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Trigonom

etry
Name : Arynta
Dharmayanti
Class : X-2
Number : 01
Trigonometry
Angles and Their Measure
90
°
The sign :

• A(+,-)
90° < α < 0° < α < 90
• B(-,+)
180° °
180 0
° ° • C(-,-)
180° < α < 270° < α < • D(+,-)
270° 360°

270
°

 An angle may be generated by rotation of two rays, that share


a fixed and point.

 Let one ray remain fixed as initial side anf the second ray
rotate to form terminal side.

 If the rotation in counter clock wise the angle formed


positive angle, if the rotation is clock wise angle formed
negative angle.

 Angle : β =−
Terminal Terminal
α= side side

Counter Clock wise


Verte α clock β
Verte
x Initial side Initial side
x
Nama : Arynta Dharmayanti
Kelas : X-2
Absen : 01 2
Angle in standard position and quadrantal angle :

 α is called in standard position if it’s vertex in origin and


the initial side along the positive χ-axis

 If the terminal side of angle in coincides with one of axis the


angle is called quadrantal angle

The two most common units used to measure angles are :

 Degree measure

• One degree (1°) is the result from of revolution in


the positive direction.

Nama : Arynta Dharmayanti


Kelas : X-2
Absen : 01 2
 Radian measure

• One radian is the measure of the


central angle of a circle that intercepts
an arc equal in length to the radius of
the circle

• The measures are :

Coterminal Angle

 Two angles in standard position are


called coterminal angle if they have
the terminal side

 The functions are :

Reference Angle

Nama : Arynta Dharmayanti


Kelas : X-2
Absen : 01 2
 If α is a nonquadrantal angle in standard position its
reference angle is a cute angle is formed by the terminal side
of α and χ-axis

 Conclutions :

For any angle in standard position its reference are :

• α when terminal side in quadrant I

• π - α when terminal side in quadrant II

• α - π when terminal side in quadrant III

• 360° - α when terminal side in quadrant IV

Definition of Sine and Cosine


 If an angle θ in standard position and the terminal side of angle θ intercepts
the unit circle at P ( χ , y ) then,

• The χ coordinate of the point is called cosine θ

• The y coordinate of the point is called sine θ

Nama : Arynta Dharmayanti


Kelas : X-2
Absen : 01 2
Cos and sin are called
circular function because
they are both defined using a
unit circle

 Summary :

Functions Quadrant
I II III IV
sin , csc + + - -
cos , sec + - - +
tan , cot + - + -

Nama : Arynta Dharmayanti


Kelas : X-2
Absen : 01 2
Trigonometry Function of Special Angle
α 0° 90° 180° 270° 360°
sin α 0 1 0 -1 0
cos α 1 0 -1 0 1
tan ° 0 ∼ 0 ∼ 0

Special Angle :

In Degree 0° 30° 45° 60° 90°


sin α 0 1

cos α 1 0

tan α 0 1 ∼

cot α ∼ 1 0

GRAPHIC

You see that the cosine function is exactly the same as the sine function if you slide the sine function graph
back 90º. This says that sin(90º + θ) = cos(θ).
Nama : Arynta Dharmayanti
Kelas : X-2
Absen : 01 2
Those with a zero in the denominator are undefined. They are included solely to
demonstrate the pattern.

The Law of Sinus


b a
=
sin ∠b sin ∠a
a b c
= =
sin ∠a sin ∠b sin ∠c

The Law of Cosinus


Pada setiap segitiga ABC berlaku :

Jika dalam ∆ABC diketahui sisi-sisi a, b, c, (ss,ss,ss) maka besar ∠A, ∠B, dan ∠C, dapat
dinyatakan :

Nama : Arynta Dharmayanti


Kelas : X-2
Absen : 01 2
Luas Segitiga :
• Luas segitiga dengan dua sisi dan satu sudut diketahui :

• Luas segitiga dengan dua sisi dan sebuah sudut di hadapan sisi diketahui :

 Langkah 1 : tentukan besar sudut yang belum diketahui dengan memakai


aturan sinus,

 Langkah 2 : setelah sudut-sudut diketahui, hitunglah luas segitiga dengan


menggunakan rumus di atas.

• Luas segitiga dengan dua sudut dan satu sisi diketahui :

• Luas segitiga dengan ketiga sisinya diketahui :

 dengan

Cofunction Identities, radians Cofunction Identities, degrees

sin (90° – x) = cos x cos (90° – x) = sin x

tan (90° – x) = cot x cot (90° – x) = tan x

sec (90° – x) = csc x csc (90° – x) = sec x

Nama : Arynta Dharmayanti


Kelas : X-2
Absen : 01 2
Periodicity Identities, radians Periodicity Identities, degrees
sin (x + 2π) = sin x csc (x + 2π) = csc x sin (x + 360°) = sin x csc (x + 360°) = csc x
cos (x + 2π) = cos x sec (x + 2π) = sec x cos (x + 360°) = cos x sec (x + 360°) = sec x
tan (x + π) = tan x cot (x + π) = cot x tan (x + 180°) = tan x sin (x + 180°) = cot x
Kuadrant II

sin (180 − α ) = sin α


0

cos (180 − α ) = − cos α


0

tan (180 − α ) = − tan α


0

Kuadrant III

sin (180 + α ) = − sin α


0

(
cos 180 + α = cos α
0
)
tan (180 + α ) = tan α
0

Kuadrant IV

( )
sin 360 − α = sin ( − α ) = − sin α
0

( )
cos 360 − α = cos( − α ) = cos α
0

tan ( 360 − α ) = tan ( − α ) = − tan α


0

sin ( 90 − α ) = cos α
0

cos ( 90 − α ) = sin α
0

Trigonometry Identity

Nama : Arynta Dharmayanti


Kelas : X-2
Absen : 01 2
Pythagorean Identities Reciprocal Identities Ratio Identities

sin2 θ + cos2 θ = 1

tan2 θ + 1 = sec2 θ

cot2 θ + 1 = csc2 θ

Odd/Even Identities
sin (–x) = –sin x csc (–x) = –csc x

cos (–x) = cos x sec (–x) = sec x

tan (–x) = –tan x cot (–x) = –cot x

Sum/Difference Identities Double Angle Identities

Nama : Arynta Dharmayanti


Kelas : X-2
Absen : 01 2
Half Angle Identities

or

or

or or

Half Angle Identities

or

or

or or

Nama : Arynta Dharmayanti


Kelas : X-2
Absen : 01 2
Nama : Arynta Dharmayanti
Kelas : X-2
Absen : 01 2
Nama : Arynta Dharmayanti
Kelas : X-2
Absen : 01 2