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# Hanford High School Calculus

Richland, Washington
1 of 19
A.P. Calculus Formulas
Greg Kelly, Hanford High School, Richland, Washington revised 12/3/12
http://sites.google.com/site/gkellymath

1. floor function (def) Greatest integer that is less than or equal to x.

2. x (

(graph)

3. ceiling function (def) Least integer that is greater than or equal to x.

4. x (
(
(graph)

5.
3 3
a b + = ( )( )
2 2
a b a ab b + +

6.
3 3
a b = ( )( )
2 2
a b a ab b + +

Hanford High School Calculus
Richland, Washington
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7.
1
( ) f x
x
= (graph)

-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
-3 -2 -1 1 2 3
x

8. p42 Change of base rule for logs:
ln
log
ln
a
x
x
a
=

9. p579 Circle formula: ( ) ( )
2 2
2
x h y k r + =

10. p580 Parabola formula: ( ) ( )
2
4 x h p y k =

11. p583 Ellipse formula:
2 2
2 2
2 2
1
x y
c a b
a b
+ = =

12. p585 Hyperbola formula:
2 2
2 2
2 2
1
x y
c a b
a b
= = +

13. p591 eccentricity:
c
e
a
=

14.
2 2
sin cos x x + = 1

15.
2
1 tan x + =
2
sec x

16.
2
1 cot x + =
2
csc x

17.
( ) sin u v = sin cos cos sin u v u v

18.
( ) cos u v = cos cos sin sin u v u v

19.
( ) tan u v =
tan tan
1 tan tan
u v
u v

Hanford High School Calculus
Richland, Washington
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20. sin(2 ) u = 2sin cos u u

21. cos(2 ) u =
2 2
cos sin u u

22. tan(2 ) u =
2
2tan
1 tan
u
u

23.
2
sin u =
1 cos 2
2
u

24.
2
cos u =
1 cos 2
2
u +

25.
2
tan u =
1 cos 2
1 cos 2
u
u

+

26. sin sin u v = ( ) ( )
1
cos cos
2
u v u v + (

27. cos cos u v = ( ) ( )
1
cos cos
2
u v u v + + (

28. sin cos u v = ( ) ( )
1
sin sin
2
u v u v + + (

29. cos sin u v = ( ) ( )
1
sin sin
2
u v u v + (

30. law of sines:
sin sin sin
a b c
A B C
= =

31. law of cosines:
2 2 2
2 cos c a b ab C = +

32. area of triangle using trig.
1
Area sin
2
ac B =

33. p32 parameterization of ellipse:
2 2
2 2
1 becomes cos , sin
x y
x a t y b t
a b
+ = = =

34. p60
0
sin
lim
x
x
x

1

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Richland, Washington
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35. p71
sin
lim
x
x
x

0

36. p83 Intermediate Value Theorem If a function is continuous between a and b ,
then it takes on every value between ( ) f a and
( ) f b .

37. p99 definition of derivative
0
( ) ( )
( ) lim
h
f x h f x
f x
h

+
' =

38. p116 ( )
d
c
dx
= 0

39. ( )
d
x
dx
= 1

40. p117 ( )
d
cu
dx
= cu'

41.
n
d
u
dx
=
1 n
nu u

'

42. p117 ( )
d
u v
dx
= u v ' '

43. p119 ( )
d
uv
dx
= u v uv ' ' +

44. p120
d u
dx v
| |
=
|
\ .

2
u v uv
v
' '

45. p142 sin
d
u
dx
= cosu u'

46. p142 cos
d
u
dx
= sinu u'

47. p145 tan
d
u
dx
=
2
sec u u'

48. p145 cot
d
u
dx
=
2
csc u u'
Hanford High School Calculus
Richland, Washington
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49. p145 sec
d
u
dx
= sec tan u u u'

50. p145 csc
d
u
dx
= csc cot u u u'

51. p151 slope of parametrized curve:

dy
dy
dt
dx
dx
dt
=

52. p165 derivative formula for inverses
1
( )
1
x f a
x a
df
df dx
dx

=
=
=

53. p166
1
sin
d
u
dx

=
2
1
u
u
'

54.
1
cos
d
u
dx

=
2
1
u
u
'

55. p167
1
tan
d
u
dx

=
2
1
u
u
'
+

56.
-1
cot
d
u
dx
=
2
1
u
u
'
+

57. p168
-1
sec
d
u
dx
=
2
1
1
u
u
u u
'
>

58.
-1
csc
d
u
dx
=
2
1
1
u
u
u u
'
>

59. p169
1
cot ( ) x

= ( )
1
tan
2
x
t

60. p169
1
sec ( ) x

=
1
1
cos
x

| |
|
\ .

61. p169
1
csc ( ) x

=
1
1
sin
x

| |
|
\ .

Hanford High School Calculus
Richland, Washington
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62. p172
u
d
e
dx
=
u
e u'

63. p174 ln
d
u
dx
=
1
u
u
'

64. p173
u
d
a
dx
= ln
u
a a u'

65. p188 Extreme Value Theorem If f is continuous over a closed interval, then
f has a maximum and minimum value over
that interval.

66. p196 Mean Value Theorem If ( ) f x is a differentiable function over
| | , a b ,
(for derivatives) then at some point between a and b :
( ) ( )
( )
f b f a
f c
b a

' =

67. p233 linearization formula ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) L x f a f a x a ' = +

68. p236 Newtons Method
( )
( )
1
n
n n
n
f x
x x
f x
+
=
'

69. p285
( ) k f u du =
}

( ) k f u du
}

70. p285
| | ( ) ( ) f u g u du =
}
( ) ( ) f u du g u du
} }

71. p288 Mean Value Theorem If f is continuous on
| | , a b , then at some
(for definite integrals) point c in
| | , a b , ( ) ( )
1
b
a
f c f x dx
b a
=

}

72. p294 First fundamental theorem: ( ) ( )
u
a
d
f t dt f u u
dx
' =
}

73. p307 Trapezoidal Rule: ( )
0 1 2 1
2 2 ... 2
2
n n
h
T y y y y y

= + + + + +

74. p309 Simpsons Rule: ( )
0 1 2 2 1
4 2 ... 2 4
3
n n n
h
S y y y y y y

= + + + + + +

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Richland, Washington
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75. du =
}
u c +

76. p332
n
u du =
}

1
1
n
u
c
n
+
+
+
1 n =

77. p332 sin u du =
}
cosu c +

78. p332 cos u du =
}
sinu c +

79. p332
2
sec u du =
}
tanu c +

80. p332
2
csc u du
}
cot u c +

81. p332 sec tan u u du =
}
secu c +

82. p332 csc cot u u du =
}
cscu c +

83. p332
1
du
u
=
}
ln u c +

84. p332
u
e du =
}

u
e c +

85. p332
u
a du =
}

1
ln
u
a c
a
+

86. tan u du =
}
ln cosu c +

87. cot u du =
}
ln sinu c +

88. sec u du =
}
ln sec tan u u c + +

89. csc u du =
}
ln csc cot u u c + +

90.
2 2
du
a u
=

}
arcsin
u
c
a
+

Hanford High School Calculus
Richland, Washington
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91.
2 2
du
a u
=
+
}

1
arctan
u
c
a a
+

92.
2 2
du
u u a
=

}

1
arcsec
u
c
a a
+

93. p341 Integration by parts (formula): udv uv vdu =
} }

94. p341 order for choosing u in LIPETlogs, inverse trig., polynomial,
integration by parts: exponential, trig.

95. p345 ln u du =
}
ln u u u c +

96. p351 exponential change &
0
kt
y y e =
continuous compound interest:

97. p353 half-life
ln 2
k

98. p365 logistics differential equation: ( )
dP
kP M P
dt
=

99. p367 logistics growth model
( )
1
M k t
M
P
Ae

=
+

100. p409 surface area about x axis (Cartesian):
2
2 1
b
a
dy
S y dx
dx
t
| |
= +
|
\ .
}

101. p413 length of curve (Cartesian):
2
1
b
a
dy
L dx
dx
| |
= +
|
\ .
}

102. Mr. Kellys e-mail address: Greg.Kelly@rsd.edu

FORMULAS BELOW HERE ARE BC ONLY:

103. p450
ln
lim
n
n
n

= 0

104. lim
n
n
n

= 1
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Richland, Washington
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105.
1
lim
n
n
x

= 1

106. lim
n
n
x

= 0
( )
1 x <

107. lim 1
n
n
x
n

| |
+ =
|
\ .

x
e

108. lim
!
n
n
x
n

= 0

109.
1
n
k
k
=
=

( 1)
2
n n +

110.
2
1
n
k
k
=
=

( 1)(2 1)
6
n n n + +

111.
3
1
n
k
k
=
=

2
( 1)
2
n n + | |
|
\ .

112. partial sum of geometric series:
( )
1
1
n
n
a r
S
r

113. p475 What series?
1
1
n
n
ar

geometric, converges to
1
a
r
if 1 r <

114. p487 Maclaurin Series:
( )
( )
2
0
0
(0)
( ) (0) (0) ...
2! !
n
n
n
f
f
P x f f x x x
n

=
''
' = + + + =

115. p489 Taylor Series: ( )
2 ( )
( ) ( ) ( )( )
2!
f a
P x f a f a x a x a
''
' = + + +

( )
( )
( )
( )
3
0
( )
...
3! !
n
n
n
f a
f a
x a x a
n

=
'''
+ =

116. p491 Maclaurin Series for
1
1 x

2 3
0
1
1 ...= 1
1
n
n
x x x x x
x

=
= + + + + <

Hanford High School Calculus
Richland, Washington
10 of 19
117. p491 Maclaurin Series for
1
1 x +
( )
2 3
0
1
1 ...= 1 1
1
n
n
n
x x x x x
x

=
= + + <
+

118. p491 Maclaurin Series for
x
e
2 3
0
1 ...
2! 3! !
n
x
n
x x x
e x
n

=
= + + + + =

119. p491 Maclaurin Series for sin x
( )
( )
3 5 7 2 1
0
sin ... 1
3! 5! 7! 2 1 !
n
n
n
x x x x
x x
n
+
=
= + + =
+

120. p491 Maclaurin Series for cos x ( )
( )
2 4 6 2
0
cos 1 ... 1
2! 4! 6! 2 !
n
n
n
x x x x
x
n

=
= + + =

121. p491 Maclaurin Series for ln(1 ) x + ( )
2 3 4
1
1
ln(1 ) ... 1
2 3 4
n
n
n
x x x x
x x
n

=
+ = + + =

1 1 x < s

122. p491 Maclaurin Series for
( )
1
tan x

: ( )
3 5 7 2 1
1
0
tan ( ) ... 1
3 5 7 2 1
n
n
n
x x x x
x x
n
+

=
= + + =
+

1 x s
123. p496 Lagrange form of remainder ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
1
1 !
n
n
n
f c
R x x a
n
+
+
=
+

124. Taylors Inequality ( )
( )
1
1 !
n
n
M
R x x a
n
+
s
+

125. p498 What series?
0
1
!
n
n

## reciprocal of factorials, converges to e

126. p510 What series? ( )
1
1
n n
n
b b

+
=

## telescoping series, converges to

1 1
lim
n
n
b b
+

127. p514 What series?
1
1
p
n
n

## p series, converges if 1 p >

128. p514 What series?
1
1
n
n

harmonic, diverges

129. p517 What series? ( )
1
1
1
1
n
n
n

+
=

## alternating harmonic, converges

Hanford High School Calculus
Richland, Washington
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130. p532 2
nd
deriv. of parametrized curve:
2
2

dy
d y
dt
dx
dx
dt
'
=

131. p533 length of curve (parametric):
2 2
b
a
dx dy
L dt
dt dt
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
}

132. surface area (parametric):
2 2
2
b
a
dx dy
S y dt
dt dt
t
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
}

133. position vector (standard form):
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) r t f t g t h t = + + i j k

134. p542 speed from velocity vector: speed =
( ) v t

135. p542 direction from velocity vector:
( )
( )
velocity vector
direction=
speed
v t
v t
=

136. p551 polar to Cartesian: cos , sin x r y r u u = =

137. trajectory equations: ( )
( )
2
cos
1
sin
2
o o
o o
x x v t
y y v t gt
o
o
= +
= +

138. p552 slope of polar graph: slope at
sin cos
( , )
cos sin
r r
r
r r
u u
u
u u
' +
=
'

139. slope of polar graph at origin: slope = tanu

140. p553 area inside polar curve:
2
1
2
A r d
|
o
u =
}

141. length of curve (polar):
2
2
dr
L r d
d
|
o
u
u
| |
= +
|
\ .
}

142. surface area (polar):
2
2
2 sin
dr
S r r d
d
|
o
t u u
u
| |
= +
|
\ .
}

Hanford High School Calculus
Richland, Washington
12 of 19
FORMULAS BELOW HERE ARE FOR CALCULUS III (MULTIVARIABLE):

143. p659 parametric circle equations cos sin 0 2 x h r t y k r t t t = + = + s s

144. p661 parametric cycloid equations
( ) ( ) sin 1 cos x r y r u u u = =

145. p668 area under parametric curve ( ) ( ) A g t f t dt
|
o
' =
}

146. p700 polar equations of conic sections or
1 cos 1 sin
ed ed
r r
e e u u
= =

147. p766 ( )
0
n
n
n
d
c x a
dx

( )
1
1
n
n
n
nc x a

148. p766 ( )
0

n
n
n
c x a dx

}

( )
1
0

1
n
n
n
x a
C c
n
+

+
+

149. p778 binomial series notation
( )( ) ( ) 1 2 1
!
k k k k k n
n n
+ | |
=
|
\ .

150. p778 Maclaurin Series for ( ) 1
k
x +

( )
( ) ( )( )
2 3
0
1 1 2
1 1 ...
2! 3!
k
n
n
k k k k k k
x kx x x x
n

=
| |
+ = + + + + =
|
\ .

151. p803 distance formula in 3-d ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1
PP x x y y z z = + +

152. p804 sphere with center
( ) , , C h k l ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
x h y k z l r + + =

153. p809 magnitude of vector
2 2 2
1 2 3
a a a = + + a

154. p815 dot product: a b
1 1 2 2 3 3
a b a b a b = + + a b

155. p816 def. of dot product cosu = a b a b

156. p816 angle between vectors cosu

=
a b
a b

Hanford High School Calculus
Richland, Washington
13 of 19
157. p817 direction angles of vectors
1
cos
a
o =
a

2
cos
a
| =
a

3
cos
a
=
a

158. p819 Scalar projection of bonto a comp

=
a
a b
b
a

159. p819 Vector projection of b onto a
2
proj
| |

= =
|
|
\ .
a
a b a a b
b a
a a
a

160. p823 cross product using determinants
1 2 3
1 2 3
a a a
b b b
=
i j k
a b

161. p824 magnitude of cross product sinu = a b a b

162. p826 scalar triple product ( )
1 2 3
1 2 3
1 2 3
a a a
b b b
c c c
= a b c

163. p827 volume of parallelepiped
( ) V = a b c

164. p827 torque = r F

165. p830 vector equation of a line
0
t = + r r v

166. p831 parametric equations of a line
0 0 0
x x at y y bt z z ct = + = + = +

167. p832 symmetric equations of a line
0 0 0
x x y y z z
a b c

= =

168. p833 line segment from
0
r to
1
r
( ) ( )
0 1
1 0 1 t t t t = + s s r r r

169. p834 scalar equation of plane through
( ) ( ) ( )
0 0 0
0 a x x b y y c z z + + =

( )
0 0 0 0
, , P x y z & normal , , a b c = n

170. p834 linear equation of a plane 0 ax by cz d + + + =

Hanford High School Calculus
Richland, Washington
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171. p837 distance from point
( )
1 1 1 1
, , P x y z
1 1 1
2 2 2
ax by cz d
D
a b c
+ + +
=
+ +

to plane 0 ax by cz d + + + =

172. p860 unit tangent vector
( )
( )
( )
t
t
t
'
=
'
r
T
r

173. p862 ( ) ( )
d
t t
dt
= (

u v
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) t t t t ' ' + u v u v

174. p866 arc length of space curve ( )
b
a
L t dt ' =
}
r

175. p868 curvature of circle of radius a
1
a
k =

176. p869 curvature ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
3
t t t
d
t
ds t
t
k
' ' ''
= = =
'
'
T r r
T
r
r

177. p870 curvature of plane curve ( )
( )
( ) ( )
3/ 2
2
1
f x
x
f x
k
''
=
(
' +

178. p870 principal unit normal vector ( )
( )
( )
t
t
t
'
=
'
T
N
T

179. p870 binormal vector
( ) ( ) ( ) t t t = B T N

180. p879 tangential component of acceleration
( ) ( )
( )
T
t t
a v
t
' ''
' = =
'
r r
r

181. p879 normal component of acceleration
( ) ( )
( )
2
N
t t
a v
t
k
' ''
= =
'
r r
r

182. definition of limit (single variable) ( ) lim
x a
f x L

## = if for every number 0 c > there

is a 0 o > such that if 0 x a o < < then
( ) f x L c < .

Hanford High School Calculus
Richland, Washington
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183. p907 definition of limit (two variable)
( ) ( )
( )
, ,
lim ,
x y a b
f x y L

## = if for every number

0 c > there is a 0 o > such that if
( ) ( )
2 2
0 x a y b o < + < then
( ) , f x y L c < .

184. p910 continuous function (two variable)
( ) ( )
( )
, ,
lim , ( , )
x y a b
f x y f a b

=

185. p928 equation of tangent plane
( )( ) ( )( )
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
, ,
x y
z z f x y x x f x y y y = +

186. p930 linear approx. of surface
( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) , , , ,
x y
f x y f a b f a b x a f a b y b ~ + +

187. p932 total differential for
( ) , z f x y = ( ) ( ) , ,
x y
z z
dz f x y dx f x y dy dx dy
x y
c c
= + = +
c c

188. p937 chain rule case I:
( ) , z f x y = ,
dz f dx f dy
dt x dt y dt
c c
= +
c c

( ) ( ) , x g t y h t = =

189. p939 chain rule case II:
( ) , z f x y = ,
z z x z y
s x s y s
c c c c c
= +
c c c c c

z z x z y
t x t y t
c c c c c
= +
c c c c c

( ) ( ) , , , x g s t y h s t = =

190. p941 implicit differentiation:
( ) , 0 F x y =
x
y
F
F dy
x
F
dx F
y
c
c
= =
c
c

191. p941 implicit differentiation:
( ) , , 0 F x y z =
F
z
x
F
x
z
c
c
c
=
c
c
c

F
z y
F
y
z
c
c c
=
c
c
c

192. p949 gradient vector ,
x y
f f f V =

193. p949 directional derivative:
( ) ( ) , ,
x y
D f x y f a f b f x y = + =V
u
u

( ) , f x y , , a b = u
Hanford High School Calculus
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194. p952 maximum directional derivative
( ) , f x y V in direction of
( ) , f x y V

195. p953 tangent plane to level surface

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
, , , , , , 0
x y z
F x y z x x F x y z y y F x y z z z + + =

196. p954 normal line to level surface
( ) ( ) ( )
0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
, , , , , ,
x y z
x x y y z z
F x y z F x y z F x y z

= =
197. p971 Lagrange Multiplier equation
( ) ( )
0 0 0 0 0 0
, , , , f x y z g x y z V = V

198. p975 two constraint Lagrange Multiplier
( ) ( ) ( )
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
, , , , , , f x y z g x y z h x y z V = V + V

199. p989 double integral over rectangle ( ) ( )
,
1 1
, lim ,
m n
i j
m n
i j
R
f x y dA f x y A

= =
= A

}}

200. p989 volume of solid above rectangle R
and below
( ) , z f x y = if
( ) , 0 f x y > ( ) ,
R
V f x y dA =
}}

201. p992 average value of function over rectangle
( )
( )
1
,
ave
R
f f x y dA
A R
=
}}

202. p997 Fubinis Theorem ( ) ( ) ( ) , , ,
b d d b
a c c a
R
f x y dA f x y dy dx f x y dx dy = =
}} } } } }

203. p999 ( ) ( )
b d
a c
g x h y dy dx =
} }
( ) ( )
b d
a c
g x dx h y dy
} }

204. p1003 type I:
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
1 2
, , D x y a x b g x y g x = s s s s ( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
1
, ,
b g x
a g x
D
f x y dA f x y dy dx =
}} } }

205. p1003 type II:
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
1 2
, , D x y c y d h y x h y = s s s s ( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
1
, ,
d h y
c h y
D
f x y dA f x y dx dy =
}} } }

206. p1011 polar double integral ( ) ( ) , cos , sin
b
a
R
f x y dA f r r r dr d
|
o
u u u =
}} } }

207. p1017 moment about x & y axis ( ) ,
x
D
M y x y dA =
}}
( ) ,
y
D
M x x y dA =
}}

Hanford High School Calculus
Richland, Washington
17 of 19
208. p1017 center of mass
y
M
x
m
=
x
M
y
m
=

209. p1019 moment of inertia
( )
2
,
x
D
I y x y dA =
}}

( )
2
,
y
D
I x x y dA =
}}

210. p1019 polar moment of inertia
( ) ( )
2 2
,
O
D
I x y x y dA = +
}}

211. p1037 cylindrical to rectangular cos x r u = sin y r u = z z =

2 2 2
r x y = + tan
y
x
u =

212. p1038 ( ) , ,
E
f x y z dV
}}}

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
1 1
cos , sin
cos , sin
cos , sin ,
h u r r
h u r r
f r r z r dz dr d
| u u u
o u u u
u u u
} } }

(cylindrical)

213. p1042 spherical to rectangular sin cos x | u = sin sin y | u = cos z | =

2 2 2 2
x y z = + +

214. p1044
( ) , ,
E
f x y z dV
}}}
( )
2
sin cos , sin sin , cos sin
d b
c a
f d d d
|
o
| u | u | | u |
} } }

(spherical)

215. p1051 Jacobian of T given by

( ) , x g u v =
( ) , y h u v =
( )
( )
,
,
x x
x y
x y x y
u v
y y u v u v v u
u v
c c
c
c c c c
c c
= =
c c c c c c c
c c

216. p1052 change of var. in double integral ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
,
, , , ,
,
F S
x y
f x y dA f x u v y u v du dv
u v
c
=
c
}} }}

217. p1070 line integral wrt arc length ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
, ,
b
C a
dx dy
f x y ds f x t y t dt
dt dt
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
} }

218. p1073 line integral wrt x and y ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , ,
b
C a
f x y dx f x t y t x t dt ' =
} }

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , ,
b
C a
f x y dy f x t y t y t dt ' =
} }

Hanford High School Calculus
Richland, Washington
18 of 19
219. p1078 line integral of vector field ( ) ( ) ( )
b
C a C
d t t dt ds ' = =
} } }
F r F r r F T

220. p1082 Fundamental Theorem for line integrals ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
C
f d f b f a V =
}
r r r

221. p1085 If
( ) ( ) ( ) , , , x y P x y Q x y = + F i j
P Q
y x
c c
=
c c

is a conservative vector field:

222. p1091 Greens Theorem
C
D
Q P
Pdx Qdy dA
x y
| | c c
+ =
|
c c
\ .
} }}

223. p1094 Area using Greens Theorem
1

2
C C C
A x dy y dx x dy y dx = = =
} } }

224. p1098 curl F
R Q P R Q P
y z z x x y
| | | | c c c c c c | |
+ +
| | |
c c c c c c
\ .
\ . \ .
i j k

225. p1098 curl F (cross product form)
x y z
P Q R
c c c
V =
c c c
i j k
F

226. p1101 divergence div
P Q R
x y z
c c c
= V = + +
c c c
F F

227. p1106 parametric surface
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , , , , u v x u v y u v z u v = + + r i j k

228. p1112 area of parametric surface
( ) , u v r ( )
u v
D
A S dA =
}}
r r

229. p1113 area of surface
( ) , z f x y = ( )
2
2
1
D
z z
A S dA
x y
| | c c | |
= + +
| |
c c
\ .
\ .
}}

230. p1118 surface integral for
( ) , u v r ( ) ( ) ( )
, , ,
u v
S D
f x y z dS f u v dA =
}} }}
r r r

Hanford High School Calculus
Richland, Washington
19 of 19
231. p1119 surface integral for
( ) , z g x y = ( ) , ,
S
f x y z dS =
}}

( ) ( )
2
2
, , , 1
D
z z
f x y g x y dA
x y
| | c c | |
+ +
| |
c c
\ .
\ .
}}

232. p1129 Stokes Theorem curl
C
S
d d =
} }}
F r F S

233. p1135 Divergence Theorem div
S E
d dV =
}} }}}
F S F

234. p1148 aux. equ. to 0 ay by cy '' ' + + =
2
0 ar br c + + =

235. p1149 2
nd
order diff eq:
2
4 0 b ac >
1
r and
2
r are real & independent

1 2
1 2
r x r x
y c e c e = +

236. p1150 2
nd
order diff eq:
2
4 0 b ac =
1 2
r r =

1 2
rx rx
y c e c xe = +

237. p1150 2
nd
order diff eq:
2
4 0 b ac <
1
r i o | = +
2
r i o | =

( )
1 2
cos sin
x
y e c x c x
o
| | = +

238. p1154 gen. sol. to
( ) ay by cy G x '' ' + + =
( ) ( ) ( )
p c
y x y x y x = +

239. p1162 damped harmonic motion
2
2
0
d x dx
m c kx
dt dt
+ + =

240. p1164 forced vibrations ( )
2
2
d x dx
m c kx F t
dt dt
+ + =

241. p1165 Kirchoffs Voltage Law ( )
2
2
1 d Q dQ
L R Q E t
dt dt C
+ + =