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Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift is a highly satirical narrative story. It is a story that follows the travels of Gulliver himself.

It has strong imaginative components that lead the story into a fantasyland. It is these make-believe elements which allow the readers to pursue deeper into the story. These features entice the reader's to place themselves within Gulliver's Travels. The !illiputians" the land of the little people and the land of #robdingnag" the land of the giants are both important elements within the story. It is both of these lands which are complete opposites of each other that highlight the trivial and satirical factors of the story. Thus it is these witty characters and lands that also bring about the notion of Gulliver's scale of si$e for !illiput and #robdingnag. It is this scale of si$e that also places Gulliver directly between the two e%tremes. Therefore Gulliver's Travels places its readers into a world of fanciful make-believe" the land of !illiput and #robdingnag combined with the scale of si$e put a strong focus on the clever inventive and humorous attributes of the story. The land of !illiput is the first &ourney within Gulliver's Travels and thus a good starting point. !illiput is the land of the little people. In the 'anadian (%ford )ictionary !illiputian is defined as *a diminutive person or thing.* Thus it is a land of miniature beings. Gulliver is lucky enough to make his way to this strange land after his ship is overturned within a storm *In a little time I felt something alive moving on my left !eg which advancing gently forward over my #reast came almost up to my 'hin" when bending my +yes downwards as much as I could I perceived it to be a human creature not si% Inches high.* ,-g../ The land of the !illiputians confirms the imaginative elements withinGulliver's Travels. 0lthough within the story the !illiputians are 1uite obviously a part of reality to Gulliver however within the actual story itself they represent the comical aspects. +very description that Gulliver makes of the !illiputians comes off as trivial to the readers as if they are but a &oke within the story"Two or three of the young 2atives had the 'uriosity to see how I looked when I was asleep" they climbed up into the +ngine and advancing very softly to my 3ace one of them an (fficer in the Guards put the sharp +nd of his 4alf--ike a good way up into my left 2ostril which tickled my 2ose like a straw and made me snee$e violently...,-g.56/ 4owever this is what the !illiputians illustrate within the conte%t of the story. They are placed within the story to lend irony to the characters as well as to the plot itself. Thus

Swift uses the !illiputians to create a tale focused on satire" he wittily and humorously critici$es the !illiputians and their way of life. 3urthermore despite the !illiputians apparent miniscule si$e they are not deterred by the gigantic Gulliver. They take him hostage as they would someone of their own e1ual si$e"#ut the 'reatures ran off a second time before I could sei$e them" whereupon there was a great Shout in a very shrill 0ccent" and after it ceased I heard one of them cry aloud Tolgo Phonac" when in an Instant I felt about an 4undred 0rrows discharged on my left 4and which pricked me like so many 2eedles" and besides they shot another 3light into the 0ir as we do #ombs in Europe; whereof many I suppose fell on my #ody ,though I felt them not/ and some on my 3ace which I immediately covered with my left 4and. 7hen this Shower of 0rrows was over I fell a groaning with Grief and -ain" and then striving again to get loose they discharged another 8olly larger than the first" and some of them attempted with Spears to stick me in the Sides" but by good !uck I had on me a buff Jerkin which they could not pierce. I thought it the most prudent 9ethod to lie still" and my )esign was to continue so till 2ight when my left 4and being already loose I could easily free myself: 0nd as for the Inhabitants I had ;eason to believe I might be a 9atch for the greatest 0rmies they could bring against me if they were al of the same Si$e with him that I saw. ,-g.</ 'onse1uently in spite of the small si$e of the !illiputians they do not let this prevent them from living their lives bravely and as any other society would in order to guarantee their safety. They never even consider the notion that Gulliver is enormous compared to them and could kill them with &ust a flick of his finger. In fact the !illiputians possess unimaginable courage for their small si$e *7e made a long 9arch the remaining -art of the )ay and rested at 2ight with 3ive 4undred guards on each Side of me half with Torches and half with #ows and 0rrows ready to shoot me if I should offer to stir.* ,-g.55/ 0lthough it takes take them a number of five hundred to guarantee their safety against Gulliver it is still 1uite admirable that they believe they can defend themselves against him and his own considerable mass. 4owever while the !illiputians bravery is admirable it is also 1uite comical which is where the satire makes its grand entrance into the tale. 0s mentioned earlier despite his si$e Gulliver is treated as any other hostage within the land of !illiput which includes being strip-searched. 4owever this strip-search takes place in a slightly

different manner than usual"I said his 9a&esty should be satisfied for I was ready to strip my self and turn up my -ockets before him. This I delivered part in 7ords and part in Signs. 4e replied that by the !aws of the =ingdom I must be searched by two of his (fficers: That he knew this could not be done without my 'onsent and 0ssistance" that he had so good an (pinion of my Generosity and Justice as to trust their -ersons in my 4ands: That whatever they took from me should be returned when I left the 'ountry or paid for at the ;ate which I would set upon them. I took up the two (fficers in my 4ands put them first into my 'oat--ockets and then into every other -ocket about me... ,-g.5</ 0lthough Gulliver could refuse this strip-search 1uite easily instead he graciously concedes and allows them to perform their duties. The !illiputians are a mere si% inches tall so the thought of them causing Gulliver actual harm is unlikely. They may be able to keep him hostage with chains and strings and such but the reality of them actually causing him detrimental damage considering the actual si$e of them in comparison to him is not probable *I believe there could not be fewer than ten thousand at several Times who mounted upon my body by the 4elp of !adders. #ut a -roclamation was soon issued to forbid it upon -ain of )eath.* ,-g.55/ It seems more reasonable thus that Gulliver is thought of as a form of entertainment for the !illiputians. This is because it is likely that they have never seen such a being before and therefore are ama$ed by Gulliver and his gigantic si$e"0s the 2ews of my 0rrival spread through the kingdom it brought prodigious 2umbers of rich idle and curious -eople to see me" so that the 8illages were almost emptied and great 2eglect of Tillage and 4oushold 0ffairs must have ensued if his Imperial 9a&esty had not provided by several -roclamations and (rders of State against this Inconveniency. ,-g.5./ Gulliver is basically treated as a showcase to the !illiputians as they have never before seen anything like him which is why the behavior of the !illiputians is so humorous. 0s determined as they are to treat Gulliver as they would any other hostage at the same time they are in complete awe of him which defeats the air of hostility they are attempting. Thus the fact that the !illiputians are in complete wonder of Gulliver completely contradicts their behavior of strong and courageous soldiers. In addition Gulliver produces some interesting accounts of the !illiputians and their lifestyles. 4is portrayal of them is thoughtful as well as laughable. 4e allows the

readers to invent a picture in their own minds of the land of !illiput and how ludicrous the entire notion of a miniature land is"0s the common Si$e of the 2atives is somewhat under si% Inches so there is an e%act -roportion in all other 0nimals as well as -lants and Trees: 3or Instance the tallest 4orses and (%en are between four and five Inches in 4eight the Sheep an Inch and a half more of less" their Geese about the #igness of a Sparrow" and so the several Gradations downwards till you come to the smallest which to my Sight were almost invisible" ,-g.>?/ (bviously all the natives of !illiput as well as all the ob&ects fit 1uite easily into the palm of a human's hand. Gulliver also describes ob&ects within the land which are so tiny he can barely see them *and a young Girl threading an invisible 2eedle with invisible Silk.* ,-g.>?/ The entire notion of !illiput is similar to amusing one's self with a dollhouse or such. Gulliver must be continually careful not to step on anything or anyone as the whole city is similar to a toy to him *I then stept over the #uildings very conveniently from one Stool to the other...* ,-g.@A/ Therefore Gulliver provides a description and creation of a wonderfully imaginative space within the land of !illiput. There are also strong satiric elements within the !illiputian government. The !illiputian government is by no means run by the same standards as a regular government. 0n e%ample of this is the fact that when there is an vacant space in office it is not filled by the most knowledgeable and 1ualified as it would be in normal circumstances"This )iversion is only practiced by those -ersons who are 'andidates for great +mployments and high 3avour at 'ourt. They are trained in this 0rt from their Bouth and are not always of noble #irth or liberal +ducation. 7hen a great (ffice is vacant either by )eath or )isgrace ,which often happens/ five or si% of those 'andidates petition the +mperor to entertain his 9a&esty and the 'ourt with a )ance on the ;ope" and whoever &umps the highest without falling succeeds in the (ffice. ,-g.@5/ Thus the !illiputian government is not one that is based on e%perience and 1ualifications but instead on acrobatic talents. 4owever a government office is not usually based on acrobatic activities which is what makes the whole notion of the !illiputian government so humorous.

The land of #robdingnag is the ne%t stop on Gulliver's &ourney and conveniently enough the complete opposite of !illiput. #robdingnag is the land of the giants *4e appeared as Tall as an ordinary Spire-steeple" and took about ten Bards at every Stride as near as I could guess.* ,-g. <.C<</ Thus while Gulliver is there he is forced to feel like a !illiputian because he is so miniature in comparison to them. The ironic portion of the tale here is that while the !illiputians were portrayed as doll-like to him" he is now treated as a doll in the land of #robdingnag. 4e is so miniscule that the inhabitants are not sure how to behave towards him *0t length he ventured to take me up behind by the middle between his 3ore-finger and Thumb and brought me within three Bards of his +yes that he might behold my Shape more -erfectly.* ,-g.<D/ The natives of #robdingnag have never seen any creature of Gulliver's si$e before which is why the only way they can think of to treat him is as a tiny doll-like creature. 0n actual doll's cradle is used to serve him as a bed *4er 9other and she contrived to fit up the #aby's 'radle for me against the 2ight: The 'radle was put into a small )rawer of a 'abinet and the )rawer placed upon a hanging Shelf for 3ear of the ;ats.* ,-g.DE/ Gulliver is not only given an actual doll's bed to sleep in while he is in #robdingnag but is also dressed and undressed as any doll would be by a little girl *This young Girl was so handy that after I had once or twice pulled off my cloaths before her she was able to dress and undress me.* ,-g.DE/ 4owever once Gulliver is bought by the Fueen he begins to feel a humiliation because he is treated as a doll. The 9aids of 4onor have no regard whatsoever for Gulliver's feelings or pride. They do not respect him but merely treat him as a play-thing"The 4andsomest among these 9aids of 4onor a pleasant frolicksome Girl of si%teen would sometimes set me astride upon one of her 2ipples" with many other Tricks wherin the ;eader will e%cuse me for not being over particular. #ut I was so much displeased that I entreated Glumdalclitch to contrive some +%cuse for not seeing that young !ady any more. ,-g.A</ Thus Gulliver is made privy to the se%ual lives and actions of these 9aids of 4onor. Therefore although Gulliver is but a regular human being" to the inhabitants of #robdingnag he is a doll-like creature and thus is treated as such. In the time that Gulliver lives within #robdingnag he also makes some ingenious fabrications and creative descriptions of the land. 4e is constantly forced to defend

himself against creatures within the land such as rats and wasps which are anything but ordinary according to Gulliver *I measured the Tail of the dead ;at and found it to be two Bards long wanting an Inch.* ,-g.D@/ 7ithin the Fueen's palace he is once again forced to fight for his life *These Insects were as large as partridges" I took out their Stings found them an Inch and a half long and as sharp as 2eedles.* ,-g.?D/ )espite the accounts of these constant attacks that Gulliver is forced to fend off" he also provides interesting accounts of the occurrences he encounters within #robdingnag. (f course the impressive difference in si$e between Gulliver and the #robdingnags is the most important aspects of these representations *I happened to stumble against a 'rust and fell flat on my 3ace but received no hurt.* ,-g.<A/ Gulliver is so small in comparison that he is able to walk around on their kitchen table and actually stumble against a bread crust. Gulliver is in fact so small that an actual bedroom is constructed for him by the Fueen's instructions"The Fueen commanded her own 'abinet-maker to contrive a #o% that might serve me for a #ed-chamber after the 9odel that Glumdalclitch and I should agree upon. This 9an was a most ingenious 0rtist" and according to my )irections in three 7eeks finished for me a wooden 'hamber of si%teen 3oot s1uare and twelve 4igh" with Sash 7indows a )oor and two 'losets like a !ondon #ed-chamber. The #oard that made the 'ieling was to be lifted up and down by two 4inges to put in a #ed ready furnished by her 9a&esty's Gpholsterer" ,-g.?>/ These descriptions by Gulliver therefore show the massive difference in si$e and thus the amusing and inconceivable elements of the entire notion of #robdingnag. The concept of the scale of si$e is perhaps the most satirical element regarding Gulliver !illiput and #robdingnag. The scale of si$e compares Gulliver's si$e to the !illiputians and the #robdingnagians. 3or e%ample in !illiput the scale of si$e is one to twelve *The scale of !illiput to Gulliver's world is generally one to twelve. If this creature is a typical !illiputian then Gulliver is somewhat under si% feet tall.* ,-g../ This differs from the scale of si$e in #robdingnag which is one to ten. The entire notion of this scale of si$e is senseless as it is e%tremely trivial in the tale itself. 0lthough it is meant to aid in interpreting the differences in si$es between the three civili$ations the interpretation is done more successfully by the descriptions provided by Gulliver. -erhaps it is &ust another element to add to the story but it is an unnecessary and

frivolous factor to add. 4owever more importantly is that the idea of this scale is an actual satirical element to add to the entire idea of !illiput and #rodingnag. The lands of both !illiput and #rodingnag are &ust images of the imagination and thus the scale of si$e is &ust another feature to add to this make-believe land and narrative. It is obvious that although this is said to be a travel narrative with some accounts true and some not the ideas of !illiput and #rodingnag are evidently a complete fantasy. This is indeed what makes the concept of this scale so humorous. 0n attempt is being made to add a serious element to the notion of these imaginative civili$ations and thus in this attempt he is trying to make the reader's see this narrative as a truth when it is anything but. 'onse1uently the tale of Gulliver's Travels is one that is strongly absorbed within satirical and trivial elements of reality versus non-reality. The concepts of !illiput #robdingnag and the scale of si$e are obviously all elements within the story which come off as trivial and satirical. These notions are all witty fantasies that derive from a longing for the imaginative to become reality. 3urthermore it is these parts of the tale that involve such comical aspects in which to amuse the reader. The irony within the story however allows the reader's to employ their own imaginations. Thus Gulliver's Travels is a story that is strongly centered on the idea of satire and irony in which to entice the readers out of their own reality and into Gulliver's own personal &ourney.

Gulliver's Travels was unique in its day; it was not written to woo or entertain. It was an indictment, and it was most popular among those who were indicted that is, politicians, scientists, philosophers, and Englishmen in general. Swift was roasting people, and they were eager for the banquet. Swift himself admitted to wanting to "ve " the world with his satire, and it is certainly in his tone, more than anything else, that one most feels his intentions. !esides the coarse language and bawdy scenes, probably the most important element that "r. !owdler deleted from the original Gulliver's Travels was this satiric tone. #he tone of the original varies from mild wit to outright derision, but always present is a certain strata of ridicule. "r. !owdler gelded it of its satire and transformed it into a children$s boo%. &fter that literary operation, the original version was largely lost to the common reader. #he Travels that proper 'ictorians bought for the family library was !owdler$s version, not Swift$s. (hat irony that !owdler would have laundered the Travels in order to get a version that he believed to be best for public consumption because, originally, the boo% was bought so avidly by the public that boo%sellers were raising the price of the volume, sure of ma%ing a few e tra shillings on this bestseller. &nd not only did the educated buy and read the boo% so also did the largely uneducated. )owever, lest one thin% that Swift$s satire is merely the weapon of e aggeration, it is important to note that e aggeration is only one facet of his satiric method. Swift uses moc% seriousness and understatement; he parodies and burlesques; he presents a virtue and then turns it into a vice. )e ta%es pot*shots at all sorts of sacred cows. !esides science, Swift debun%s the whole sentimental attitude surrounding children. &t birth, for instance, +illiputian children were "wisely" ta%en from their parents and given to the State to rear. In an earlier satire , A Modest Proposal-, he had proposed that the very poor in Ireland sell their children to the English as gourmet food. Swift is also a name*caller. .an%ind, as he has a !robdingnagian remar%, is "the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that /ature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth." Swift also inserted subtly hidden puns into some of his name*calling techniques. #he island of +aputa, the island of pseudo* science, is literally ,in Spanish- the land of "the whore." Science, which learned people of his generation were venerating as a goddess, Swift labeled a whore, and devoted a whole hoo% to illustrating the ridiculous behavior of her converts. In addition, Swift moc%s blind devotion. 0ulliver, leaving the )ouyhnhnms, says that he "too% a second leave of my master, but as I was going to prostrate myself to %iss his hoof, he did me the honor to raise it gently to my mouth." Swift was indeed so thorough a satirist that many of his early readers misread

the section on the )ouyhnhnms. #hey were so enamored of reason that they did not reali1e that Swift was metamorphosing a virtue into a vice. In !oo% I', 0ulliver has come to ideali1e the horses. #hey embody pure reason, but they are not human. +iterally, of course, we %now they are not, but figuratively they seem an ideal for humans until Swift e poses them as dull, unfeeling creatures, thoroughly unhuman. #hey ta%e no pleasure in se , nor do they ever overflow with either 2oy or melancholy. #hey are bloodless. Gulliver's Travels was the wor% of a writer who had been using satire as his medium for over a quarter of a century. )is life was one of continual disappointment, and satire was his complaint and his defense against his enemies and against human%ind. 3eople, he believed, were generally ridiculous and petty, greedy and proud; they were blind to the "ideal of the mean." #his ideal of the mean was present in one of Swift$s first ma2or satires, The Battle of the Books ,4567-. #here, Swift too% the side of the &ncients, but he showed their views to be ultimately as distorted as those of their adversaries, the .oderns. In 0ulliver$s last adventure, Swift again pointed to the ideal of the mean by positioning 0ulliver between symbols of sterile reason and symbols of gross sensuality. #o Swift, .an is a mi ture of sense and nonsense; he had accomplished much but had fallen far short of what he could have been and what he could have done. Swift was certainly not one of the optimists typical of his century. )e did not believe that the &ge of Science was the triumph that a great ma2ority of his countrymen believed it to be. Science and reason needed limits, and they needed a good measure of humanism. #hey did not require absolute devotion. Swift was a highly moral man and was shoc%ed by his contemporaries$ easy conversion to reason as the be*all and end*all of philosophy. #o be so gullible amounted to non*reason in Swift$s thin%ing. )e therefore offered up the impractical scientists of +aputa and the impersonal, but absolutely reasonable, )ouyhnhnms as embodiments of science and reason carried to ridiculous limits. Swift, in fact, created the whole of Gulliver's Travels in order to give the public a new moral lens. #hrough this lens, Swift hoped to "ve " his readers by offering them new insights into the game of politics and into the social follies of humans.

Satire is a literary genre of Greek origin (satyr), in which human folly and vice are held up to scorn, derision, or ridicule. Although satire is usually meant to be funny, its purpose is often irony or sarcasm, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, religion, and communities themselves, into improvement. In Gulliver s !ravels, satire is shown through narration, setting, character, and plot. "onathan Swift uses utopia and dystopia as elements of setting, and he uses a flat character, miser and tyrant type of character, moral touchstone, and grotes#ue to illustrate the character element of his satirical novel. "onathan Swift has chosen a first$person narrator in his novel of Gulliver s !ravels. !he narrator is Gulliver who has been plunged into e%traordinary and absurd circumstances during his four voyages to a multitude of strange lands around the globe. Although Gulliver s vivid and detailed style of narration makes it obvious that he is intelligent and well educated, his perceptions are naive and gullible. As an e%ample, Gulliver is a naive consumer of the &illiputians grandiose imaginings, because he is cowed by their threats of punishment, and their formally worded condemnation of Gulliver on grounds of treason works #uite effectively on the naive Gulliver, forgetting that they have no real physical power over him. Gulliver is a round character which is a kind of character who encounters conflict and is changed by it. 'e changes in relation to the places he visits and the events that befall him as he voyages. As an e%ample, he is the giant in &illiput and he is worried about trampling on the &illiputians, while he is at risk of being trampled upon and he is treated as a doll in the land of (robdingnag. In his last voyage, he develops such a love for the 'ouyhnhnms society that he no longer desires to return to humankind. And he becomes more and more narrow$minded as the story progresses. )n the whole, Gulliver proves to be more resilient that the average man by managing to survive the disastrous shipwrecks and the foreign people. !he setting in Gulliver s !ravels e%plores the idea of utopia and dystopia. *topia is an imaginary model of the ideal community. !he 'ouyhnhnms represent an ideal of rational e%istence because they are reasonable, rational characters, and they seem to embody the principle virtue of friendship and benevolence, and all the perfections that humans strive to achieve. !heir language does not have negative words such as lie, deceit, war, and evil. !heir society builds simple houses, and it has a sound

knowledge of medical herbs and poetry. !hey breed cleanliness and civility in their young and e%ercise them for speed and strength, because they are concerned more with the community than their own personal advantages. !he 'ouyhnhnms are used as ob+ects of satire, particularly when the inconsistencies in their character and behaviour are reflective of parado%es in human thoughts and faults. *topia could turn into dystopia, for the reason that 'ouyhnhnms could not have a true sense of good if they do not know what the evil is, and their lives seem lacking vigour, challenge, and e%citement. !herefore the 'ouyhnhnms society is perfect for 'ouyhnhnms, but it is hopeless for humans. )n the other hand, dystopia is a creation of a nightmare world where the conditions and the #uality of life are e%tremely bad. ,ystopia is illustrated through the -ahoos. !he -ahoos are more primitive than humans. !heir behaviour reflects the decadent and irrational behaviour of the civili.ed humans. /or e%ample, -ahoos fight with other groups and each other without apparent reason. Also their avarice for certain shiny stones of no practical use can be paralleled to contemporary societies possessions of material such as +ewellery. Swift uses the -ahoos as an e%ample of greed and selfishness of humans. !he -ahoos are entirely bestial and Gulliver s first meeting with them greatly disgust him 0*pon the whole, I never behold in all my travels so disagreeable an animal, nor one against which I naturally conceived so strong an antipathy0 (Swift 123). !he satirical element of character is illustrated through flat character, type of character, moral touchstone, and grotes#ue. A flat character is relatively uncomplicated and do not change throughout the course of a work. Swift uses the king of &illiput as a flat character and he pictures the king as a powerful and greedy man who is very proud of himself. !he king s government uses performance such as +umping high on a tight rope in order to obtain the vacant position in the government. !his shows how the king s power eventually makes him care more about personal entertainment than the kingdom. In addition to that, the king s commands for &illiputians to break their eggs on the small end first, illustrate the act of pride because the king wishes to make everyone sub+ect to his will. As well as using a flat character, the character element of the novel includes the greedy and the tyrant character type. /or instance, the farmer of (robdingnag plays

the role of the greedy that puts Gulliver on display to profit from spectacular viewing of Gulliver performing tricks. /urthermore, the farmer starves Gulliver to death and resolves to make as much money as possible before Gulliver dies by selling him to the #ueen. As an illustration of tyranny, Swift uses the king of &aputa. 4hen the king wants to punish a particular region of the country, he can keep the floating island above it, depriving the lands below of the sun and rain. Similarly, the king is oblivious to the real concerns of the people below as he has never been below. Also, the character element of a satirical novel uses moral touchstone. !he moral touchstone is an e%cellent #uality or e%ample that is used to test the e%cellence or genuineness of others. In this case, the two moral touchstones of the novel are Glumdalclitch and ,on 5edro. Glumdalclitch takes care of Gulliver, and she becomes his friend and nursemaid. She makes Gulliver several sets of new clothes, she delightedly dresses him, she puts him in her closet at night to sleep, and she teaches him the (robdingnagian language. ,on 5edro treats Gulliver with great patience and hospitality, even tenderness, when he allows him to travel on his ship. 'e offers him food, drink, and clothes. 'e also gives Gulliver twenty pounds for his +ourney to 6ngland. !ogether with flat, type, and moral touch stone. Grotes#ue is another element of the satirical character. Grotes#ue is strangely or fantastically distorted. It is embodied in the magnified world of (robdingnag. In the magnified world of (robdingnag, everything takes on new levels of comple%ity and imperfection, demonstrating that the truth about ob+ect is heavily influenced by the observer s perspective. /or instance, the smoothest skin of the most appealing ladies has imperfections, and these imperfections are bound to be e%posed under close scrutiny. Gulliver describes 0!heir Skins appeared so coarse and uneven, so variously coloured when I saw them near0 (137). In a sense, what looks perfect to us is not actually perfect8 it is simply not imperfect enough for our limited senses of notice. /urthermore, satire is shown through the plot of +ourney and return. !he &illiputians symboli.e humankind s widely e%cessive pride in its own puny e%istence because, in spite of the small si.e of the &illiputians, they do not consider the notion that Gulliver is enormous compared to them and could kill them with +ust a flick of his finger.

Gulliver has learned that their society suffers from the same flaws inherent in the 6nglish society (rebellions over relatively minor issues), but their society is more utopian compared to the 6nglish society. )n the contrary, the people of (robdingnag are peaceful and fair, and not violent and cruel as the people of 6urope have been. !his is illustrated with the 9ing of (robdingnag s conclusion about 6uropean society, 0I cannot but conclude hte (ulk of your :atives to be the most pernicious ;ace of little odious <ermin0 (1=1). In his fourth voyage, Gulliver has seen unusual societies. !he -ahoos represent human follies, greed and selfishness, while the 'ouyhnhnms represent humanity free of strife and hardship. !he 'ouyhnhnms seem like model citi.ens, and Gulliver s intense grief when he is forced to leave them suggests that they have made an impact on him greater than that of any other society he has visited. In conclusion, Gulliver s travels uses satire through narration, setting, character, and plot to illustrate the weaknesses of human, and suggest ways of improvement. In other words, the novel portrays the ideal (or not so ideal) society and how Swift views 6ngland. 6ach society has its own e%aggerated feature. !he &illiputians presents the animalistic nature of humanity. >an s capability of reason is shown in the (robdingnagians. !he bestial characteristic is shown through the -ahoos. !he highest ideal for man, however, is best represented by the 'ouyhnhnms. !herefore, the 'ouyhnhnms serve as an e%ample of the ideal for man. Gulliver changes his attitudes and his perceptions of people because of the different societies he encounters. At the beginning, he is a standard issue 6uropean adventurer8 by the end, he has become a misanthrope who totally re+ects human society.

*In its most serious function satire is a mediator between two perceptions-the unillusioned perception of man as he actually is and the ideal perception or vision of man as he ought ot be * ,#ullitt >/. !ikewise *misanthropy* can be understood as being the product of one of two world views: 5/ The -ure 'ynic or 9isanthropist has no faith in human nature and has given up on any notion of ideals. This type lies and manipulates as a matter of course and these are the types that tend to run the world. @/ The *#urned* or )isillusioned Idealist's misanthropy arises out of disappointment in humankind. In many ways the second type e%hibits more bile as he is constantly frustrated by what men do as opposed to what they ought to do. Jonathon Swift is the second type of misanthropist and Gulliver's Travels is arguably his greatest satiric attempt to *shame men out of their vices* ,Ibid. 5E/ by constantly distinguishing between how man behaves and how he thinks about or &ustifies his behavior in a variety of situations. -ride in particular is what enables man to *deceive himself into the belief that he is rational and virtuous when in reality he has not developed his reason and his virtue is merely appearance * ,Ibid. <</. This satire works on so many levels that a paper such as this allows me to deal with only three elements and in a necessarily superficial way: the ways in which the structure and choice of metaphor serve Swift's purpose a discussion of some of his most salient attacks on politics religion and other elements of society and his criti1ue on the essence and flaws of human nature. Swift's purpose was to stir his readers to view themselves as he viewed humankind as creatures who were not fulfilling their potential to be truly great but were simply flaunting the trappings of greatness. Gulliver's Travels succeeds in this goal brilliantly. The form and structure of the whole work enhanced Swift's purpose as did the specific metaphors in each of the four voyages. 3irstly Swift went to great pains to present Gulliver's Travels in the genuine standard form of the popular travelogues of the time. Gulliver the reader is told was a seaman first in the capacity of a ship's surgeon then as the captain of several ships. Swift creates a realistic framework by incorporating nautical &argon descriptive detail that is related in a *factual ship's-log* style and repeated claims by Gulliver in his narrative *to relate plain matter,s/ of fact in the simplest manner and style.* This framework provides a sense of realism and versimilitude that contrasts sharply with the fantastic nature of the tales and establishes the first ironic layer of The Travels. 0s Tuveson points out ,.?/ *InGulliver's Travels there is a constant shuttling back and forth between real and unreal normal and absurd...until our standards of credulity are so rela%ed that we are ready to buy a pig in a poke.* The four books of the Travels are also presented in a parallel way so that voyages 5 and @ focus on criticism of various aspects of +nglish

society at the time and man within this society while voyages > and E are more preoccupied with human nature itself ,)ownie @?5/. 4owever all of these elements overlap and with each voyage Gulliver and thus the reader is treated not only to differing but ever deepening views of human nature that clima% in Gulliver's epiphany when he identifies himself with the detestable Bahoos. 0s such the overall structure also works like a spiral leading to a center of self-reali$ation. (r as Tuveson puts it Swift's satire shifts from *foreign to domestic scenes from institutions to individuals from mankind to man from others to ourselves * ,<@/. The choice of metaphor in each voyage serves more particularly the various points of Swift's satiric vision. *The effect of reducing the scale of life in !illiput is to strip human affairs of their self-imposed grandeur. ;ank politics international war lose all of their significance. This particicualr idea is continued in the second voyage not in the picture of the #robdingnagians but in Gulliver himself who is now a !illiputian * ,+ddy 5EA/. 0nd where the !iiliputians highlight the pettiness of human pride and pretensions the relative si$e of the #robdingnagians who do e%emplify some positive 1ualities also highlights the grossness of the human form and habits thus satiri$ing pride in the human form and appearance. In the voyage to !aputa the actual device of a floating island that drifts along above the rest of the world metaphorically represents Swift's point that an e%cess of speculative reasoning can also be negative by cutting one off from the practical realities of life which in the end doesn't serve learning or society ,)ownie @?@/. 0nd in the relation of the activities of the Grand 0cademy of !agado Swift satiri$es the dangers and wastefulness of pride in human reason uninformed by common sense. The final choice of the 4ouyhnhnms as the representatives of perfect reason unimpeded by irrationality or e%cessive emotion serves a dual role for Swift's satire. The absurdity of a domestic animal e%hibiting more *humanity* than humans throws light on the defects of human nature in the form of the Bahoo who look and act like humans stripped of higher reason. Gulliver and the reader are forced to evaluate such behavior from a vantage point outside of man that makes it both shocking and revelatory ,Tuveson <@/. The pride in human nature as superior when compared to a *bestial* nature is satiri$ed sharply. 4owever the 4ouyhnhnms are not an ideal of human nature either. Swift uses them to show how reason uninformed by love compassion and empathy is also an inade1uate method to deal with the myriad aspects of the human situation. 7ithin this framework very little of human social behavior pretensions or societal institutions escape the deflating punctures of Swift's arrows. +wald states that *0s a satire the main purpose of Gulliver's Travels is to show

certain shortcomings in 5?th century +nglish society...* ,5.5/. 9uch of the first voyage lampoons court intrigue and the arbitrary fickleness of court favor ,+ddy 556/. The rank and favor of the !illiputian ministers being dependent on how high they can &ump over a rope literally illustrates this figurative point. Gulliver himself falls out of favor because he does not pander to the =ing's thirst for power. The two political parties being differentiated by the height of their heels points out how little substantive difference there was between 7hig and Tory ,or today between )emocrat and ;epublican/ and similarly the religious differences about whether the 4ost was flesh or symbol is reduced to the petty 1uarrel between the #ig-+ndians and the Small-+ndians. Swift also highlights the pretensions of politics by informing the reader of some of the laudable and novel ideals and practices of !illiputian society such as rewarding those who obey the law holding a breach of trust as the highest offense and punishing false accusors and ingratitude but shows that like humans even the !illiputians do not live up to their own standards when they e%hibit ingratitude for Gulliver's help and accuse him of high treason ,)ownie @D?/. (f course the perspective shifts in the second voyage where Gulliver finds himself in the same relation to the #robdingnagians as the !illiputians were to him which not only leads to some different kinds of satiric insights but many which are sightly darker in tone. 9ost of the social and political criticism occurs in 'hapters si% and seven. Gulliver describes +uropean civili$ation to #robdingnag's =ing including +ngland's political and legal institutions and how they work as well as some of the personal habits of the ruling class. Bet even though Gulliver subse1uently confesses to the reader that he cast this information in the most favorable light the =ing still deduces that every strata of society and political power is infested with rampant corruption and dismissively concludes *the bulk of your natives to be the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth.* This echoes a basic message of the first voyage but the attack here is more direct and corrosive. The relative si$e of the #robdingnagians adds a physical dimension to the =ing's &udgment and enhances its veracity. 0lso *all the transactions of life all passion and all social amenities which involve the body lose their respectability in #robdingnag * ,+ddy 5.6/ from Gulliver's description of the odious breast to his viewing of a public e%ecution. In contrast #robdingnagian society has many things to recommend it such as e%cellence *in morality history poetry and mathematics * although Gulliver ironically laments that these are only applied to the practical aspects of life and not used for abstractions. 4owever much of Swift's political writings indicate that he like the #robdingnagians favored a conception of government and society based on common-sense ,!ock 5>@-5>E/. The supreme moment of

ironical criticism of +uropean civili$ation occurs in 'hapter seven when after offering the secret of gun powder to the =ing and his subse1uent horrified refusal Gulliver declares the =ing to possess *narrow principles and short viewsH* (f course mankind would never be so short-sighted as to turn away from learning a new method of in&uring torturing or killing one's fellowsH 0side from this sharp comment on human nature Swift is also alluding to the eagerness with which +uropean nations would leap at such an offer as an aid to waging war against their neighbors. The main focus of social criticism in the voyage to !aputa is on intellectuals such as scholars philosophers and scientists who often get lost in theoretical abstractions and conceptions to the e%clusion of the more pragmatic aspects of life in direct contrast to the practical #robdingnagians. 9any critics feel Swift was satiri$ing *the strange e%periments of the scientists of the ;oyal Society * but may also have been warning his readers against *the political pro&ectors and speculators of the time * ,)avis 5EA-5.6/. The !aputians e%cel at theoretical mathematics but they can't build houses where the walls are straight and the corners are s1uare. Instead they constantly worry about when the sun will burn out and whether a comet will collide with the earth. This misuse of reason is hilariously elaborated on in 'hapters five and si% where the various e%periments occuring at the Grand 0cademy of !agado are described. (f course the point is highlighted as Gulliver professes his sincere admiration for such pro&ects as e%tracting sunbeams from cucumbers and building houses from the roof down. The satire in 8oyage three attacks both the deficiency of common sense and the conse1uences of corrupt &udgment ,Fuintana >5D/. 9ost of the criticism in the 8oyage to the 4ouyhnhnms is directed at human nature itself although the trend to more particular targets begun in the third voyage is continued with glancing but increasingly direct blows to the sub&ects of war ,destruction clothed in the prete%t of valour and patriotism/ lawyers ,social parasites who measure their worth by their e%cellence at deception and therefore actually inhibit &ustice/ and money ,the greed of a few is fed by the labor and poverty of the many as well as the relative uselessness and corruption of these priveleged few/. In addition Swift makes some very cogent observations on imperialism in the concluding chapter which point out the arrogance and self deception of +uropean nations when they claim to civili$e through brutality and oppression groups of indigenous people who were often mild and harmless. (f course as Swift implies the real goal of imperialism is greed. The most ironic point occurs when the author disclaims that this attack on imperialist countries does not include #ritain which history shows was e1ually as brutal as its +uropean rivals and in many cases even more so

considering its +mpire became at one time the largest of any +uropean country. 7hat I found most interesting was how many critics took this disclaimer seriously as an e%pression of the author's patriotism ,+wald 5E>-5EE #ullitt <E/. It seems obvious that Swift is making the point that Gulliver's naive patriotism the last remnant of identification he has with his own kind is misplaced and it is Swift's final palpable hit. The main ob&ect of the satire in Gulliver's Travels is human nature itself specifically 9an's pride as it manifests in *pettiness grossness rational absurdity and animality * ,Tuveson .D/. Gulliver's character as a satirical device serves Swift's ends by being both a mouthpiece for some of Swift's ideals and criticisms and as an illustration of them ,+wald 5>?-A/" Thus criti1ues on human nature are made through Gulliver's observations as well as through Gulliver's own transformation from a *naive individual...into a wise and skeptical misanthrope * ,Ibid. 5E@/. 'hapter seven of the first 8oyage where Gulliver is informed that he is about to be indicted for high treason by the !illiputian 'ourt provides the most bitter satiric attack on hypocrisy ingratitude and cruelty ,Tuveson D./ yet Gulliver and the reader are able to distance themselves from these 1ualities by concluding that though these tiny creatures are aping human behavior they are still not human. In the second voyage both the human pride in physical appearance is attacked through Gulliver's perspective of the #robdingnagians and Gulliver's own pride in himself and his country is reduced to ridiculousness as Gulliver becomes the ob&ect of comic satire ,Ibid. D</. Gulliver's offer of the secret of gunpowder only underscores that he is a typical member of his race. 3rom Gulliver's theme of the e%cellence of mankind begun in 'hapter si% the episode concludes *with the shocking demonstration of what man's inhumanity is capable of* ,Ibid. D?/. (ne of the most interesting comments on the human condition is the description of the immortal Struldbrugs in 8oyage Three. Swift's treatment of the sub&ect of immortality is characteristically practical and down to earth. 7hat would it really be like to live in perpetuityI 4is answer: 0 living death. The main problem is that the human body ages and is not a fit vessel to house a perpetual consciousness. In relating this episode Swift affirms with cutting precision that we have much in common with the rest of earth's creatures" any superior reason we may possess and the pride we take in it does not e%empt us from the natural laws of physical death and regeneration. In #ook Three Swift not only shows the possible perversions of reason in the doings at the 0cademy of !agado but also shows its limitations in shielding us from the natural

conse1uences of physical life. 4ere he implies the importance of a moral structure to human life" reason is not enough and immortality would only make things worse. Bet on the surface #ook four seems to argue that reason is the one 1uality when properly developed that can elevate man to his ultimate potential. #ut ironically it is the horse-like 4ouyhnhnms that possess this perfect development of reason whereas the Bahoos whom Gulliver most resembles are primitive and bestial. I agree with +wald that 8oyage four contains Swift's clearest attack on human pride ,5.E/. Indeed the 1uality of reason only enables humans *to aggravate their natural corruptions and to ac1uire new ones which 2ature had not intended.* +ven a dispassionate view of human history would find it difficult to dispute this conclusion. 7hereas the attacks on human nature in the first three 8oyages deal with actions that are symptomatic of man's nature-*the corrosive satire of the last voyage is concerned with the springs and causes of action* ,Tuveson ?6/ in other words the essence of man. 0s such the satire directed against the pretensions of court political corruption and the e%cesses of speculative reasoning may divert and disturb Gulliver and the reader but it is possible to distance oneself from the attacks. #ut the ob&ect of the satiric attack in the last voyage is man himself: it is Gulliver and the reader. 4ere *Swift is attacking the Bahoo in each of us* ,Ibid. ?5/. 4uman nature is cut into two parts: The 4ouyhnhnms possess reason and benevolence and selfish appetites and brutish awareness are left for the Bahoos. The microscopic analysis of the human form that took place in the second voyage is now used to analy$e the defects of man's moral nature and it is pride that prevents man from recogni$ing his flaws and dealing with them. 7hen Gulliver e%periences the shock of recognition that he too is a Bahoo Gulliver passes from being a *perfect e%ample a character acting in ignorance of his condition* to e%periencing *a terrifying insight into evil ,which/ is accompanied by all the bitterness of a profound disillusionment* ,#ullitt <5 <./. Bet I agree with many of the critics who say that though Gulliver makes the mistake of identifying himself completely with the Bahoos Swift and the reader do not ,Ibid. <./. *3or the truth as we are meant to reali$e is that man is neither irrational physicality like the Bahoos nor passionless rationality like the 4ouyhnhnms* ,Ibid./ but are something in between. 7e are meant to be repulsed by the chilling calmness with which the 4ouyhnhnms accept death as described in 'hapter nine as much as we are by the selfishness of the Bahoos and it is clear Swift does not present Gulliver's comic and absurd withdrawal from people as a viable solution. Instead Swift wants us to be shocked out of the pride that allows us to deceive ourselves into thinking man is completely

virtuous when he is not by e%periencing with Gulliver our own limitations without making Gulliver's final mistake. The solution to the human dilemma is not so simple as Gulliver's re&ection of humanity and Swift's final success in terms of stimulating response is that after masterfully dissecting and presenting the problem he leaves the application of his lessons to *the &udicious reader.* 3or many critics Gulliver's Travels *is in a sense a tragic work...in that it is the picture of man's collapse before his corrupt nature and of his defiance in face of the collapse* ,)obree EED/. Bet obviously Swift felt that humbling human pride enabling a more honest self-assessment was absolutely vital to addressing the suffering and in&ustice so prevalent in human life. 'ontrary to many who label Swift a misanthropist only a man who cared deeply about humanity could have produced a work like Gulliver's Travels. 7eilding the scalpel of satire Swift cuts through our self-deception to our pride the source of our moral denial and inertia. 0s we travel with Gulliver through the voyages Swift brilliantly peels away our pretensions layer by layer until he shows us what we are and challenges us intensely and urgently to be better. In Gulliver's Travels Jonathan Swift continues to ve% the world so that it might awaken to the fact that humankind needs saving but it has to save itself.