This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
GUI Graphical User Interface. MCU TRx GPS BT Microcontroller. Transceiver. Global Positioning System. Bluetooth.
WiFi Wireless Fidelity. UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter. UTC Coordinated Universal Time. RF Radio Frequency. Lat Alt SPI ISMB CBS GFSK MSK OOK NMEA Sb/Sth RSS CD Latitude. Altitude. Serial Peripheral Interface. Industrial, Scientific and Medical Bands. Centraal Bureau Statistiek . Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying. Minimum Shift Keying On-off keying National Marine Electronics Association Somebody or Something Received Signal Strength Compact Disc
1.1 Pervasive Systems Group
Located in Enschede, Netherlands University Twente can be described in two words: High tech, human touch. That is the University of Twente. Some 3,300 scientists and other professionals working together on cutting edge research, innovations with real-world relevance and inspiring education for more than 9,000 students. The group is the initiator and the leader of the Dutch initiative on Innovation platform on Sensor Networks (IIP Sensor Network)1. It also participates in
Strategic Research Orientation of CTIT (Center for Telematics and Information Technology) on wireless and sensors in NIRICT Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) on Ambient Intelligence and is a member of the CTIT Strategic Research Orientations (SRO) on Wireless and Sensor Systems. PS is a member of the Australian ARC Research Network on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing (ISSNIP), and collaborates with the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS). The work in the group focuses on the design of enabling technologies and methods for applications of smart sensor systems and wearable devices. The Pervasive Systems (PS) group has a significant background on distributed networked intelligence covering the entire design trajectory from design of the miniature digital devices, wireless sensor networks, body area networks, methods of distributed signal processing, sensor fusion, and event detection. Group’s research projects have been supported by a number of regional (Pieken in de Delta, Interreg), national (STW, NWO), and European (ITEA, EU Framework, Eureka) agencies, as well as private industry. PS is interested in a broad spectrum of research into distributed wireless systems, from theory and mathematical analysis to real-world experiments and applications. PS initiated and coordinates the Smart eXperience (SmartXP) lab which has extensive prototyping facilities, development boards, computer infrastructure including development software, and test beds in its disposal. The group is very successful in knowledge transfer and has created several spin-offs, i.e., Ambient Systems2 (as result of IST project EYES), Inertia Technology3 (as results of IST-project e-SENSE and national Smart Surroundings and Featherlight projects), and Smart Signs Solutions4 (as results of IST project e-SENSE and national project Smart Surroundings).
1.2 Saxion University of Applied Science
Saxion University of Applied Sciences5 is one of the largest institutions of higher education in the Netherlands, with over 22,000 students.2
Author of this document is a final year student of Electronics Engineering in the applied communication field of the Life and Science Department of Saxion University of Applied Science in Enschede, Netherlands.
2. Thesis Assignment
Several projects were proposed by Dr. Nirvana Meratnia. The Smart Helmet project was handpicked for several reasons. First and foremost, it has several advantages for the civilians. Second, it is challenging and challenge always ignites excitement and adrenaline. Finally, it combines software and hardware which is an opportunity for the author to explore his strengths, weaknesses and interest.
2.2 Focus of thesis
Bachelor thesis goal is to integrate outdoor localization device (GPS) into a firefighter helmet and achieve wireless voice communication between firefighters. Localization data must be sent to a mobile node wirelessly. In the Netherlands a minimum of two fire trucks (two teams) attends the incident. Each team has six firefighters. The following figure summarizes the big picture that can be achieved in the future after considering this thesis as a first step.
Figure(1): Each team has a central node that communicates within its own team and the monitoring node. Localization data’s of central nodes are sent to the monitoring node. Two teams will not communicate with each other to avoid possible conflicts. In case, two teams are in different locations and situations.
Thesis will focus on the P2P communication of one central node and the monitoring node. Following steps must be achieved: Send central node location data collected via GPS receiver to the monitoring node via a Bluetooth transceiver. Monitoring node should be able to display the data on a GUI. E.g. Android tablet/mobile application. Enable wireless voice communication between the central node and monitoring node via 433Mhz transceiver.
2.3 Overall project (block diagram)
In the beginning of the project the following block diagram was drawn in order to have an opening towards a Top to bottom approach.
Blockdiagram (1): Smart helmet system level block diagram.
Further on after the research phase, which will be illustrated in the next chapter, the following block diagram of a central node was put together. Consequently, the components can be chosen then the circuit can be simulated and realized.
Microphone + Amplifier Switch Earphone + Amplifier
ADC Transceiver DAC
Microcontroller Monitoring Node
Block diagram (2): Breaking down the system level into slightly more detailed block diagram
3. Design choices overview
This chapter provides you with the design choices that have been considered in the research phase as a prerequisite to realization phase that’s outlined in chapter (5) and chapter(6). Also, to provide a basic understanding of the terms and technologies involved. 3.1 Arduino Uno MCU functions as a central brain of the system. The MCU will be taking care of processing the localization data and the voice data. Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328 (support environment for Atmega328). It will be taking care of converting the voice into digital, programming Bluetooth module to send the GPS data and programming 433MHz transceiver to achieve
wireless voice communicate. The
MCU on the board is programmed using the Arduino programming language (based on Wiring) and the Arduino development environment (based on Processing, a graphics programming language and development system popular with artists and designers).
Figure (2): Arduino Uno board, based on AVR Atmega328. See Appendix A for specifications. Why? Arduino Uno is chosen due to its simple and clear high-level programming language, this reason will reduce the time consumption that will be invested in coding. With this being said, after the idea is being realized, the limitation in coding and performance can be modified. How? By using lower level languages, such as C, and dealing directly with the registers in Atmega328. It will optimize the speed and reduce power consumption. Therefore it is very flexible to be customized and extended. Another reason for picking Arduino Uno is that it is inexpensive, around 23 euros per board and comes with free authoring software. Unlike Texas instruments and Microchip development boards, they cost beyond 50 euros.
3.1 GPS receiver.
Localization of the firefighter is achieved via integrating GPS receiver into the system. In any part
of the world, within 30 seconds, down to +/- 10m (depending on the module) accuracy the GPS can show GPS receiver holder position.
GPS History, how it works, applications and limitations will be discussed in chapter (4).The
following table shows summary of the compared GPS modules. This comparison was meant to assist the decision making process, a decision of which of the modules is most fit for the project. The following
table shows some of the GPS modules that have been compared to reach a decision to which of which is fit for the project.
GPS Number of channels Acquisition sensitivity (cold start) Tracking sensitivity Update Rate Power requirements Antennas Hot start Cold start Size (mm) Price
Trimple Copernicus || 12
Sirf ||| Em406a 22
Maestro A2035-H 48
Fastrax UP-501 66 acquisition and 22 tracking -148dBm
-159dBm 1Hz 3.3V – 5V 44mA external 3s 38s 19x19x2.54 Sparkfun 54e
-160 dBm 1Hz 4.5 – 6.5V, 44mA Patch 1s 42s 30x30x10.5 Farnell 30e
-163 dBm 1 Hz 3 – 4.6V, 49mA Patch 1s 35s 30.48 x 38.8 x 5.7 Mouser 18e
-165 dBm Upto 10Hz 3.0 -5V , 30mA patch NA NA 22x22x8 Farnell 50e
Table 1-1: GPS modules comparison. Before the decision is made there are few terms that must be known to further assist the decision making process. Such as, number of channels, tracking sensitivity, acquisition sensitivity, update rate.
Number of Channels While there are “31 GPS satellites in space, at least 24 GPS satellites are available 95% ”(4) of the time. The GPS receiver number of channels will affect the time to first fix (track). Since the module doesn’t know which satellites are in view, the more frequencies (channels) that can be checked at once, the faster to hold a fix. After getting a lock, most modules will block the exta of channels to save power. 12 or 14 channels are the minimum channels available within a GPS receiver. 12 or 14 channels will work fine for tracking if time for first fix is not an issue. At a minimum the “ GPS receiver must lock into 4 sattalites, to determine longitude (X), latitude (Y), height (Z) and time error (∆t) “.
Cold start GPS doesn't know anything. It has to get UTC time, almanac, and find out the satellites in view. Hot start GPS knows UTC time, almanac, and satellites in view.
Acquisition Sensitivity GPS has to discover the satellites. Tracking Sensitivity. GPS knows where it is, and follows it.
Update rate Is how many times the GPS receiver recalculates and reports its position. The standard for
most devices is 1Hz. It is sufficient enough if it’s not used for fast vehicles, and UAV’s. The later requires a higher update rate as much as 5Hz and 10Hz and a more powerful processor that can keep up with the speed to pars that much data.
With this being said, EM406a is chosen as its features lies in between the rest of the GPS receivers modules stated in the table.
Figure (3) Sirf||| EM406a GPS receiver module.
Fastrax UP-501, is the lowest in power consumption. It has a high number of channels, high tracking sensitivity and update rate. Its disadvantage lies in its price. Whilst, such powerful GPS receiver is mostly used for fast vehicles and UAV’s it isn’t highly necessary for this project as proof of concept stage. Maestro A2035-H was the first choice; due to its advantage amongst Sirf ||| and Trimple in number of channels, low power consumption, tracking sensitivity and price. Unfortunately, shipping and limited stocks had been an obstacle in having the module delivered on time.
Trimple Copernicus || is a low profile GPS receiver module. Its disadvantages are: high price, low number of channels and requires external antenna. It will not fit for this project.
Sirf ||| EM406a features place in between the rest of the modules; so it was picked. The noticeable disadvantage amongst the other is its acquisition timing at the cold start. However, datasheets can’t be 100% reliable till the module is fully tested. Plus, climate, clear view to sky with no obstructions (building, trees, fences, cables... etc.) and signal delay caused by “Ionosphere/Troposhpere”(6) would cause inaccuracies and delays despite the GPS receiver sensitivity.
3.2 Bluetooth module
As the objective of the thesis states that the smart helmet should be able to send its location to an application running on a smartphone. The only way to send GPS data wirelessly to an Android mobile is via Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. Here is a summary comparison between Bluetooth technology and Wi-Fi technology.
Frequency Cost Bandwidth Security Year of development Hardware requirement
Bluetooth 2.4 GHz Low ~800 Kbps Less secure 1991 Bluetooth adaptor on all the devices connection with each other. 5 to 100m. depending on the class.
2.4, 3.6, 5 GHz
Low 80mA in continues mode
High ~11 MBps Security issues are already being debated. 1994 Wireless adaptors on all the devices of the network, a wireless router and/or wireless access points Typoical range 32m indoors and 95m outdoors.Antennas can increase the range. High, 325mA in continues mode
Ease of Use
Fairly simple to use. Can be used to connect upto seven devices at a time (Master mode). It is easy to switch between devices or find and connect to any device 2.1 Mbps
It is more complex and requires configuration of hardware and software
The best option is to use Bluetooth technology, due its low power consumption. Bluetooth also can achieve from 1m to 100m wireless communication which is fairly adequate for this project. In addition, BT module does not require complex hardware setup and a service provider as in Wi-Fi.
A Bluetooth module at one end can establish a wireless connection with Android mobile and on the other end can act as a serial port that can be easily interfaced with Arduino UNO and/or the GPS module.
Technology is chosen, now the module comes next. RN 42 class 2 Bluetooth module by Microchip Roving Networks is chosen. As can be seen from the following table, RN42 has the advantage amongst the rest in the following: 115 Kbps data transfer rate and with EDR it can reach 921Kbps.
Low cost. Low power consumption .
Microchip Laird RN42 BL600-ST 3 – 3.6V 921Kbps 2 -80dBm 30m 4dBm 50mA 19 x 13.4 x 2mm
V supply Data rate Bluetooth class Receive sensitivty Tx and Rx Range Tx power Connected consumption Size Temperature
3.3V 2.1 Mbps 2 -87dBm 35m 5dBm 70mA 23 x 16 x 3 mm
1.8V – 3.6V 1 Mbps 2 -91 dBm 30m 4dBm 60mA
19 mm x 12.5 mm x 3 mm
-25°C to +75°C
2.7 – 3.6V
2 -86 dBm NA 3dBm 40 mA
15.6 mm x 8.7 mm x 2.8 mm + 85 C
Mouser € 24,48
Mouser € 10,97
At first sight Panasonic ENW-89811A6KF would look better relatively to RN42; because its low power consumption and higher sensitivity. But the shortcoming is the fact it is lower in transmitting power and more expensive than RN42. It is important to have a higher transmitting power; due to RN42 will just be used in its transmitting state.
Bluegiga chip and Laird chip is suitable for audio smart phones short range applications. In this project the Bluetooth module is used as a wireless serial transmitter. The long range voice communication is achieved via a lower frequency. Therefore, it is not necessary to use a Bluetooth module that supports audio applications for very short range in the presence of a low frequency RF module TRx that can send audio for a longer range.
Figure() BlueSMIRF silver bluetooth modem based on RN42 Bluetooth module
Bluetooth class 2 disadvantage is its low range, typical 20 meters. In the survey Class 2 had been focused at neither class 1 nor class 3. Most if not all mobile devices has class 2 Bluetooth modules, a lot of resources shows that if two Bluetooth modules aren’t matching , they will not give an efficient range of class 1. In other words, if you have a mobile phone with class 2 module and a remote class 1 Bluetooth module, the range will end as class 2. However, for future cases, RN 41 class 1 Bluetooth module is available in the market and it is functionally compatible with RN 42. RN41 hasn’t been used for this project due to issues in ordering and delivery time. The software which will be used to program RN42 will be easily implemented on RN41 module. Note: In the process of choosing a Bluetooth module the engineer must pay attention if the module has any Bluetooth protocol stack on board (that is related specifically to his need) and an antenna (unless there are other antenna designs in mind). Also, if the SMD connections are in
the middle below the surface of the chip, because the engineer may not have the proper equipment’s to solder it on board.
Power class(7) Class 1 Class 2 Class 3
Maximum power 100mW, (20 dBm) 2.5mW, (4dBm) 1 mW, (0 dBm)
Nominal output power NA 1 mW, (0 dBm) NA
Minimum output power 1mW, (0 dBm) 0.25 mW, (-6 dBm) NA
---------------------------(7) : Bluetooth and Wi-Fi wirelessprotocols : a Survey and a comparison. By E.Ferro and F.Potorti, Institute of the Nation Research Council. 2004
3.2 Bluetooth GPS application
Figure (1): Logo of the GPS Bluetooth Android mobile application
“Bluetooth GPS” is an Android phone/tablet application. It receives its information via GPS Bluetooth device. It shows the date, time, altitude, latitude , longitude, satellites in view, NMEA data, position’s accuracy and the position of GPS Bluetooth device’s holder on an offline Google map.
Figure (), Images illustrate the Bluetooth GPS application. Top right shows the details received via GPS receiver ranging from Lon/Lat, date, UTC...etc. Top right shows the position of the GPS holder on an offline map (most important). Middle picture illustrates how many satellites are tracked, how many are in view and significantly how accurate (close to truth) is the result from the real position.
3.3 Wireless Voice communication
objective: Ideally to reach a range 1km and any range above 10m is acceptable. An average building such as (house, apartment, a company, dormitory ...etc.) will require an effective voice communication range of 5m up to 50m to communicate horizontally and or vertically. This criteria is built upon the average sizes of households (at a minimum) in the Netherlands. Average households size is 120m2 as the statistics on CBS website are presented (official Dutch government organization). (8) RF module is required to send speech in the voice band of 300Hz to 3400Hz. A separate low frequency wireless transceiver is used to achieve wireless voice communication. Why isn’t the Bluetooth chip responsible of transmitting the GPS serial data and half duplex voice communication? There are several reasons for having two transceivers that will be discussed briefly in the following chapter. Before reaching that point, first of all, “Why is Bluetooth chosen in the first place” had been previously discussed In page (). With this being said, chapter () will discuss why 433MHz is chosen for wireless voice communication amongst other frequencies. To brief it in few lines, lower frequencies tend to have higher ranges. They are unaffected by the barriers and can diffract over the top; because the wave can bend around and above objects. Unlike higher frequencies which gets absorbed easily by the barriers (trees, earth, houses..etc). That is why TV broadcasters have repeater stations often positioned at the top of hills to reach all the houses in the valley that would not be in line of sight. Before the decision is made there are few terms that must be known to further assist the decision making process data rate, transmitter Power and sensitivity. Those terms will be discussed briefly in this
For telephony speech quality, 96kbps is effective voice communication but not for music quality. Music covers approximately 15Hz to 20KHz. Whereas, natural human voice band ranges from 300 to 3.4K Hz. For this project, human voice is what is required to be communicated wirelessly. Therefore, a transceiver with a data rate above 96kbps is sufficient to be able to cover 96kbps transmission. The quality will sound like an AM radio quality, which is fairly adequate. More information about data rate will be indicated in chapter (2).
The distance that a signal can be transmitted depends on several factors. The primary hardware factors that are involved are:
Transmitter power Cable losses between the transmitter and its antenna Antenna gain of the transmitter Localization of the two antennas This refers to how far apart the antennas are and if there are obstacles between them. Antennas that can see each other without any obstacles between them are in line of sight.
Receiving antenna gain Cable losses between the receiver and its antenna Receiver sensitivity
Indicates the minimum power level signal that can be successfully received by the receiver (expressed in dBm or mW). Therefore, the lower the power level, the better the receiver can pick a weak signal. This means that the larger the absolute value of the negative number, the better the receive sensitivity. This also can be increased via using proper receiving antenna gain, using low noise amplifier. However, regulations must be followed. An analogy to receiver sensitivity is human ear. The more sensitive your
hearing, the farther away you could sit, and still not miss anything anyone said.
Transmitter power indicates how much power is presented at a transmitter output to transmit a radio frequency, expressed in dBm or mW. The higher the transmit power the longer the distance a signal can travel. Maximum transmit power allowed in an unlicensed band in Europe is 25dBm. The transmit power can be increased using gain antenna (power amplifiers which increase the antenna gain). However, regulations must be followed. An analogy to transmitter power is shouting loud. Now
imagine that the dinner table is at a restaurant. Guests at other tables are having conversations of their own, there is music playing, and waiters are singing a birthday song. In RF terms, the noise-floor has raised. In this new environment, the only way to be heard is to speak louder.
Antenna there are many different types of antennas in the market. Their size and specification determines how far can a signal travel, a big antenna will not be desirable to be carried on a helmet. Quarter wave lambda wire antenna initially will be used for proof of concept; because it is cheap and widely available. Other antennas types such as patch and chip antennas will not be tested in this project. However, it can be considered in the future improvements.
Beside analog modulations schemes: amplitude modulation (AM), Frequency modulation (FM) and phase modulation (PM), digital modulation exist which are knows as Shift Keying. For example, Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) which is similar to AM, Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) which is similar to FM), Phase Shift Keying (PSK) which is similar to PM. Moreover, spread spectrum techniques are used when a lot of noise, interference and jamming are present. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) are types of spread spectrum techniques, the first is used in GPS, the later in used in Bluetooth. Each has its own pros and cons. Depending on your application , you can compare the pros and cons of each, time available and expertise to decide which one to choose. At the basic level, FSK will suffice for voice communication TRx for this project. It is less susceptible to noise and interference then ASK; because the frequency changes to carry the information instead of amplitude. If amplitude passes any threshold, the information will be lost with ASK; because information
is carried in the amplitude. For the FSK signal, the clipped signal still carries frequency information with a slight phase error due to the noise signal.On the other hand, amplitude is affected by the weather easily.
The following table shows summary of the compared 433MHz RF modules. This comparison was meant to assist the decision making process, a decision of which of the modules is most fit for the project.
PARALLAX Linx TRFM433-LT
433/868/91 5MHz GFSK, MSK
433/868/91 5MHz FSK,GFSK ,OOK
433/868/91 5 MHz FSK
2-FSk, 4-FSK, GFSK, MSK ,OOK , ASK
+12dbm/ 15,8mW 1.8 – 3.6v
10dbm/ 10mW 1.9V-3.6V
+17 dBm/ 50mW
1.8 - 3.6 V
+9.2 dBm/ 8 mW 3.3v – 5v
V supply rate
1.8V – 3.6V
DataRate Tx current
500 kbps 16.5mA
Rx current Sensitivity Price
7.4mA -116dBm Ebay 1: € 20
12mA -100 dBm Techtoys
6.1mA NA Parallax 1 : € 29, module Farnell, 1 : € 13.40, chip alone
3mA -110 dBm Ebay 1: € 9 module
25mA -121 dBm DX 1 : € 12 module
1: €12, module € 10, module Mouser 1 : € 3,92 10: €3,26 Quasaruk 1: € 4.9 chip alone
Mouser 1 € 4.58, chip
UART, SPI UART
Chipcon CC1101 and HopeRF RFM22 are the best amongst the modules included in the table. CC1101 is better then RFM22 in the datarate and includes more modulation techniques. RFM22 is better in terms of Transmission power, receiver sensitivity and price. It’s datarate can cover the voice transmission data rate requirement, 96kbps. Therefore, RFM22 Is chosen for this project. By the end of the project, RFM22-B was released , it even has a higher transmission power (20dBm) and higher sensitivity. UTC-4332-b1 is strong in terms of transmission power and receiver senstivy amongst the rest, but it can’t fulfill voice band data rate transmission requirement.
3.4 Hardware Input
Hardware input phase consists of a microphone, amplifier , filtering and buffering. This data will be fed into the Arduino ADC. ADC will processing the data and convert it into digital data that will be fed into the transceiver to achieve wireless voice communication. Most important requirements for the amplifier are the following: Minimum Bandwidth 3KHz. Human voice band ranges from 300 to 3.2KHz (bandwidth 2.9KHz). And, so it can be fed into 8K ADC sampling rate fulfilling the Nyquist–Shannon sampling
theorem (Sampling frequency must be bigger or equal twice the maximum frequency).
Dual amplifier. Thus, to minimize number of components used on the board. One amplifier is used for amplification and second for buffering. Single supply voltage, between 5v to 9v; To minimize the number of batteries in use. . Microphone requirements : Small in size. Smaller than a coin. Electret microphone. Since, they have internal preamplifier. Omnidirectional microphone. Covers the human voice band.
Requirement for speaker:
It must match the output impedance of the amplifier . Size as earphone or even as big as human ear (just for proof of concept). Typical impedances are 4ohm, 8ohm and 16ohm. As law of averages, 8ohm is recommended. Good sensitivity (between 40dB to 60dB, typical in the market). Covers the human voice band
3.5 Hardware output
The crieteria use for Hardware output is as follows : Supply enough current to 8ohm or 4ohm speaker. Minimum Bandwidth of 3KHz. Single supply voltage, between 5v to 9v.
Amplifiers No. of Amplifiers Slew Rate Bandiwdth Vmin, Vmax Output Current Max Output power Load Impedance Price Table
OPA33AID 1 0.16V/us 350kHz 1.8 to 5.5V NA NA NA Farnell 2,63
Texas Instruments LM386 1 NA 300KHz 4 to 12V NA 0.35W 8ohm Farnell 0.80
Texas Instrunments NE5534AD 1 13V/us 10MHz +-5V, +-15V NA NA NA Farnell 1
ST Micro Electronics TS922IN 2 1.3V/us 4MHz 2.7V , 12V 80mA NA NA Farnell , 1,71
ST Micro Electronics TS922IN is chosen for it fits the following features : It has dual amplifiers within. A single amplifier will be used for amplification and second amplifier
will be used for buffering. With this it beats OPA33AI that operates on low voltage. See chapter (5) for circuitry details .
4MHz bandwidth covers the 3KHz bandwidth. With appropriate filtering , the bandwidth can be defined.
Texas instrunments LM386 is chosen for it features the following : Is specifically used to drive speaker loads. As it is class AB amplifier.
It can provide up to 0.3Watts to drive an 8ohm speaker. It is low power with might cause lower loudness, but it is efficient enough to be heard. Since, the speaker will be fit in the helmet, or in the ear. It can operate on a single battery either 5V or 9V. Why not NE5534AD ? Texas instrunments NE5534AD advantage is it has a higher slew rate then the rest of the chips. However, It is common to have a higher slew rate in existence of a higher bandwidth. How? The higher the bandwidth, the higher the slew rate.Therefore, the better/faster the opamp response at higher frequencies with full power. In this project, 3.4 KHz will be the max frequency passed. It is not as high as 20kHz that is used for music. Therefore, TS922IN is sufficient enough for voice band amplification. On the other hand, NE5534AD will have better response for audio amplification. Microphone PRO SIGNAL - ABM-716-RC - MICROPHONE, OMNI DIRECTIONAL
7MM is picked. It has 46dBm sensitivity and fits the criteria mentioned earlier. In Addition, it can be powered bia 5V battery and 9V battery.
Figure () Microphone ABM-716-RC (on the left) and Speaker 2901 is chose (on the right).
Speaker VISATON - 2901. - SPEAKER, MINIATURE, K50, 8OHM
speaker is picked for testing. It can’t be used as earphone. The micro speakers (earphones) that have been surveyed they start their minimum frequency at 1KHz, so it will not fit for this project. VISATON has 8ohm internal impedance, which matches LM386 output impedance. It requires 0.25mW power to be delivered to , LM386 can provide that. It also fits the
average mini speakers critera in sensitivity. It has 83dB sensitivity. See Appendix (A) for specifications.
Graph(1): Shows the directivity pattern. 500Hz and 1KHz almost has perfect directivity graph. The higher the frequency goes the lower directivity shape goes on -90 and +90 degrees angle. From 500 towards 8KHz the speaker can be heard at its best when placed at 0 degree.
Hints : Best way to determine if the opamp has a better performance, is to buy several opamps and test them. Due to time limit of this project, one opamp was picked.
Slew rate is a op amp datasheet specification published or provided by the manufacturer. Slew rate refers to the speed limitation of the output response of an op amp to a fast input signal applied to the op amp. Slew rate implies that there is a specific maximum rate of change possible at the output of a real op amp. If the input signal applied to an op amp circuit is such that it demands an output response that is faster than the specified value of SR, then the op amp won't comply.
The op amp cannot rise to an instantaneous value instead the output will rise in a linear ramp-like slope equal to the specified slew rate of the device. The op amp is then said to be slewing, and its output is slew-rate limited. Slew rate is expressed in V/us => volts per microseconds. Typically, SR = 1 - 15 V/us.
Speaker Impedance: The amplifier will deliver maximum power (volume) to the speaker when the speaker impedance matches (is equal to) the internal impedance (called the Output Impedance) of the amplifier. Too low impedance will result in weak ooutput and poor tone. If the speaker impedance is higher than that of the amplifier, its power output will again be less than it is capable of.
3.6 Digital to Analog Converter
For the voice to be reproduced back to analog, a DAC is needed. Arduino Uno doesn’t have a DAC, only PWM. A technique called R2R resistor ladder is used to accomplish this task. DAC chip was not used due to unavailability in the shops in Enschede and big delay in the order arrival. On the other hand, resistors are available everywhere and this technique works sufficiently good in converting digital data to an analog waveform. Essentially, it takes incoming
digital bits from Arduino, weights them, and sums them to produce 256 (2^8) different voltage levels from 0 and 5 volts. See chapter (5) for circuit and results.
The following is the central node system block diagram. It summarizes the system block diagram after the decision making that have been discussed in this chapter. Further detailed block diagram on microphone and speaker circuits will be found in chapter (5). The monitoring node will have an Android tablet/mobile. Android tablet/mobile contains built in bluetooth chip. In addition, the holder of Android tablet/mobile will have the same following system described in block diagram integrated in his/her helmet.
Sirf || EM406A
Arduino Uno Microphone
PRO SIGNAL ABM-716-RC
Amplifier + Filtering Switch
HopeRF RFM22 DAC R2R resistor ladder
VISATON - 2901. SPEAKER
Amplifier + Filtering
Chapter (4) Outdoor localization via GPS
This chapter will elaborate more on terminology, types of localization, GPS history, GPS functionality, GPS applications and GPS limitations.
4.1.1 Terminology Localization in this context as a word does not mean to localize, as in, local government. Localization in this context rather means “to locate”, to discover the exact position or place (location) of sb/sh. Localization, also called position or navigation, is a technique for determining one’s position accurately on the surface of earth. 4.1.2 Types of localization :
Radio Localization and Radio Navigation, passive (e.g. radars) and active localization techniques (e.g. using wave travelling time and distance) using radio waves. Passive uses, particularly radar, as well as detecting buried cables, water mains, and other public utilities. Used more to passively detect a distant
object rather than actively one's own position.
Satellite Localization, a positioning and navigation technique aided by satellites, e.g. GPS. Indoor Localization, a positioning technique for indoor environments.(e.g RSS) GSM localization, a technique for determining the location of a user of a cell phone or wireless transceiver (e.g signal strength to nearby antenna towers). Robot localization, figuring out robot's position in an environment Sound localization, a listener's ability to identify the location or origin of a detected sound or the methods in acoustical engineering to simulate the placement of an auditory cue in a virtual 3D space.
Global Positioning System or GPS is a space based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions. There are 31 satellites orbiting space at an altitude of around 20,000km, anyone who has a GPS receiver device will be able to receive the radio signals that the satellites broadcast and know where his or her location is.
Figure (4) a constellation of 31 sattalites orbits the space. The constellation is managed to ensure the availability of at least 24 GPS satellites, 95% of the time.
GPS Like so many other high-tech developments was designed by the military. Roger L. Easton is generally credited as its inventor, he worked in the U.S. department of defense. 4.2.2 How does it work ? Trilateration is the mathematical technique used to pinpoint the location. A GPS receiver needs at least three visible satellites to get an approximate location, but to improve accuracy and get precise altitude information, four or more satellites are better.
Figure (5) Trilateration mathematical technique
If a person is standing somewhere on earth under the range of three satellites. And he or she knows how far is satellite A, then the person must be located somewhere in the red circle. Doing the same with satellite B and C the GPS receiver works out the location by seeing where the
three circles intersect. The figure above is in 2 dimensions, in reality it is in 3 dimensions and overlapping spheres are used rather than circles. 
4.2.3 GPS History
1957 The entire physics game changed when Former Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite SPUTNECK. Scientists at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) noticed that the frequency of the radio signals transmitted by the Russian satellite increased as it approached and decreased as it moved away. This was caused by the Doppler Effect, the same thing that makes the timbre of a car horn change as the car rushes by. This gave the scientists a grand idea. Satellites could be tracked from the ground by measuring the frequency of the radio signals they emitted, and conversely, the locations of receivers on the ground could be tracked by their distance from the satellites. GPS has come a long way since Sputnik. Here are the major milestones along the way. Currently, a total of 31 GPS satellites orbit the earth twice a day. 1959 The U.S. Navy built the first real satellite navigation system, which it called TRANSIT. The system was designed to locate submarines, and started out with six satellites and eventually grew to ten. The subs often had to wait hours to receive signals from the satellites, but the model set the stage for true GPS with continuous signaling from satellites in space.
Figure (6) The U.S. Air Force launched the first "Block I" GPS satellite into space in 1974.
1974 The branches of the military, after having worked on a GPS system for the past 11 years, launch the first satellite of a proposed 24-satellite GPS system called NAVSTAR. 1989 Magellan Corporation claims to be the first to market in the U.S. with a hand-held navigation device, the Magellan NAV 1000. And, on 1999 Mobile phone manufacturer launched first GPS mobile phone. While in 2001 GPS products became widely available in car navigation.
How does GPS work, physics artic (online) http://www.physics.org/article-questions.asp?id=55
Figure (7) First consumer GPS device, the Magellen NAV 1000.
1990 The U.S Defense Department decides to decrease the accuracy of the system because of fear of smugglers, hostile forces..etc to use the GPS system to advantage. 1995 A constellation of 27 fully operational GPS satellites is launched into space my USA. Of those 27, three were used as spares to replace any of the 24 active satellites if failed. The satellites, circled the globe every 12 hours a day.
Figure (8) Personal GPS devices like the TomTom Start 45 car navigation device in 2001.
2010-2011 The U.S Air Force launched two new GPS satellites, one in 2010 and one in 2011, that are meant to keep the constellation operable until the next generation “Block III” satellites can begin launching in 2014. The new Block III satellites will add an additional civilian GPS signal, and will enhance the performance of existing GPS service.
4.2.4 GPS Applications
Due to processing the data received by the GPS receiver, diverse applications have been developed to serve commercial and government demands. GPS served and still serves the following industries: Agriculture, Aviation, Marine, Public Safety & Disaster Relief, Surveying and Mapping, Space, Rail, Roads and Highways, Environment.
Transportation This technology tracks where your vehicles are on a detailed map, where they have been, where they are going, what speed they are traveling, as well as ignition on/off. In the right hands, this data can become very useful information when managing your business.
Figure (9) GPS tracking the vehicles on a map
GPS Navigation in the Air
Pilots often rely on GPS to navigate to their destinations. A GPS receiver in the cockpit provides the pilot with accurate position data and helps keep the airplane on course. Mapping the Earth with GPS Surveyors and map makers use GPS for precision positioning. GPS is often used to map the location of such facilities as telephone poles, sewer lines, and fire hydrants. Surveyors use GPS to map construction sites and property lines. Forestry, mineral exploration, and wildlife habitat
management all use GPS to precisely define positions of important assets and to identify changes.
Figure (10) Hazardous zones, uses GPS to predict earthquakes.
In earthquake prone areas such as the Pacific Rim, GPS is playing an increasingly prominent role in helping scientists to anticipate earthquakes. Using the precise position information provided by GPS, scientists can study how strain builds up slowly over time in an attempt to characterize, and in the future perhaps anticipate, earthquakes. 4.2.5 NMEA data
The GPS chip gives continues serial data (Protocol) to the MCU via UART or the computer if it has a USB connection. In old days there were as many GPS protocols as there were GPS manufacturers. Even today the old Magellan Meridian has three different output protocols available. However, the NMEA 0183 protocol has evolved to become the protocol of choice for most software applications. Just about any GPS module or receiver now supports it. The National Electrical Manufacturer Association (NMEA) has defined a series of messages. These messages are referred to at the NMEA 0183 protocol. The details are in NMEA reference manual, some will be discussed in the following lines. The basic design of the NMEA data protocol is very simple. The GPS throws ASCII text lines called 'sentences', each beginning with a '$' and terminated by CR/LF, at the host machine. Usually the host gets one update a second, but the GPS has the option of sending more frequently when it detects a change of position or velocity or status. The standard prescribes a serial encoding at 4800bps, 8 bits, one stop bit, no parity. Here are some sample NMEA sentences: $GPGGA,212734,4740.0569,N,12219.6612,W,1,08,74.00,73.9,M,638.000000,M,,*6D $GPRMC,212734,A,4740.0569,N,12219.6612,W,0.000000,0.000000,020403,18.936255,E*60 $GPGSA,A,3,17,06,23,15,16,18,10,30,,,,,152.00,74.00,133.00*3F $GPGGA,212735,4740.0569,N,12219.6612,W,1,08,74.00,74.1,M,638.000000,M,,*63 $GPRMC,212735,A,4740.0569,N,12219.6612,W,0.000000,0.000000,020403,18.936255,E*61
Each sentence consists of comma-separated fields. The first field is always a message type and the last a checksum that can be used to check for data corruption. Interpreting NMEA sentences is not complicated. Here are some interpretations of the most useful NMEA sentences. Message GGA GSA Description Time, Position, Fix Type GPS receiver operating mode, Satellite used in the position solution, DOP values The number of GPS satellites in view, Satellite ID numbers, Elevation, Azimuth, SNR values. Time, Date, Position, Course, Speed
________________________A parity bit is a single bit added to a binary data transmission used to indicate if
whether the 0's and 1's within that data transmission is an even or odd number. The parity bit is used in parity error checking to find errors that may occur during data transmission.. In UART serial communication there is very low chances in losing information therefore parity bit isn’t used.
Table(4) NMEA first letters after $GP , the message on the left comes after &GP, such as $GPGGA, $GPGSA.
This is the most important message if the engineer wants to know latitude, longitude, speed, altitude, time, etc. The diagram below shows each part of this message. See for the beginning of the sentence after $GP , in this case $GPRMC.
The following message shows what satellites are in use. Each GPS satellite has a unique number that will be received by the channels on the chip. A blank space in the sentence indicates that that channel is not in use. The message also shows if there is a Fix or not, without a fix the user will not receive datas. See for the beginning of the sentence after $GP GSA.
4.2.5 GPS Limitations In practice, the actual visibility of satellites affects the accuracy. Therefore, The GPS tends to work poorly if at all inside buildings. Tall trees and buildings can block line of sight to satellites. Another limitation in accuracy is when in motion, due to the fact computation always takes a little time; by the time GPS calculates the position of the GPS receiver holder, the holder will not be in the same position any more. Final limitation is the accuracy in finding the altitude. When getting a lock on four satellites, a modern GPS will provide longitude and latitude within about 10meters , and more accuracy via DGPS, WAAS and EGNOS correction. Vertical uncertainty will be much higher, as much as fifty meters.
4. 3Wireless voice communication 4.3.1 Introduction
This section will highlight wireless communication types, wireless voice communication history, licencing and high frequency vs low frequency in ISM band and preference.
Wireless communication is among technology’s biggest contributions to mankind. Wireless communication involves the transmission of information over a distance without help of wires, cables or any other forms of electrical conductors. The transmitted distance can be anywhere between a few meters (for example, a television’s remote control) and thousands of kilometres (for example, radio communication).
4.3.2 Wireless services
Common examples of wireless equipment include: (10]
Infrared and ultrasonic remote control devices Consumer Two way radio including PM466 in Europe and FRS in America. Analogy to wireless voice communication being built for this project. The only difference, is the wireless voice communication is more private using addresses to reduce interference with other people using same frequency band.
The Amateur Radio Service (Ham radio). Consumer and professional Marine VHF radios. Airband and radio navigation equipment used by aviators and air traffic control Cellular telephones and pagers: provide connectivity for portable and mobile applications, both personal and business. Cordless computer peripherals: the cordless mouse is a common example; keyboards and printers can also be linked to a computer via wireless using technology such as Wireless USB or Bluetooth Cordless telephone sets: these are limited-range devices, not to be confused with cell phones. Satellite television: Is broadcast from satellites in geostationary orbit. Typical services use direct broadcast satellite to provide multiple televisionchannels to viewers.
Licensing is a way of ensuring that wireless operators do not interfere with each other's transmissions. Without licensing, interference would mess both transmitters' signals, preventing decent reception. With licensing, the only place where interference occurs is usually at the outer edge of the license-holder's assigned coverage area. On the other hand, Unlicensed wireless technologies don't require any permission, so long as products and users comply with the regulations associated with that unlicensed band (for example, maximum transmission power). But unlicensed wireless technologies are, by nature, vulnerable to interference. Transceivers operate on unlicensed industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) bands. Their typical data rates supported by the radio are 50-250kbits per second but it can go higher with the case of Bluetooth for example up to 3Mbps. A transceiver combines a transmitter and receiver together. The following shows the Unlicensed ISM bands:
Europe: 433.050 – 434.790 MHz (ETSI EN 300 220). 863.0 – 870.0 MHz (ETSI EN 300 220). 2400 – 2483.5 MHz (ETSI EN 300 440 or ETSI EN 300 328) . USA/Canada: 260 – 470 MHz (FCC Part 15.231; 15.205).
902 – 928 MHz (FCC Part 15.247; 15.249). 2400 – 2483.5 MHz (FCC Part 15.247; 15.249). Japan: 315 MHz (Ultra low power applications). 426-430, 449, 469 MHz (ARIB STD-T67). 2400 – 2483.5 MHz (ARIB STD-T66). 2471 – 2497 MHz (ARIB RCR STD-33).
4.3.4 High frequency vs. low frequency wireless voice communication
The discussion which will be followed is to highlight why 433MHz transceiver is used to transmit/receive voice and not 868MHz or 2.4GHz transceiver. To be scientifically specific, the band from 300MHz to 3GHz is called Ultra High Frequency (UHF) band. For this project, high frequency versus low frequency concept is used relatively to a scale of 433MHz as low and 2.4GHz is high.
As an RF signal travels through the air, its power level decreases at a rate inversely proportional to the distance traveled and proportional to the frequency. The free space
path loss equation is shown below along, with a corresponding graph of path loss versus distance for various frequencies, in Figure 3.
Where d = distance in meters λ = wavelength in meters
Graph(2) : Path loss versus distance for various frequencies.
At 100 meters, the following path loss is present for a transmission in free space: 2.4 GHz, 80 dB 868 MHz, 72 dB (8 dB less path loss than 2.4 GHz) 433 MHz, 65 dB (15 dB less path loss than 2.4 GHz) .
In addition to free space path loss, the transmitted signal also has attenuation due to buildings, and other objects. Additional challenges, such as multipath and signal dispersion, are factors as the receiver attempts to decode the incoming RF signal. Actual path loss numbers are considerably higher for most applications than what is depicted in graph (2). Interestingly, as the frequency increases, so does the path loss. This is one reason that 2.4 GHz systems exhibit less range than comparable 868 MHz or 433 MHz systems. A commonly used rule of thumb in RF engineering is that a 6 dB increase in the link budget will roughly double transmission distance. With this in mind, a 868 MHz system will have twice the transmission distance of a comparable 2.4 GHz system, and a 433 MHz system will again have
twice the distance of one operating at 868 MHz. Thus the lower frequency systems provide longer distance transmission of data. Herewith, 433MHz is used rather than short range Bluetooth 2.4GHz. Interference of the two transceivers
Interference will be at a minimum if none at all between both transceivers. The reason is, Bluetooth technology uses frequency hopping technique. In addition, both transceivers has different frequencies.
4.3.5 Wireless voice communication data rate
Table ( ) shows the tradeoff between sound quality and data rate for High fidelity music and telephony quality speech. High fidelity music systems has a high sampling frequency at a rate of 44.1KHz (as in CD). They can capture all of the sounds that humans are capable of listening from frequency of ~5Hz to 20KHz. Whereas the bandwidth of music is 20KHz, human speech requires about 3.2KHz. “” Even though the
range has been reduced to only 16% (3.2KHz of 20Khz), the signal still contains 80% of the original sound (12) information (8 out of ten octaves).” ”Telephone systems uses 8KHz sampling rate. More then double the highest frequency human band frequency 3.2KHz fulfing nyquest-shannon-sampling theorm. An analogy to the difference between music bandwidth and human speech is FM radio and AM radio. AM radio is weak and unsatisfying in music quality. Conversely, its speech quality is sufficient.
Sound Quality Required High fidelity music (CD) Telephony quality speech
Bandwidth 5Hz to 20kHz
Sampling rate 44.1 kHz
Number of bits 16 bit
Data rate 706k
Comments Better then human hearing
300Hz to 3.2KHz
Herewith, the ADC will suffic to have 8K sampling rate to convey Human speech. ----------------------------------
DSP GUIDE/chapter 22..
Subsequent lines will demonstrate Microphone circuitry (Hardware Input) and Speaker circuitry (Hardware output) including Hardware input measurements. Speaker circuitry measurements aren’t done; because the ear is effective enough to measure its functionality. In addition, DAC R2R resistor ladder circuit will be demonstrated too.
5.1 Hardware Input
Diagram (2): The building block of the Hardware input
Convert the human voice band (300Hz to 3.4 KHz) into an electrical signal and amplify it. So, it can be fed into an 8K sampling rate ADC, fulfilling the Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem
(Sampling frequency must be bigger or equal twice the maximum frequency).
Figure (1): Hardware input board.
Figure (2): Hardware input circuit.
R8 resistor is there to drive the FET in the electret microphone, feeding it current. Coupling capacitor C1 blocks the DC signal while allowing the AC signal. Voltage divider resistors R3 and R4 DC offset the AC signal to 2.5 volts reference; for the reason that Arduino Uno ADC input allows merely signals between 0v and 5v. C1, R3 and R4 forms a High pass filer of 31.8Hz blocking the signals bellow 31.8Hz. R1 and C5 forms a low pass filter at a corner frequency of 3.38KHz. When the amplifier is in a working state, the voltage divider at the non-inverting input charges C6 to 2.5v. Without C6 the amplifier will not work; because the amplifier must have the same biasing voltage on the inverting input and non-inverting input to function. R2 creates a discharge path for C6, without it the capacitor will charge till latches up. C2, C3 C4,, R5, R6 and R7 forms a Twin T-notch filter blocking hum noise 69Hz frequency (60 and 50 Hz also).
Voltage follower opamp reduces the output impedance of the notch filter. Thus, it will not affect the sampling process in the ADC. The ADC input impedance is 100Mohm. During an actual sample, the input impedance is temporarily at a lower rate as the sampling capacitor is charged up. The buffer also separates the output impedance of the notch filter from the input impedance of the ADC; therefore the signal will pass without getting affected by the impedance rates.
Most microphones generate very low-level signals, on the order of a 200 millivolt or less. Hence the voice signal has to be amplified substantially. The bandwidth required for this project should be at 3100Hz minimum; due to the human voice frequency from 300Hz to about 3.4kHz.
Figure (3) : TS99IN dual opamp Pin Diagram.
Since the input voltage can reach maximum of 200mV and Arduino Uno board with microcontroller Atmega368 has 6 analog inputs. One pin is sufficient to measure the amplified analog signal, after the signal is been amplified it must be fed into the ADC in Atmega368 in order to be processed and digitized so it can be fed afterwards into the Transceiver. Now, the problem with the analog input pin in Arduino it can only read signals from 0 to 5V. Any value below 0V will cause Arduino to clip the bottom of the signal. Therefore, the signal must be offset and fall within 0V-5V range. Ideally, the signal should be with an amplitude of 2.5V and oscillates around 2.5V, so that its minimum voltage will be 0V and maximum voltage will be 5V as the calculations shows: Min Voltage = Center Voltage – Amplitude Min Voltage = 2.5V – 2.5V = 0V.
Max Voltage = Center Voltage + Amplitude Max Voltage = 2.5 V + 2.5V = 5V. The offset is achieved via the voltage divider resistors R3 and R4. The output will oscillate around 2.5V instead of 0V. Using the voltage divider formula to calculate the reference voltage:
Vo = [R4 ÷ (R4 + R3) ] * Vin = [100K ÷ (100K + 100K)] * 5V = 2.5V Vo at node 7 and Vin is the voltage passing from the capacitor C1. After several calculations, 5 or 7 as gain is good enough. Assuming the max input V is 200mV: 200mV * 5 = 1V. 200mV * 7 = 1.4 V. In both cases the amplified voltage will not exceed 5V, which is fair at this situation. On the other hand, since there is an active low pass filter, which it’s components values has been calculated (R1 and C5) so what is remaining is R2 from the gain formula. Using the non-inverting opamp gain formula:
A= 1 + R1/ R2 filling in A as 6 and R1 47K , R2 will result as 9.4Kohms. So, 10Kohm is given to R2 , for the non-availability of 9.4Kohm at the moment.
5.1.6 Hardware AC Analysis Passive High pass filter:
Figure (4): High pass filter, at the non-inverting input of the opamp.
Figure (5): High pass filter and corner frequency formula. R= R3||R2
Frequencies below 32Hz are attenuated and gradually the amplitude increases till matches the input amplitude at frequency of 100 Hz. This schematic isn’t merely used to filter low frequencies; it also blocks DC signals and pass AC signals while offsetting it with reference of 2.5v.
Figure (6): Green graph indicates the input voltage, while red graph indicates the output. Frequencies below 36Hz are blocked and gradually the signal shapes to its original amplitude at 100Hz. Frequencies after 100Hz are passed with their original shape.
5.1.7 Active Low pass filter
Figure (7): Active low pass filter, R=R1, C=C5.
The active low pass filter allows the frequencies which are passed from the high pass filter (above 100Hz) till its corner frequency 3.3 KHz. Frecquencies above 3.3 KHz are attenuated.
Figure (8): Green graph indicates the input voltage, while blue graph indicates the output of the active low pass filter. As can be seen above, the cutoff frequency is at 3.3KHz achieving the goal of having the cutoff frequency at the edge of the human voice band.
5.1.8 Notch filter ___________________________________________________________
Figure(9): Twin T- notch filter schematic. R1=R2=R3/2 and C2=C3=C1/2.
Combing low pass filter and high pass filter will result in a notch filter. Notch filter band stop a single frequency.
Figure(10) : Twin T-notch filter in the actual hardware input circuit.
65Hz cut off frequency is achieved by the components chosen in the schematic, but actually it is 69Hz because of components drift. Notch filter will eleminate the 50, 60 , 70 Hz hum noizes that are availabe in the atmoshpere. Plus, it gets also generated when touching the microphone by the finger.
Figure (11): Green graph indicates the input voltage, while red graph indicates the output of the notch filter. As can be seen above, the cutoff frequency is at 65Hz eliminating the hum noise.
5.1.9 Final output
______________________________________________________________________________ After adding the plots of high pass filter, active low pass filter and notch filter. The Bandwidth results from 132Hz till 3.3KHz. Achieving a close approximation to Human voice band frequency which is from 300Hz till 3.4Khz.
Figure (12): Green graph indicates the input voltage, while red graph indicates the final output of the system as the combination of high pass filter, active low pass filter and notch filter. As can be seen above, the cutoff frequency is at 132Hz to 3.3 KHz.
Figure (13): First image shows the signal coming from the microphone about 200mV. And the second image shows the oscilloscope measurement at the opamp output. As can be seen the signal is amplified 5 times while not exceeding 5v.
5.2 R2R Resistor Ladder DAC
Input Shift registor R2R ladder Output
Use one pin instead of 8 pins from Arduino Uno and shift it out to into 8 outputs. Get the digital data from Arduino Uno (received wirelessly via RFM22) and convert back to analog.
5.2.2 Board :
Figure():8-stage parallel input/serial output shift register chip and R2R resistor ladder (DAC).
Figure(): Texas instrunments CB4041 8-stage parallel input/serial output shift register
5.3 Hardware Output
Input Amplifier Speaker
Diagram (2): The building block of the Hardware input
5.3.1 Objective: Get LM386 to drive the speaker into an audible mode. So, the data coming out of DAC can be fed into LM386 and be audabile. 5.3.2 Board :
Figure() : Hardware output board. 5.3.3 Schematic:
Schematic () : Hardware ouput schematic.
LM386 is a small power amplifier that can run between 4 to 12V. The inputs are ground referenced and the output biases automatically on one half the supply voltage. The gain can be changed by changed by adding a capacitor and resistor values to pin 1 and 8. Pin 1 and 8 are left free because it is internally set to 20 gain already to keep the circuit at a minimum components. A Decoupling capacitor is added in the input to reduce the noise generate by the amplifier.A decouplig capacitor is used before the speaker to block DC signals. Resistor 10 ohm and 47nF is used for extra noise reduction. The output result sounds like AM radio which is sufficient enough for the project. The loudness increases when voltage increase. Therefore, 9V is used instead of 5V.
figure () LM386 pin diagram.
The software code developed in Arduino IDE achieves continues GPS data transmission via Bluetooth (for central node only) to an Android tablet/phone . It also achieves analog to digital conversion of speech at a sampling rate of 8kHz to be transmitted to the end node when the button is pushed. It also controls the shift register to achieve digital to analog conversion in reception mode when button is released. The software is used to configure and process AVR, RFM22 and RN42. Flowchart (1) illustrates the coding structure.
No Is GPS data available
Yes Send via Bluetooth
Is Button = 0
Is data available at receiver ?
Flowchart (1):Iillustrate the software structure uploaded to AVR for a central node. The monitoring node will have the same routine except Bluetooth GPS blocks in the flowchart will not be included; because they are already integrated in the tablet/phone.
7. Test 7.1 Bluetooth GPS
Figure(19) the wiring of the system , without the EM406a Sparkfun breakout board
GPS stand alone There is a handy option on Google Earth , that enables the user to connect the NMEA serial data and display the location on map. It allows the user to connect his GPS chip to the computer and see where he or she is located in real time. The only disadvantage is it requires internet. Arduino Uno, was connected through its USB-to-serial adapter chip, to the computer when in Saxion University of applied science in Enschede and switched the GPS chip on. The picture shows the result displayed by Google Earth. Firstly, It the GPS was switched inside the building which resulted in an inaccuracy of approximately 60meters. Then, the GPS holder started heading outside the building walking towards the central bus station, till the internet got disconnected. Of course, outside the building the accuracy is higher, because the GPS needs to *see the satellites in order to acquire location.
Figure(17) Testing EM406A. Yellow circle shows the Inaccuracy that occurred when switching on the GPS within the building in the main hall. The other line outside the circle shows a higher accuracy when leaving the building walking towards the traffic lights
Figure(18) testing EM406A in the train in between Deventer to Amersfoort. The accuracy is very high in this point; EM406A was beside the train window. EM406A with its built in patch antenna, works well outdoors. It can get a fix within less than a second in hot stat and in cold start it took 50 to get a fixs. While indoors it can take long time upto 5 minutes or even 30mins! Works good indoor beside the windows, with inaccuracies between 4.8m to 7.6m. When kept off for a long time, a satellite fix outdoor can take a while up to 8minutes. Note If the GPS Says its at 4008.5398 N 08304.7582 W, then it is really N 40° 08.5398' W 83° 04.7582'. Just add a degree sign two digits before the decimal point. 7.1.1 GPS Bluetooth communication with Monitoring node A test was conducted within Zilverling building where Pervasive systems is located. Accuracy reached upto 6.6m when GPS was on the side of the window to attain good view of satallites. Whereby, an outdoor test was conducted which achieved an accuracy of 5meters. The following images shows the results displayed at the monitoring node on an Android tablet device that has “Bluetooth GPS application”.
Figure() : First page of the Android application displaying date/time, altitude, lat/lon, UTM
(Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system), speed and course over ground.
Figure (20) Second page of the application, displaying the number of satellites in view, used and the accuracy. In this case was 6.6m within the building Zilverling of University of twente, beside the window. The accuracy achieved is very good for indoors 6.6m.
figure () Third option in the application, displaying the NMEA data.
Figure (21). Most importantly is the offline map feature in the application. It shows where the Central node is located. EM406a has in high in accuracy in Altitude measure. The data was collected at fourth floor of Zilverling. Its elevation is about 20 meters. However, altitude measures vary depending on the reference point. It is unclear what is the reference point consider in EM406a , ground or sea level ?.
7.2 Wireless communication range.
Not yet tested. The test will take the following steps:
In presence of obstructions (trees). Horizontal range test. Obstructions will be trees. Vertical range test. Obstructions as
In absence of obstructions (line of sight), horizontally and vertically.
7.3 Power consumption and battery.
Not yet tested Technique will be used is to put the multimeter in paraller with the power supply. This will determine how much current the device is consuming. In four conditions : RFM22 transmission mode, while GPS Bluetooth is fully functioning. RFM22 reception mode, while GPS Bluetooth fully functioning. RFM22 transmission mode, without GPS Bluetooth functioning. RFM22 reception mode, without GPS Bluetooth function. With the current known, Input power can be calculate with the following formula:
Power = V x I[Watts]
Where P = Power in Watts, V = Voltage in Volts and I = Current in Amperes. This step will assist in determining which battery is perfectly fit for this project. By looking up, milli-Amp per hours (mAh) of each battery. This will determine maximum current can a battery supply in an hour. In addition, another two factors are important. Firstly, safety and secondly size. Batteries, such as, Lithium Ion, Lithium Polymer and Nicle hydride batteries had reported a lot of fire and explosion incidents. Many reasons are not yet fully clear why those incidents happened.
8. Limitations :
Arduino UNO uses AVR atmega328 as its main processor. Arduino ease the use of programming for a lot of engineers, hobbyists and artists in the world. But, this comes with a price. Causing a lot of limitations to build and advanced system. Limitations faced in this project were the following :
AVR atmega 328 has limited interfaces. Only one UART is possible to use. 2 or more would speed up the process of programing and exchanging information. For such project, with the existence of GPS, Bluetooth and RF 433 transceiver it is important to have more the one UART and an option of I2S interface to perfect the system. GPS and Bluetooth required two UART’s, but one was only used. With code manipulation, the AVR managed to listen to both of them seperatly at a time. RF 433MHz used SPI which is fairly fast enough (6MHz). I2S might give a better quality interface; since it is designed for audio interface. This factor, Interface factor must have been considered in the research phase.
Programming in a high level cost slow voice transmission; due to abstract functions and libraries provided by Arduino Company and its users. The speed was highly enhanced from >1 second transmission to microseconds when low level C programming was used. Arduino does not have a debugger!. A debugger will highly assist in checking each register and debugging each line. This will ease discovering the issue in the code.
GPS module has 4800 Baud rate. This aspect hasn’t been considered in the research phase, while it appears to be important by the end of the project. Why? The higher the baud rate the faster the GPS can print data received by the satellites seen in space. To enhance the capability of a GPS modules, factors mentioned in xxxx must be considered and the Baud rate.
In the hardware design and realization. multiple amplifiers , speakers and microphones must be tested. This yields into certainty in the best performance of each component than the other, in terms of low noise and power consumption. Factors as time and team members must be invested in to properly decide how many components can be tested.
After building the prototype, there will be always room for improving the prototype to be fit for the market. The area of features Improvement is vast, for instance, adding sensors such as temperature sensors and lethal gas sensors or even exploring the Indoor Localization techniques. In the near future, the success of the Smart helmet idea to its realization will open up the doors from the focus on Firefighters to its application on miners, bikers, construction workers, marine and whoever it may be most useful. Smart Helmet vitality can be seen especially after the tragic “2010 Copaiapo mining accident” which is also known as Chilean mining accident.
10. Recommendations : A higher baud rate and channel numbers GPS chip will perform better. Test class 1 bluetooth chip RN41. More interface peripherals MCU will perform better. Some ideas for scenarios :
* When one team gets out of range with monitoring node or in case of emergency, a distress message is sent. Both teams will merge, to be able to communicate with each other. * Smart Helmet design. The shape can be a combination of bycicle helmet shape and firefighter helmet. The helmet should take the front shape of the bicicyle helmet and use it as the tip of rare of the new helmet. That tip can hold the circuits and will not bother the firefighter. * Smart helmet wireless charged battery. The helmet gets charged everytime the firefighters go back to the firebregade and put their helmet in the closet. The closet should be able to wirelessly charge the batteries. Else, have a plug for the helmet. The helmet can be plugged in the closet to be charged. * Design microphone speaker as a headset; to not totally isolate the firefighter from hearing the surrounding.
1. Arduino Uno
Microcontroller Operating Voltage Input Voltage (recommended) Input Voltage (limits) Digital I/O Pins Analog Input Pins DC Current per I/O Pin DC Current for 3.3V Pin Flash Memory SRAM EEPROM Clock Speed ATmega328 5V 7-12V 6-20V 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output) 6 40 mA 50 mA 32 KB (ATmega328) of which 0.5 KB used by bootloader 2 KB (ATmega328) 1 KB (ATmega328) 16 MHz(3)
SPEAKER, MINIATURE, K50, 8OHM Transducer Function: Speaker Power Rating RMS: 0.5W Impedance: 8ohm Sensitivity (dB): 83dB Resonant Frequency: 400Hz Frequency Response Min: 250Hz Frequency Response Max: 10000Hz External Diameter: 50mm External Height: 17mm External Depth: 19.2mm
SVHC: No SVHC (20-Jun-2013) Frequency: 350Hz Power Rating: 250mW Sound Level Distance: 1m Sound Level SPL: 80dB Throat Diameter: 45mm Weight: 50g
Basic concepts :
Latitude is defined with respect to an equatorial reference plane. This plane passes through the center C of the sphere, and also contains the great circle representing the equator. The latitude of a point P on the surface is defined as the angle that a straight line, passing through both P and C , subtends with respect to the equatorial plane. If P is above the reference plane, the latitude is positive (or northerly); if P is below the reference plane, the latitude is negative (or southerly). Latitude angles can range up to +90 degrees (or 90 degrees north), and down to -90 degrees (or 90 degrees south). Latitudes of +90 and -90 degrees correspond to the north and south geographic poles on the earth, respectively.
Longitude is defined in terms of meridians, which are half-circles running from pole to pole. A reference meridian, called the prime meridian , is selected, and this forms the reference by which longitudes are defined. On the earth, the prime meridian passes through Greenwich, England; for this reason it is also called the Greenwich meridian . The longitude of a point P on the surface is defined as the angle that the plane containing the meridian passing through P subtends with respect to the plane containing the prime meridian. If P is to the east of the prime meridian, the longitude is
positive; if P is to the west of the prime meridian, the longitude is negative. Longitude angles can range up to +180 degrees (180 degrees east), and down to -180 degrees (180 degrees west). The +180 and -180 degree longitude meridians coincide directly opposite the prime meridian.
Altitude or Elevation
Altitude is a distance measurement, usually in the vertical direction, between a reference a point or object. The reference varies according to the context. However, the term altitude is commonly used to mean the height above sea level of a location.
Bibliography : 1.
Bluetooth VS Wifi : http://www.diffen.com/difference/Bluetooth_vs_Wifi
: Bluetooth and Wi-Fi wirelessprotocols : a Survey and a comparison. By E.Ferro and F.Potorti, Institute of the Nation Research Council. 2004
How does GPS work, physics artic (online) http://www.physics.org/article-questions.asp?id=55
http://www.rei.com/learn/expert-advice/twoway-radios.html http://www.digikey.com/us/en/techzone/wireless/resources/articles/making-choices-in-wirelessnetworks.html http://www.acoustics.salford.ac.uk/feschools/waves/diffract2.php
(10) ^ Tech Target - Definition of Wireless - Posted by Margaret Rouse (April 2006) What is wireless? - Retrieved
December 25, 2012
(11) DSP GUIDE EBOOK
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.