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Counter Reformation Polemic and Mannerist Counter-Aesthetics: Bronzino's "Martyrdom of St. Lawrence" in San Lorenzo Author(s): Stephen J. Campbell Source: RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics, No. 46, Polemical Objects (Autumn, 2004), pp. 98119 Published by: The President and Fellows of Harvard College acting through the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20167641 . Accessed: 09/10/2013 17:31
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RES 46 AUTUMN 2004
Figure 1. Agnolo Bronzino, Martrydom of St. Lawrence, 1565-1569.
Florence, San Lorenzo (Photo: Alinari/Art
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has been pronounced ideologically and lacking in empirical conviction." see also Elizabeth Cropper's to Craig Hugh Smyth. storica dell'arte insufficienza di ?I il riparo ed il recinto del dentro mondo. of the term and the concept "The in The Renaissance and Mannerism.1 on the work of Max Dvorak. 1967). 1992). it transforms transforming recovering doing Art (introduction. Historiographical Background. Actes des colloques de Rome et de Paris (1998). fronteggiare linguaggio. but an evolution of the notion out of itself. "And although works of art are not thought and notion simply as such. F. Reformation and social version of this model of Mannerism in the art criticism of the 1980s.208.2 For Hegel. Elke Racholek manieristischer (Un)Limited. 1988). Hochmann for a (Rome: ?cole Fran?aise de Rome. Mannerism had in the account become a central concept philosophical of art as the bearer of historical consciousness. 1982). L'ideolog?a del traditore. many good seem to have decided that it has outgrown its use. 4. Lawrence in San Lorenzo STEPHEN J. Philippe Costamagna. no to address International which followed (Harmondsworth: by Mannerism see Ernst Gombrich. of the Twentieth (Princeton: text In The Renaissance Princeton is John Shearman. the rejection alternative links between With also A reduced elaborate an agonistic andWilhelm Pinder." Acts vols. Readings in Italian Mannerism (New Cheney. dentro le uniche capaci di dare al soggetto frantumato il collante di una precaria onnipotenza. Studies of Western Congress Press. II. effortless ideals of positive social and aesthetic and "stylish" virtuosity. state. For reviews Penguin. and by so thought-expression. it defined the artist where as alienated from a historical tradition that terminated survives with Modernism. 1920). Osmaston. and as in the medium itself in its self-divestment part I) trans. yet for all that the might of the thinking spirit is discovered not merely itself in itsmost native form as pure thinking. 2. 1965). 1978 and 1998).Arnold H?user had by 1965 developed alienated a theory of Mannerism as a mode of artistic expression characteristic of an epoch of art where works of "a manifest crisis. The Architecture of mannerism. now seldom with of art that H?user. and Freud to 1. See for instance Achille Benito Oliva. manierismo Arte. P. assumed a thought-like capacity intentions of its own. Weber." G. Zum Stellenwert Brandt.24 on Wed. (Milan: Electa. of This content downloaded from 68. and Cropper's to Francesco in the postface Salviati e la bella maniera. events historical experience such as the shaped by and the Catholic reaction to it. on the other hand. CAMPBELL means a known that the term Mannerism art it deal less than used and historians to. Catherine Monbeig and Michel Goguel. maniera. and as an ironic celebrant of capitalist Art dystopia. della propria minorit?. the work of art. whose remarks on alienation served as a starting point for H?user. Alienation stood as a symptom of crisis befalling the itwas the sign of a individual at the outset of modernity. 2nd ed. Art. on Mannerism of twentieth-century see selection representative writing Liana De Girolami ed. 1. F. completely. 200-222. The Philosophy of Fine Hegel. (London: Bell and Sons. Following and with in tendency already recognized on the earlier twentieth-century literature Mannerism.82. of this elaborate system of historical the principle of artistic consciousness explanation to the history of Renaissance became unavailable overinvested. York: Garland. transcending the control and whereby of itsmaker. The Crisis of the Renaissance and the Origin of Modem Art (Cambridge and London: Harvard University 96-97. 1997). Preface 163-174. 4 vols. emotion and set of terms in art history emerged historical dispensations of the self and the retain the grasp of the self in that 'other' the alien factor into it to itself. Friedrich Antal. of appropriations Arata Isozaki (New York: Harper and Row. l'unico spazio possibile in tal modo la per l'artista che circoscr?ve coscienza to the sensuous.16. 17-19. B. upheaval. 691-698. economic rise and the of the centralized.4 history.Counter Reformation counter-aesthetics polemic and Mannerist Bronzino's Martyrdom of St. and bureaucratic authoritarian.3 Hauser drew on Marx. Press. or with a philosophy engages too globalizing. vol. alienation had been an inevitable and positive outcome of artistic creation. process of turning a subject into an object" ultimately pointing to a loss of self. among the theorists of post-modernism. art. eds. L'esperienza obbligate. University of the History of Art. Mannerism comments and Maniera. 4 1963). 2001). le sue artic?late maniere. Mannerism. especially 3. to recognize in its ability to grasp but also. Arnold H?user. an alienation of the same in the direction of sensuous being. which extends the reach of the term from a Cinquecento moment of disenchantment to the late and alienation avant twentieth-century e anche gardes: "La transavanguardia gli artisti della generazione successiva le maniere di prodursi del linguaggio in un ripercorrono inarrestabile nomadismo linee de scorrimento che non conosce e esclusive del farsi dell'opera ? privileg?ate. The watershed Ideal. was decisively Before it realigned with the Italian word It iswell maniera." For other critical see Philip Drew. "Maniera as Aesthetic and Mannerism. on the maniera I (Vienna: RSA. Imagination in amerikanischer Traditionen Prosa der Postmoderne (Frankfurt and New York: Peter Lang. 9 Oct 2013 17:31:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . pp. but is not. W.
Massimo Firpo. Michael (New York: Columbia Press. I. This is not to practice of central 5. 403-407.6 The following essay is part of a larger project that seeks to restore a sense of critical potential to the be found there are in his autobiography. While and religious institutions it is designed artists might affect a posture of courtly or academic before tradition and authority. 1986)." Newsletter trans. The from Agnolo fresco was commissioned in 1565 and Bronzino by Duke Cosimo de' Medici on unveiled August 10. 1979). For a comprehensive which also pronounces see the "failure" of the work. its between cleavage and the political its own internal theoretical concerns. alienation might have a critical potential. and After Raphael. Hall. Print Collector Prints: Some Suggestions. It therefore registers as an art of an ornament to power. University especially not an art artfulness would of that necessarily conspicuous argument or even autonomous in the have been seen as soulless. or facetious inMannerist character has not long been recognized art. on Marcia Cosimo Vasari and Duke and Counter-Reformation.24 on Wed. e reprint. and that it could. Painting and New York: Cambridge Century (Cambridge Italy in the Sixteenth Press. Cinquecento. Johns Hopkins University. 7. David Poole Radzinowicz 1. 1997). lacking oedipal for the emergence of necessary antagonism supposedly a robust artistic selfhood. Gli affreschi di Pontormo University a San Lorenzo: Erisia. L'Accademia Wazbinski.5While in some of the recent important exceptions it is taken for granted that an art literature. or solely in accordance with the worldly sensibility of seen as the Renaissance Mannerism is thus patrons. 1999). "Bronzino's IX (1978-1979). 30-32. to serve. one that confronts the regarded viewer with unauthorized and where meanings. // Riposo (Florence: Marescotti. arranged in the lower zone of the fresco. 238. highly animated bodies. pol?tica e cultura nella Firenze di Cosimo I Use of Graham (Turin: Einaudi. These possibilities will be explored in relation to one seen as a often colossal of Mannerist work. Renovation in S. sixteenth modes "allow artists new century. on the contrary Steen Hansen. as a practice that points to a understand Mannerism own processes of making meaning. a set Mannerism of formal characteristics typical of a new institutional artistic of practice and a prescriptive theory organization self-conscious in the model predominates?as of art. 313-326. in effect the most the basilica massive significant project of his late career. 197-213. an unruly complacency. include 1987). Cellini (Cambridge for the York: Cambridge 13-14. Raffaele Borghini. a harmony between the wishes presupposes Individual 6. Dissertation. but this has normally been addressed as an alleged failure to attain the sublimity of the High Renaissance. Other discussions vols. "Power and and Mannerism. the criticism has of been leveled at the admittedly striking abundance in festive naked. and the fact that it is in scale or ambition by any work of painting unmatched in Florence during the last third of the sixteenth century. Mario Rosci. Press. Italian artists of the mid-sixteenth as a to and reopen the question of Mannerism century. ennervating through excessive an unhealthy passivity before the unsurpassable case of and Raphael." "PellegrinoTibaldi 2001. ed. will of artistic imitation. K. "The important exceptions: Nancy Vickers. superficial. even eccentricity. Baltimore. 1569. (Milan: Labor riproduzioni 222-239. The and the Art of Hubris. (Florence: Olschki. this courtly style Medici ducal court from 1540. the self subordination in their work might be that operates consciousness as an "other" self. 1584). is among the least studied of all of the St. Although is seen to recognize or even demand artistic performances it above all of patrons and the effects pursued and achieved by the artists who serve them.82. Maria Novella and S. Those who have referred to it?usually done so in almost universally only in passing?have terms. say that a certain libertine. 2002). Maurice Brock. It is an epidemic Michelangelo influence without the anxiety. the feast day of the Medici family saint. 1).7 Despite being the largest single work undertaken by the artist. Bronzino. the For an instance of this view Art.208. a willing arch-pariah of like becomes Cellini personality or dissidence might the Medici. Zygmunt a Firenze nel 2 del Disegno Medicea Idea e Instituzione. in The Poetics of Gender. Lawrence Bronzino's works. wit. A patron-centered is that Mannerism above all the frequent observation or the style promoted by the court of France from 1530. in the Masterpiece.8 Modern arabesques of self-consciousness. Morten of social and religious connectedness". Croce 1565-1577 (Oxford: The in Central Clarendon Press. 2 vols. From the very beginning. generally "about" itself is also a politically preeminently art. University and New of Sculpture and the Principles Cole. will It reaction to historical tensions and predicaments. Nancy Mistress Miller 19^1. apotheosis art in all its supposedly effete virtuosity and courtly in Bronzino's Martyrdom of St Lawrence sycophancy: of San Lorenzo in Florence (fig. 2002). 73. or one incapable of disrupting an complacent ideological continuum. now chiefly defines a stylistic ideal. parodie. There inMannerist are a few In The Renaissance recent discussion. Schultz-Touge 8. and one with a radical potential. of gestures heterodoxy but not in his art. and Christine (Paris: Flammarion.100 RES 46 AUTUMN 2004 art of the generations who matured following Raphael's death in 1520. Smith. This content downloaded from 68." ed. Yet this essay will show that it is in part through affecting a kind of passivity that Mannerism emerges as a strategy. 9 Oct 2013 17:31:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . with disparaging Raffaelle Borghini's // Riposo of 1584." see Frederick Hartt.
Campbell: Counter Reformation polemic and Mannerist counter-aesthethics 101 criticism has regarded the work as a kind of endgame or final decadent excess of the stylistic current. one most ballet and Turkish bath. . Bellezze 1591). Jones. 52. 9 Oct 2013 17:31:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . being roasted martyrdom in some reformer's terms alive on a gridiron). for which no amount of graphic violence too could be deemed excessive. St."9 in 1928. directions Renovation Scholarship. 1928). Freedberg. Pamela Hierarchical J. gridirons." the Renaissance: Visual Culture in Europe and Latin ed. I. after all. colonne. it 1981). a church where art. 10. Lawrence). L'Accademia Medicea. the spleen. 154. Charles relief of the same Bronzino McCorquodale. is and both presence distracting profane. tenor the overall emotional beholder could be termed ambivalent. churches. . several of the works. is "Pitture fiere et orrende. the intestines. de superbo sembiante: si veggono le che diminuiscono. see Hall. Penguin."10 Sydney in a more positive Freedberg recast these sentiments the theatrical character of vein. . 1971). ismore complimentary: luogo separate figurarle Borghini il Bronzino "?ltimamente ? fresco in una facciata della Chiesa dipinse ?I de San Lorenzo martirio d'esso Santo con un numero infinito di fra l'altra gente: e vi figure var?ate d'habiti. & altri raro attizano. and dogmatic efficacy of Standards for the devotional in fall short Bronzino's churches. which Although Images was just before and just after the St. so that when he happens like that of S. and the Noli me tangere for S. Croce (1570). vi si convengono donne quelle virt? ?n forme di bellissime ancora a sedere e si pure li ?n aria o in altro il farlevi. permissible . the result is one of the most consistent demonstrations of the aesthetic of the High Maniera and one of the finest in its whole range of style. and affecting in the Resurrection of of sacred history?as presentation the Daughter ofjairus for S. crassly Michelangelesque. the painting conspicuously lacks the pathos and horror demanded by a scene of (the protagonist is. ricca. played upon an antique stage. subject (New York: Harper and Row. . wrote "a Charles fusion of Lawrence. 127-140." Wazbinski. he will be able to depict in a natural manner. had represented for several decades. demands for a clear. 315." Later." So ignudi condotti too is Francesco di Firenze (Florence: Giunti.: Harvard University 11. casa moite a si come personi che servano superbi principi. the prioritizing by the painter of formal design over narrative concerns inhibits the readability of the image. II cap xxxv: of anatomy so that he can know how to "both internal and external. Clare Farago (Cambridge and New York: 1450-1650.. (Cambridge. His Life and Works Bronzino: Agnolo Press." On the prerequisite in scenes of of violence Raleotti's Discourse not published until on Sacred da tutti nudi. Arthur McComb had written that "the Earlier. the brain. Lib. that grounded "The St." McCorquodale. as is the virtuoso artificiality of their poses and gestures. . represent to paint a martyrdom the throat. "Art Theory in Painting Italy. in the imitation of Michelangelo. which had been publicized over a decade.s.13 of S. is of Mannerism's Bronzino monumental failures from every point of view. of martyrdoms. Maria Novella the (1570). Martyrdom devoid of taste. con una bellissima prospettiva. fiery ovens.. e varij atti mostrano. e disegno (538). 198. e di gesti. Press." The criticism gli is in fact directed E lodato un'edifizio at Donatello's 9. Piet? for S. dovea piaceva . Gabriele Raleotti's Reframing America Notion of Painting's Universality in and Reception.82. crosses.14 at San but Lorenzo. quanto valesse questo artefice. This content downloaded from 68. the liver. Mass. incorrectly states huomini that Bocchi ?ntendenti bronze faults Bronzino's eccessive pulpit fresco "dove riconoscono artifizio.24 on Wed. Finally. "Prudentius and Sixteenth Century Antiquarian 161-176. . as Ideology: 1500-1600 and the role of the Peristephanon martyrdom during the Cinquecento. & mirabile." noting that gross cruelty in representations with their "wheels." razors. show he was fully conscious of the that Lawrence. lequali son? di lungi. 1995). a See Raleotti. Arthur McComb. the gigantic fresco has been regarded as an instance of the kind of artificial and licentious painting that provoked a call by Catholic prelates (such as Bishop Gabriele Raleotti of a reform of Bologna) for to the newTridentine religious imagery. University Cambridge For the art commissioned of the "counter-maniera" of the works of investigation for the mendicant of Florence under the churches of Cosimo I's reign. Lorenzo is empty of all significance. These works were for mendicant Spirito (1561-1565).12 According documentazioni. son? molti con grande diligenza. towards the ceremonial ends of the Medici court. 257: "Son? pronti iministri del tormento. In fact. o con pochi panni recoperti. iv (1973). & altri portano legne. Discorso intorno alle imagini sacre e profane. con bellissima e tutte le parte espresse con molto senno fanno vista proporzione. perceptively addressing the image: "[the fresco] transforms its violent and tragic theme into a beautifully artificial fusion of gymnasium and ballet. source for the martyrdom of Prudentius of (the principal hagiographie see Robert Gaston. scenes from Christian history should include actual or plausible inventions such as the allegorical figures. the heart. Bronzino executed and liturgy itself had long been oriented architecture." Medievalia et Human?stica n. justified 13. (250-251 ). decorous. ha fatto I'imperadore di San Lorenzo che fa tormentare ilmartire interniato and Profane 1582. & con diversi. 14. painting would images on the following grounds: there is no call for nude therefore their figures in the subject being depicted. Erasmus and others like it."11 More recently. the stomach. racks. Sydney (Harmondsworth: 12. artist's Ulise full mastery the Aldrovandi Contemporaneously. storia a fresco suoi baroni mal disconvenevole nella sua 1967). Bronzino must have been aware of the new standard operating for for well religious imagery. of Vasari in the closing years and Counter-Reformation. 62: ". far from moving to pious sentiment. and not poetic in the foreground of who brandish their attributes group the Christian the painting. iron hooks. Bocchi.208.
according Michelangelo this emerges at the same time engagement Paradoxically. or their imitation in Michelangelo's All of this is to say that the Bronzino's St Lawrence a moment for the art of self-definition constitutes fresco a of inwhich of the maniera. their forceful gestures and poses which speak more of art than of doctrine. Gilio's dialogue employs to criticize a strict theory of pictorial genre and decorum number of contemporary works of religious painting. Fava. which both aligns itwith the in religious art after Trent." Word Palazzo in 19. and the del Disegno which maintained the new Accademia artist Florentine and status the and of cult memory great of Gilio's defiance The and very pointed specific poet. Medicea. of genre theory is limited to the ideological co-opting de'pittori ed. 1961). The artistic idiom mirrors that employed by the artist for in very explicit court projects. Wazbinski. (Bari: Laterza. Art." parlare col linguaggio is and restated 238. 18. in Bronzino's practice. For an and Santa Croce. pagan divinities. that the fresco evidences of characteristic mid-sixteenth-century genre entirely were judged in literary and artistic theory. is indeed on many that the painting While accepting that affirms the demonstration levels a kind of academic want to consider a duality I imitation of Michelangelo. best be seen as a programmatic more noteworthy for the all controversial work. in Florence at this time a stage set could be referred to as a prospettiva. characterized by of is adulterated deeply undermining history painting. 55-75.17 Only inimical to the rationalizing and disciplinary purposes to serve could accommodate genre was designed Sistine frescos. II. and This content downloaded from 68. but not for and the very prominent display of naked Michelangelo). general i di architettura (Venice. he offending that 2).15 Some years ago. can be seen to redefine and reframe the formal language of to literary categories. the inclusion of angels without wings (unusual for Bronzino. and other architectural theorists. 1982). as a of Michelangelo Patricia Reilly will show that the centrality for imitation had in recent years been challenged by Giorgio second and his partisans. The first striking academic is Freedberg appears to have noticed. has radical also yet implications. himself 15. Lawrence. and Renaissance P. c'? un chiaro also Hall. A. in Sixteenth see also Stephen "The Carracci. discovering its own operative principles. Wazbinski's argument Raphael. and a member of the Accademia Fiorentina. 210-230. Charles For some comments on Gilio's Invention with preoccupation in Counter-Reformation ed. Ramsey and Studies. study model Vasari artistic Roman See di Michelangelo. see "Mythic Dempsey. The Story of Jason and Image 18 no. A concern course. L'Accademia 16. University (Cambridge about genre and artistic For literary controversies 73-108. 1540. 200: "In questo operazione and to the "reformed" maniera imposed by by Raleotti and Gilio. Bronzino.208.16 criticism may be seen in such elements as the acrobatic nudes. all of the criticisms of excessive set of criteria could in 1564. deeply a period of escalating out in carried polemics being as a kind of manifesto of against the Last Judgment. the fresco in fact shows a of Michelangelsque models. In a forthcoming 322-323. Vasari's in the 1550s and 1560s practice history painting of Raphael. religious art referred to above had been made on the Errors of in his Gilio Giovan Andrea Dialogue by a Painters Concerning History. especially by Brock. license in In fact. (Binghamton.^9 The 17." see Robert Williams. See the illustrations of the Vitruvian "tragic scene" Sebastiano subsequent Serlio. departure. 9 Oct 2013 17:31:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . edition shows of the Lives and a new adherence his to the Theory Metatechne 1997). 3 vols. Raola Barocchi Cinquecento. when works with principles of literary classification accordance derived from Aristotle's Poetics. Zygmunt Wazbinski proposed reaction the St. and above all it advertises terms a relationship of artistic filiation to Michelangelo. From Techne and New York: Cambridge Press. Texts genre. responses in and Heroic Narrative. which Gilio abominated.82. to Century Italy. that decorum to argue and Culture "stands the claims of the of art to resist for the potential ?deal. 3 (2002).24 on Wed. elaborated intento: After abusi nel qu?le si ragiona degli Dialogo In Trattati d'arte del circa l'istorie. between genres as these were then the distinctions a notion of genre that was being theorized. Campbell. Visual J. official pursuit of orthodoxy more Itcan be shown. in the Renaissance: in Rome New Painting. 3-97. Cosimo and Vasari at Santa Maria Novella argument coercion. which most notably the Last Judgment by Michelangelo. Giovanni errori e degli Andrea Gilio. genre and decorum the in every case by an instrumental purpose. Bronzino. which we the confront that question: what has requires For this is no routine into? been adapted Michelangelo or pattern-book exercise. and describing The notion of imitation is in itself not sufficient to at work the adaptation of Michelangelo understand in the St.102 RES 46 AUTUMN 2004 different be said to operate. He proposed imitation of the earlier. Lawrence should be seen as a defensive in the Last Judgment to such criticism of Michelangelo's that Bronzino's fresco could Sistine Chapel. here York. Poetry after Ariosto. Reg?le editions). which of Michelangelesque that a relief-like assemblage figures in (we might even say against) an has been placed and perspectival architectural space. Medieval with The City and the Myth. in the work that Michelangelo's from a recognition as a kind of Gilio Sistine Chapel. on saw as all of the above grounds (fig. a preoccupation with firstly. working particular way and of thinking becomes apparent to itself. determined a poet observation of is not necessarily. realized according at of Vitruvian theatrical design?or to the conventions transformation least as these had been interpreted by Peruzzi. Serlio.
82. 1536-1541. 9 Oct 2013 17:31:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Campbell: Counter Reformation polemic and Mannerist counter-aesthethics 103 Figure 2. Last Judgment. Michelangelo. Sistine Chapel (Photo: Musei Vaticani. This content downloaded from 68.24 on Wed. Vatican.208. Archivio Fotogr?fico).
208. would to the Cappella Maggiore in Glory as revealed and to the Christ Duke mentor Bronzino's and friend. . St. in the gridiron on which he reclines. "Bronzino's Martyrdom has proposed that the "terrifyingly Malcolm Perspective. Accademia (Photo: Scala/Art Resource). ed. (afterMichelangelo). "Aretino and and other works. In an unpublished in of S. in anatomical invention. ed. furono tenute bel Iissime. discussion 9 vols. in Kunst des Cinquecento in di carnevale. and carnival e la retorica del Bronzino and of the have expressly recommended the attention coherent." in the frescoes of Pontormo. the storm center of moving. the other is the cartoon of Venus had made for Bronzino's mentor that Michelangelo Pontormo. it is also a distinct Bronzino's from normal practice. One Michelangelo on the Sistine ceiling.20 performed in palazzo. 160. who 21. "L'Allegoria di Londra is the range of of Michelangelo uncharacteristic wholly and enacted by the distinctions both embodied of what first appears as a teeming individual members interlace of nudes. Lawrence. Florence.21 The citation of the Creation of Adam as the hub of a spatially ample scene. Such a rendering of space is not only uncharacteristic of Michelangelo. Lawrence himself is a decorative ephebic ?mage of Michelangelesque paradigmatic in references to two fact combines beauty?he is the Creation of Adam prototypes. 1992). 9 Oct 2013 17:31:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . see Leatrice Mendelsohn." in Le opere di Giorgio Vasari." der Toskana.24 on Wed. Jacobs. due anni fila per carnevale. Gaetano 20. For a with the worlds of theater. . grotesquely compacted figures" can of view from which the Medici Duke in part be explained by the point would have seen the fres ?a festivity. Monika C?mmerer (Munich: Bruckmann. Pietro Aretino had already praised the "Bettini Venus" for its androgynous beauty.104 RES 46 AUTUMN 2004 Figure 3. of Bronzino's connection 1906/1981). Venus and Cupid (The "Bettini Venus"). due scene e prospettive che per comedie." Campbell the flattened patterning of forms and the steep rising ground plane. 1532. also raised balcony located directly across the nave of the church: "From this elevated Duke Cosimo would have seen the St. 598. On gender Bettini Venus surveys the scene from a raised position. VII. alla Milanesi. 3). with crossing regard to the see Frederika H. although the departure sets artist certainly designed for comedies stage at Medici The second feature the court. Lawrence position This content downloaded from 68. "Fece anche quasi ne'medesimi tempi. "Delle Accademici del Disegno e prima del Bronzino. beloved that of the tyrant have suggestively crossed Such a point of view would in the fresco. perspective grid acquires visible form as the very instrument of Lawrence's martyrdom. (Florence: Sansoni." Vasari. Jacopo Pontormo. . Lorenzo paper. in a space now more rational foreshortened figures. a of the allure of male and female bodies combination is almost (fig.82.
for the most part. ed.82. in that the animating hand of violently incongruous. According vol." Bulletin of the Davidson. Bruce Davis. Lawrence. and are not offset by the gravitas of the heavily draped observers Bandinelli had in the upper tiers of his architectural setting. convulsion. 114-115. See Berenice "Marcantonio's of S. 1988). If placed the effect seems to border on the ludicrous. Franca Falletti and Jonathan Katz Nelson (Florence." Art Dolce and Titian: Femmina. Los Angeles County Museum of Art (Photo: Los Angeles County Museum of Art). The availability of bodies to vision goes beyond the logic of in that the nudes. from this tranquil center. The exuberant physicality of the work is to some extent a response to an earlier treatment of the same subject (1525) by Baccio Bandinelli. to Vasari. even transgressive from passive and possesses dimension.208. placed against Lawrence reclines rather serenely on his gridiron. See also the exhibition Bulletin 82 no. 51-68. 9 Oct 2013 17:31:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . after Baccio Bandinelli. God has now become the condemning hand of the to is far that the relation tyrant. dominate the entire historia. 2002). Michelangelo. Mannerist Prints: International (Los Century Style in the Sixteenth Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art. by Clement VII in 1525. The Martyrdom of St. they appear eclipse the space as much as in it. The allusion to the Bettini Venus also introduces an erotic charge. Bandinelli's was in the choir of San composition initially intended for a fresco commissioned Lorenzo. Martyrdom 47/3 Rhode Island School of Design. 1-6.Campbell: Counter Reformation polemic and Mannerist counter-aesthethics 105 Figure 4. in order to register in displaced their bodies rather than his. Marcantonio Raimondi. Opere 22. if that were not already implicit in the gesture of bringing Michelangelo's heavenly nudes "down to earth.24 on Wed. but framed by a turmoil of agitated and precariously poised as if the sensation of torment has been anatomies. This content downloaded from 68. catalogue Venus and Love: Michelangelo and the New Ideal of Beauty. 5.22 No less than eleven nude tormentors appear in the foreground of Bandinelli's yet in Bronzino's fresco the nudes composition." to the perspectival world of the piazza where they are so fully available to our gaze. 1 (2000). Lorenzo. this would seem to have been calculated by the artist: to the lower a massive figure in a particularly bizarre right appears a parodie restoration of the Belvedere torso. 4). 418-419. well known through an engraving by Marcantonio Raimondi (fig. ca. Grazia. do not perspective or encroach upon each other. indicating Michelangelo an ironic. (1961). Masculo. 1525.
1565.Y. On the drawings Hugh An Introduction (Locust Valley. above all in the figure's right Pentimenti exaggerated 23. squatting. it probable that an original drawing by Bronzino copy. left arm describe the meandering seem more Bronzino's other nudes active and more yet than those of Bandinelli. the grotesque profile of the stoker. Michelangelo (New Haven and London: and the Art of Late Yale University Press. Draughtsman. Lawrence. Paris. .82. by convention. ha fatto l'imperadore storia a fresco di San Lorenzo che fa tormentare ilmartier da suoi baroni disconvenevole tutti nudi. resorted to a procedure which. 9 Oct 2013 17:31:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in the Uffizi is here identified as a the stoker drawing 1971). Lawrence having the martyr tormented while surrounded by his barons all naked. but this makes once existed. Three figure bodies studies survive. something which ismost unfitting for It is striking persons who wait upon great princes.: J. On Fein berg. however abstracted or idealized. two of them apparently drawn from life. There is also a sense that Bronzino himself to create a hierarchal juxtaposition of beautiful wanted and noble bodies. Borghini. such as Raffaele Borghini: "he showed the Emperor in his fresco painting of St. an executioner with bellows. His remark testifies to the extent to which decorum could be primarily a social concern. and thus the torsions of identify him his body can be seen to have a purpose: his left leg and course of this river. J. with the vastly musculature and hulking demeanor of the in the finished work (fig. ca. N. // Riposo. 6).106 RES 46 AUTUMN 2004 His attributes?a wolf. preposterous began drawing classicism of the river god. Mus?e du Louvre. 62: ". Grand 1991). (Oberlin College: Draftsmanship Allen Memorial This content downloaded from 68. entry by Janet Cox Rearick. extravagantly abandon twisting. made from a young studio porter on the extreme antic Figure 5. figure corresponding in the drawing. Bronzino 2002)." Smyth. a urban and public space: it brings with it consideration of the city and of a social fabric. according Bronzino claimed to know well and to value highly: the cosa molto see Craig as 24. and the river god.208. Cabinet des dessins (Photo: R?union des Mus?es Nationaux/Art Resource). From studio to studiolo. Florentine First Medici Museum. . arising from the maintenance of distinctions between courtly and vulgar. explaining as a popular Bronzino ?sconceiving the martyrdom within the heterogeneous space of spectacle. appears to have been untypical of his normal working practice: the imitation of "real" in the form of live studio models. civil and an uncivil. and without exception these are for low-life or non a heroic characters: porter. a flowing pitcher? as the river Tiber. or with only scant drapery. with what we term marked might profane or "uncivil" bodies?bodies Hence he by labor and by a kind of social physiognomy. Renaissance see also Florence The Medici. model (Paris.24 We might contrast the study for the left. on the basis of his surviving drawings. Study for the Martyrdom of St. the river god see also Larry under Art the principi. suggest that this styl ization towards greater torso) corporeal bulk (again reminiscent of the Belvedere even at the The stage. 5). locating it the piazza and the crowd. and the loping gait (as well as ineffectively draped buttocks) of the porter introduce an effect of deliberate bathos and an element of social distinction in the contrast with other figures: the porter reinforced turns towards a youth of a different anatomical "caste. Dukes 80. a personi o con che pochi servano panni superbi ricoperti. even when the court is that of a ruler who persecutes the faith. His invention here may be of a crowd?in the inspired by another famous depiction to Allori. like that of Lawrence. Agnolo Bronzino."23 how for this ideologue of reform the standard of over propriety operating for a court takes precedence that for a church and religious art. a child. and bending with an exhibitionistic that was not lost on contemporary critics.24 on Wed. Theatrical space is itself. nella sua intorniato arm. fig. frontispiece of a book which." as if he was who directs him towards the martyrdom ?ts significance.Augustin. 44-45. Mus?e du Louvre. 303.
appears to have been an actual characteristic in centers like which of public anatomy demonstrations. 9 Oct 2013 17:31:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . to the reformers. hagiographie art his death been reanimated by by flaying.24 on Wed.82. In the itmay even be said to have assimilated the kind of popular religious spectacle and we are in Fouquet's miniature. and his male figure clutching in the crowd). "Public Anatomy Past and Present Theatre of Bologna. the triumphant allegrezza artistically fashioned bodies overrides the tragedy and horror of the event. 178-184. Rome. fig. d'Ancona. and disorder of tumult phenomenon Ferrari's conclusions "'Fare una Cosa Morta Parer Viva' See Stephen J.26 see his IIprimo libro de'ragionamenti 25. G. it as an Paleotti Carlo Borromeo and Gabriele instigation of riot and disorder as well as moral corruption. 1999).25 in the St. contemporary is result of an act of the that their presence emphasized vice into theater?and translation?of Michelangelo versa. were not a typical feature of it should be theatrical performance. 1949. 117(1987). Yet Bronzino's painting also recalls elements of a much older theatrical tradition of boisterous physicality. (Un)Divinity Michelangelo. was such as reformers identified by passing away. of bodily torture with more unruly and confrontation forms of bodily display. Alessandro 1891). 70-85. (Turin: Figure 6. justice enacted on the bodies of condemned as the means artistic anatomy could also be conceived to a triumphant "resurrection" of the body. Agnolo Bronzino. the Lessons and the Carnival: 26. for burlesque carnal curiosity of their the naked between instance. Lawrence. Rome or Bologna took place during the carnival season. Bronzino's painting does not simply emulate these aspects of traditional sacra rappresentazione. Fouquet makes a clear distinction so does Bronzino. Raola in Scritti d'arte del Cinquecento. in between performers and audience: in the that the sober portrait groups he incorporated right rather than and left background suggest observers participants (fig. porter (Photo: Ali?ar ?/Art De As humani corporis fabrica of Vesalius (1543. the lud i sacri provoked According "laughter and chatter" rather than piety and reverence. riot. 28. effectively new academic ritual of the program with which Florentine artists like Bronzino were recently aligned. and demeanor. which University at public anatomies.Campbell: Counter Reformation polemic and Mannerist counter-aesthethics 107 another form of theater. is a central Anatomy. (Florence: 1971-1977). II. Naked bodies. detail: Resource)." 50-106. 27. Barocchi. For Allori's testimony ed. figures besports in a either reflecting on this central event or engaged own (see. a tumult of naked and clothed itself around a prone body at the center. 7). del le reg?le del disegno 3 vols. 9). Books of the Renaissance Ritual and Anatomical Learning (Chicago: Body: the also explores of Chicago Press. Loescher. Lawrence. II.28 1560s are debated in Andrea Carlino. in Jean of which a rare visual record is preserved from the Hours of Saint Apollonia Fouquet's Martyrdom 1460 from around of Etienne Chevalier dating (fig. Origini del Teatro Italiano. 2 vols. recomposed at the hands of the artist. was in fact proposing. 596-620. Although complicit with the spectacle of coercive criminals. straining torturers.27 following of So too in the St Lawrence. Campbell. LXXXIV of Art. appropriately Accademia as both an anatomical demonstration piece as regarded to as a have who well appears subject. of course. represented in Bronzino's evoked also fresco. Anatomy This content downloaded from 68. manifest disorder. Such carnivalesque clothed counterpart in records of tumult." Arf Bulletin the and Rosso. 8) with its gesturing authority figures. Such is the claim of Bronzino's own cheerfully skinless St Bartholomew (1555. (2002). Nazionale di San Luca). them. Martyrdom of St.208. the animated exchange the column on the left. Ferrari.
'.24 on Wed. This content downloaded from 68.82.?*.** fci? Figure 7. De humani corporis fabrica (1543) (Photo: The National Library of Medicine).108 RES 46 AUTUMN 2004 B A S I L E AE ?#?.. Frontispiece to Andreas Vesalius.. 9 Oct 2013 17:31:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .208. ..
Michelangelo. standard appear example. precariously patently is the aged. Oxford. Certainly one of them is not to be found in the tortuously posed hulk to their left. that the same a is enthroned under tyrant figure of Hercules. and his individuals. 10). Jean Fouquet. or the figure of the naked wood-bearer who ostentatiously bends over to their right. portrait of Borghini although a somewhat Bronzino's fuller beard." Mitteilungen des Kunsthistorischen Institutes in 27 (1983). despotic anxious acquiescence. Kunsthistorischen Like the who appears with an hourglass but not figure of Time in the Allegory. 1460.30 On the far side of the piazza. and Temperance St. Truth and Destiny. inwhich is not the only occasion Bronzino subjects to a poetic that can sometimes iconographies reworking the London Allegory of Venus is a well-known oblique. in Bronzino's Portraiture and 199. his pupil Allori.208. and . in Bronzino's Primavera and Giustizia. brooding philosopher. in the with a scythe. that the tyrant is based on the effigy of Duke de' Medici.82. This as are the two Bronzino tapestry designs discussed Some Iconographical by Themes "Time. 73-82. "Iconography Christ in Limbo. and direct us to consider the whereabouts of the other three virtues. Prudence reminiscent of Michelangelo's figure of Dusk in the Medici Chapel. the missing sword. the Accademia del Disegno's heroic genius. under the figure of Mercury. have been paralyzed under the rule of the prince. in a this probably his prominence explains the spirit of the academy. attribute of the balance in the extraordinary which is especially marked countenance of the youthful Justice. 65. Pius IV. who bears the features of Duke Cosimo I. we have portraits of Bronzino. proposes different identifications: "Prince . Martyrdom of Saint ApolIonia. who gestures towards his breast. From the Hours of Etienne Chevalier.. For the 29. and that the tyrant's court includes portraits of several contemporary Giuliano son and heir among them Cosimo's Francesco de' Medici dark-haired young (the apparent. this poses no particular since his inclusion would be on the basis of his status as an difficulty. we Figure 8. he is prompted at his right shoulder by the figure of Temperance with her vase. a troubled inwardness and melancholy self-absorption. The figures theological virtues and one cardinal virtue of the three theological form an unusual grouping. the figures of the Tiber. 11).. Lawrence an additional all omit vase. forced into a dissimulating. Borghini was one of the figure has most distinguished in Florence. Chantilly. But the remaining virtues are indeed to be found among the courtiers of the tyrant who sits aloft to the right: Justice is the young man with the axe and the on a Sistine ignudo. ca. Gaston. man visible above the tyrant's right knee). the Francesco de' Medici Medici recently deceased Pope. Florenz painting identification This content downloaded from 68. The bearded older male closely resembles the anonymous in Christ Church Picture Gallery.24 on Wed. identified as the Tiber. virtues these piazza.. a scale. visible only a few meters away in Medici Chapel Michelangelo's (fig. Vincenzo Borghini (the bearded figure just below Francesco). modelled is ingeniously displaced into his and unstable balanced posture (fig. Accademia Medicea. Lynette Bosch. and Charity. and which might aptly term a psychomachia. How should we describe what we are seeing here? It is hard to resist the inference that the virtues of civic action.Campbell: Counter Reformation polemic and Mannerist counter-aesthethics 109 The four women below Lawrence's grill seem both in the action: they bear observers of and participants attributes that enable us to identify them not just as ordinary bystanders but also as the cardinal virtue of Fortitude. Robert W. It is all the more noteworthy. Justice.29 By contrast with the demonstrative gestures of the female virtues in the are marked by a curious reticence. so imbued with them lieutenant of the among positions." If the portrait of Pius IV can be verified. and the Lieutenant of the Accademia del Disegno. one crucial attribute: an additional child. then. and held a number of intellectuals important Accademia administrative del Disegno. Hope. 9 Oct 2013 17:31:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . of the portraits. 30. Mus?e Cond? (Photo: Giraudon/Art Resource)." des Mitteilungen Institutes in Florenz XXVII (1983). see Wazbinski.. with her truncated column. and her three sisters: Faith. of the active life.
itmust be borne inmind that the cartoon for the fresco was probably approved by Duke I himself. facciate di San Lorenzo potrete cominciare accioli vediamo e ce ne risolviamo l'ornamento Michelangelo adoption Toscana clear see Roberto (Milan: Mursia. Martyrdom of St. Agnolo Bronzino. and the Art of Late Renaissance Florence. do they really "stand?" To sum up so far: between the Last Judgment and the of St Lawrence there has been a crossing of Martyrdom limits or boundaries?from sacred epic.82. On the Ide' Medici. heroes. di quella chiesa. The letter of February 11. . 238. 9). and aligned with a portrait of the ruler of Florence. This is the very premise underlying Borghini's complaint that the ruler's retainers are not comporting themselves with sufficient dignity.110 RES 46 AUTUMN 2004 Figure 9. and his approach offer several indications that he was thinking of history of the Medici adopted member family. Particularly jarring is the presentation of the subjects of Duke Cosimo as subjects of the tyrant. What would a contemporary observer have made of this apparent conflation of the court of the tyrant with In reflecting on whether the ducal court of Florence? the work opens a space for a dissenting. that the facing walls of the di fame nel le dua a fame i disegni perch? ce sar? grate per in The Medici. Pontormo. in a Dantesque sense. 31. . .208. .24 on Wed. and under Cosimo/ but where." Cited by Cox-Rearick 303.31 Cosimo But Cosimo's monitoring of the design may itself be the cause that results in such an unsettling effect: an image that draws attention to the fact that the authority of a ruler who ruler. Lawrence. Cosimo Granduca di Cantagalli.1565 makes was originally commission for two frescoes on ". They are placed under Mercury. while in the second group of women front are also probable portraits (fig. to what might be called sacred theater. quanto alle pitture che disegniate church: . detail: Justice (Photo: Alinari/Art Resource). Martyrdom of St. 9 Oct 2013 17:31:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . mentor Pontormo. and Allori (Photo: Alinari/Art Resource). we might ask. spectacle of coercive power enacted before them. persecutes but must be affirmed with all the trappings of empire. This content downloaded from 68. as is indicated in a letter of 1565. Agnolo Bronzino. Figure 10. even a tyrannical and despotic not could Christian be undermined. 1985). detail: portraits of Bronzino. Bronzino's to imitation. Lawrence. in relation to the Hercules. handling of the subject. alienated subject of autocratic rule.
mainly religious known as the Vangelista and the boys' confraternities San'Sebastiano dei Fanciulli. companies nearly passed away.: University of Missouri Press.24 on Wed. plays member of the Accademia Fiorentina.208. was popular religious a somewhat troubled currently going through transformation. and humanistic refinement of traditional classicizing sacre rappresentazioni?the longstanding mode of theater which. their wide Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici. Mo. were suggestive Lawrence. and performed from 1559 inmany respects a onwards for the Medici court. the people as they are. richness of reference to of a urban life. La romanesca: this [farce]: it shall be both cheerful and grim. for instance. Agnes were plays. Bronzino. there are in mise-en-sc?ne has already been mentioned. the Company at of the Festa della Nunziata for a performance in his St Lawrence. rustic. farsa di Giovanmaria Cecchi (Florence and Rome: Tipograf?a Cenniniana. own which he his purpose. It takes no account of place: it has grim and delightful. one located in to certain to suit the refinements the old play was subjected to with di but the questi tempi. Italiano. Origini was given to the greatest satisfaction 616. merchants. Vincenzo Borghini charged sacra rappresentazione a for of traditional organizing staging and he regretfully informed Duke Cosimo that the d'Austria. 2. San Lorenzo. 1522-1534." of experts who participation 185-187." Florentino 33. and the experience contemporary is with mixed The farsa described audience. a notary and The of Italy. This content downloaded from 68. Figure 11. On the play and see and others by Cecchi Carnival Comedy Radcliff-Umstead. Florence. ca. theatrical rendering of a religious is also presenting a subject. 1874). finally. in a comic mode?they draw called farces. social appeal. The Renaissance (Columbia. innkeepers. as itwas then painting and of theatrical practice. garrulous female servants. 1986). common and never Its which would do.The farce is a third new thing between tragedy and comedy. its stage in the church or the piazza and in every other place_"33 of St. hypocrites. "gentilezza See had "gran pratica del le cose vecchie. d'Ancona. The traditional neighborhood 32. plebian. notes that the performance of the populace "che essendone state per molti'anni privo. New Sacristy (Photo: Alinari/Art Resource). as noted above. and nobles. thieves. although Bronzino's painting ultimately points to an "idea" of theater that by the 1560s was increasingly less possible on the stages of Giovan Maria Cecchi. socially to his final in the prologue these hybrid characteristics "Two things Ipromise you about play.82. . between addition some direct points of correspondence the forms of contemporary Florentine sacred drama and the St Lawrence. matters profane and of the church: urban. Teatro del II. The theatrical understood. Lady Tragedy subjects are not restricted: it can take on happy and sad actions. . while it takes in great lords and princes. . their limits.32 to the academic refinement of Cecchi's approach was inventive: he realized drama particularly religious traditional religious that the strongest analogy between rather than theater and classical drama lay in comedy a serious and While didactic preserving tragedy. because which comedy does not do.Campbell: Counter Reformation polemic and Mannerist counter-aesthethics 111 in terms of theatrical genre. was In 1564. parasites. can provide a in the St parallel with Bronzino's experiment written for Cecchi's dramas. as if itwere an inn or a hospital. Opere. La Romanesca. these with Giovanna form had no it avoids it enjoys the breadth of both of them. exemplary religious plays. it receives. to preserve the popular This adaptation allowed Cecchi as well as texture of older sacre rappresentazioni. Spirito. Michelangelo." according Borghini. Vasari. VIII. longer performed to reunite constrained S. 9 Oct 2013 17:31:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . are written upon stock characters from Plautus and Terence including porters. Douglas Dramas of Giovan Maria Cecchi Sacred Play.
like Bronzino Cecchi. Pontormo." notes a character Hatred.35 Furthermore. the Peristephanon a narrative hymn that precisely conscripts the power of as a weapon of rhetorical and sophistication irony. 132. 1985). new classic Tuscan idiom of in it the recasting While Cecchi himself appears to have Michelangelo. in secret because speak with caution and frequently they have a great deal to fear and much to lose by on official corruption and the imprudence. along with Biblical heroes and martyrs. 267. see Robert J. comedian's jabbering and cheap stage antics? Do you think as "II Lasca" an urban milieu it'sa fitting kind of pleasantry to make fun of me? Do you think to raise laughs at my expense and turn me into a spectacle? Have the magistrate's fasces lost their stern control? Has soft lenity blunted the axe of authority?"36 in the St Lawrence. Cecchi's of the bleak Ahab may thus appear to offer confirmation Foucaultian view of Stephen Greenblatt regarding the in Renaissance effects of apparent political subversion drama: "the ideal image [of the prince and the state] the constant production involves as its positive condition 34. He wrote a play on the downfall of King Ahab and Jezebel. xv."38 Yet the glimmers of subversion a series of countered pageants constituting by allegorical the lavish intermezzi: the cardinal virtues join forces with the theological virtues. Pilliod. 62. "Noces For Cecchi's terrestres. quoted dei secoli xiv. to Varchi of "il mio Bronzino" Benedetto affectionately an epitaph for the painter.208. ses remaniements. Agnes. italiane lenitas?'" Le and Sacred Play. 9 Oct 2013 17:31:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . spiritual'! 1503-1584 and Novelliere. an to raw or in is offense Lawrence fact nicer roasted. mad with rage.' exclam?t Martyris. Comedy inApollo Lumini."37 Attacks vices of the court are not infrequent: "Truth gives rise to in The its best friend. of a saint. of Florentine 2001). later. and yet this lunatic lives! Are you can with such as to think you get away gallows bird. Among the words spoken "in jest" remark by the saint that his is the notorious (ludibundus) so can be cooked on both it be turned body should it is it "eat "it is he done" sides: up. or a comic actor: clown scurra. Art (New Haven and London: Yale visa urbanitas / / dum scurra saltas fabulam? / concinna existimas. the legend of the saint. you speech.34 This was Antonfrancesco Grazzini.24 on Wed. and composed sources for the looking at the subject matter and a it St of Lawrence. in tyrant appears as a type of divinely appointed kingship. A Genealogy University Press. composed spirituals on the Saint Catherine. The in an extravagant gallows hymn of Prudentius abounds the humor (or gridiron humor?). Michel on St. and his of the court take their character from the representations Medici regime. "'ridemur. see Jacqueline Brunet. On Grazzini: Antonfrancesco (Madison: friendship Allori. was staged for the visiting Archduke Karl of Austria a decade fresco was unveiled. 312-330. 1970). University II Lasca see Elizabeth with Bronzino. Beatissimi et de Trente: in honorem II:Hymnus Laurentii passionis furens / praefectus. Peristephanon et changements. who. pantomime "He ismocking us. fui? / adeone securem 37. 38. juxtaposed scenes of court lifewith scenes of the street. through which infuriates the tyrant with his undaunted martyr Lawrence urbanitas (pleasantry). speak and act with a license and not extended to the courtiers and nobles forthrightness as Douglas "must Radcliff-Umstead observes. Paillait. in the year Bronzino's historical events to which the titles of The momentous these plays refer are mainly presented through the eyes of characters of different social stations." Permanences comedy noces spirituelles: In Culture et id?ologie ed. might be asked whether Martyrdom known and literate artist like Bronzino might genre-conscious to be inmany ways of comedy found the notion have is directly engaged irresistable. 110. M. / per tot figuras ludimur: / et vivit insanum caput! / 'et miris modis mimico / te nexuisse Inpune tantas. and "commedie verifiable ties. L'acqua vino de G. "what a wonder that he makes fun of us with his clever figures of so bold. Exaltation vice proper is the of the Cross. sacre / mollis retudit publicam Carnival Radcliff-Umstead. performed for the Medici court in which the Biblical 1559. Rod i ni. Dramatist of Wisconsin 105. Croce. festivum tractare nosmet vend?tes / acroma ludicris? / egon cachinnis nulla est fascibus? / adeon / censure nulla austeritas. e xvi (Palermo: rappresentazioni 1877). on Bronzino's Press. wit.82. 177. try whether says.112 RES 46 AUTUMN 2004 but of comedy and popular spectacle. martyrdoms Saint Ursula. "and the adulation which to the court is the frequent ruin of are finally princes. his Coronation of Saul. / strophas cavillo 36. These comic characters. in the ritual of capital austeritas that should be manifest as a result refers to him as a The tyrant punishment. also who wrote (1503-1584). II Lasca's commedie 35. della L'Esaltazione Cecchi. Cecchi apr?s Plaisance le concile (Abbeville: F." cries the prefect. furcifer. For the idea of comedy source on in the most classic and humanist-approved of Prudentius. to signify the mutually supportive alliance of Church and State and their joint triumph. and plebian types. and of Saint Apollonia. Montaina. the triumphant martyr and of the Christian faith. it only one farsa on the martyrdom composed sometime of the known member is that another one Bronzino to whom had Accademia Fiorentina. many of them comic moreover. Poet." the is against the grain of his urbanitas decorum. This content downloaded from 68.
137-163.208. "wicked academies and the Early Modern and "istrioni". the allegorical and the historical. li servirebbe si havesse in un theatro de o scena in recitare. The letter circulated Ochino: under the name of the Catholic reformer Fra Bernardino as Poet and New York: Cambridge (Cambridge academic culture see Michel 2000). quite possible read even a serious work like Michelangelo's Last in a profane and facetious register. 149-202. This content downloaded from 68. les 'Humidi' aux prises avec l'Acad?mie Florentine. On Florentine ? Florence de 1542 ? 1551 : Lasca et "Culture e politique Plaisance. Gian Paolo Lomazzo again associated and 39. 1974). Because the academic.40 perhaps even definition. On the one hand. itmay be regarded as an academic refinement of popular and vernacular forms entirely typical of the cultural Fiorentina. radical subversion containment in the heroic The adaptation of history painting modern maniera of Michelangelo into comic drama has a double-edged significance. (Paris: la Sorbonne and Rick nouvelle. 9 Oct 2013 17:31:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . see Dialogo. Most artists had been expelled in 1549 in 1547. and relations with Renaissance University the presentation of two canzoni in praise following in 1566. Response of the Last Judgment in terms of see de Maio. suspension. 87. "Borghini and the Florentine Academies. and many Judgment of Michelangelo's critics chose to do this: one from the 1540s accused Pope Raul IIIof for a from Michelangelo depravity commissioning "so obscene and filthy" that it would better painting serve as a theater or a stage-set for a comedy. In David S." Quoted (Bari: Laterza. For this understanding edis Barzman. Last Judgment: The Renaissance Barnes. between Phidias and "da nozze to the stage. sign of man in God's also the vessel of carnal image yet temptation. appropriate 75." de (London: Italian Academies of the Sixteenth Fran?ois Quiviger. Lawrence. 1995). Parker. in Ducal Florence. Lomazzo's Sogni Leonardo da Vinci. rather than to sacred history. suitable to the remarking that they manifest deportment or or to the carnival marketplace fairground." characterizations of the Florentine Academy The Florentine contemporary atti istrionici and Bernardine TheDiscipline of Disegno (Cambridgeand New York:Cambridge University Press. administer. he also reports on Pope on account the fresco destroyed. University 40. Bronzino effectively embraces and affirms some of the most negative criticism of Michelangelo's Last Judgment. to which Cecchi enterprise of the Accademia of its own But another seeing to suppress defenders Michelangelo's usually wanted and deny. really promiscuous mingling of the comic and the heroic. and is possible: Bronzino understanding about art which Michelangelo's something was and IILasca belonged and in which Bronzino himself reinstated in 1566 after a twenty-year In its observance.24 on Wed. 43. On Bronzino's and his literary enterprise see Deborah the academy. greatly exceeding the comic license of Cecchi's plays.42 Gilio broadsheet finds the gesticulations naked Michelangelo's and ambiguous couplings of saints to be similarly vulgar. For Gilio's to a Michelangelo identification wedding "una pittura cos? obscena et sporca come ove si hanno da cantare nella cappella. Michelangelo. 2000). II. Quarterly 41. (Berkeley: University low comedy."39 Yet in the case of Bronzino's heroic and farcical drama of St. The Warburg Michael Institute." In Shakespearean 41. la quale molto meglio ove qualche cosa obscena c?mica Romeo 1981). including not only arts and letters but also the festive and collective popular forms of religious and public and elite sectors of society. Bronzino: 42. Michelangelo's of California Press. Italie ? l'?poque de la Renaissance.Campbell: Counter Reformation polemic and Mannerist counter-aesthethics 113 and the powerful of that subversion. Chambers Century Sherberg. Language: to the tavern. we might wonder whether can any such containment occur: we a find rather. the institutional. e la Controriforma of behavior le pouvoir Universit? Scorza. #5. 1988). 2 vols. 1998). statutes academy's readmitted was Duke Cosimo if they demonstrated readmitted a reform of the following itwas deemed that they could be a capacity to write poetry. Ii" and on behavior e da bordel appropriate IV's intention exhibition to "fachini" to have LVI (2003). The Circulation of Social Energy in Renaissance England (Berkeley: of California Press. throughout Michelangelo is deeply absorbed his work. and by this means the language of ismade to serve ends not finally Michelangelo congruent with the political. performers. a fictitious comments more Raul other on dialogue the kisses party. Bronzino's enterprise could be seen to reflect the Medici instrumentalization of the Accademia del Disegno and the Accademia Fiorentina as ideological apparatuses of the Tuscan state. the younger artist. had been The purpose of these institutions was to define.43 Yet for Bronzino itmeant something different to read in this way. the erotic and the sacred.41 life embracing of the fundamentally and ambiguous as a nature of the human bearer of ungovernable body in was it to meaning religious painting." Les escrivains et Painter Press." Renaissance see Karin State: and en quella di Michel Angelo offitii divini.82. Greenblatt. 53 n51. as if Michelangelo's make "a crew of porters and ham actors who would keep jumping up and down" in an indecent manner. in this ambivalent of the the significance body. de Maio. and supervise Florentine culture. of its of nakedness For these and and buffooneries. and 39. "Invisible Bullets. of a Florentine artistic canon. Bronzino of the figures in the Last Judgment with fachini intention had been to istrioni. "The Accademia Fiorentina and the Question of the The Politics of Theory 26-55. Negotiations.
This content downloaded from 68. 9 Oct 2013 17:31:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 155-290. bones. On 44. with (Toronto: Dovehouse Editions. repudiation boys Cecchi's plays heard their author deliver a series of followed from his own religious crisis sermons. Notizie ne' sue quartiert. Hope. 1559. had fallen under the sway of the religious thought of Juan de the Council of Trent made Valdes by 1547. / Ma egli sbagli? dal Raradiso al formar Cristo. good works.46 Silvano Razzi. Carnesecchi. as proof 1754). years later." Beginning we find these same individuals. Viviani. Meritorious action is the realm of human life virtues. it is the sign by others' behalf. the friend and literary executor of the a dialogue academician Benedetto Varchi. orthodoxy. Gli affreschi di Pontormo on Varchi's and Gelli's relation to heterodox and Portraiture." see also Gaston." of course. whose error he had generally resisted in and of heresy purging the earlier part of his reign.114 RES 46 AUTUMN 2004 in his noted this play of ambiguity contemporaries in the words of the poet earlier religious painting which to fall "from Alfonso de'Razzi.45 and perceptible shift from the idea of salvation as an individual and inward process. in fact. e il resto. chi guarda. which in Cecchi's and conversion. along with that of Catholic Europe. when on and absolutely chillingly clear its position found These reform-minded individuals justification. Raul. Grazzini. were the sole prerequisites salvation. Ragionamenti by Konrad Eisenbichler and introduction Spiritual'! (1558). 97. "Iconography to I. and the skin? intertwined. lies of doing this in Florence in the 1560s? The answer in the wholesale transformation of the religious culture of Florence. thought of these Florentines and their efforts the predicament a San see Firpo. The doctrine was officially proscribed by the Council of after long resistance on the Trent in 1547. "Good works. for instance. are exactly what adherents of the sola fides position had rejected in their insistence that faith. and a divine grace that could not be earned through meritorious for action. chiasso. long protected a Medici and a leading courtier and academician.208." "Iconography Cecchi. which performances ritual observance. Substantial passages sermons deal with the martyr-saints. the virtue which mandates works on to the skin. the first bonfires of heterodox books in 1552. there is an obvious orthodoxy. the opening a new rapprochement between for a thorough policing and demands papacy. the Faith.82. inclined reformist group who member of the Catholic towards Valdesian the theological position of Juan de Valdes. Cosimo's Roman Inquisition and executed was two bestowal the reward. making elaborate professions or and obedience. they cannot exist without they are mutually each other. / Perch? Di sua fu di far questo. their carefully republishing religious to bring them into line with the new writings Panciatichi. of practice "good works. which Christianity shows itself in the world. Bronzino on his fresco at the end of a decade began working Index which had seen the publication of theTridentine in Florence. venality. Even to writers later like failed Raffaele though Borghini some most of the the distinctive fact. (Florence: of his art: "Scusi il Pittor of the depravity in Guiseppe embrace Lorenzo. held that one could maintain a of the Tribunal of the Inquisition. Gasten. notes florentine. based on the private experience collective of spiritual grace. which were legitimated as the in the mid 1550s. to more outward and include of devotion. and Duke Cosimo and the of prayer. Antonfrancesco Doni. and Charity. acknowledge aspects of its imagery can be explained with regard to of the 1560s. and the open performance Antonio the pontificates of Paul IV (1555-1559). Charity. 46. A remarkable number of Florentine and outside the Accademia within intellectuals. Pius IV(1559 to the 1565). grounded of St. The like that of Luther in the position. Bartolomeo and Cosimo Bartoli. published entitled Della econ?mica Christiana e civile inwhich scriptures Catholic observance while at the same time embracing the doctrine of sola fides?salvation through Faith alone. by Pius V of the Grand Ducal Crown of Tuscany."44 iswhy? And what is the force The question of course. part in 1567. 97. and Pius V (1566-1572). that Lawrence receives crown. the ceremonial cults of saints' relics. 10 vols. of sola fides went with for a purging of the a 45. Fiorentina. Giovambattista Gelli. d?lie Razzi's chiese poem was cited devise istoriche Richa.24 on Wed. and Portraiture. corresponds In 1568. Cosimo. was handed over to the of Florentine the Duke. who include illustrious names like Benedetto Varchi. rather than his traditional martyr's crown of laurel (lauro). and on martyrdom as an ultimate expression of good works. This is the very in the fresco." 42. especially the doctrinal preoccupations In in of sola the who acted fides. Inmany respects the iconography of the fresco is fully in line with the current climate of orthodoxy. corresponding most militant phase of post-Tridentine reform. 1986). could cause the beholder to Heaven the Abyss. recanting their previous of conformity enthusiasms. See also Robert W. in the same position as members of the themselves Roman curia whose profession call for a reform of the church. had the religious dissident Piero Carnesecchi. In this reorientation. says governed by are like the Cecchi. during the superstitious extravagance. religious 52-66. the nerves. / l'intenzion i Santi. e fermi il passo.
What is ultimately at stake in Bronzino's painting is a contestation of art's instrumental status under a new organ of the state set up to regulate its production. it also envisions other possibilities for such intellectual and creative communities. and 156ff. on the cardinal virtues. but it is also exterior: "nothing other than a Hope. then. and Firpo. 152 on prayer and good works. l'intelletto e l'affezzione) ci (mediante "Interiore." political dissidents who sought alternative modes of for their alienation. In one sense. Silvano Razzi. che non si risenta tutto in considerando quanto ha volute per noi sofferire il figliuol di Dio et per conseguenza non mostri e non faccia alcun segno de'benefizii?" di gratitudine Ibid. In 1556 his secretary Lorenzo Pagni informed his prince with some alarm that a group of Florentines constituting the Accademia del Piano. on the other hand. of Trent.. The presence of the gigantic fresco in the very church that proclaimed the Medici dynasty and its continuity may be said to signify a kind of official approval of the dissident in festive forms. which at this time defined not only the actor but also or those religious and the courtier. who the practice to had close the sola fides been dangerously writings Bronzino here affirms the Council of Trent. seven in his own of virtues. should not only stimulate consciousness of the benefit of Christ.48 The is firstly interior." 48. and Fortitude themselves. and Charity in the form of good works. the "Nicodemist.47 Despite in the the title. on the Council Hope and Charity. by casting its reformist in a Michelangelesque artistic program theological that Catholic reformers had language recently rejected. Varchi. 9 Oct 2013 17:31:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Gli affreschi Portraiture.24 on Wed. at least up energies manifest until the decade before the execution of this fresco. who would not himself feel something by considering how to suffer for us. consciousness they should produce a in accordance with inward demeanor. o almeno di conoscenza 49. expression In the remainder of this essay I will propose that Bronzino's "theatrical" art on the one hand serves an official with purpose: his patron's realignment of Florence the newly defined orthodoxies of the Roman church. we would have to acknowledge Martyrdom see Gaston. initiative of its own."49 Varchi goes carried out openly on to defend the role of images in Christian cult?"Who of is there that on seeing. and to the frustration of participants on to who be household lectured expect dialogue the focus of Razzi's text is in fact the administration. Bronzino might be said to resist the total hegemony of Rome over Florence. 79. inward devotion. abstain from their attitudes instead suggest a any such performance. Charity. In fact. between demeanor. 252-260. a defense of with works the cult of the saints and the good along tradizioni of the Holy Roman Church. which is rendered certain and manifest observances visibly through signs in the gaze of others. which by Faith. Hope. and allow that comic to and carnival inversion correspond impropriety a kind of official limit of what the Medici regime could tolerate in terms of protest and dissent. il patire e la morte del nostro rappresentano poniam Signore. including members of families with a long history of opposition to the Medici. il quale si manifesta visibilmente interiore. The performance of is a question of open Catholic profession orthodoxy not only to be manifested in and public demonstration: the form of acts of Christian fortitude and charity. for instance." 50. 1568). who are not attended by Fortitude. apparenti degl'huomini. Such is the very ritual observance doctrine painted by Bronzino in his Martrydom of St. and once again we have the injunctions about the practice of Faith. "Iconography di Pontormo. per certi segni e cerimonie nel copsetto Ibid. but should also produce signs of this in the beholder. "Chi ? le pitture le quali ci quegli che. Charita. nel vedere caso il nascere. Greenblatt's counter-Bakhtinian position. Cosimo was prepared to tolerate carnivalesque and ludic forms of protest against his regime. accommodated only in the heroic of the martyr but also in the actual performance enactment of his virtues by Faith. congiugniamo Speranza che non ? altro che una certa dimostrazione di esso culto esteriore. . . Della econ?mica On Razzi's quali da una nobile 47. in other words. says Varchi. On the other hand. but also inmaking manifest signs and gestures of prayer and demonstration a in the sight of others.208. per lo quale con mezzo e e Dio col della Fede. dialogue 56. and as a result much Christ wished would not make some sign of gratitude or at least of consciousness of benefits?"50 Images. 35. Hope. on Faith. Razzi's economy is here of visibility in the perspectival visualized and gestural idiom of not theater. Lawrence.. through practice of religion. had a for in festive celebration the of house gathered Bartolomeo Ranciatichi. . position.82. a person under suspicion as a This content downloaded from 68. 94. 64-79 Sermartelli. It will further be suggested that The of St Lawrence cannot be reduced to the ends of either Medici power or ecclesiastical totalizing it finally constitutes a distinct critical and that authority. tension between interior character and outward a dichotomy surface and substance. The "courtier" virtues. paintings of the birth and the suffering and death of Our Lord. ne Christiana e civile and i si ragiona della cura e brigata di donne e huomini secondo ?a legge Christiana e vita civile (Florence: governo famigliare. makes profession of orthodoxy against heresy. and Charity we are conjoined with God.Campbell: Counter Reformation polemic and Mannerist counter-aesthethics 115 and Varchi both appear as speakers.
The realms of the sacred and of the marketplace there as nowhere interpenetrated were else. but it remains to be seen that would be adequate as an account of whether the fresco. (Oxford: Oxford Press. Domenico dell'Ordine et quelle aveva certe prediche. for several members wrong of the del Piano. some of them Cavalcanti. istoriche dall delI'Ambrosiana erezione della Lorenzo Mediceo. 9 Oct 2013 17:31:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . see especially rappresentazioni.82. II. He points to the veritable as families "took over" from the fifteenth century onward. This content downloaded from 68. considerando et la Chiesa alia te?era et?.Y.: Cornell University Press. Apparati. burlesque as a an Archbishop of Pisa for identified mock-exequies creature of the Medici. the rather grisly feast-day gifts annual ostensi?n of roasted meat to preeminent donor families. Spettacoli. F. including members Accademia Pucci. delle memorie 2 vols." e i tesori nascosti (Florence: Marsiglio. of much characteristic 53. on the by Zanr?. "Ritual and Parody. and Capponi families. in of the this instance. 1564 55. As noted conspiracy 242-246. 41-44.24 on Wed. 52. is examined The episode by Domenico Cosimo Florence. especially through its centrality had and religious life of the laity. but maintaining idealized and purged of politically contrary elements. generous indulgences granted to those who which visited the altar of St. 1980). along the Play of Cosmas and Dami?n. recitava. a church under Medici patronage aristocratic version perpetual enactment of a kind of popular religious theater increasingly under attack by religious reformers in the 1560s.55 Traditions could prevail at San Lorenzo despite an internal. Continuazione. and the spectacular for Michelangelo the following year? funeral obsequies itself a laboriously arranged marketing enterprise for the new Accademia del Disegno. e spirito. But it could also with Rome and with Tridentine at an assimilation that exorbitant attempt signify unleashes more than it can control.53 Both elite and popular cultural forms had been re-forged into a civil and characteristically of Florentine cultural identity. the string of chapels the elite. or being quietly was what was to be feared. Parody Accademia Medici. Public on sacre 374-377 N. for over San Lorenzo. 1993). For the liturgy and 111-133." Cited inMoreni. document! 69-75. a mode could In the case of Bronzino's ludic fresco. di S. was also the day when a market was held outside the church. with among in Patronage. satisfazione che se n'ebbe pocha per havere era tutta piena. see Cantagalli. By rappresentazione the range of novelties and curiosities that mid-century. a to links popular and republican past. Bronzino's fresco could thus be seen as a a century. and the funerals." ed. Gaston has shown that the liturgical even before it became the primary arena heavily shaped by the laity of where Medici power was placed on show for the whole spectrum commerce in liturgy at Florentine society. (Florence. large numbers are the Florentine people incapable of idleness.208. University see also Domenico Continuazione traditions of San Lorenzo Moreni. San Lorenzo: 1816). turned out to in a deeply laid conspiracy against his were in 1559 and 1560. On May 3.52 executed and regime. quale lui poco petto. the of relics.54 Comedies by increasingly elaborate Medici II Plautus were performed there in the time of Lorenzo sacra with traditional the tragi-comic Magnifico. secrecy. pi? testo mancho. 1350-1650. 305. from this decade onward. 1564 Lapini's Diario reports "A di 3 Maggio in S."51 Cosimo appears so blatant could not that insubordination have assumed have been dangerous. and the de'Medici I de' in The Cultural Politics of Duke Cosimo del Piano. I de' Medici. Kent and Patricia Simons in Renaissance and Society Italy. themselves better that they occupy to than remain pensive (cogitabundi). The festive dimension might remind us of habit of drawing on the the Medici's long-established vital elements of Florentine culture. it is in similar goings on. I 51. Florentine life of San Lorenzo was 54.116 RES 46 AUTUMN 2004 of heterodox religious beliefs. Lawrence on Wednesdays. But he was cogitabundo. Art at San Lorenzo. Konrad Eisenbichler 2001). An approach Florence Life in Renaissance (Ithaca." 198. Many of the features in terms of familiar of this work can be characterized Medici cultural politics. a sermon an church the included by eight-year packed friar inMay 1564 (recalling the "boy old Dominican bishop" of carnival tradition). inMid-Cinquecento "Ritual and Zanr?. Cosimo of Randolfo Pucci. Cosimo that responded former adherent could hardly be hatched involving such conspiracies "since the minds of and that of people. as a reinforcement identification with of their own charismatic Florence. to the privatization of liturgical space correlative feast days?a See and chaplaincies. and the grace afforded by these indulgences was increased by the two Medici popes Leo X and Clement VII. eds. in San Lorenzo: Cerimonie. 189-205. Lorenzo di Firenze un Fraticino doppo Vespro predico che di et? di anni otto. Hence also the annual P?lio of San Lorenzo. di Firenze di San Imperial Basilica a tutto il regno chiesa presente "Scenari festivi a and Maria Ciseri. involved long served as an arena for the a of production distinctly Medici version of Florentine in the festive culture. imparato a mente pi?. notably Richard C. most recent scholarship. 1987)." "Liturgy and Patronage San Lorenzo saints' W. Trent-inspired reform in the 1560s. The on the had taken anniversary of the place gathering Alessandro de' of Cosimo's predecessor assassination of celebration it the and involved Medici. Trexler. close be to the prince Francesco de' Medici. e fu tenuta cosa rarissima. (Burlington VT: Ashgate. a symbolic compensation for the perhaps have provided by Cosimo's political compromise austerity mandated reform.
" Re-Visioning City: Art. written of the Academia by members to cuts and changes for its restaging at Intronati. Lorenzo Lottini. is not completely art another crucial element. reflecting the wedding of Ferdinando de' Medici the new to toward orthodoxy. (Florence: Marchi I. to extend a pervasive "dominion of the eye. the poem was embraced by anti-Medicean political notes on exiles. enigmatic pathos. The Performance of over "decorum of verisimilitude. Thus far. certain works were also seen to have a quality that placed them beyond the reach of the Bronzino. / mentre / non veder. however. 58. eds. Stephen Milner has a mode of analysis that can address "the for argued manner inwhich symbols. religious matters 57. Roberto Ciardi. intesi.82. canonical other hand. Italy (Cambridge: Cambridge University an in dramatic demonstrates 220-225. theory Scripts Press. Opposed in 1534. Patronage. mi destar. Giovanni Angelo Lottini's Sacra rappresentazione a in is version of the 1592. tarda. over of the meanings "authors. with their multiple associations. gli affetti sono degli uomini dati alio studio et all E perch? egli era tale ancora nei suoi costumi. 292: "Perch? egli ha dato alle figure sue una forma 1974-1975). the references pressure defamatory clergy or to in general are omitted. urbanistic converted inwhich new order. forthcoming). altri terribile cavata da Iprofondi sescreti dell'anatomia. forms associated with pleasurable misrule. si pu? contemplazione. Sacra rappresentazione Angelo (Florence: Sermartelli. and the Dynamics of Space. Florentine traditions and the social groups and identities whether associated with them. 1592).Campbell: Counter Reformation polemic and Mannerist counter-aesthethics 117 with theater showed increasing signs of accommodation a newly didactic standard and more rigorous decorum. Giovanni di S.60 identified contemporaries of the "Florentine" This was above all characteristic was seen and it rather than the "Roman" Michelangelo. Yet on the from that of a powerful.24 on Wed. The expression is that of Marvin Trachtenberg. ed." The celebrated precedence comedy in the mid-1560s La pellegrina. Lorenzo. as an instrument that works through openness absolutist and manifold that desires to accommodate inclusiveness.56 di S. Dominion of the Eye: Urbanism. 419. his ironic the Sistine Adam and of Michelangelo?of misprisions ignudi. it is at best questionable can be seen to serve a single instrumental its operations function. da pochissimi 60. (New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Yet it is not the only way to understand Bronzino's painting. Saslow la vergogna che'l danno e sonno. the Renaissance Place. Comedy 1993). fully divested of the comic elements in the hymn of Prudentius or the fresco by abound Bronzino. Roger J. arti. 1991 ). Idea del Tempio della Pittura. 2 vols. passively drawing his identity forerunner. exiled Donate This content downloaded from 68. "Caro m'?'l dura. in Renaissance and Scenarios." and that the priority or severance alienation of the work from its author as a it precarious make bearer of official meaning. Stephen "The Piazza della Signoria as Practiced J. was subjected degli in 1589. dire che sia state fra pittori come un Socrate." Text in The Poetry of Michelangelo. in Florence. 9 Oct 2013 17:31:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . con le arie e piena di dignit? e maest?. University della Signoria under the Medici to the Medici regime by the time of particular.57 the symptoms On the one hand. permitted alternative visions of social to coexist alongside the dominant form. deh. ma quali the perspective effects of the Uffizi: "the powerful instrument of authority created by the early republic was into a Medicean of rule. James M. Art and Power in Early Modern Florence (Cambridge especially principate. and Bertolli.61 The artist's own earlier iconographie sulle In Scritti Gian Raolo Lomazzo. published purified that saint's legend."59 to itof sc?nographie mode of history painting being defined by often dramatize poetry and writings of the artist's works from the artist's self." 61." 59. parla basso. ordering in the deployment of a particular symbol by Changes those in power appropriation an alternative of that symbol preferred did not so much constitute an as the imputation reading. the fresco would constitute a rather in successful example of an absolutist cultural policy means an of ruling through extension of the action. The one of bathos."58 Writing of Florentine public space. / pero non ed.Milner. increasing tendency to take and practice for the "decorum of orthodoxy" Richard Andrews.208. and New 276 and on the Piazza York: Cambridge Press. the Medici Chapel capitano? to read symbols against the indicate that it is possible of the "readers" finally have that meanings grain. non sentir m'? gran ventura. sometimes a dimension to define the allegorical figures of theMedici Chapel in 56. 1997). significance in the sixteenth century that the human and recognized art often moves and acts less in figure inMichelangelo's a narrative function than with an accordance with of pensive disquiet that as melancholia. Crum and John T. an operation apparatus semiotically the very process of construction dramatized the power of the maninconici. e pi? esser di sasso. Bronzino manifests of an alienated enterprise. supplies Michelangelo's which greatly extends the expressive range of the effect. Michelangelo his final departure from Florence ten years later famously assign a negative would to the melancholy lassitude of political significance these figures: Night bids the observer not to rouse her from her reverie "as long as injury and shame endure". While Michelangelo's the alienation It is frequently observed desired by patrons. Raoletti (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. the Bettini Venus. Bronzino also appears as a reader of symbols rather than an absorber of influences. noting the discussion in the dialogues of the of the sonnet Gianotti.
Bronzino's master Pontormo had completed monumental fresco cycle in 1556. che richiede I'honesto. de' Medici. now revealing. design. it also it with insubordination of the the brings potential the the such pensive. Bronzino.24 on Wed. come il Signore. a reading of Bronzino's burlesque poetry suggests that this ismore than an unconscious effect. indecorously performing body. and the flatterer. and but the former is compelled blandishments. absorptive demeanor signifies the only recourse of a princely subject in a climate of coercive For this most theatrical of ideological conformity. ed. now concealing. as are no means Bronzino realized. even dissimulation. invention. because the wish he is pushed and not because accord. against Pontormo." e semplici Serpenti."64 It is just this quality that characterizes the figures at the base of the prince's throne. . la quale secondo. At the center in so many other that an artist who as a Medici appears partisan might have wished his art in some respects beyond their reach? In of markedly with the open and public self-declaration and who the Faith. Pontormo. Vasari. exemplify condition of seeing and responding enjoined by Razzi and by Cecchi. cannot understand Vasari's terms. Della econ?mica Christiana. it it. ? una Virtu. are by contrast to inactivity. In the same church of San Michelangelo a Lorenzo. by necessity about whom latter.. 1940). those that have been identified above as Justice. of Prudence Prudence: 1325 quoting Lucio Paolo Rosello's Ritratto del 1309-1342. especially vero governo vivo Cosimo del principe del de gran dall'esempio "I submit that there is a great difference between the prudent Medici: man. preface by 174-188. approaches . 1552-1555) piato fantasy about a series of bawdy and violent misadventures that befall Bronzino one chaotic in Florence. overrides resists the economy of showing. of his own accommodates as circumstances himself allow. composition. This content downloaded from 68. Giorgio (Florence: Vallecchi. or to act on their disquiet. Siate prudenti dice come colombe. and Prudence. essential skill for survival.. Opere. VI. "Nicodemists" like Carnesecchi who professed outward conformity with the forms of official religion. Beyond rather orthodox program. Allori. and that he found to be deplored in his passivity the prince seemed. 287. monstrous furtive homosexual encounters. Temperance. Their reticent. and one characterized above in the presence of such a ruler. melancholy insouciance that Cosimo in his son Francesco. according "more likely to be governed by others than to govern. I de' Medici: Spini. by manner in a deceptive and with false others necessity. On this aspect Sincerity. the Justice.65 Even Razzi particular evokes which conceives of Prudence shrewdness. Ranella. subjects who for portrayed as subjects of Lawrence's persecutor. with so and so little pleasure for the much melancholy was finally unintelligible: beholder" "even I. the imperative of righteous conduct. prejudices 187-211. paraphrase in Full text in Poetry 156: "Secondo Agostino. che sia da dare. cogitabundo.208. especially Giuliano entra nella comune "Ma guai se el futuro principe opinione e aggirato dai suoi servitori. .66 For members in terms of a political of the Florentine court or are here for those Medici intelligentsia. dispositions. a quello all'huomo quello. who that it am an artist. quello che dee desiderare. insegna e che fuggire. The poem // a is sinister (ca. Lettere. and Prudence. where intelligibility of the painting's perspective bodies and their motives are so fully present to our view. Refashioning Renaissance Europe. hybrid beings. indeed Prudent for Justice and Temperance not to assert their claims. 62. the image affirms an alienated. Cosimo 249-252. of Michelangelo. see Cosimo Antonio Cantagalli. duca "Noi abbi?no . in fama di essere maneggiato della gente For the letter ridicolo agi i occhi del mondo. insubordinate. coloring and painting done in his own personal way. These are possessed of an inscrutable self-absorption that seems to run counter to the visibility and space. 63. the iconographie and which of confounded contemporary stylistic peculiarities it as "full of nude figures beholders. melancholy. "Inventing in The Discovery of the Individual Review The American Historical (102/5 (1997). night involving raging crowds. It failed as a Medici of alienated. cardinal with an order." see John Martin. che ell' 66. ForVasari's and professional political see Pilliod. and enigmatic allegorical tableaux. the open and of faith Catholic performance orthodoxy enjoined its official and by Varchi in Razzi's dialogue. paintings sense of disjunction?the dissenting beholder's to disguise and protect more troubling dictates conscience. Vasari described the courtly virtue of Machiavelli and seems a an less virtue like than Castiglione.118 RES 46 AUTUMN 2004 the tomb project characterized the allegories as of one of the Medici dukes.62 The language of deprived of motion assassins thus not only manifests the scandal of the Michelangelo of the histrionic."63 In was a similar quality commission. while inwardly remaining true to the spirit of sola fides." diventa semplicamente 64. a to bitter letter from his father from 1561. e quello che no. Hope." to the times. it is all by dissimulation. in Prudence consigned 65.82. by to one another. Charity. I to speak. 9 Oct 2013 17:31:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . now blinded and in his death. opposed was not the first artistic interpreter of He to realize this. Temperance. these which virtues might evoke the necessity of discretion. Fortitude. contrasts Such reserved and troubled demeanor here need of Is it conceivable respects to place fact. virtues which should attend on rulers." col nostro veloce corso condotto alla morte el 84.
as a chaotic system where everything Language appears Like Dante. the St Lawrence deliberately adopts a stylistic idiom and figurative consciously absolute conformity.67 IIpiato is characterized his other burlesque poems.Campbell: Counter Reformation polemic and Mannerist counter-aesthethics 119 is an impassive. design. porphyry seem to represent Fortitude These figures. 9 Oct 2013 17:31:06 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . however. His body swarms with human parasites who courtiers and squabbling resemble mercenary at while his feet a mob calls for justice academicians. Bronzino own. an extreme in It is controlled "authorial" of courtly dissimulation. or as the deliberately enigmatic an some of of that allegory". as it is here invented by a member of a group charged with its definition and preservation. if and the imitation of canons. the tensions the combination of narrative and monumental of history.208. engaging by theoretical procedures that is the case. who would and Justice. to Bronzino's Mannerism here may indeed correspond an an early manifestation art ruled of academic painting. whom all by the passive persona of its author (in every to is someone including a sexual one). is seemingly the poet Bronzino as he appears engulfed by swamped by images. enthroned giant called Arcigrandone who extracts gold and silver from human beings caught to the chaos in a swamp. without real his of agency things happen. events as if in a dream. does not This content downloaded from 68. Bronzino: to Cosimo. 133-139 and 142-151. The burden of reading such subversive meanings is thrown back on the reader. do nothing to intervene as the innocent girl is tortured by the crowd.24 on Wed. extorting wealth truly "cosmic" dimensions?as from the people and evidently doing nothing to prevent the maladministration Like of justice in his dominions. straightforward and facetious. who against is the irony Central to its enterprise a in the spirit of promoting theology entirely and the reform. the apparent reference Renaissance Painter as Poet. address For the poem see Agnolo Bronzino: Rime Nardelli (Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia in Burla. that while language that counters and resists the Roman demand and simplified for a chastened religious imagery. in an ideological climate of offers a site of resistance 67. he witnesses claims not to understand potentially means something else. the true goddess of Justice who forsakes the hostile earth for heaven with the final passing of the Golden Age. a is attended by two rather virtuous girl. Franca For a useful reading of // Piato. portraiture. which see Parker. as are or not if presented they being actively shaped an sense. The to both allusions Michelangelo. yet it is hardly possible Bronzino's readers did not see the giant?a figure of Cosimo. Florentine culture. Such passivity has it enables things to be tremendous advantages. just more powerful artistic influences in his painting.82. Petrucci 218-272. yet them. Italiana. she is eventually saved by a terms in her that suggest who addresses genius winged she isAstraea. and another column. above sense. as to understand it is left to the beholder the just as a Lawrence St. The poem has been seen as a parody of "ruins Dante's Inferno. which dissembles performance authorial responsibility. and usually suggests a gross or carnal or sexual subtext. and of the Medici even in a scene the glorification allegory. it also marks the hope that the more than an extension of be academy might something into yet another area of the domain of Medici hegemony Florentine life and thought. all give the work a of absolutist "tyranny-in-action" that of enables the artist to ironic detachment quality serve a prince's self-image as reformer while also crisis of religious identity and a personal agency affecting large number of his peers. 1988). nonetheless ed. but is otherwise oblivious around him. a broader woman with a broken familiar allegorical beings?a who holds a scepter. of carnivalesque negative exemplum the Medici court.
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