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with potential energy ( x " x %3 + U ( x ) = V0 *! + $ ' * ) b #b& , where (V0) is a positive constant with units of Joules and (b) is a positive constant with units of meters. a) Sketch by hand or plot with a computer the potential energy as a function of (x). Note that (x) can be positive or negative. b) Calculate the force as a function of (x). c) Find the equilibrium position or positions in terms of (V0) and (b). How many equilibrium positions are there? d) Are the equilibrium positions you found in part (c) stable or unstable? e) You should have at least one stable equilibrium position. Let this position be called (x0). Expand the potential function as a Taylor series about (x0), keeping terms up to second order in distance from the equilibrium position. f) What is the frequency of small oscillations about (x0)? Please report the angular frequency (!). 2) Consider a mass (m) hanging from a vertical spring attached to the ceiling. Let z = 0 be the vertical position where the spring exerts no force, and let positive z point upwards. Then the mass experiences a spring force of (-kz) and a gravitational force of (-mg). a) Write down (or calculate) the potential energy function U(z) in terms of (m), (g), (k), and (z). b) Let z0 be the equilibrium position where the mass experiences no net force. Calculate z0 in terms of (m), (g), and (k). c) Let (a) stand for the displacement from the equilibrium position, so that z = z0 + a. Rewrite the potential energy function in terms of (m), (g), (k), and (a). d) You now have the potential energy function written as an expansion about the equilibrium position. Determine the frequency of small oscillations about the equilibrium position. Please report the angular frequency (!). e) Is the frequency the same or different than that of a horizontal mass on a spring?

3) Numerical solution of a ball in a uniform gravitational field. Many of the systems that we will study in Phys 273 are described by equations of motion which can be can be solved exactly. The simple harmonic oscillator is an example of this. In more advanced physics courses, however, and particularly in physics research, it is unusual to find a system for which an exact analytic solution is available. For these systems we have no choice but to calculate their behavior by numerically solving the equations of motion. In this problem you will numerically solve the equation of motion for a ball in a uniform gravitational field. In a numerical solution we step along in time in small increments, calculating at each step the acceleration, the velocity, and the position. If the acceleration, velocity, and position at time step number (i) are called ai, vi, and xi, then the velocity and position at the next time step (i+1) will be:

In other words, the new velocity will simply be the old velocity plus the acceleration times the time step ("t), and similarly for the new position. These equations follow simply from the definition of the velocity and acceleration. Two more ingredients are needed for a complete numerical solution. First, we have to have a rule which tells us the acceleration at each moment in time. This is given by Newtons 2nd Law: ai = Fi / m Since the force depends only on known variables, such as position, time, and velocity, it should be calculable at each moment in time. Secondly, to get the numerical solution started we must specify the position and velocity at the first time step: x0 and v0. These are our initial conditions. Finally, we also have to choose an appropriate time step ("t). In general the time step must be chosen to be small enough that none of the variables changes very much from one step to the next, or otherwise the two equations for calculating the new velocity and new position will be inaccurate. Roughly speaking, you should choose the time step so that the resulting plots of (x) vs. time and (v) vs. time appear reasonably smooth. The ball-in-a-gravitational-field problem is simple enough that you can use a spreadsheet program like Excel to do the numerical calculation, but you may use any software or programming language that you like. Ill make just one comment regarding how to write your program: make sure that the constant parameters, such as the value the acceleration due to gravity (g), the mass (m), and the initial conditions (x0 and v0), are recorded in one and only one place in your program. This will make it easy to change these variables and see the effect on the results. a) A ball is thrown upward from a height of 1 meter above the ground and with an initial velocity of 3 meters per second. From your knowledge of classical mechanics and kinematics, calculate by hand the exact value of the highest point in its trajectory.

Hint: you can calculate this quickly using energy conservation. (Neglect drag due to air resistance, and assume that the acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m/s2. Also, Let the height of the ground be defined to be zero.) b) Calculate exactly by hand how long will it take for the ball to strike the ground. c) This problem is particularly easy to solve numerically, because the force is constant, and therefore the acceleration is constant. Use a time step ("t) of 0.01 seconds, and calculate the velocity and position for at least 120 steps (a total of 1.2 seconds). Print out a plot of the height vs. time (or sketch it by hand). d) Look through your time-stepping data, and find the maximum height of the ball, and the time that it takes to reach the ground. How do these values compare to what you calculated in parts (a) and (b)? e) Suppose the initial upward velocity was only 1 m/s. Using your numerical calculation, how long would it take for the ball to strike the ground? f) Suppose we want the ball to strike the ground at t = 0.2 seconds. Try different initial velocities until you find one that has the ball striking the ground between 0.19 and 0.2 seconds. What value of the initial velocity achieves this? Also print out a plot of height vs. time for this situation.

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