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Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 11, November 2012)
Calculation of the Factor of Stress Concentration in the Junction’s Welded Tube Subjected to Combined Loadings
A. Fouathia1, A. Mekroud2, A. Benmeddour3, K. Bellagh4
Mechanics Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, University Mentouri-constantine Chaab Ersas Campus, 25000 Constantine Algeria It is therefore necessary to assess accurately the intensity of stress concentration to properly address the problem of fatigue damage, and result in reliable tubular junction, and it will pay particular attention to the design and the achievement of welded assemblies. So far, research  in the field of fatigue welded tubular nodes was conducted mainly conducted by the offshore oil industry. This study discusses the phenomena of fatigue in the nodes of T tube assemblies welded metal structures subject to marine stress due to random natural elements (waves, wind, current, ...) Its purpose is to study the stress distribution and location of points "hot" (hot-spot stresses) at critical points in terms of fatigue in welded tubular joints subjected to static loading along the traction, bending in the plane, bending out of plane and the combination: tension / bending in the plane and traction / bending out of plane loading simulating more real it is to find a numerical simulation tool to study and predict the behavior of welded tubular structures, a simple and accurate modeling of the structure using a computer code based on the finite element method that will calculate the stress concentration near the weld. A mixed formulation will ensure a balance of efforts at the junctions locally and globally, on the whole structure. II. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1 Stress distribution The constraints considered in this study will be calculated at the centroid of each finite element, so as to have an average value of the stress tensor finite element considered. These are the Von Mises stresses. The results of the simulation of the load of the tubular structure welded in tension we can take the existence of two zones in the spacer: • area 1 where the stresses decrease abruptly, is located above the weld and in the immediate vicinity of the latter, • area 2 in which the stresses gradually decrease, while having a small change from place to reach values nearly constant at the upper end of the brace, figure 1. σN2 is the nominal stress measured in zone 2. σN1, σN2: nominal stresses sampled at the edge of the “hot” area located on the extension, above the two hot spots related to two points of crown point at a height of about (D + d) / 2 from the point of saddle.
Abstract — Fatigue failure caused by stress concentrations in welded tubular joints is observed in the offshore platforms subjected to cyclic loading in corrosive marine environments. Therefore, it is necessary to accurately assess the intensity of stress concentration to properly address the problem of fatigue damage, and result in reliable tubular junctions. Stress concentrations in the offshore structures usually occur at the intersections of tubular joints. In some junctions, the stress concentration may induce a maximum stress at the intersection 30 times the nominal stress, and increase the risk of fatigue failure in tubular joints. This work aims to study the stress distribution points and "hot" in the tubular welded joints, subjected to combined loading of traction and rotating bending (bending in the plane, out of plane bending and traction)simulating better loading real. Keywords — stress concentration, offshore structures, finite element method; tubular welded joints.
I. INTRODUCTION Welded tubular assemblies are widely used in steel construction in the modern bridges, towers and offshore structures such as oil rigs Offshore Jacket style for the exploitation of hydrocarbon reserves in the marine environment.They are classified according to their form in T. Y. X, K, DT, DY, and DK . The welded the frames with the amounts and diagonal forms a node characterized by a variable stiffness, nonuniform distribution of stresses and a complex threedimensional behavior, while this may be unfavorable if the assembly is poorly designed or poorly made and can lead to fatigue failure resulting from cyclic loading to which the structure is subjected. Offshore platforms are subjected during their service life (20-30 years) to various environ mental actions; waves, currents, wind and storms are particularly severe suffering and the combined action of several stresses including traction . Bending in the plane and bending out of plane, the stresses at the junctions of tubes create hot spots or areas of high stress concentrations . In some junctions, the stress concentration may induce a maximum stress at the intersection 30 times the nominal stress inevitably leading to a fatigue damage of these structures . Besides the security problem they pose, the fatigue failure cause significant operating losses for the user and costly to repair and redesign high for the manufacturer .
11 Mpa. Figure1: Areas of stress distribution In figure 2.1 Constraints in the junction In the case of traction stress concentration around the junction is divided symmetrically into two points and this. In Figure 5b best seen changes in the stress concentration factor based on the positioning angle Φi between two points saddle and crown.com (ISSN 2250-2459. Figure 2: Distribution of stress on the brace.ijetae. Volume 2. 409 . 5a and 5b show the distribution of stress intensity factor kt in the structure. By applying a traction force on the brace. The deformation of the latter is mainly longitudinal. Issue 11. In Figure 4 we see this stress concentration. The maximum point is 32. it is largely visible in the vicinity of two points of the crown favors the appearance of the hot spot in the two points.4 Mpa High Chairs and the minimum value is 0. there is the presence of the two areas already explained: 2. Figure 4: Concentration of stresses in the Weld. the latter also undergoes a strain but lower proportion to the chord. which shows the evolution of the Von Mises stress along the periphery of the brace.International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www. November 2012) Σmax is chosen as the highest values of σN1. we consider only half of our welded structure. The figures.4). this explains the increase in concentration. σN2) (1) Figure 3: Field of stresses in the structure with distorted. Either: σmax = sup (σN1. It is clear that the concentration increases gradually from the point of saddle until it reaches the maximum value at the crown point (kt = 6. we see that the deformation is largely located in the middle of the chord just below the brace. the structure undergoes a deformation whose general form is shown in Figure3. so the study will focus on the portion between the saddle point (Φ=0°) and crown point (Φ=90°). For reasons of symmetry. σN2.
The minimum value is always at the saddle point at the angle Φ=0°.7Mpa. Figure 5 a: stress intensity factor in traction Figure7: Distribution of stress in the welded joint. Constraints at the junction In this case load. takes the same shape as the curve of traction.International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www. Figure 5b: Change kt according Φi 2. The concentration changes in the same way as in the case of traction. The curve in figure 8b representing the evolution of the stress intensity factor kt based on the angle of position Φi. except that the values are lower compared to those of traction.2 Out of plane Bending In this case. see figure 7. Concentration increases gradually from the saddle point until it reaches the maximum value at the crown point about 7. Figure 8a: stress intensity factor in traction Figure 6: stress concentration in bending out of plane 410 .1.2. The distribution of stress intensity factor kt throughout the tubular structure is representing in figure 8a. November 2012) 2. again for reasons of symmetry we consider only the portion between the saddle point and crownpoint.8 Mpa. the value of the stress of the hot spot is larger than that of the traction. Issue 11. with a party that will undergo a pull and the other a compression figure 6. we can distinguish a similarity in the distribution of stress concentration with the traction that is to say that the concentration is on two points of crown. the structure will be stressed in bending out of plane this solicitation will result in a transverse deformation which will be located primarily on the frame. Note that in the case of OPB.ijetae. while the maximum is at a crown point (Φ=90°). Volume 2.com (ISSN 2250-2459. and is in the range of 296.
ijetae. Figure 10: Concentration of bending stresses in the plane. Figure 9: Distribution of stresses in the structure 2. Constraints at the junction From Figure 10. 411 . In the same way as in the other two loads we draw the curve representing the evolution of the stress intensity factor based on. The concentration in this case.com (ISSN 2250-2459. the spacer undergoes deformation. Note that most of the deformation is located on the chord near the junction between the two tubes. changing gradually from the saddle point to a maximum value (kt = 5.1.International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www. Issue 11. It is in the range of 141. In both previous cases we distinguish the presence of two hot spots. but also to a lesser extent. but in the saddle point figure 11.3. which shows the distribution of stresses in the structure (the case of IPD) unlike the two previous cases of loading. Bending in the plane We apply in this case a bending in the plane of the frame creating a deformation made by compression on one side and pulling the other.3. in the case of the IPD we also notice the same thing. Figure 11: Factor intensity of traction stresses. Figure 8b: Curve of variation of kt based Φi 2. figure 9. the stress concentration is not located very near the crown but is diverted to the saddle point.06) at an angle Φ=90° and then begins to decrease until crown point. We note here that the hot spot is not located at the crown point as the other two cases.6Mpa. November 2012) The symmetry in the distribution of the concentration still exists. But we can see the appearance of symmetry of this curve. but this time the shape of the curve is completely different from the other two. Volume 2.
1 9.6 11. This stress concentration is not symmetric. It starts with a maximum value 6.6 3. Comparison of results In Table 1 we compared the results of our calculations and those obtained by parametric formulas and numerical calculations of different researchers . then the constraints will gradually decrease until it reaches the value of kt = 3.com (ISSN 2250-2459.8 8.3 11.48 Figure 14: distribution of stress in the welded joint.4 6. Load cases Kuang & al.3 6. & al F.1. a structure that represents the same dimensions. Note that the stress concentration at the junction between the chord and the brace is located in the vicinity in two points of crown.M our calculation TRAC -TION 9. Combination pull-OPD-IPD Applying a combined loading of traction and bending out of plane and bending in plane with the same load of 4 Mpa.4.1 7. Issue 11. for the same loads. Figure 15: Factor intensity of traction 412 .E. the chord is extremely distorted.2 3. Gibstein Hel. The graph representing the evolution of the stress concentration factor kt based on the positioning angle is shown in Figure 15. by other researchers. IPD 5. III.6 to angle Φ = 143 °. 2. and al. COMBINED LOADING 3. Given the combination of loads.2 6.3 at Φ=72° angle.06 OPD 8. from that point until it increases the value of 6.81 Table 1: Comparison of results We find that the results of our calculations are closer to those obtained in particular by Hel. Volume 2. in general.ijetae.3 kt in the second crown point at the angle Φ=180°. November 2012) Figure 12: Curve of variation of Kt based Φi Solicitation of the structure IPD Figure 13: Concentration of stresses in traction-IPD-OPD. Φ=0° angle and begins to increase until it reaches the value of 10.International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.7 2.3 to crown point.6 3.
62. the maximum values of kt can be reduced to 30%. except in tension . V. the stresses at the junction spacer ribs are produced by local bending of the chord. 413 . Any changes to these constraints will have a significant influence on the values of the Kt and reducing the deformation of the chord.36. In case traction Constraints prevailing at the junction chord-brace in a tubular T as an axial stress produced by bending. 13. in this area the factors of stress concentration are identical. 11. the expression of stress concentration factor is given by the ratio of the maximum stress σmax to the hottest point on the stress nominal σnom near the weld. With the same principle of traction as stiffening. Following his research. only the method of FEA can make any part of the answer. The hot spot changes position depending on the geometry of the node and the nature of the solicitation. The work carried out on cylindrical notched loaded in tension. however. Baker gardening came to reduce the maximum hot spot of 5. The calculation of stress concentration factors can provide some information on the distribution of stresses in the structure studied in the type of solicitations. We consider for each finite element of the structure. any reduction in the overall deformation results in reduced values of the Kt. the Von Mises stresses. Therefore. 10. By acting the same way as in the case of traction. 4.8 to 67. Given the complexity due to many parameters and in particular the geometry of the intersection curve. in order to obtain the stress concentration factors respectively. that is to say by adding a stiffener in the chord. IV. As in the case of traction. this value is low given the meaning deformation of the chord. there is no straightforward method to take into account the stress distribution near the weld. except in the vicinity: in plane bending and the combination: traction/bending in the plane with values respectively as : (4.11 at 45°. The best way to reduce the deformation of the chord is to add a stiffener where the chord is deformed.45. To calculate the stress concentration (the factors of stress concentration) in the vicinity of the weld and also to locate hot spots or areas of high stress concentrations. namely those conducted by the CTICM  (Industrial Technical Centre of Metal Construction. CONCLUSION Use of COMSOL Multiphysics code calculation based on the finite element method to study and predict the behavior of the tubular structure welded T-shaped a simple and accurate modeling of this software. The computer code can be used to achieve consistent results and consistent with the literature.2.1. In case of bending in the plane In the case of bending in the plane. have established the variation of stress concentration factor according to each geometric parameter. 4. France). Constraints are taken into account the constraints of so-called "skin" for thin shell elements .98) and are satisfactory compared to those found by other researchers (9. based on these values shows that the maximum stresses in the hotspots also vary depending on the load. and for each stress.01 to 72°) and that approach also values obtained by the searches: (3. This study has shown that hot spots are generally located in the crown points: traction/bending out of the plane and combined traction / bending out of plane with values of the factors of stress concentration which can reach respectively: ( 8. due to the overall deformation of the chord. Research   has proven that this method can reduce the maximum hot spot up to 40%. you can get a slight reduction in the maximum value of kt.15. using this principle. Issue 11. have to take into account the exponential increase of the stress distribution. 18. But we can say to the existence of a zone of symmetry between the saddle point and the crown point.25 to 3. this method seems best suited.5°).com (ISSN 2250-2459. as a function exponential type. 10. DISCUSSED AND RECOMMENDATIONS 4. Volume 2.International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www. Figure 16: Curve of variation of Kt based Φi. both on the side of the spacer as that of the chord. and are found to increase with as we advance the saddle point to crown point.1.1.1. Given the complexity and nodes tubular geometric discontinuity. 9. In case of bending out of plane Bending out of plane is similar to that of traction when the overall deformation is the main parameter generating constraints at the junction spacer chord.0) .ijetae.5°.94 to 58. November 2012) Some research work.99. The fact remains that this possibility is being ruled out of tubular structures.
struct. [5 ] American Welding Society. Washignton DC (1993). Miami (1994). HSE BOOKS.Zeghloul "Concentration de contraintes dans les jonctions tubulaire de type T. "Structural Welding Code-Steel". A. notched tubular T-joints under combined axial. Issue 11. 1st edn. “Stress concentration factor analysis for welded.363-387. J. ROMEIJN. bending and dynamic loading” International Journal of Fatigue. November 2012) REFERENCES [1 ] F. D. February 2009. S. “Estimation of stress intensity factor solutions for weld toe cracks in offshore tubular joint”. 414 . A. Azari . Y et K" 17eme congré de mecanique-Troys septembre 2005[2 ] Fathi GHANAMEH : "Fiabilite des jonctions tubulaires soudees des plateformes offshore" (2002-2005) [3 ] S. Lee. 4-14. Issue 2.N’DIAYE. Int. "Concentration des contraintes dans des structures tubulaires" Thèse de doctorat (Mars 2001) Universite de Metz. KARAMANOS.22 .ijetae. D. 14th edn.com (ISSN 2250-2459. vol. Bowness. Offshore Technology Conference. Texas (1974). "On the structural design of tubular joints".Ghanameh.International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www. [8 ] Shao Yong-Bo "Geometrical effect on the stress distribution along weld toe for tubular T. J. CHANG and W.K. Houston. Fatigue. Hariri. [13 ] E. "Stress Concentration Factor Parametric Equations for Tubular X and DT Joints". 1996 [14 ] A. "Stress Concentration Factors for Simple Tubular Joints". N’Diaye. Concentration des Contraintes dans les Assemblages Tubulaires". ANSI/AWS. Designing and constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms". 2000. "Stress Concentrations in Tubular Gap K-Joint: Mechanics and Fatigue Design". OTH 354 (1997). [6 ] American Petroleum Institute. "Calcul Statique des Assemblages Tubulaires. Volume 31. OTC 2117.D. Volume 2. vol. WARDENER. Pluvinage and Z. 18. Pages 367-374 [10 ] M. [7 ] Lloyd's register of shipping. DOVER. API RP2a-LRFD. A. [4 ] VISSER W.and K-joints under axial loading" Science direct Journal of Constructional Steel Research 63 (2007) 1351–1360 [9 ] A. G. "Recommended Practice for planning. Engng.Thevenet. International Journal of Fatigue 24 (2002) 861–875 [11 ] CEE 504: Finite Element Methods in Structural Mechanics Winter 2009 Using COMSOL Multiphysics to solve structural mechanics problems. [12 ] Rapport CNEXO-CTICM.M.
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