% NaOH soln. and water and the neutral ether soln. was evapd. to a gummy residue which was chromatographed on Al2O3. Elution with petroleum ether gave a solid (I), m. 242-8, and a 2nd solid (II), m. 261-8, and further elution with 3:2 petroleum ether-C6H6 gave -sitosterol, m. 135-6, []D -40 (CHCl3). I (0.8 g.) was rechromatographed on Al2O3 and eluted with 4:1 petroleum ether-C6H6 to give 0.6 g. friedelin, m. 256-8, []D -36 (CHCl3). II was also chromatographed on Al2O3 to give epifriedelanol, m. 274-6 (CHCl3-MeOH), []D 9 (CHCl3). The alkali-washed portion of the ether soln. above was acidified with dil. HCl, the pptd. acid extd. with ether, and the ether soln. concd., esterified with CH2N2, and chromatographed on Al2O3. Elution with petroleum ether gave a solid, m. 138-9, and further elution with 4:1 petroleum ether-C6H6 gave 0.5 g. Me betulinate, m. 220-2 (MeOH), []D 5 (CHCl3). This ester was acylated to give pure Ac Me betulinate, m. 200-2 (MeOH-CHCl3). ~1 Citing
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50. Chemical examination of leteku [Baccaurea sapida] fruit

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By Mahanta, D.; Rao, P. R. From Research and Industry (1964), 9(3), 69-70. Language: Unavailable, Database: CAPLUS

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The juice of B. sapida fruit contains sucrose, glucose, and fructose. The peel contains 14% pectin, for the isolation of which a procedure has been worked out. Storing the peels for 4-5 days reduced the yield of pectin. ~0 Citings
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51. Biological accumulators of aluminum By Hutchinson, G. Evelyn; Wollack, Anne From Transactions Published by the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences (1943), 35, 73-128. Language: Unavailable, Database: CAPLUS In the Lycopodiaceae, the genus Urostachys consists of species uniformly poor in Al; the highest content is in U. selago (L.) Hert., presumably one of the more primitive species. Al accumulation has evolved in several lines in the genus Lycopodium. In the group Eulycopodium a rough proportionality exists between Al content and morphological specialization. Al accumulators are widespread in the Melastomaceae, Diapensiaceae and Symplocaceae. In the Euphorbiaceae, quant. data are given for Aporosa and Baccaurea; the closely allied Antidesma is not an Al accumulator. Potamogeton, Zostera and Ruppia are not Al accumulators. Hallier's conclusion (Botan. Centr., Beihefte 39, Abt. 2, 178 (1922)) that Al-accumulating plants can be recognized by their appearance, in the herbarium, was examd. About onethird of the genera in Hallier's list are actually Al accumulators, so that his criterion, though having no abs. value, may be based on a low statistical correlation. The genus Kibara (Monimiaceae) was disclosed as an Al accumulator in this phase of the investigation. The fruits of Viburnum and Diospyros and the receptacles of Rosa, in which some previous investigators have claimed to find large concns. of Al, were found not to accumulate this element. An elementary analysis of Lycopodium flabelliforme, in which 25 elements were detd., disclosed no divergence from the compn. to be expected in a calcifuge plant, except in the great Al content and possibly in a slight accumulation of Pb. The Ga content of L. flabelliforme is about 0.00001% of the dry plant; in Mitchella repens, growing with the club-moss, it is between 0.00001 and 0.00002%. These values lie within the restricted range recorded for marine animals. A modification of the usual method for detn. of Al is described, in which sepn. of the ferrous Fe is accomplished in the presence of thioglycolic acid and -'-dipyridyl. 74 references. ~4 Citings
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52. Removal of nickel ion from aqueous solution using Rambai stem (Baccaurea motleyana) adsorbent By Khuzaimah Noor; Nour Usama M; Maitra Saikat From Journal of environmental science & engineering (2011), 53(3), 257-62, Language: English, Database: MEDLINE The presence of heavy metals in the environment results in a number of environmental problems. In this study, the potential of Rambai stem (Baccaurea motleyana) of Malaysia in removing nickel ion from aqueous solution has been evaluated. The raw material used in this study was obtained from local orchard. The collected material passed through physical preparation and treatment process. The adsorbent was thoroughly characterized by SEM, EDX and FTIR studies. The effect of initial nickel concentration, dosage of adsorbent and pH on the adsorption process were investigated. The highest adsorption capacity obtained at weak acidic conditions (pH 4-5) when dosage and initial concentrations are 0.1 and 30 ppm respectively. The percentage of removal of nickel from the solution was found to be 51%. The experimental data fitted well in Freundlich isotherms indicating the adsorption of nickel on Rambai stem (Baccaurea motleyana) followed heterogenous surface phenomena. ~0 Citings
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53. Carbon monoxide enhances the chilling tolerance of recalcitrant Baccaurea ramiflora seeds via nitric oxide-mediated glutathione homeostasis By Bai Xue-gui; Chen Jin-hui; Kong Xiang-xiang; Todd Christopher D; Yang Yong-ping; Hu Xiang-yang; Li De-zhu From Free radical biology & medicine (2012), 53(4), 710-20, Language: English, Database: MEDLINE

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Both carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) play fundamental roles in plant responses to environmental stress. Glutathione (GSH) homeostasis through the glutathione-ascorbate cycle regulates the cellular redox status and protects the plant from damage due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Most recalcitrant seeds are sensitive to chilling stress, but the roles of and cross talk among CO, NO, ROS, and GSH in recalcitrant seeds under low temperature are not well understood. Here, we report that the germination of recalcitrant Baccaurea ramiflora seeds shows sensitivity to chilling stress, but application of exogenous CO or NO markedly increased GSH accumulation, enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes involved in the glutathione-ascorbate cycle, decreased the content of H(2)O(2) and RNS, and improved the tolerance of seeds to low-temperature stress. Compared to orthodox seeds such as maize, only transient accumulation of CO and NO was induced and only a moderate increase in GSH was shown in the recalcitrant B. ramiflora seeds. Exogenous CO or NO treatment further increased the GSH accumulation and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) activity in B. ramiflora seeds under chilling stress. In contrast, suppressing CO or NO generation, removing GSH, or blocking GSNOR activity resulted in increases in ROS and RNS and impaired the germination of CO- or NO-induced seeds under chilling stress. Based on these results, we propose that CO acts as a novel regulator to improve the tolerance of recalcitrant seeds to low temperatures through NO-mediated glutathione homeostasis. ~0 Citings
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54. Anticancer properties and phenolic contents of sequentially prepared extracts from different parts of selected medicinal plants indigenous to Malaysia By Ismail Maznah; Bagalkotkar Gururaj; Iqbal Shahid; Adamu Hadiza Altine From Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) (2012), 17(5), 5745-56, Language: English, Database: MEDLINE Different parts of four edible medicinal plants (Casearia capitellata, Baccaurea motleyana, Phyllanthus pulcher and Strobilanthus crispus), indigenous to Malaysia, were extracted in different solvents, sequentially. The obtained 28 extracts were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer properties, using the MTS assay, on four human cancer cell lines: colon (HT-29), breast (MCF-7), prostate (DU-145) and lung (H460) cancers. The best anticancer activity was observed for the ethyl acetate (EA) extract of Casearia capitellata leaves on MCF-7 cell lines with IC 2.0 g/mL and its methanolic (MeOH) extract showed an outstanding activity against lung cancer cell lines. Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of Phyllanthus pulcher aerial parts showed the highest anticancer activity against DU-145 cell lines, while significant activity was exhibited by DCM extract of Phyllanthus pulcher roots on colon cancer cell lines with IC50 value of 8.1 g/mL. Total phenolic content (TPC) ranged over 1-40 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g. For all the samples, highest yields of phenolics were obtained for MeOH extracts. Among all the extracts analyzed, the MeOH extracts of Strobilanthus crispus leaves exhibited the highest TPC than other samples (p < 0.05). This study shows that the nature of phenol determines its anticaner activity and not the number of phenols present. ~0 Citings
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55. Removal of mercury(II) from aqueous solutions using the leaves of the Rambai tree (Baccaurea motleyana) By Sen Tushar Kanti; Azman Amir Farid Bin; Maitra Saikat; Dutta Binay K From Water environment research : a research publication of the Water Environment Federation (2011), 83(9), 834-42, Language: English, Database: MEDLINE This study was undertaken to evaluate the biosorption potential of a natural, low-cost biosorbent, Rambai leaves (Baccaurea motleyana), to remove trace amounts of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions. It was found that the amount of Hg(II) biosorption by Rambai leaves increased with initial metal ion concentration, contact time, and solution pH but decreased as the amount of biosorbent increased. The maximum biosorption capacity was 121.95 mg/g for an initial concentration range of 5 to 120 ppb. Overall, kinetic studies showed that the Hg(II) biosorption process followed pseudo-second-order kinetics based on pseudo-first-order and intraparticle diffusion models. Isotherm data revealed that the biosorption process followed both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The value of separation factor, R(L), from the Langmuir equation and rate of biosorption, n, from the Freundlich model also indicated favorable adsorption. ~0 Citings
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56. Habitat use of Williamson's Mouse-deer (Tragulus williamsoni) in Mengla area, southern Yunnan

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By Cao Ming; Zhou Wei; Bai Bing; Zhang Qin; Wang Bin; Chen Min-Yong From Dong wu xue yan jiu = Zoological research / "Dong wu xue yan jiu" bian ji wei yuan hui bian ji (2010), 31(3), 3039, Language: Chinese, Database: MEDLINE Combining line-transect method and sampling method, the geographic coordinates of footprint links for Williamson's Mouse-deer (Tragulus williamsoni) were collected in Mengman and Longmen regions of Mengla area, southern Yunnan, from June to December 2007. A distribution pattern map of the mouse-deer was produced by GIS software. Eleven ecological factors were measured in collected and available samples. The results indicated that the mousedeer preferred valleys along banks of rivers or streams in low altitude, and were mainly distributed in Sanchahe of Mengman region and Darongshu of Longmen region. Comparing nominal factors between collected and available samples, the results showed that the mouse-deer tended to inhabit middle and lower slopes and favored the plant species of Ficus hirtal, Baccaurea samiflora, Alpinia kwangsiensis and Phrynium capitatum. These plants occur along banks of rivers or streams, one of the important reasons affecting distribution of the mouse-deer populations. Comparing quantitative factors between collected and available samples, the results showed that four factors including tall tree coverage, shrub coverage and herb coverage, and distance to water, were significantly different. These four factors were key in discriminating collected and available samples and main factors affecting the habitat use of the mouse-deer. The dense shrub with taller trees could form good shady condition for the mouse-deer, and greatly strengthen their security. Due to their preference for areas near water, there were more flourishing tall trees and dense shrubs at valleys in low altitude, which was one of important reasons affecting the distribution of the mouse-deer populations massing in valleys in low altitude. ~0 Citings
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57. Three new vanilloid derivatives from the stems of Baccaurea ramiflora By Yang Xian-Wen; He Hong-Ping; Ma Yan-Lin; Wang Fang; Zuo Yi-Qing; Lin Hua; Li Shun-Lin; Li Ling; Hao XiaoJiang From Planta medica (2010), 76(1), 88-90, Language: English, Database: MEDLINE Three new (1-3) and four known (4-7) compounds were isolated from the stems of Baccaurea ramiflora. By analysis of 1D, 2D NMR, and MS data, the new compounds were identified as 4'-O-(6- O-vanilloyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl tachioside D (1), 6'-O-vanilloylpicraquassioside D (2), and 6'-O-vanilloylicariside B(5) (3). Compound 1 exhibited significant DPPH radical-scavenging activity, with an IC(50) value of 36.9 microM, while compound 4 revealed weak antioxidant activity against H (2)O(2)-induced impairment in PC12 cells. ~0 Citings
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58. Bioactive phenols from the leaves of Baccaurea ramiflora By Yang Xian-Wen; Wang Jun-Song; Ma Yan-Lin; Xiao Hai-Tao; Zuo Yi-Qing; Lin Hua; He Hong-Ping; Li Ling; Hao Xiao-Jiang From Planta medica (2007), 73(13), 1415-7, Language: English, Database: MEDLINE Two new phenols, 6'- O-vanilloylisotachioside ( 1) and 6'- O-vanilloyltachioside ( 2), together with nine known compounds, were isolated from the leaves of Baccaurea ramiflora (Euphorbiaceae). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated mainly by analysis of physical and spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 - 10 were tested for antioxidant activities by using MTT and DPPH assays. Seven compounds, 1, 2, and 4 - 8, revealed potent antioxidant activities against H (2)O (2)-induced impairment in PC12 cells, and exhibited significant DPPH radical-scavenging activities with IC (50) values of 86.9, 142.9, 15.2, 37.6, 35.9, 30.2, and 79.8 microM, respectively. ~0 Citings
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