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On Diophantine Equations which have no solutions.pdf

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PROC. N. A. S.

f9 (M) <

-1 < . cf g-9

(c constant).

(11)

The proof of the inequality on the right-hand side follows simply from equation (2), with n = a. The inequality on the left-hand side of relation (11) is obtained by using analyticity to replace the finite sum (2) by a Taylor series and applying the Bieberbach-Faber "one quarter" theorem on univalent functions.8 One application of relation (11) gives a new proof, for simple zeros, of a result9 on the convergence of the zeros of the sections of a Taylor series to those of the function represented by the series; viz., lim /p, where to, Rn are simple Pn - O =

co

VI

oI

co

zeros of E aizt and E aniz, and p is the radius of convergence of i=0 Multiple zeros will be considered under separate cover.

E aizt. i=O

1 P. Flamant, "Etude des families compactes de fonctions dans les classes q.a. (D)," J. de Math., 102, 375-420, Paris, 1937. 2 E. Hille, "Functional Analysis and Semi-groups," Am. Math. Soc. Colloq. Pubs., No. 31. 3 S. Mandelbrojt, Series de Fourier et classes quasi-analytiques de fonctions (Paris: GauthierVillars, 1934). 4T. Bang, "Om quasi-analytiske Funktioner" (thesis, University of Copenhagen, 1945). 6 Goursat-Hedrick, Mathematical Analysis (Boston: Ginn & Co., 1904), Vol. 1, chap. ii, exercise 8. 6 This is possible for quasi-analytic and for non-quasi-analytic classes, e.g., C I(n log n)X and

C~eKn2

7I is a closed interval containing r, on which If'(x) > m > 0; this remains fixed for all sufficiently small e > 0. 8 E. C. Titchmarsh, Theory of Functions (2d ed.; Oxford, 1939), sec. 6.8. 9 S. Doss, "Comportement asymptotique des z6ros de certaines fonctions d'approximation," Ann. JScole norm. super. (Paris, 1947), p. 143.

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT LOS ANGELES AND UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS

Consider the congruence, conditional in x and y (mod p) (1) 1 + axc byl where p is an odd prime, abxy 0 0 (mod p), where 1 and c are integers, each >1, such that ic = p - 1. In another paper' the following problem was stated: If in formula (1) a and b are fixed integers, abxy 0 0 (mod p) is fixed, and p increases together with c subject to the relation lc = p - 1, what can be said about the number of the sets of solutions x, y? In other articles2 it was shown that the relation between this problem and the Fermat problem exists. In view of the facts mentioned above, it was arranged to tabulate the number of incongruent solutions for a number of congruences x, y of type (1). This was effected by noting that this problem reduces to finding distinct sets r, s satisfying

265

1 +

qi + cr = qJ+ is

(mod p),

(2)

with r in the set 0, 1, . . -, I-1; s in the set 0, 1,... , c - 1; i and j fixed, with 0 . i < c -1; 0 j < 1 - 1, with g a primitive root of p. The equivalence of the two problems follows easily from the properties of primitive roots. We shall denote the number of solutions r, s in relation (2) within the limits mentioned by [i, j]ci. In 1954 Emma Lehmer applied the high-speed computer known as the SWAC, at the Department of Mathematics, University of California at Los Angeles, to determine all the possible values [i, j] for each p and 1 that she considered. She coded this project on the SWAC and checked all the previous tables' giving such values. In the spring of 1955 Nicol and Selfridge extended this program on the SWAC and tabulated all the values [i, j] for 1 = 5, for each p of the form p = 1 (mod 5) for p < 1024, and also for 1 = 7 with all p's < 1024 of the form p _1 (mod 7). For 1 = It all the [i, j]'s were tabulated for each p < 800 of the form p = 1 (mod 11). Similarly, the values were determined for each p < 600 with 1 = 13. Similar determinations were made for each p < 512 of the form p = 1 (mod 1), where each prime 1 is taken in the set 256 > 1 . 17. The members of the Department of Mathematics at the University of California in Los Angeles kindly allowed us the use of the SWAC, and the calculations were carried out under the general supervision of Dr. C. B. Tompkins. The application of the tables which will mainly be discussed in the present paper is that concerning Diophantine equations. Suppose we find that [i, j],, = 0, that is, that formula (1) has no solutions prime to p with gq _ a, gJ b, modulo p. Suppose, further, that it can be shown that formula (1) has no solutions with x or y divisible by p. Then it follows that the Diophantine equation 1 + ax" = byl (3) is not solvable in rational integers, since, if it is solvable, then congruence (1) has solutions for every prime p. A third application of the tables depends on the fact' that if the number of solutions of congruence (2) is given explicitly in the tables for a given i, j, c, and 1, then it follows that we can calculate directly the number of solutions of congruence (2) when c is replaced by any of its divisors >1 and 1 is replaced by any of its divisors > 1. Still another application of the [i, j]'s is concerned with the conditional congruence 0 cxsaS + cS1 + (mod p), (4) + C2X2a, + with the c's rational integers, cl ... c8 0 0 (mod p); s > 1 for c. + 1 0 0 (mod p) and s > 2 for cS+1 - 0 (mod p). No generality is lost by taking the a's as divisors of p - 1, when we are considering the number of incongruent solutions. In another paper it was shown that it is possible to determine directly the number of incongruent solutions of relation (4), provided that the number of solutions3 (with each x prime to p) of dlxl7+ d2x2m+ d3_ 0 (mod p) (5)

CJX~a1

266

MATHEMATICS: E. THOMAS

PROC. N. A. S.

was known for each di, d2, d3, with m the L.C.M. of the a's in relation (4). By Fermat's theorem we may take the a's in the range 0 < a < p - 1. If the number of all possible solutions turns out to be zero in relation (4), we have another application, as above, to Diophantine equations. Returning to the consideration of relation (3) and other Diophantine equations, it follows that if relation (1) has no solution in integers x, y, then none of the equations4 s 0 0 (mod p), (6) s + tip + (sa + t2p)xic = (sb + t3p)y1, has any solutions x1, yi. Similar remarks apply to relation (4). It is possible to show that for a particular c and 1 in relation (2), there are at least two of the [i, j]'s which are zero. For the value 1 = 5 and the various values of c treated in the tables, the percentage of zero values for the [i, j]'s is 32.7. For 1 = 7 the percentage is 33.8. The tables referred to in the present paper are now on file at Numerical Analysis Research, University of California at Los Angeles, and it is planned to publish them with a description of the coding of this project and full details as to the various applications.

* The work of this author was sponsored in part by the Office of Naval Research and the Office of Ordnance Research. t The last-named authors did their work on the present paper under National Science Foundation Grant G1397. 1 Erna H. Pearson and H. S. Vandiver, "On a New Problem concerning Trinomial Congruences Involving Rational Integers," these PROCEEDINGS, 39, 1278-1285, 1953. 2 H. S. Vandiver, "Some Theorems in Finite Field Theory with Applications to Fermat's Last Theorem," these PROCEEDINGS, 30, 362-367, 1944; "On Trinomial Congruences and Fermat's Last Theorem," ibid., pp. 368-370. ' H. S. Vandiver, "On the Number of Solutions of Some General Types of Equations in a Finite Field," ibid., 32,47-52, 1946. 4 H. S. Vandiver, "Congruence Methods as Applied to Diophantine Analysis," Math. Mag., 22, 185-192, 1948.

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

1. Introduction-In 1949 J. H. C. Whitehead defined the Pontrjagin square,' a cohomology operation which he used in classifying the homotopy type of simply connected, four-dimensional polyhedra. In a later paper2 he extended the definition of the operation to take coefficients in an arbitrary abelian group and used the operation to help determine a certain exact sequence associated with a complex. Eilenberg and MacLane, using a different method, also defined the Pontrjagin square with arbitrary coefficient groups.3 The present note describes a generalization of this operation.

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