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Damir Jelaska, professor Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Split, R. Boškovića b.b., 21000 Split, Croatia Tel. +385 21 305874; Fax. +385 21 563877 E-mail addres: damir.jelaska @ fesb.hr

1.Introduction In the absence of the experimental results, designers are forced to estimate the value of stress concentration factor in the region of elastic- plastic strain. The most popular method is based on empirical investigations of Hardrath and Ohman [1], concentration factor Neuber [2] and Wetzel [3] which propose the relation between fatigue stress

b

* k

and the strain concentration factor

be* . Intersection of corresponding curve with cyclic

stress-strain curve determines the magnitude of local stress and strain and consequently the real values of stress and strain concentration factor. It was perceived that values of

β* k

obtained after [1] and [2] are greater than real ones, and those

obtained after [3] less then real ones. That is why this method is unreliable. Whereas it is also time- consuming, it became necessary to make effort to obtain simple and correct explicit formula for fast estimation of the stress concentration factor in the region of elastic- plastic strain. 2. Derive of stress concentration factor formula in the zone of elastic- plastic strain On the basis of entire worldwide experimental investigations, including author's, the S-N curves for the unnotched specimens and parts (same as notched specimens) might be desplayed as straight lines (Fig. 1). This is very good approximation for most of steels and might be taken as valid for most of metals. The limit N gr between finite and infinite life is taken to correspond with the limit between elastic and elastic- plastic strain region, and it is also taken to be same for the notched and unnotched specimen. For the materials which do not have the endurance limit, it might be taken N gr = 10 . Same holds good for the steels at elevated temperatures.

7

The limit N q between region of quasistatic fracture and region of fatigue fracture is also taken to be same for both notched and unnotched specimen.

σ an Ra 1 1 − m' m (3) β = β k ( N / N gr ) * k (4) (5) or 1− m ' /m β* k = β k ( R−1 / β k σ an ) From (3) and (4). (1) (2) According to definition β* k = from (3) and (4) follows: σ a Ran = .1.Stress concentration factor computing model In the region of finite fatigue life ( N q ≤ N ≤ N gr ) . it is easy to derive the ratio: log( N gr / N q )1/ m m' = m log( N gr / N q )1/ m + log( β k / β q ) (6) . according to Fig.Fig.1. the equations of both S-N curves are: m m N q Rq = Nσ m a = N gr R−1 ' m' m' N q R 'm q = Nσ an = N gr ( R−1 / β k ) .

7].plastic strain: −1/ n 1/ n −1 β* ε = β k + Ek pl ( β k σ an ) (9) For nine steels having cyclic strenghtening characteristics k pl and n after [8] . neither with modificated Neuber's hyperbola low β k β ε = β k . (10a) where a is material constant. which could be determined by experiment.5. the stress concentration factor at quasistatic fracture limit for steels might be estimated as β q = 1 + (0. For that reason. new relation between stress and strain concentration factor in the region of elastic. So determined fatigue stress concentration factor (7) β* k . . From this equation it is clear that product of stress and strain concentration factors in the region of elasticplastic strain increases with stress amplitude σ an and it is equal to β2 k (after [3]) only at N gr limit. This new relation represents a hyperbola located between original Neuber's hyperbola and modified one.strain curve is known (Fig. by help of "Excel" computer program. It was observed that * β* kβε product is not in accordance with Neuber's * 2 * * 2 β* k β ε = α t . the values of for various magnitudes of hyperbola low β* ε are calculated σ an .6.plastic strain is obtained for the steels: 2 + 0 . [4.Whereas the ratio N gr / N q for the most materials is close to 10 .1)( β k − 1) .57 ( σ * β* kβε = βk an / R−1 −1/ β k ) (10) This equation might be generalized for all materials: 2 + a (σ * β* kβε = βk an / R−1 −1/ β k ) . On the basis of regression analyses of great number of experimental investigations. f.00038 R M − 0. and it determines stress and strain concentration factor if the cyclic stress.2).e. the exponent ratio might be approximated as 3 m' 3 = m 3 + m log( β k / β q ) (6a) Stress concentration factor β q at quasistatic fracture bondary remains the only unknown in expressions (3) to (6a). involved in cyclic stress-strain curve 1 σ a n σ εa = a + E k pl (8) enables estimation of the strain concentration factor in the region of elastic.

β* q = βq q β s =1. and there is inside limits 1 ≤ β s ≤ β q . For fully sensitive materials (such as titanium. i. including mild steels with βs = βq = αt .e. static fracture (N=1/4) that stress concentration effect is relieved by yielding. the plastic strain is so high at σ M < 700 N / mm2 .Fig..2. it might be taken that and consequently log 4 N . log 4 N (11a) . it was easy to derive the expression for the approximate estimation of stress concentration factor: log 4 N log 4 N q β = β s (β q / β s ) * q (11) For materials that fail in brittle manner. beryllium and most of its alloys) is For ductile materials.Determining of local stress and strain For the supposed exponential relation between stress and number of cycles of the notched and unnotched specimens in the region of quasistatic fracture. βs factor depends on αt and notch sensitivity at static fracture related to the level of the plastic deformation at static fracture.

Concluding remarks Stress concentration factor calculated in the way described above. particularly on stress concentration factor boundary values βq. MPa k pl .cyclic strengthening exponent R M .boundary number of cycles corresponding to endurance limit R−1 N q .N q is an exsclusive characteristic of a material and vary from 103 to 105 for the metals. For that reason the author proposes to apply the known procedure after Fig. It also depends on basic data reliability.unnotched specimen strength at quasistatic fracture boundary.endurance limit of material at -1 stress cycle asymmetry number. For other materials the additional investigations have to be done to obtain the applicable formula for determination of βq .fatigue stress concentration factor in the zone of elastic strains β* k .boundary number of cycles corresponding to quasistatical fracture limit n . the suggested calculation of which is good approximation for only the steels. 3. as suggested computing model is close to the real one.2 using obtained formula (10).stress concentration factor at quasistatic fracture limit β* q . and results are not worse then NOMENCLATURE a.modulus of elasticity.stress concentration factor at quasistatic fracture zone . MPa m .βk and βs .ultimate strength of a material. Mpa Rq .material constant E. βq is unnecessary.coefficient of cyclic strengthening. MPa R−1 .theoretical stress concentration factor β k .fatigue stress concentration factor in the zone of elastic-plastic strains β q . In such a way the usage of using it. The special attention has to be paid to βq . MPa ' Rq .notched specimen strength at quasistatic fracture boundary. because this method becomes now much more precise.Wöhler-curve exponent of the notched specimen N .number of endurable cycles N gr . is as close to its true value. MPa α t . just like particularly for the steels.Wöhler-curve exponent of the unnotched specimen m'.

544-550. V.local stress amplitude. MPa σ an .T. Chapter in "Verhalten von Stahl bei Schwingender Beanspruchung". Einflus des Werkstoffes auf die ertragbare Schwingbeanspruchung. 28(1961) . 1117 . NACA Rept. [5] Heywood. Ritter W. . p.:"A Study of Elastic and Plastic Stress Concentration Factors Due to Notches and Fillets in Flat Plates" . Berichr Nr.N.nominal stress amplitude .H. Naukova Dumka . Materials (1968). 1951. E.:"Wöhlerlinien katalog für Schweiβverbindungen aus Baustählen". Chapman and Hall Ltd. 1985. Verein D... [4] "Fatigue Investigations of Higher Strength Structural Steels in Notched and in Welded Conditions". B. "Designing Against Fatigue". R. :"Cyclic Strains and Fatigue of Metals" (in Russian) Vol 1. [6] Olivier R.. ..Ohman L. 5337 (1975).β s .stress concentration factor at static fracture σ a . :"Smooth specimen simulation of fatigue behavior of notches". [2] Neuber H.York .646. Luxemburg. [3] Wetzel R.657. FB-151 (1979-1985) [7] Osterman H. Düsseldorf 1979. Grubišić. [8] Troshchenko V.. M.. p. EUR.77 . Kiev .:"Theory of Stress Concentration for Shear-Strained Prismatical Bodies with Arbitrary Nonlinear Stress-Strain Low" ASME Trans. J. London 1962..Bericht Nr. Fraunhofer Institut für Betriebfestigkeit. Hrsq. Komission der Europäischen Gemeinschaften. Mpa REFERENCES [1] Hardrath F.. et al. p.

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