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# Testing of Directional Overcurrent Relays Made Easy with XRIO, LinkToXRIO and OCC Test Module Automation Technology

## Why Directional O/C and E/F Relays?

In a solidly earthed, meshed network currents in a line can flow in both directions. During fault conditions the response of overcurrent (O/C) and earthfault (E/F) relays needs to depend on the direction of current flow. Directional control is achieved by comparing the fault current (operating quantity) with a polarizing voltage (stabilizing quantity). The polarizing voltage is calculated or measured directly from the voltage transformers (VT).
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## Methods for Directional Control

Fault Voltage Polarised (E/F) Zero Sequence Voltage Polarised (E/F) Positive Sequence Voltage Polarised (O/C) Wattmetric (O/C) Quadrature Voltage Polarised (O/C & E/F) Negative Sequence Voltage Polarised (O/C & E/F)
(not covered in this application example)

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## Fault Voltage Polarised

The directional element measures the phase angle between fault current and fault voltage. Angle (1) is negative for typical forward faults. For close-in faults this method is unreliable, as for small fault voltages no reliable phase angle measurement is possible.

Directional Characteristic: - 45 90

Reverse Fault

Forward Fault

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3V0 Polarised
The directional element measures the angle between fault current and zero sequence voltage (3V0). Angle (1) is positive and greater 90 for typical forward faults. Sometimes -3V0 (i.e. negative of 3V0) is used. Angle (2) is negative for typical forward faults. 3V0 is directly measured from an open delta connected VT or internally calculated from the phase voltages (3V0 = VA+VB+VC).

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## Positive Sequence Voltage Polarised

The directional element measures the angle between positive sequence current (I1) and positive sequence voltage (V1). Angle is negative for typical forward faults. V1 und I1 are calculated.
3 Phase Fault A-B Fault

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Wattmetric Method
Forward direction is defined in a power vector diagram. Operation is similar to the fault voltage polarised method. Directional elements measures the angle between apparent power S and active power P. Angle (1) is positive for a typical forward fault.

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The quadrature voltage is chosen such that it can be easily measured in spite of the fault. The directional element measures the phase angle between the fault current and the quadrature voltage as per the table below. Each phase is measured independently.

Faulted Phase A B C

Fault Current IA IB IC

## Polarising Voltage VB-C VC-A VA-B

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Example 1: A-N Fault: The A phase directional element measures the phase angle between IA and VB-C. A = +45 for a typical forward fault.

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Example 2: A-B Fault: Phase A directional element measures the phase angle between IA and VB-C. A = +45 for a typical forward fault. Phase B directional element measures the phase angle between IB and VC-A. B = +45 for a typical forward fault.

Phase A

Phase B

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The relay trips if phase A OR phase B element is picked-up. To determine the resulting directional operating characteristic, the vector diagram of phase B has to be superimposed onto the vector diagram of phase A. The operating characteristic of phase B has to be inverted, i.e. A minus B. Resultant directional operating characteristic is 240, from 225 to 105 (not 180).

Phase A - B

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## How can such relays be tested?

Good understanding of directional relays and their methods is required. Time consuming task to set up test: Draw vector diagram and determine the operating area. Determine fault currents and polarizing voltages in amplitude and phase angle. The Overcurrent module provides limited directional testing functionality, i.e. Go / No-Go test. The pick-up of the directional operating characteristic cannot be tested.

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The Solution!
XRIO Converter
A function specific user interface / entry dialogue for directional overcurrent relays. O/C & E/F parameters can be entered. Method of directional control, maximum torque angle , operating angle For all fault types helper parameters for each directional characteristic are calculated.

Link any test parameter of a test module to any of the function specific parameters defined or calculated in the XRIO converter.

## Control Center Document (OCC)

Incorporates the XRIO converter and LinkToXRIO technology. Perform a fully automated directional operating characteristic test. Test module automation allows the automatic display of the directional operating characteristic.

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XRIO Converter

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+ + 15 + - 15

t>*2

I>*2

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## OMICRON Control Center Document

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Directional Characteristic
After completion of the test procedure select: Test | User command | Update Directional Characteristics

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Summary of Benefits
You dont need to scratch your head every time you test a directional relay! No pre-processing or relay parameters is necessary. Error free testing of directional characteristic Single-click solution

## Time Saving Ease of Use

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