CHAPTER-1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Throughout the eighties and into the nineties, work stress has continued to rise dramatically in organizations. The eighties saw employees stressing out from working in a rapidly growing economy. During the nineties, beginning from the recession of 1992 till present day, employees are stressed by their own job insecurities in the face of massive downsizing and restructuring of organizations in order to be competitive on the global stage. Thus, when the stress levels among the employees begin to rise as they deal with more and more clients, they would put up an even greater resistance to their own emotions. Over time, the professional may not be able to relax that emotional resistance. All their emotions would be masked in and retained and within themselves, angry at resulting ultimately However, mental are emotional limited

disorders. In stressful times, employees are often displeased or something. there usually channels in which employees can express their views. Since opinions, views, and feelings cannot always be expressed to anyone to change the current situation, there would be an accumulation of anger and frustration within the individual. Up to a certain point, the anger would be released, usually at the wrong person or time, such as colleagues, clients, or family members. This symptom has a tremendous impact on society because there is a potential that it may hurt other people. Stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a

person perceives that demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize.

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A certain amount of stress is good for us as it can encourage change and activity. But if we are under too much stress our ability to function effectively suffers. When working in a team environment our stress is relayed to the rest of the team resulting in a decline of team performance making team building an imperative goal. For some a potential stressful situation leads to the effect of "riding on the crest of a wave" because it generates a certain chemical reaction in the body that gives exhilaration. For others, the same circumstances lead to different chemical reactions, which result in loss of performance. What is needed is environmental and self-regulation. Therefore stress management is a partnership between the employee and the employer. Isolation is a common side effect of working under tremendous stress. For many service practitioners, the clients that they serve do not always readily welcome them. A prime example would be policemen who are shunned often by the public. Over time, a feeling of isolation and rejection would envelop the person. The natural thing to do would be to withdraw from others who do not understand their plight, resulting in profound human loneliness. There are much other short term, psychological effects of stress that can be readily seen or felt.

Stress at workplace
Feeling stress in the work place is a very common issue in many organizations, both large and small. For workers, the result of such stress is reduced job satisfaction. In extreme cases this can degenerate further into physical and psychological symptoms such as muscular aches and pains,

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weakened immunity, irritability and depression to name a few. This ultimately leads to feeling burnt out. For the organisation, there is also an impact. Firstly a worker that is suffering from stress and burn out will typically be quite unproductive because of absenteeism and/or less than satisfactory job performance. The impact on the organisation will also vary depending on the type of role the worker engages in. For example a stressed out salesman who develops a detachment towards clients can potentially affect the public perception of the organisation. Similarly a stressed out worker involved in producing goods will not produce anywhere near his/her optimal output. There can also be an indirect impact on other fellow co-workers due to lower morale. Before one can look at how to deal with work place stress, it is important to look at the various sources of such stress. Stress will be either due to personal reasons or because of workplace issues. Personal stress can include anything unrelated to the actual workplace such as relationship issues, family conflicts, financial concerns etc. Workplace stresses will be based on either the nature of the job itself or the nature of the organization or both. The job itself may be too much of a load for the one person due to either lack of resources (people and equipment) or time. There may be some form of ambiguity as to to what exactly the actual role of The the job is. From of of an the their the organizational perspective, there may be simply low morale due downsizing fairly. and Or cost cutting. the management as not conditions organization workers may also be perceived treating

perhaps

actual

workplace are below an acceptable standard. As workplace stress can be either personal or organizational, addressing and managing this stress will require a proactive approach from two 3

angles. Personally, there is a lot one can do to ensure that he/she is feeling content and happy including getting regular rest, exercising, eating well and even seeking professional help if necessary. If the stress is due to the nature of the role or organisation, then the worker must speak to the relevant authority, i.e. the manager or other individual, to discuss the concerns. If discussing this does not solve the issue, perhaps this the time to move on-there may be simply be not a good fit between the individual and the job, or the individual and the company.

We work with teams to help them understand the causes of stress and how team-building initiatives can help them cope with it.

Stress related time off work costs organizations billions of pounds. To this can be added the effects of individual reduction of productivity, and impaired the judgment, that poor can all decisions, have on lost the opportunity, impact

organizations culture and customers, etc.

Management’s Role in Reducing Work Stress
Employee stress can have an enormous impact on an organization in terms of cost. As many studies have shown, there is a high correlation between stress and job performance. At moderate levels, stress is beneficial in that it can cause individuals to perform their jobs better and attain higher job performance. However, at high levels, stress1 can decrease productivity instead. This is the case often seen in employees at many organizations. Furthermore, 4 aside from costs

associated with lost productivity, there are costs with respect to stress-related absenteeism and organizational medical expenses. Specifically, these include costs of lost company time, increase in work-related, disrupting production, increase in health care costs and health insurance premiums, and most importantly, decrease in productivity. There are numerous methods that organizations could adopt to reduce undue stress in their employees. However, measures taken to counter this problem actions are which usually are tailored specifically to for the particular that organization. Therefore, this report has chosen two separate fundamental most organizations management can take Reduction of Employee Stress as an Organizational Policy. The first step any organization should take to help its employees reduce and cope with stress is to incorporate into the company policies a positive and specific intent on reducing undue stress. This would indicate that top management is committed to such a stress reduction program. Furthermore, the amendment to the policies should also include recognition that this initiative will benefit the achievement of other organizational goals by enhancing the productivity of employees through lowered stress levels. After the inclusion of the broad mission goal of reducing employee stress, management should draft out plans which specifically lay out the provisions to accomplish that goal. As earlier mentioned, there are many should approaches detail only to stress reduction, thus to the the provisions the methods specific

organisation. For example, they could specify that employees measures for the individual. In any case, the most important beginning own step is of a total re-examination with 5 stress, and and revision of company policies, plans, and procedures to enhance employees’ methods coping simultaneously,

promote

an

organizational

climate

which

actively

assists

employees to minimize their stress.

Fundamental Reduction

Techniques

to

Employee

Stress

One method management can employ to alleviate employee stress is to of make work. them fitter are to deal with basic the everyday pressures There three management

techniques that would accomplish this goal. Managers should be clear about their expectations of employees and clearly convey these expectations to each person. Secondly, management should devise a performance-evaluation-feedback system such that each employee would be aware of his / her performance level based on the feedback received. Lastly, employees should be fully capable of performing their job tasks. Stress arises when employees do not possess the necessary skills to carry on with the work are assigned essential to to them. Therefore, anxiety job-training and stress programs reducing

associated when employees feel that they do not possess sufficient skills or knowledge to perform the job that they were hired levels. for. Undergo periodic physical be to and psychological personal examinations and personnel surveys to ascertain current stress Another alternative would provide counseling to employees to identify undue stress levels and then to advise any corrective measures. Work stress places a very high toll on both employees and employers. An employee subjected to high levels of stress could experience both physical and mental side effects. Physical side effects such as hypertension, coronary disease, infections, ulcers could greatly decrease the lifespan of the person. The 6

psychological effects such as repressed emotions, anger, and isolation have a direct negative impact on organizational productivity. Thus, organisations have a great responsibility in reducing the stress of their employees, and in general are concerned about their well being. There are numerous methods to counter the stress problem. The report has cited only the basics which are applicable to most organisations. The first step for management is to set out the intention to reduce employee stress as an organisational goal. Provisions detailing the organisation’s planned approach should be drafted. Informing employees of management’s expectations is one method to reduce a large portion of the anxiety employees may have about their jobs. Secondly, on management must provide subordinates them duties. Stress is one of the principal causes of lost productivity, social breakdown and ill-health. Adverse pressures at work or in social situations can cause it. Stress is increasingly recognized as a health and safety at work issue. Employers can now face claims in the civil courts for damages for the breakdown of an employee's mental health. There could also be additional employment related effects with victims seeking compensation in the industrial tribunal courts for unfair dismissal, for a detriment because of a stress-related deterioration in their health or for having complained about stress at work. The organization’s main obligations are: to ensure, under the Health and Safety at Work Act etc, as far as is reasonably practicable, the health and safety at work of 7 to feedback their performance. Management

should also provide job training for all employees to enable better perform their jobs and reduce the stress associated with the feeling of inadequacy to perform one’s

its employees, by ensuring that employees have a safe place of work, safe equipment and appliances with which to work and also a safe system of work to comply with health and safety legislation appropriate to its workplace to carry out risk assessments (and this could increasingly be taken to include stress audits) and put in place appropriate protective and preventive measures as part of the risk assessment, it must ensure that its employees receive proper instruction, training and supervision and are kept fully informed of health and safety issues which may affect them and the steps which they should take to guard against health risks not to dismiss unfairly employees with two or more years service, whether on health grounds or otherwise not to dismiss or subject to a detriment, employees, regardless of length of service, on specified health and safety grounds. In addition to the legal case, the business arguments for taking care of an employee's mental health, of which unhealthy stress is only one manifestation, include ethical considerations such as respecting and valuing the individual, allowing for his or her unique personality differences and allowing for balance between corporate and private life so as to ensure continued health, commitment and motivation.

Now a days new stress management course has also been introduced. It aims at raising awareness of stress, its causes, affects and techniques for managing it. Participants will identify their own stressors and stressors in the organization prior to forming a personal action plan to first cope with and then reduce their stress levels.

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Participants will review the many potential daily stressors, coming not only from physical events but also social situations, our work, general living, our feelings, our thoughts and perceptions. Mostly these stressors are perceived to be in balance. The response we generate can be both positive and negative and is characterized by the scale of the perceived importance. In order to survive, be energized and be creative. It is when the balance is wrong, however, that difficulties arise. Everyone's response to stress will be different because each individual is unique. So, a person who is a high achiever may find it easier to cope with the pressures of an executive role than someone whose expectations are in another direction, and vice versa. Some people thrive in situations that others find totally overwhelming. It is the degree of adoption that people have to make to a situation, which determines whether they react positively or negatively and find they either go forward or fail to cope. All pressure is not harmful. A certain amount of pressure can enhance performance. But excessive, unrelenting negative pressure results in individuals experiencing stress.

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Work stress is a very extensive topic ranging from research on the sources of stress, the effects of stress, to ways on managing and reducing stress. This report will focus first on the effects of stress at work, both mentally and physically. It will explain why management should be concerned with rising employee stress and will describe some actions management can take to alleviate work stress. It will also focus on the different techniques of reducing stress.

Objectives: This study will focus on Stress in an organization, fundamental techniques of It reducing will also stress, include the the cause of stress models for to employees and management’s role in reduction of stress in an organization. different measure ones stress level.

Methodology: Conceptual Base: To refer various management books
(Managing stress), HR Journals (HR Focus, Harvard Business Review, and Human Capital)

Secondary Data: Management books, Internet, Consultants,
Academicians, Business Reviews

Primary Data: The project is basically a sample survey
conducted in NTPC. The motive of selecting this public sector unit is due to its rapidly changing environment. The emphasis was given on the quality of the questionnaire; the questionnaire consisted of questions related to stress at various levels of management, its optimum level, 10 and degree of stress.

Questionnaire consisted of sector specific questions on how to deal with stress & its effect on productivity and job satisfaction.

CHAPTER-2 ABOUT THE ORGANISATION NTPC - AN OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION:
National constitutes a Thermal mega Power Corporation in Ltd., terms of (NTPC) power

national

capability

generating utility in India and has also earned commendable international recognition. The organization is owned by the Government of India and has been accorded the 'NAVARATNA' status by the Government of India. 'Navratna' means 'Nine Gems'. Government of India gives this status to nine best performing public sector units. This number has increased to eleven. Amongst the eleven, the other ten are -

    

Indian Oil Corporation.(IOC) Steel Authority of India Ltd.(SAIL) Gas Authority of India Ltd.(GAIL) Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd.(VSNL) Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd.(BHEL)

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    

Oil & Natural Gas Corporation.(ONGC) Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd.(MTNL) Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd.(BPCL) Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd.(HPCL) Indian Petrochemical Corporation Ltd.(IPCL)

NTPC is the only Navratna with 100% equity holding by the government.

NTPC's ranking world-wide is as under :
1 st in Power Generation Capacity in India. 3 rd in Efficiency among Navaratnas in India. 7 th in Capacity in Asia-Pacific. 9 th in Thermal Power Generation in the world. 15 th in Power Generation in the World.

SOURCE: Seminar on 'Global Electricity Utility Benchmarking
1997' conducted by Market Line International Ltd.,U.K. NTPC performing corporate was established and well, not to authenticated be it the the the of in 1975, to of

accelerate power development in India. Since then it has been unscrupulously responsibility by of adding fulfillment society harming even

unintentionally quality power.

pollution

environment

through its by-products or consistent generation of reliable and

The areas of operation of this premier enterprise may broadly be outlined as engineering, procurement, construction, project management, erection, 12 commissioning, operation &

maintenance. The company also executes transmission lines and sub-station packages in India and abroad and has secured several contracts from within the country and the international market. Over the past two and half years decades, NTPC has become India's prime power house. It has contributed 18,440 MW electricity to the India's total generating capacity of 94,055 MW power through 15 coal-based power plants and 7 gas-based power plants. Another 3200 MW or more is under various stages of construction. Thus, NTPC's capacity is 20% of the total capacity of India. Its contribution to the total power generation of India i.e.,4,48,406 MW is 1,13,840 MW which is more than 25% of the total generation of India. NTPC generates more than 1/4th of the total power generation of India. That is why it is said that every fourth bulb is lighted by NTPC. NTPC added a capacity of 940 MW during the year 199899. This addition is through Vindhyachal-II (500MW), Kayamkulam (230MW) & Unchahar-II(210MW). With this, the installed capacity of the corporation has risen to 17,735MW plus 705MW of Badarpur Power Project , which makes the total installed capacity equal to 18,440MW.A generating capacity of 1115MW is to be added during the year 1999-2000. In India, electricity is produced through various resources such as coal, gas, diesel, water, windmill, nuclear energy etc. Out of which coal and gas contributes nearly 70%, water contributes nearly 26% and other resources 4%. In this, NTPC contributes only through coal and gas as much as 25.4% of the total coal and gas power generating capacity of India. The first 13

power

station

of

NTPC

was

commissioned

at

Singrauli,

Sonebhadra district of U.P. with an installed capacity of 200MW, in 1982.(Details of sector-wise contribution to India's total power is given in Annexure-I and details of all the Annexure-II). existing projects and projects under construction of NTPC is given in

HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE
The Registered Office of the Company also known as NTPC Bhavan is located at Scope Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi. The company is headed by Chairman & Managing Director (CMD) with Functional Directors including Director (Technical), Director (Personnel), Director (Finance), Director (Operation), Director (Commercial) and Director (Projects). The CMD is also assisted by General Manager (Planning) and Executive Director (Vigilance) at the corporate level.

The company has 3-Tier Management Systems namely:
1. Corporate Level Management 2. Regional Level Management 3. Different Site Level Management At Corporate Level , the CMD heads its team of Directors and is assisted by General Manager (Planning) and Executive Director (Vigilance). At Regional Level , the regions are headed by Executive

Directors, who intern report to CMD. There are in all 5 regions Eastern Region (ER), Western Region (WR), Northern Region (NR), Southern Region (SR) and National Capital Region (NCR).

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At Site Level , the sites are under the direct control of General Managers or Additional General Managers, who in turn report to respective Executive Directors.

CORPORATE MISSION
NTPC's mission is to make available reliable and quality power sector in by increasingly planning and large quantity. The company will spearhead the process of accelerated development of the power expeditiously implementing power projects and operating stations economically and efficiently. The company will augment its power generation through tie-ups with other organizations to all-round in areas of conventional by energy its The sources as well as non-conventional energy sources. NTPC will contribute experience abroad, if sector improvement other sharing and expertise in with organizations. with other

company will participate in the execution of power projects necessary collaboration reputed organizations.

CORPORATE OBJECTIVES

  

To add generating capacity, within the prescribed time and cost. To operate and maintain power stations at high availability ensuring minimum cost of generation. To maintain the financial soundness of the company by managing the financial operations in accordance with good commercial utility practices.

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 

To

develop

appropriate

commercial

policy

leading

to

remunerative tariffs and minimum receivable. To function as a responsible Corporate Citizen and discharge responsibility rehabilitation. in respect of environment protection and

To adopt appropriate Human Resources Development policy leading to creation of a team of motivated and competent power professionals.

To

attain

self-sufficiency

in

technology

and

disseminate

knowledge essentially as a contribution to other constituents of the power sector in the country.

  

To

develop

Research

and

Development

for

achieving

improved plant reliability. To expand the consultancy operations and to participate in ventures abroad. To participate in social justice and removing the social inequality.

CORPORATE VISION
NTPC, a front runner in the Indian power sector; to be one of the largest and best power utilities of the world; and thereby contribute to India's emergence as one of the world's leading economies.

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
The R & D center at Noida continues to play an important role in economic power generation. The center has entered into a MOU with Bhabha Atomic 16 Research Center; Australian

Government

for

a

study

on

coal

characteristics;

Trireme

Institute for Industrial Research, Delhi; Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMER), Durgapur and a number of other organisation.

NTPC & THE GOVERNMENT
NTPC signed the Memorandum of Understanding with the Government of India in 1987 for the first time. NTPC has entered into a MOU with the government with commitment for efficient performance and ensuring fair return to the investment. The organisation has been rated "excellent" for eleven consecutive years ever since the inception of MOU system in the country.

QUALITY POWER
The Engineering body M/S Division Lloyd's of the company Quality has been

awarded ISO-9001 certification by the internationally reputed certification Regatta Assurance Ltd.(LRQA),U.K. All stations of NTPC in the Western Region located at Vindhyachal, Kawas, Jhanor-Gandhar, Korba and Balco Captive Power Plant has also been awarded ISO-9002 certification by the Bureau of Indian Standards.

GREEN POWER
NTPC has taken a number of initiatives to improve the performance of its stations in line with its environmental policy. These include institutional strengthening, audit reviews, environmental renovation and monitoring, environmental

retrofitting, ecological impact monitoring and afforestation. One of the examples of this is ash utilization by changing it into fly ash bricks.

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SOCIAL POWER
NTPC, as a responsible citizen, is making constant efforts to improve the socio-economic status of Project Affected Persons (PAPs).The PAPs are sensitized to the change in the social matrix of the area through a greater consultation process by formation of Village Development Advisory Committees and better transparency through establishment of Public Information Center (PI). PAPs are encouraged to participate in planning and implementation of Rehabilitation and Resettlement (R & R) activities. For improving R & R activities, training workshops are organized regular

POWER OF SKILL
NTPC's apex training organisation, the Power Management Institute (PMI) at Noida, was set up to provide vital management development support to meet the challenges in the Indian power sector. It imparts high-end training through its management development programs, research and consultancy. PMI and the Training Centers at various projects organized about 189 training programs covering nearly 4,170 participants during the year 1998-99. PMI has tied up with IIT, Delhi for an accredited course in M.Tech in Power Generation Technology and has plans for such tie-ups with other universities for MBA in power management. Arrangements have also been made to impart Power Engineering Graduation in association with BITS, Pilani, for employees having Diploma in Engineering.

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REWARDS OF POWER
NTPC has continuously won awards year after year which shows how dedicated its people are and how do they follow up the rules and regulations of the company.

  

Its employees have been winning the Prime Minister's Shram Awards for thirteen years in succession. The Corporation has also been receiving Government of India's Meritorious Productivity Award year after year. NTPC's pavilion at the India International Trade Fair, 1998 bagged the Best Pavilion Award in the Public Sector category for the third consecutive year.

The quiz team of NTPC has won the second runner-up trophy at the prestigious national Brand Equity Quiz, 1998

organized by the Economic Times.

The Scope Award for "Excellence in Contribution to Public Sector Management" - individual category for the year 199697 has been given to the CMD, NTPC.

 

Jawahar Lal Nehru Memorial Award for controlling pollution in 1994. Safety Awards from several State Safety Councils-National Safety Council of India, British Safety Council & National Safety Council, U.S.A.

Family Welfare Awards by FICCI.

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EMPLOYEE RELATIONSHIP
Employer-employee Believing in the relations of in NTPC continue to be

cordial and harmonious throughout the life of the organisation. philosophy participate management, employees at all level interact with the management through structured as well as informal meetings. MOU has been signed with employee associations or unions for introduction or the self-contributing Superannuation Benefit (Pension) Scheme. The total human strength of the corporation stands at 23674 as on 31st March 1999, as against 23585 as on 1998 in various power plants and establishment located in various parts of the country. The overall Manpower-MW ratio for the year 1998-99 was 1:1.18. The turnover rate of the executives during the year was as low as 0.81% compared to 1.28% during the previous year.

FUTURE PLANS
The corporation has drawn up an ambitious plan for the new millennium to become a 30,000 MW company by 2007 A.D. and 40,000 MW by 2012. NTPC has at present 16 projects in hand to achieve this target.

THE OBJECTIVES
The study undertaken regarding the Organizational role stress was to know about the major dimensions of stress which the executive’s experience The while performing objectives their of the roles in the thus organization. are as under: • To identify and measure the ten dimensions of Role primary study

conducted with the help of National Thermal Power Corporation

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Stress as given below in NTPC: 1. Inter Role Distance (IRD) 2. Role Stagnation (RS) 3. Role Expectation Conflict (REC) 4. Role Erosion (RE) 5. Role Overload (RO) 6. Role Isolation (RI) 7. Personal Inadequacy (PI) 8. Self-Role Distance (SRD) 9. Role Ambiguity (RA) 10. Resource Inadequacy (RIn) And further to identify the Role Stress, which is mostly experienced by the executives in NTPC. • To study the variation of Role Stress in accordance with the level of responsibility of executives in NTPC. • To study the variation of Role Stress in accordance with the age of executives in NTPC. Through this study an effort has been made to identify the most prominent role stress among the executives in NTPC. Also an assessment of the relationship of role stress with age and level of responsibility has been made. This will help the HRD department to deal with the prevalent situation.

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CHAPTER-3 ABOUT HR NTPC

HR VISION
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“TO ENABLE OUR PEOPLE, TO BE A FAMILY OF COMMITTED WORLD CLASS PROFESSIONALS, MAKING NTPC A LEARNING ORGANIZATION.”

Performance Leadership
 To continuously improve on project execution time and cost in order to sustain long run competitiveness in generation.  To operate & maintain NTPC stations at par with the bestrun utilities in the world with respect to availability, reliability, efficiency, productivity and costs.  To effectively leverage Information Technology to drive process efficiencies.  To aim for performance excellence in the diversification businesses.  To embed quality in all systems and processes.

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Human Resource Development:
 To enhance organizational performance by institutionalizing an objective and open performance management system.  To align individual and organizational needs and develop business leaders by implementing a career development system.  To enhance commitment of employees by recognizing and rewarding high performance.  To build and sustain a learning organization of competent world-class professionals.  To institutionalize core values and create a culture of team building, empowerment, equity, innovation and openness which would motivate employees and enable achievement of strategic objectives.

Financial Soundness:
 To maintain and improve the financial of NTPC by prudent management of the financial resources.  To continuously strive to reduce the cost of capital through prudent management of deployed funds, leveraging opportunities in domestic and international financial markets.  To develop appropriate commercial policies and processes which would ensure.

Remunerative tariffs and minimize receivables.
 To continuously strive for reduction in cost of power generation by improving operating practices.

Sustainable Power Development:

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 To contribute to sustainable power development discharging corporate social responsibilities.

by

 To lead the sector in the areas of resettlement and rehabilitation and environment protection including effective ash-utilization, peripheral development and energy conservation practices.  To lead developmental efforts in the Indian power sector through efforts at policy advocacy, assisting customers in reform, disseminating best practices in the operation and management of power plants etc.

CORPORATE OBJECTIVES
To realize the vision and mission, eight key corporate objectives have been identified. These objectives would provide the link between the defined mission and the functional strategies.

Business Portfolio growth:
 To further consolidate NTPC’s position as the leading power generation company in India and establish a presence hydropower segment.  To broad base the generation mix by evaluation conventional and non-conventional sources of energy to ensure long run competitiveness and mitigate fuel risks.

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 To diversify across the power value chain in India by considering backward and forward integration into areas such as power trading, transmission, distribution, coal mining, coal beneficiation, etc.  To develop a portfolio of generation assets in international markets.  To establish a strong services brand in the domestic and international markets.

Customer Focus:
 To foster a collaborative style of working with customers, growing to be a preferred brand for supply of quality power.  To expand the relationship with existing customers by offering a bouquet of services in addition to supply of power e.g. trading, energy consulting, distribution consulting, management practices.  To expand the future customer portfolio through profitable diversification into downstream businesses, inter alia retail distribution and direct supply.  To ensure rapid commercial decision making, using customer specific information, with adequate concern for the interests of the customer.

Agile Corporation :
 To ensure effectiveness in business decisions and responsiveness to changes in the business environment by:  Adopting a development. portfolio approach to new business

 Continuous and coordinate assessment of the business environment to identify and respond to opportunities and threats.  To develop a learning co-organization having knowledgebased competitive edge in current and future businesses.

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 To effectively leverage Information Technology to ensure speedy decision-making across the organization.

EMPLOYEE BENEFIT
1. LEAVE TRAVEL CONCESSION
All employees & their family member employed in the regular establishment including a probationer, a lien holder, a deputationist, and a person appointed on contract for a period of two years or more, with one year’s continuous service.

ENTITLEMENT:
‘Entitle Class’ means the class and mode of travel applicable as per traveling allowance rules of the company subject to the condition that the travel by air or 1 st class AC by rail permissible to employees in the grade of E6 and above.

2. MEDICAL ATTENDENCE & TREATMENT RULES:

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Applicability
All regular employees, trainees and apprentices (other than Act apprentices) and their family members.

TREATMENT AT PLACES WHERE FULL FLEDGED COMPANY HOSPITALS/DISPENSARIES EXIST.
All employees and their family members are entitled to free medical attendance and treatment in NTPC hospitals/Dispensaries

3. ENCASHMENT OF EARNED LEAVE
 Admissible to all regular employees  75% of total EL is treated as encashable.

4. HALF PAY LEAVE
Executive, supervisor & workmen are entitled to HPL @ 20 days per calendar year HPL is not admissible to Trainees/ apprentices and employee on contact Half pay for this purpose means half of the basic day. All other allowance are paid in full.

5. Admissible Benefits/Facilities
The sponsored employee is normally expected to stay in the accommodation available with institution where study is undertaken. However if any accommodation is not provided by the institute, some assistance towards HRA as prescribed under the riled in lieu may be sanctioned.  Examination fee  Traveling allowance  All of pocket allowance

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6. REIMBURSMENT OF MEMBERSHIP PROFESSIONAL BODIES/ INSTITUTES

FEES

FOR

Reimbursement of membership fees for professional bodies/Institutes is admissible to executives in respect of professional bodies/ Institutes duly registered in India or setup under and act/statue in India and which is relevant to the concerned executive profession/ field of work and allied field. The scheme provides for reimbursement of membership/admission fee and annual/periodic institutes for which the reimbursement may be allowed is limited to two in case of executives in the rank of managers and above and one for executive in the ranks of deputy manager and below.

7. INTERNET CONNECTION MEMBERSHIP OF BODIES/INSTITUTES:

IN LIEU OF PROFESSIONAL

To assist executives and employees in selection grade in their professional development and to make NTPC a learning organization, it has been decided to reimburse charges for internet connection at residence on production of proof of payment subject to a maximum of Rs 2000/- per annum, in lieu of one membership of professional body/ Institutes

8) EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT SCHEMES
The company provides opportunities and facilities to employees to obtain the following qualification:

 Qualification equivalent to class 8 th
  Qualification equivalent to Matric Qualification equivalent to Graduation.

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9) Workers Education Scheme
The scheme operated in collaboration with the central board of workers education, covers all employees in the workman category irrespective of their educational qualification. Books and stationary are provided free of cost to all the participants in the program. Thirty minutes times off per day is given for attending classes. On the successful completion of the course the participants are awarded certificates to that effect. The participants adjusted first second and third best trainees are given cash awards from Rs 51/- to 201/-

EMPLOYEE SERVICES
HR DEPARTMENT act as employer of the organization on the behalf of the management. The functions dealt by hr ranges from recruitment to provide training to regularizing various entitlements of employees to provide training to regularizing various entitlements of employees, marinating good employee relation, welfare practices, implementation of various HR initiatives of the company, furniture and sitting space to employees, providing residential accommodation to employees company school, guest house, ladies club, Liason with RWA and participate in various activities concerned with social responsibility of the company. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. HR Employees Benefits HR Employees Services HR Employees Relation and Welfare HR Industrial Engineering and Employee Development Public Relations Law Section Raj- Bhasha Corporate Social Responsibility HR Employee Development Centre

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VARIOUS HR SECTION AT BTPS An employee services is an important section of HR
department which provides services in order to them best. We did our training in the services environment provided by this section are         the employees at BTPS a variety of perform their duties to their level HR department and tried to analyze over there. The various services as follows:

House Allotment Lease Tele Communication Dispatch BTPS Canteen Stationary and Furniture Meeting and function arrangements Rent payment for employees houses

HOUSE ALLOTMENT
House allotment facility is one of the employees services provided to the employees at BTPS by the HR department. This facility can be availed by every according to hid entitlement. This is one interest of the employees that whether they want to avail the facility or not.

LEASE
House accommodation facility at BTPS is provided to both Exercise as well as non-executives. In case, if the employees have their own house or wants to live outside the premises of the company then”  The executives can take lease instead of accommodation provided to them by the company  And the non-executives are given HRA(house allowance) in place of house accommodation facility. the rent

WHAT IS LEASE
Lease is the contract of house or accommodation for a given period of time.

31

TELECOMMUNICATION
BTPS provides its employees with the communication facility that varies for different level of employees. The basic communication facility provided by BTPS is to all level employee, offices, departments, townships, CISF security and all the other areas within its premises is the intercom facility, communication becomes so easy and the time factor is saved to a great extent. Videoconferencing and fax are also included in the services provided by HR-ES at BTPS to its entitled employees. Videoconferencing at BTPS has been made possible though BRI lines. A part from intercom facility all the executives and above are also provided with the landline and mobile facility according to the entitlements. Lower level executive are provided with the cell phone and landline facilities while the upper level executives can procure both mobile phones as well as landline facility.

DISPATCH
Dispatch is one of the major services provided by the HR—ES. This is an important medium, which facilitates communication both externally as well as internally to it and in the station. The important mails are delivered to departments and concerned people through messengers specially employed for the purpose. Various types of documents are received as well as dispatched. The documents includes        Postal Official Non-official Registry Speed Post Parcel Courier

32

EMPLOYEE RELATION AND WELFARE
This department handle; the relation of industrial relation and welfare of employees and workers. Employee relations may be defined as those policies and practices, which are concerned with the management and regulation of relations between the organization, the individual, staff member and group of staff within the working environment. So employee relations is all about maintaining harmonious relationships between employers and employees and employees. Employee relation’ strategy in the company is aimed at fostering a maintaining a good relationship based on concern for productivity, employee growth and development and welfare consistent with the growth of the company. In conducting industrial relations the management lay emphasis in participative style involving the union/association for sharing of information and participation in decision making. Suitable forums are created for various interest groups to interact on matters on mutual concern and thus develop a sense of participation and belongings to the organization in the day to day working. Every employees is given importance and a status in order to gives feeling of being important and a status in order to gives feeling of being important to the organization in achieving the organizational goals and objectives:

Sound employees relation are based on:

33

 Effective mechanism for communication and participation.  A safe effective work environment.  Commitment and motivation of all staff.

Objectives of this department
 To safeguard the interest of labor and management by fostering highest level of misunderstanding and good will among different section of the plant.  To avoid industrial conflict or strife and develop harmonious relations which are essential for productivity of workers.  To lessen the tendency of high turn over and frequent absenteeism.

Participants of employee relations are:
 Workers and their organization  Manders and their association  Government

This department also handles misconduct of employees, which includes loss, waste of company’s property,

misbehaving with peers, superiors or subordinates when an employee disrupts the office with aggressiveness and abusive behavior affecting the morale and performance of others, an employee has a leave abusive problem or other time and attendance problem. Theft, violence and conviction of a criminal offence during the course of employment and willful disobedience to reasonable

34

employer requests have been kind of conduct, which gas traditionally been viewed as serious conduct

Minor conducts are handled by giving warnings and memos. If the misconduct is of medium nature, is a charge sheet is prepared against the person and an enquiry committee is set up for investigation, after the completion of which the punishment is decided. If the misconduct is of serious nature, the person is suspended and then a charge sheet is prepared against the person and an enquiry committee is set-up for investigation, after the completion of which may be dismissed.

CHAPTER-4 ABOUT STRESS
"Stress is very much a part of a manager's job. He must learn not only to cope with it, but use it to help him work better". Modern life is full of stress. As an organisation becomes more complex, of the the potential for for stress stress. increases. Stress is Urbanization, an inevitable industrialization, and increase in scale of operations are some reasons rising consequence of socio-economic complexity and to some extent it is a stimulant as well. People experience stress, as they can no longer have complete control over what happens in their lives. They’re being no escape from stress in modern life; we need to find ways of using stress productively, and reducing dysfunctional stress. Even as stress is inevitable in today's complex life, so is it necessary for human progress. It is like a musical instrument, where an optimum stress is needed to 35

produce

good

music,

loose

wires

(less

stress)

would

not

produce the notes and too much tautness (too much stress) might result in screeching. A distinction has been made between productive or functional stress (stress for creative work, entrepreneurial activities etc.) and dysfunctional stress (stress of boredom, unmanageable conflicts, over worker etc. the former has been called estruses and the latter distress. Rapid industrialization and mechanization have changed the way of life of humans at home and at work. The corporate rat race is made are to order to rattle people. More and more executives suffering from stress and stress-induced

problems like hypertension, increased turnover, absenteeism, decreased productivity etc. this has created a lot of panic. It is thus necessary to understand executive stress. A manger's role is essentially to get resources from owners, work from the worker and convert the resources and work into results. This role looks very simple. But in practice it is very complicated because neither the resources nor the work is given - it has to be extracted. Thus, it is said, 'if you are going to be a manager, you will have to face tension. If you do not want tension, be a consultant". Tension or stress is thus inevitable for a manager. An organization, two individuals may be identical regarding their position, but may differ in terms of the abilities, motives, moods and above all the personality as a whole. These persona differences predisposing interact with organizational for stress factors and that create may conditions experiences

influence the overall performance of the individual.

36

ROLE STRESS
Interest in organizational stress has increased a great deal in recent years. There has been a spate of writings on managerial and executive stress. Researchers came with the definition of role as the position occupied by a person as defined by the expectations of significant persons, including the role occupant, indicates that there are inherent problems in the performance of a role, and therefore stress is inevitable. Since the concept due to of “role” is inextricably on the linked moulding with of

‘expectations”, the organizational factors and context assume importance their influence prescriptions and proscriptions associated with a particular, position. These could be looked upon as structural components organizational processes. Authoritative organizational structure and control systems area potent source of stress as they are seen to breed dependency, afford little scope for initiative an creativity in role enactment and channelize behaviors along narrowly defined paths. In the concept of role proposed above, several variables are involved he self, the other roles, the expectations held by the other roles, the situations in which there is no conflict among the variables. The very nature of role has built in potential for conflict these variables. The very nature of role has potential built in for conflict or stress. Thus conflict is a natural and “ an in

variable in role performance. Kann an Quinn ( 1970) have proposed a response inferred definition of stress experiments or noxious stimulus with general results

37

psychological change, behavioral change, perceptual change, affective change an in both overt

cognitive

and intrapsychic

coping efforts. “ Role conflict” has been defined in terms, of conflicting expectations. The main characteristic of conflict is the incompatibility of some variables relating to the role of an individual which many have some consequences for the individual’s role performance. The word ‘strain’ has been used in the literature to denote the effect of stress on the individual. The word ‘pressure’ has also been used. Buck (1972) defines ‘job pressure’ as the resultant psychological state of the individual when the perceives that (1) conflicting forces and incompatibility commitments are being made upon him in connection with his work, (2) at least one of the forces of demands is an induced one, and (3) the forces and recurrent or stable over time. Several studies have shown that role stress or pressure is very bad for mental and physical health. Although conflict, role and stain have been given different connotations, we do not find any use in making such finer distinctions, and shall use them interchangeably. Role conflict or stress need not necessarily be negative. As Klausner (1968) has suggested, success in business, sports, and politics depends on stress-seeking tendency. Kiretz and Moos (1974) have proposed three factors in the effect of stress: kind of adjustment required, perception of control over stress-source, and valence (loss-for example in death, vs. gain – for example, in marriage or business). Bernard (21968) proposed two types of stress: ‘dystress’ (unpleasant stress) and ‘estruses’ (pleasant stress). Stress is a necessary factor in the success of people in organizations. However, if the stress experienced goes beyond a particular level, it may adversely

38

affect

the

individual’s

performance

and

psychological

and

physical health. Several systems of classification have been used to discuss role conflict and stress. Kahn and Quinn (1970) have classified role stress under tree main headings: expectation generated stress in which they include role ambiguity and role conflict: expectations resource discrepancies, in which they include role overload, responsibility-authority dilemma and inadequate technical information; and role and personality. We find it more functional to use the two main role constellations as areas of conflict and stress. Marshall and Cooper (1979) have suggested seven sources and therefore classification of managerial stress: (1) job (working conditions, overload) (2) Organisational role (role ambiguity, role conflict, responsibility, etc.), (3) relationships at work (relationships with superiors, relationships with colleagues (4) career development (lack of job security, status incongruity), (5) Organizational structure and climate (7) the individual (psychometric literature). In view of the two proposed concepts of role systems (role space and role set), we shall discuss role conflicts or stress under these two categories. Five main role stresses or conflicts in the role space of an individual have been identified. 1. Self-role distance: This is the conflict between the selfconcept and the expectations from the role as perceived by the role occupant. If a person occupies a role, which he may subsequently find conflicting with his self-concept, he feels the stress. For example, a usually introvert person, who is characteristics, behavior patterns, self-help

39

fond of studying and writing, may have self-role distance if he accepts the role of a salesman in an organization and come to realize that the expectations from the roles would include his meeting people and being social. Such conflicts are fairly common, although these may not be so severe. 2. Intra-role

conflict:

Since

the

individual

learns

to

develop expectations as a result of his socialization and identification with significant others, it is quite likely that he sees some incompatibility between the two expectations from his own role. For example, the a professor of may see incompatibility between expectations teaching

students and that of doing research. These inherently may not be conflicting but the individual may perceive these as incompatible. . 3. Role Stagnation: As the individual grows physically, he also grows in the role he occupies in an organisation. With the advancement of the individual, his role changes and with this change in role, the need for his taking his new role becomes crucial. This is the problem of role growth. This becomes an acute problem especially when an individual has occupied a role for a long time, and he enters another role in which he may feel less secure. However, the demand of the new role is for the individual to out-grow his previous role and occupy the new role effectively. This produces some stress in the individual. Role stagnation also includes stress related to career

progression. Marshall and Cooper (1979) have commented on this type of stress in the American context. A lot of this is true of India, as Marshall and Cooper (1979) have commented, career progression is perhaps a problem by its nature. At 40

middle age, and usually middle-management levels, career becomes more problematic and most executives find their progress slowed, if not actually stopped. Job opportunities become fewer, those jobs that are available take longer to master, past (mistaken?) decisions cannot be revoked, old knowledge and methods become obsolete, energies may be flagging or demanded for family activities and there is the ‘press’ of fresh young recruits to face in competition. The fear of demotion or obsolescence can be strong for those who know they have reached their career coiling – and most will inevitably suffer some erosion of status before they finally retire. From the company perspective, on the other hand, McMurray (1973) puts the case for not promoting to a higher position if there is doubt that the employee can fill it. In a syndrome he labels ‘the executive neurosis’, he describes the over-promoted manager as grossly over working to keep down a top job, and at the same time of hide his insecurity, work and points to the the is consequences ‘young man’s this for The his performance with which and society

company. Age is no longer revered as it was – it is becoming a world’. rapidity developing technologically economically and socially) is likely to mean that individuals will now need to change career during their working life (as companies and products are having to do). Such trends breed uncertainty and research suggests that older workers look for stability. Unless managers adapt their expectations to suit new circumstances career development stress, especially in later life, is likely to become an increasingly common experience.

41

4. Inter-role Distance: An individual occupies more than one role. There may be conflicts between two roles he occupies. For example, an executive often faces the conflicts between his organizational role as an executive and his family role as the husband from his wife and children and the father. The demands to share his time may be

incompatible with the organizational demands on him for spending a lot of time on Organisational problems. Such inter-role conflicts are quite frequent in modern society when the individual is increasingly occupying multiple roles in various organisations and groups. Marshall and Cooper (1979) have mentioned two problems

regarding manager’s relationships with his family and wife: time and spillover of stress from one to the other. Rappel and Paul (1971) found that the majority of wives in their middleclass sample saw their role in relation to their husband’s job as a cooperative, domestic one; all said that they derived their sense of security from their husbands (only two men said the same of their wives). Barber (1976) interviewing five directors’ wives finds similar attitudes. Gowler and Legge (1975) have dubbed this bond ‘the hidden contract’ in which the wife agrees to act as a ‘supportive team’ so that her husband can fill the demanding job to which he aspires. Handy (1975) supports the idea that this is typical, and that it is the path to career success for the manager concerned. 5. Role Boundness: If an individual feels highly obligated to the expectations of significant role senders, and sacrifices his own interests, preferences, values, comforts etc., he may be said to be role bounded. He may experience the conflict between his tendency to live as a person, and live as a role. For

42

example, in the traditional Indian homes, the boys experienced the conflict between their “son role” and their living as persons giving preferences to their “son role”. Indian culture promoted such role bounded ness. .

Role Set Conflicts
An may individual have occupying a particular role may from have him. some Such

expectations from his role. Interacting with him (role senders) quite different expectations incompatible expectations and other problems arising in the role set are called role set stress or conflicts. Some of these discussed below. As Marshal and Cooper (1979) have pointed out, role ambiguity exists when an individual has inadequate information about his work role, i.e. where there is lack of clarity about the work objectives associated with the role, about work colleagues' expectation of the work role and about the scope and responsibilities of the job. Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek and Rosenthal (1964) found in their study that men who suffered from role ambiguity experienced lower job satisfaction, high job-related tension, greater futility and lower self-confidence. French and Caplan (1973) found, at one of NASA's bases, in a sample of 205 volunteer engineers, scientists and administrators, that role ambiguity was significantly related to low job satisfaction and to feelings of job-related threat to one's mental and physical well-being. This also related to indicators of physiological strain such as increased blood pressure and pulse rate. Margolis, Kroes and Quinn (1974) also found a number of significant relationships between symptoms or indicators of physical and mental ill health with role ambiguity in their representative national sample (n-1496). The 43

stress indicators related to role ambiguity were depressed mood, the job. lowered Whilst self-esteem these were life not dissatisfaction, very strong job dissatisfaction, low motivation to work and intention to leave statistical relationships they were significant and do indicate that lack of role clarity may be one among many potential stress’s at work. Kahn (1973) feels that it is now time to separate out distinctive elements of role ambiguity for individual treatment (just as he and his research He team have done that for 'overload' components and are 'responsibility'). suggests two

involved; those of present, and future-prospects ambiguity (much of the material he assigns to the latter is here included under 'role stagnation'). 2. Role overload: When the role occupant feels that there are too many expectations from the significant roles in his role set, he experiences 'role overload'. They measured this stress by asking questions about the feeling of people whether they could possibly finish work given to them during the modified work day and whether they felt that amount of work they did might interfere with how well it was done. Most of the executive role occupants experience role overload. Kahn and Quinn (1970) have suggested some conditions under which role overload is likely to occur. According to them, role overload is likely to occur more in the absence of mechanism of role integration, in the absence of power of role occupants, in the large variations in the expected output and when delegation or assistance cannot procure more time. Marshall and Cooper (1979) have summarised the recent work on quantitative and qualitative overload. Quantitative refers to having 'too much to do' while qualitative means work that is 44

'too difficult'. (The complementary phenomena of quantitative and qualitative underload are also hypothesized as potential source of stress but with little or no supportive research evidence). Miller (1969) has theorized that 'overload' in most systems leads to breakdown, whether we are dealing with single biological cells or individuals in organizations. In an early study French and Chaplain (1970) found that objective quantitative overload was strongly linked to cigarette smoking (a sign of tension and risk factor in CHD). Persons with more phone calls, office visits and meetings per given unit of work time were found to smoke significantly more cigarettes than persons with fewer such engagements. In a study of 100 young coronary patients Russek and Zohman (1958) found that 25% had been working at two jobs and an additional 45% had worked at jobs which required (due to work overload) 60 or more hours per week. They add that although prolonged emotional strain proceeded the attack in 91% of the cases similar stress was only observed in 20% of the controls. Breslow and Buell (1960) have also reported findings which support a relationship between hours of work and death from coronary diseases. In an investigation of mortality rates of men in California they observed that workers in light industry under the age of 45 who are in the job more than 48 hours a week have twice the risk of death from CHD compared with similar workers working 40 or under hours a week. Another substantial investigation on quantitative workload was carried out by Margolis, Kroes and Quinn (1974) on a representative national sample of 1496 employed persons aged 16 or older. They fond that overload was significantly related to a number of symptoms or indictors of stress; escapist drinking, absenteeism from work, low motivation to work, lowered self-esteem and an 45

absence of suggestions to employers. The result from these and other studies (Quinn, Seashore and Mangione, 1971; Porter and Lawyer, 1965) are relatively consistent and indicate that this factor is indeed a potential source of occupational stress that affects both health and job satisfaction. There is also some evidence that (for some occupations)

'qualitative' overload is a source of stress. French, Tupper and Mueller (1965) looked at qualitative and quantitative work overload in a large university. Qualitative overload was not significantly linked to low self-esteem among the administrators but was significantly correlated for the professors. The greater the 'quality' of work expected of the professor the lower the self-esteem. They also found that qualitative and quantitative overload were correlated with achievement orientation. More interestingly it was found in a follow-up study that achievement orientation (Brooks reported an correlated Mueller, very of strongly with serum uric acid have with and 1966). Several other work studies overload

association

qualitative

cholesterol level; a tax deadline for accountants (Friedman, Rosenman and Carroll, 1958) and medical students performing a medical examination under observation (Dreyfuss and Czackes, 1959). French and Caplan (1973) summarize this research overload tension, by suggesting that both qualitative and quantitative produce and lower at least nine threat, different job symptoms of job high physical strain; dissatisfaction,

psychological

self-esteem,

embarrassment,

cholesterol levels, increased heart rate, skin resistance and more smoking. In analyzing this date however one cannot ignore the vital interactive relationship of the job and employee; objective work overload for example should not be

46

viewed in isolation but as relative to the individual's capacities and personality. 4. Role Isolation: In role stress, the role occupant may feel that certain roles are psychologically near to him, while some other roles are at a distance. The main criterion of role-role distance of frequency and ease interaction. When linkages are strong, the role-role distance will be low. In the absence of strong linkage, the role-role distance can therefore, be measured in terms of existing and desired linkages. The gap between the desired and the existing linkages will indicate the amount of distance between the two roles. Marshall and Cooper (1979) have suggested one main source of managerial stress connected with relationships at work. French and Caplan (1973) define poor relations as those which include low trust, low supportiveness and low interest in listening to and trying to deal with problems that confront the organizational member. The most notable studies in this area are by Kahn, et al. (1964), French and Caplan (1970) and Buck (1972). Both the Kahn, et al. and French and Caplan studies came to roughly the same conclusion that mistrust of persons one worked with was positively related to high role ambiguity which led to inadequate communications between people and to psychological strain in the form of low job satisfaction and to feeling of job-related threat to one's well being. It was interesting to note, however, in the Kahn, et al. study that poor relations with one's subordinates was significantly related to feelings of threat with colleagues and superiors but not in relationship to threat with subordinates.

47

Buck (1972) focused on the attitude and relationship of workers and managers The to their immediate on factor boss was using Fleishman's initiating with leadership structure. questionnaire consideration and

consideration

associated

behaviors indicative of friendship. He found that those workers who felt that their boss was low on 'consideration' reported feeling more job pressure. Workers who were under pressure reported that their boss did not give them criticism in helpful way, played favorites with subordinates and 'pulled rank' and took advantage of them whenever they got a chance. Buck concludes that the 'lack of considerate behaviour of supervisors appears to have contributed significantly to feelings of job pressure. 4.

Role Erosion: A role occupant may feel that some

functions which he would like to perform are being performed by some other role. The stress felt may be called 'role erosion'. Role erosion is the subjective feeling of an individual that some important role expectations he has from his role do not match with the expectations other roles have for him. Role erosion is likely to be experienced in an organisation which is redefining its role an creating new roles. In several organisations which were redefining their structure, the stress of role erosion was inevitably felt. In one organization, one role was abolished and two roles were created to cater to the executives and planning needs. This led to a great stress in the role occupants of both roles who experienced role erosion. 5 . Role inadequacy: Role inadequacy refers to two types of feelings; a) that the role occupant does not have adequate resources to perform the role effectively, and (b) that he is not

48

fully

equipped

(lacks

internal

resources)

for

effective

performance of the role.

ROLE STRESS
It is an attempt to compared the organizational role stress among executives of the Personnel and Administration department of the Corporate Office of three Public Sector Organisations, namely Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL), Engineers India Limited (EIL), and Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOC). An attempt was also made to the respondents were classified according to their designation categories senior managers, middle managers and junior managers of the middle management - as specific to the hierarchical positions in their respective in organisations. the Such a classification which was was basically made to find out whether it was the position of the respondents organizational hierarchy contributing to the stress to the individuals. According to Srivastava , and Sen. achievement stresses need, type of (1995), stress results from and organizational

a combination of various individual characteristics (such as age, personality) (role conflict, role ambiguity). Stress may also result

from a variety of organizational, supervisory, individual, and work factors. Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snock, and Rosenthal (1964) identified two primary factors of organizational stress, nearly role ambiguity and role conflict. Selye (1956), the father of modern stress, defined stress as the non-specific response of the body to any demand made upon it. McMichael (1978) defined it in terms of the product of a dynamic mismatch between an individual and his or her physical, social, and psychological environment. Stress, in general, is the psychological or physiological reaction that occurs when people 49

perceive an imbalance between the demands placed upon them and their capacity to met those demands, and stress, specific to work environments, is the reaction of individuals to new or threatening factors in their work environment. The personality characteristics of the individual, the environmental characteristics, i.e., the stimulus of the external force active on the organism, and the person environment interaction, i.e., the overall prevailing ethos of interpersonal behaviors it is contended that stress can originate from an o these factors or in combinations thereof. In other words, it originates from organizational demands, which are experiences by a individual. Recent reviews of literature have examined various

organizational variables and their effects on work stress. These include factors intrinsic to the job (e.g. boredom, information overload, time pressures, etc.) role in the regularization (e.g. under promotion, over-promotion, lack of security, etc.) and organizational climate (lack of participation, pressures towards conformity, etc). the person-environment paradigm emphasizes the view that having too little to do is as stressful for the individual as being overloaded with work. As an individual phenomenon, stress is a personal response to a certain variation in the environment. Singh and Singh (1992), say that in an organization, two individuals may be identical regarding their position, but may differ in terms of the abilities, motives, moods and above all the personality as a whole. These personal differences interact with organizational factors and create predisposing conditions for the stress experiences is its that may influence the overall i.e., its performance of the individual. Another important dimension of organization psychological atmosphere

50

climate. organizational climate has been studied in terms of those characteristics that distinguish the organization from other organizations and that influence the behaviour of people in the origination. Each organization differs from the other not only in structure but also in the attitudes and behaviour it elicits in people. Litwin and Stringer (1968) stated that organizational climate refers to a set of measurable properties of the work environment, perceived directly or indirectly by the people who live and work in its environment and assume to influence motivation and behaviour of the employee. They identified structure, nine dimensions of organizational risk, climate viz. responsibility, reward, warmth, support,

conflict, identity and standards. According to study by Ahmed and Jha (1989), human beings prefer jobs that possess characteristics like variety, autonomy, and task significance. Increased participation in decision making have a significant negative effect on role conflict and role ambiguity. Social support also plays a moderating role in reducing individual stress. In other words, persons with high social support are assumed to express a lower stress-strain relationship. Their study also revealed that the employees lower in the organizational hierarchy experience more stress and strain but less supervisory support than the employees higher in to hierarchy. The employees who had risen from lower ranks (those of workers, for example) have little experience of manpower -management, need to drive hard to achieve targets set by management, and are also influenced by the workers unions. The employees in the higher grades, however, do not have to face such situations.

51

The stress an individual expresses as a result of the fact that there are too many expectations, regarding his or her role, from the significant others in his role set. Bharti, Nagarathnamma, and Reddy (1991) and Ahmad and Khanna (1992) found that occupational stress was significantly related to job satisfaction: greater stress accompanied with lower satisfaction. However, the latter study also found that occupational affect the stress was of negatively tension in related Public with Sector job Units involvement. According to Venna (1993) the factors, which can development employees, may either be personal and /or environmental. Personal factors are those factors which are related to the individual e.g. age, sex, intelligence, physical ability, et. Environmental factors are those factors, which are related to the surroundings of the individual e.g. family, culture, job environment, etc. Stress is the most frequently used word in the workplace today, raising tempers, lowering productivity, and having an insidious impact on both morale and bottomlines. According to Chakraborty, Director of Management Centre for Human Values at the Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta, values in corporations have collapsed, and stress is a repercussion of that. In other words, if the values are put back into corporate life, the stress will disappear Bose 1996). According to Selye, top stressors at work include, overload, deadline pressures, demanding bosses, non-performing juniors, competitive pairs, excessive touring, domestic disharmony. Most of all, it is the increasing uncertainty in today's corporate world that is leading to so much executive stress. Another factor that can badly stress employees whether they feel useful n a organization or

52

peripheral. To really bring about long-term stress relief, it will mean acknowledging that stress will be constant companion demanding constant attention (Bose 1996). A 1993 study by Northwestern National Life Insurance Company concluded that job stress generally is a consequence of two key ingredients: a high level of job demands and little control over one's work. An atmosphere where employees are empowered, where they have more control over how they perform their work, reduces the risk of burnout and stress considerably (Froiland 1993), Bharti, Nagarathnamma, and Reddy (1991) found that occupational stress was significantly related to job stupefaction: satisfaction. organizational individual. Srivastava, Hagtavet and Sen (1994) fond that middle Greater demands, stress which accompanied stress are with lower from by an Organizational originates experienced

managers suffer maximally in organizational role stress and anxiety, followed by workers and top managers. The liability or difficulty in meeting the various expectations caused stress. The study also revealed that the same stressful event can be perceived quite differently by top mangers, middle managers, and even by workers, this perception may depend on what the situation means to individuals at their own level. An evaluation of the situation by each of them in relation to themselves determines the degree of stress they face. Stress-in terms of adverse effect, its cost to human resources, material, and progress- is tremendous. Management within an organization should function so as to maximize the coordination of human resources and work system and to minimize conflict.

53

A study by Froiland (1993), suggested that greater autonomy, team work and balanced workload can have significant impact on reducing workload can have a significant impact on reducing stress on employees. Greater autonomy implies giving the employee some autonomy and listening to his or her ideas. To give them the job and let them figure out how to do it, or let them do it in small, self-managed teams rather than through a highly bureaucratic pyramid structure. This helps reduce stress. Teams can serve as a mechanism to increase control and communication. Work teams give employees more ownership of their jobs. Most of us draw emotional support not just from families and friends but from the people with whom we work. Downsizing and restructuring efforts tear apart those support systems, producing stress. We're beginning to move away from a more traditional, hierarchical management structure, to empowerment. But as a switch to empowerment is a stressor in itself, because it represents a very significant change and change causes stress. The 1991 study by Northwestern National Life Insurance Company also found that the most stressful part of the job was too much work, long hours and deadline pressures. The study also found that employees who were expected to work overtime became less productive and were more prone to burnout. Yet reducing hours was not recommended as a cure for job stress. Thus, it is not lesser working hours that will help reduce stress but a balanced workload. There's the mistaken belief that long hours equal high productivity. In most cases that's simply not true (Froiland 1993). Workplace stress is endemic to a market economy: Do it better, faster, before the competition overtakes you. The Big Four self

54

care skills (eating well, staying physically fit, not smoking and maintaining a desirable weight) that are at the core of most stress-management programs, actually have a negligible effect on people's ability to cope with work pressures and rapid change. According to the findings of Essi Systems inc. (ESI) in San Francisco, a stress-research consulting firm, the only factor with any significant impact on a person's ability to withstand work pressures is what Esther Orioli President (ESI) calls "Personal Power" - having control over your time, resources, important information, work load and so on. According o him it's not the volume of work or work demand that makes people sick, it is the extent to which they feel they (lack) control over their work and their workplace. As the pace and intensity of work increases, so does the need for control. In order to tackle the organizational aspects effectively,

researchers recommend the use of stress audits like: • • • Redesign the task Analyze the work roles and establish goals Include the employee in career development.

It is, therefore, not surprising that faced with the complex nature of stress and how to deal it, it is difficult to answer the questions already about the effectiveness of the of stress management. the question Furthermore, adding this complex organizational picture to the complex make-up individual, becomes even harder to answer. There is, however, enough evidence to work on the premise that well carried out stress management interventions by appropriately qualified practitioners are beneficial for the individual and organization. Employees need to be made more aware of the issues to make

55

informed decisions about investment in stress management. For them, the effective stress management is one that will reduce or minimize role ambiguity and role expectation conflict, thus minimizing absenteeism and premature retirement, and will maximize employee productivity and leading to increased company profits.

Personality Characteristics
Play an important role n the development of stress. Jenkins (1971) arrived at a coronary prone Behavioural pattern. Individuals who are subject to this syndrome are characterized by extreme competitiveness, an urge to achieve, aggression, haste, impatience, restlessness, hyperlaterness, tension and time pressure. Roserman and Friedman called this mental and behavioral pattern, the type A behavior. Some psychologists feel that this type of behavioral is an extreme variant of what is socially highly recommended and positively rewarded. Other think that Type-A behavior is dysfunctional and tat the better jobs are only for the quiet, detached, contemplative Type -B (Mathews, 1982). Glass (1977) has theorized that A -types demonstrate hyperresponsiveness with regard to challenging situations, meaning that they always expose themselves to fight situations. If they fail to succeed, they will, much more so than B-types, start to achieve less and experience learned helplessness. Luzarus found that the way in which a person interprets a situation is of great importance for the occurrence or non-occurrence of stress

56

problems. The interpretation of a situation is related to an individuals personality structure. A very competitive person will regard a situation in which he had the worst of it as more threatening than someone who is not competitive. Other personality characteristics which are of significance in stress research are rigidity, conformism, suppression internal of aggression, dogmatism, authoritarianism, versus

external control etc. (Winnubst, 1984).

Role Overload
It is described as a condition in which the individual is faced with a set of obligations which require him to do more than he is able to in the time available (ales, 1969). In the case of too many activities, we speak of quantitative overload, when an individual has perform tasks that are too difficult for him, we speak of qualitative overload (French and Caplan, 1972). The bearer may be bombarded by expectations; a force which he eventually cannot cope with. A sensible tactic then is to organize 'role negotiation' or 'role bargaining' (Harrison, 1973) where by the threatened individual tries to organize hi obligations with or without outside help. In research on middle management (Van Vucht Tijssen et al, 1978), role overload was shown to be related to physical complaints and even more clearly to greater obesity, higher blood pressure and more smoking. Thus role overload is an element to be rejected within

organizations, especially because of the higher risk of illness and exhaustion. However, it is still not clear whether selfinflicted overload and overload inflicted by other make a significant difference.

57

Role Conflict
It is the simultaneous occurrence of two or more sets of pressures, such that compliance with one would make more difficult compliance with the other (Kahn et al, 1964). some professions are characterized by a higher degree of role conflict than others. To be in a role conflict situation is often associated with little job-satisfaction, obesity and a higher coronary risk (Kahn et al, 1964; Shirom et al, 1973 and Caplan et al, 1975). Role conflict emerged as an important stressor (Sharma, 1983), although there are indications that this is more the case for the white collar professions than for blue collar factor workers.

Role Ambiguity
Sometimes people working in organizations do not have

sufficient information about what they are expected to do and especially about how they are to perform a task. In the Dutch research on middle management (Vanvucht

Tijssen et al, 1978) ambiguity emerged as the most powerful stressor. Too much role ambiguity correlated significantly with psychological and psychosomatic complaints, with higher heart beat frequency, with concern for personal functioning and with higher absenteeism. In India, contrary to the findings of Das (1982) who has reported that role ambiguity is not a significant cause of stress, the researchers Rao, 1981). in general have expressed as serious concern about role ambiguity as a stress inducing factor (Pareek and

58

Role Stagnation and Midlife Crisis
The feeling of being fixed in their role within the organization is one of the most frightening experiences. More threatening is monotonous work or work lacking in challenge 1965;; Shepherd, 1971). Middle age is an especially for problematic those in period for many higher (Kornhauser

employees

particularly

middle

and

management. Room at the top of the pyramid is limited; as a result, employees get frustrated exactly during that period of their life when their career opportunities.

Absence of Social Support
Relations with others, both at home and work, are often crucial for an employees well being. In research on middle management, it was found that inadequate willingness of others to help at work is related to considerably more smoking as well as to anxiety about one's own functioning, job dissatisfaction and physical complaints (Van Vucht Tijssen et al, 1978). Good relationship between employer and employee serves as a shield against the occurrence of stress. Das (1982) has reported a significantly negative correlation of social support an open communication with the felt stress.

Role Incompatibility
In there is not fit between an individuals capabilities possibilities presented adequate coordination then environment, between like the individual and the and the and

by the job and if there is no such anxiety, depression

strains

59

dissatisfaction

have

an

increasing

chance

of

occurrence.

General improvements in the organization cannot be effectively made if the possibilities and wishes of those involved are not considered. Adequate adjustment of the individual to hours job environment and vice versa is therefore important. Thus is often not the case and the individual c consequently experiences strain.

CHAPTER-5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research is an academic activity and as such the term is used in technical sense. “Research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating data, making deduction and reaching conclusions; and at last, carefully testing the conclusions hypothesis. The research on Organisational Role Stress in National Thermal Power Corporation Limited consisted of following steps: to determine whether they fit the formulating

DATA COLLECTION:

60

Data was collected by using various methods. For the purpose of fulfilling the objectives of the study and for completing the project, both primary and secondary sources of data were collected.

PRIMARY SOURCES •Questionnaire
Keeping in view the objectives of the study, a questionnaire (as given in appendix-1) was selected. There are fifty questions in all. All the questions are small in size and arranged logically. The language is simple and easy to understand. The questionnaire is exhaustive. It covers a wide area, so the dimensions of Organisational Role Stress could be determined appropriately. The respondents were told to mark their answers in the

questionnaire itself on the basis of the scale given in it. The scale covered the wide range from the most positive to the most negative answer. These questions helped us to have an insight into the ongoing source of role stress and also the ideas of the various executives on how to overcome role stress

•Interview
Information was also obtained by informal conversation with the executives. They were interviewed personally. The questions asked were discussed at length so as to gain access to their idea on role stress.

SECONDARY SOURCES
•Records of the Personal and Human Resource

61

Department of NTPC. •Manuals of the company. •Official reports. •Annual reports •Other mimeographed materials. •NTPC magazines, journals & bulletins.

SAMPLING
In the backdrop of the objectives set, a sample study was conducted in Badarpur. The same was restricted to the corporate centers of NTPC-Engineering Office Complex, A-8A, Sec-24, NOIDA & BADARPUR. The sample units were the executives working in these two corporate centers. Survey being restricted to the corporate centers because majority of the executives were available there. In order to get ample and varied information on the

Organisational Role Stress, the executives from level E1 to E7, i.e., from junior most executives up to the Deputy General Manager, were chosen. The questionnaires were given to the executives and their cooperation & help was procured to get it filled. The sample size was kept ten per cent. The executives were chosen at random taking care of the fact that ten percent of the executives are selected from each level (E1-E7) so as to maintain proportionality among the different levels. Care was

62

also taken so that all the departments were covered. The sampling method thus adopted was “Stratified Proportionate Random Sampling”. It was assumed that the sample selected was true

representative of the project and population variances are equal. Biases that might have arrived while answering the questionnaire are very low.

COLLECTION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES
Sufficient time was given to the respondents to answer the questionnaire. Most of the questionnaires were collected after an hour.

PROBLEMS

FACED

WHILE

COLLECTING

AND

FILLING THE QUESTIONNAIRES:
•Some of the respondents were hesitant to answer the questionnaire. •They tried to shrink away from filling the questionnaire and always wanted more time in this regard, they always tried to avoid us. •Some respondents did not want to answer the questionnaire, so they left it unanswered. •Where the respondents did not find the relevant answer in the choice provided, they added their own choice or left it unanswered.

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TABULATION
After all the questionnaires were collected back, the responses were tabulated. The evaluation sheet (as given in appendix-2) was used for the purpose. Each answer of the respondent was tabulated to its respective category. Thus the value of each dimension of role stress in case of individual executives were calculated. Further, mean and percentage for all the role stress were calculated so as to obtain the values for the organization as a whole. The sample was further divided on the basis of age (above 40 and below 40)and level (E1-E4 and E5-E7) of executives and means and percentages were calculated in respect of those categories.

ANALYSIS
In this section, the information obtained by the process of tabulation was analyzed, so as to identify the pattern of relationships that exist among different groups and the conclusions were arrived at.

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CHAPTER-6 FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
LEVEL WISE ANALYSIS OF STRESS
In case of executives at level E1 stress level is alarmingly high only for REC and RO, it is at the medium level for all other stress types it is alarmingly high and requires immediate interventions. Inter role distance is experienced at a rightly higher level than the median value, and so are role isolation, sell role distance, role ambiguity and resource inadequacy. The functional negotiation decking role classification from various sources then defining it in the light of such classification. In case of level E3 role overload is at an alarmingly high level. Even role isolation is at a level higher than the medium and so is perusal inadequacy. It seems they need proper orientation of 65

adequate preparation and warning when assigned roles at this level. Role slimming and role negotiation would be functional approaches here together with. At this level, again the role stress is experienced at levels lower than the median value supported after the norms. It is slightly higher after norms. It s slightly higher than the median, only incase of inter role distance, role overload and self role distance. The functional strategies of dealing with this would involves role negotiation, role slivering and role interpretation to some extent. At this level, the role stress experienced is lower than the medium value suggested by the norms for all the stress types other than role overload and personal inadequacy which are both experienced at the higher ads of the medium value. It means that at such "high level, the executives have too many jobs on hard because they just didn't have to do their own jobs but they have to supervise the work of their subordinates may cause the executives to experience personal inadequacy. The functional strategies of dealing efficiently with this conclusion would involve role slivering and time management.

Analysis of the stress type
Here the stress is experiences at the medium level.

Inter Role Distance: This conflict arise due an individual
or certifying more than one role. Such inter-role conflicts are quite frequent in modern society when the individual is increasingly occupying multiple roles in various organization and groups. This is experienced at the higher and of the medium save by executives at level E1 and E2 and E6 level experiences it at the medium level.E3's score for IRD is low and

66

E5 even lower than the standard low value. Executives at level E4 experience IRD at the lower end of the medium. Therefore we can say experience of IRD E1, E2 and E7 is high. E6 E4 E3 E5 : Medium level stress : Lower than medium level stress : Low : Very low.

If we consider the age groups of the executives as well as we notice that it is the executives who are above 40 years of age of experience IRD to a larger extent. This could be due to the fact that they have important responsibilities from the home front. A functional strategy of dealing with this type of stress would be role negotiation.

Role stagnation: This refers to the individuals’ reluctance
to 80 off the old role to adapt to the new one. This is alarmingly high for level E1 for executives at all other levels it is either at the medium level or even lower than that. It means that the executives at NTPC corporate center, have largely adapted their expectations to suit new circumstances and are not 5. likely to experience caused development stress. The obtained reader score of 4.5 is level than the medium some of

Role expectation conflict: This type of role stress rises
when there are conflicting expectations demands by different role senders (persons having expectations from the role). This conflicting expectation may be from the boss, subordinates, pears or clients. Here the medium score was 3 which is lower than the norms (4), so it seems that executives as a group or as a whole are largely bothered by role expectation conflict. 67

Individually

across

various

levels

of

executives

too,

role

expectation conflict is lower than the norms.

Role erosion: It refers to the stress arising of the occupant's
feeling that some functions which he would like to perform are being performed by some other role. It is the subjective feeling of an individual that some important role expectations he has from his role do not match with the expectations other roles have for him. Our obtained medium value coincides with the norms. The stress level experienced by our sample is at the same medium value as that experienced by the population on which norms were set. Across the levels too, role erosion is experienced by all the levels at levels toughly around with it would be role enrichment. the medium only. A functional approach of effectively dealing

Role overload: It arises when the role occupant feels that
there are too many expectations from the significant roles in his role set. Role overload is likely to occur more in the absence of mechanism of role integration, in the absence of power of the role occupants, in the large variations in the expected output and when delegation or assistance cannot procure more time. Again our obtained medium value of 3 coincides with the norms. Therefore the stress level experienced by own sample is at the same value as that experienced by the population on which norms were set. Across the levels, role overload is experienced to an alarmingly high extent by the executives at level E3. Executives at level E6 and those at level E7 also experience role overload higher than the norms. It seems that at higher levels, the executives don't just have to take care of their own assigned tasks but they also have to supervise the work of their subordinates hence they experience large amount

68

of

role

overload.

A

functional

approach

of

effectively

dealing with this would be role slimming.

Role isolation: The obtained medium value of s in lower
than that given in the norms (6). However going across the levels, we observe that role isolation is experienced at a higher extent than the norms by executives at level E1, E2, E3, E4. While executives at level E5 (1) experience it at very low level. A functional strategy to deal with this would be role negotiation.

Personnel inadequacy: This type of stress arises in a
person out of a feeling that he is not fully equipped (lacks internal resources) for effective performance of the role. This feeling gives rise to intense feeling of stress. The obtained medium value of 3 falls below the norms vale of 4 which equipped to handle the tasks assigned to them. however across the levels we notice that executives at level E1 experience personal inadequacy to an alarmingly large extent. Besides, executions at level E3, E4 and E7 experience personal inadequacy at a level higher than the norms value of medium. It is the executives at level E5 whose medium of personal inadequacy is at an extreme low of 1 which has brought down the entire source for personal inadequacy. A functional approach of effectively dealing with this would be role linkage.

Self role distance: This is the conflict between the self
concept and the expectations from the role as perceived by the role occupant. If a person occupies a role which he may subsequently find conflicting with his self concept, he feels the stress. Our sample has obtained a medium score of 4 against the norm of 5. Hence serves that our sample experiences self 69

role distance to a lesser extent as compared to the population on which norms was set. However, going across the executive levels, SRD is experienced at an alarmingly high rate level by executives at level E1. Executives at level E6 also experience self-role distance at a level higher than the medium. A functional strategy of dealing with this would be to develop role integration.

Role ambiguity: It arises

when there is lack of clarity

about the work objectives associated with the role, about work colleagues' expectations of the work role and about the scope and responsibilities of the job our sample has obtained a medium value of 2 which is lower than the norm value of 3. Across the levels we notice that levels lower the manager's level (ES) experience higher role ambiguity (against norm) with level E1 again having an alarmingly high value. Levels e5, E6, E7 the executives serve to be clear about the various aspects of their work. A functional strategy of effectively dealing with this would be role classification.

Resource inadequacy: It arises out of a feeling of

the

role occupant that he does not have adequate resources to perform the role effectively. Our sample has obtained a medium value coinciding with the norms. Across to a larger extent with level E1 the levels it is again it to an the levels lower tan E5 which experience resource inadequacy experiencing alarmingly high extent.

Variety
1. Overall stress serve = add? 2. Scores interpretation - if low? High? Or medium?

Age wise analysis
70

Age-wise analysis of the different types of stress from the taste, it is clear that in executives below 40 years of age, stress is experienced at a lower medium vale than the norms (medium). The medium value o our sample for executives lower than 40 years of age is lower than that of the norms for IRD, RS, REC & PI, for RE, RO, RI & RA & RI it is experienced at the medium level and it is experienced at slightly higher level incase of SRD. A functional strategy of effectively dealing with this would be role integration. Similarly for executives above 40 years of age stress is

experienced at a lower medium value as compared to the norms. The medium value of our sample for executives above 40 years of age is lower than that of the norms for IRD, RS, REC, RI, SRD. For RE, PI, RA & RI the medium value coincides with the norms and it is slightly higher in case of RO. So it seems that the executives feel that there are too many expectations from the significant roles in their role set. There is a positive correlation observed between age of the executives and their levels. So it seems that as the executives progress in age, they also progress in the organizational hierarchy (i.e, get timely promotions) and as the level increases they have to take care of not just their own job but also supervise them subordinates and therefore level. the experience of work overload.

Also the complexity and member of tasks increases with the

71

CHAPTER-7 DISCUSSIONS
2x2 Anova was carried out for each of the 10 types of role stress to find out the effects of age and level individually as well as the combined found effects of of PI age for and the organizational 2 levels. The hierarchical level on the perception and role stress. Significant difference was incase executives at levels E1 -E4 suffered from significantly higher stress of PI as compared to executives at levels E5-E7. In a study to study the effect of bureaucracy on role stress across 3 levels of technocrats, it was found that cover level subjects experienced more organizational role stress than middle level

or upper level subjects. For all other types of stress, neither age or learnt individually nor the combined effect of the two comes out to be significant. This study was undertaken to study the different types of organizational role stresses experienced by the NTPC executives. Further the executives were divided into different categories on the basis of their age (above 40 Vs below 40) and their hierarchical levels in the organization (E1 - E4 Vs E5 –E7) and an attempt was made to study the effect of age and level on the different types of role stresses being measured. The

72

interaction effects of the age and the level as ORS were also explored as (E1-E4) Vs (E5-E1) because the former comprise the working level executive categories of the latter are group heads. It was assumed that executives within each of the groups would experience similar types of stresses due to similar working conditions. It was assumed that the group heads would experience similar kinds of measures and the subordinates would suffer from a different and hence the 2 groups were demarcated. stress It was hypothesized Similarly, it that was the 2 would differ that significantly in the overall as well as the different types of role experienced. hypothesized executives above 40 years of age and those below 40 years of age would experience different types of stress to a significant extent. When analysing the different types of role stresses measured, it was found that (in terms of the absolute figures ) Role erosion was found to be the highest (median -9) but when compared to the norms, it was found that the median value suggested by the norms was also 9. For all the other stress types, the median value obtained for own sample is either coinciding with that given in the norms or is lower than that, i.e., for IRD and RI the median value obtained is coinciding with that given in the norms, i.e., 5 and 5 respectively, whereas in case of RS, the value obtained in 4.5 which is lower than the medium value given in norms, i.e., 5. Similarly for REC (obtained median = 3; norms = 4); Ro (obtained median = 2; norms = 3); RI (obtained median = 5; norms = 6); PI (obtained norms = 3); median = 3; norms = 4); SRD (obtained median = 4; norms = 5);RA (obtained median = 2;

73

So it seems that the executives at NTPC, experiences role stress that is mostly lower than that given in the norms. It is however higher than the low value of stress given in the norms. These results indicate that the executives experience a near facilitation amount of stress, which must be enhancing their performance in general. Analyzing the role stress across the hierarchical levels (E1-E7), it was found that executives at level E1 suffer from alarmingly high amount of stress and the situation calls for immediate interventions. Going deeper into the profiles of these executions, it was found that these executions have rise to the level E1 from supervisory levels. They were mostly in their late 40s. The transformation from S10 -E1 level required a change in the job profile and hence was perceived to be very stressful. The progression age and responsibilities at home front night hour also contributed to the overall stress experienced. Another interesting observation related to the unusual low levels of stress found incase of execution at level E5. Executives at level E6 were also found to have low levels of stress. The stress levels for different stress types varied greatly both across the hierarchical levels (E1-E7) and across the different stress types (ERD etc.) The stress levels however didn't differ significantly amongst the 2 levels (E1 -E4 Vs E5-E7) and the 2 age groups (above 40 Vs below 40) 2 x 2 Anova was carried for each of 10 types of role stress to

find the effects of age and level individually as well as the combined effect of age and hierarchical level on the perceived role stress. Significant results were obtained for the effect of level individually on RO and the interaction effect of the age 74

and the level for R PI. So, it can be deduced that the executions at levels E1-E4 experience RO at a significantly higher level than the executives at levels E5-E7. For all the other stress types, neither age nor the organizational level were found to give significantly different levels of stress. Executives E1 experience role stress to an alarmingly high extent. Only for REC and RO the stress is at the medium value. For RS, RE, PI, SRD and RA, RIN it is experienced to ever higher degree than that given is the ‘HIGH’ these executives were interviewed of norms. When and probed personally

further it was found that they had risen from the organizational levels, i.e. from supervisory to the executives, over a period of years. They were all is their late 40s. According to the organisational promotion policy, to be promoted further to level E2, a minimum of graduation degree was required which most of them didn’t have (they were mostly which diploma enabled holders; them to perhaps this led to the stress and fear of role stagnation). There were organisational policies convert their diploma to degrees (BS-BLTS Pilani scheme) but after being out of/from studies for years they didn’t feel competent enough to pursue them. The sudden exposure from the supervisor’s to the executive’s job too promoted a lot of stress and perhaps feelings of personal inadequacy. They felt they couldn’t relate themselves much to their organisational role and hence the stress of self-role distance. This condition of requires effectively immediate tackling this interaction would both on role

individual’s as well as the organization’s part. Some functional strategies involve integration, role clarification, role development/enrichment and role linkages and role transition. Besides, role negotiation, role

75

linkages, role making role slimmering and resource generation would also help.

Relationship between role stress and the level of responsibility of the executive
Here, the sample was divided on the basis of level of

responsibility (E1 to E4 working level executives vs. E5 to E7 group heads). When the medians of the 2 were compared it was found that for IRD, the median obtained for executives at levels E5 – E7 and E1 – E4 was the same, i.e. 5. The median value suggested by the norms is also 5. So, we can say that the IRD the 2 level groups experience the same median value stress which also coincides with that experienced by the population on which norms were set. For RS, executives at levels (E1-E4) experienced stress at a higher median level (5) as compared to that by (E5-E7), whose median are 4(But the difference wasn’t found to be statistically significant). The median value suggested by the norms is also 5. (t-value (ANOVA VALUE = ?) for REC, again executives at levels E1-E4 obtained a higher value of stress (E5 – E7 i.e, i.e., 4 (which coincides with the median value 3 (But the difference is not found to be suggested by the norms) than that obtained by those in level statistically significant so we can say that the 2 groups do not differ significantly on the given experienced due to REC. For RE, the 2 level groups obtained the same median value (9) which also coincides with the median value suggested by the norms. For RO, the median value of stress obtained for levels E5-E7 coincides with the median value suggested by the norms which is lower than that experienced by executives at levels (E1-E4) (4.5). For RI, executives at levels (E5-E7) experience stress at a median value of 5, which is levels than that, 76

experienced by executives at levels E1-E4, i.e, 8 and also lower than the norms (6). This can be explained in terms of the organisational structure, where the higher levels has greater connectivity as compared to those at lower levels who work relatively in isolation. For PI, the median value for executives at levels E5-E7 (3) is much lower than those at levels (E1-E4). The median value by norms is 4. For SRD, again the median value for executives at levels (E5E7) (4) is much lower than that for levels E1-E7 (7) the median value by norms is 5. For RA, again the stress at higher levels is much lower (median - 2) as compared to that for E1-E4 (median 5) the median value by norms is 3. For RIA, the median value for levels E5-E7 is 4.5 which is lower than that for E1-E4 (6) for norms (5).

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CHAPTER-8 RECOMMENDATIONS
ORGANISATIONAL APPROACHES TO STRESS MANAGEMENT
The management turnover of stress go is an important will thing for

organisations. If an organisation can reduce the effects of stress, will down, absenteeism decrease, performance will go up, and costs will come down. Thus it should make efforts to manage stress and to help individuals cope more effectively. Amongst the ten dimensions of Role Stress, the highest

percentage was that of Role Erosion. This can be reduced to a great extent by Job-Enrichment. Enriching jobs either by improving job contents factors (such as responsibility, recognition and opportunities for achievement, advancement and growth) or by improving core job characteristics (such as skill variety, task identity, task significance autonomy and feedback) may lead to motivational and states or experienced of results. meaningfulness, responsibility knowledge

Presumably, these enriched tasks will eliminate the stressors found in more routine, structured jobs. However, not all people respond favorably to enriched job designs and therefore, at least with some people some of the time, the enriched job may actually lead to increased job stress. For example, an individual with low growth needs, low self-efficacy, lack of hardiness and/or fear of failure may

78

experience increased stress in an enriched job. There is nothing so frustrating as being placed in a job that you can’t handle and do not have the potential to perform well. Overall, however, careful managing of task design may be an effective way to manage such stress. Other dimensions of Role Stress were also found in the

executives at recognizable levels. Following should be the efforts made by the management in order to minimize the negative effects of stress: •Effective reduce role performance conflict. appraisal rewards and are reward clearly systems related to

When

performance, the person knows what he or she is accountable for and where he or she stands. When a good coaching relationship between a superior and a subordinate exists along with the performance appraisal system, the person may feel that he or she has more control over the work environment. He or she may also sense some social support for the task of getting the job done well. •Increasing participation in decision making will give the person a greater sense of control over the work environment, a factor associated with less negative reactions to stress. There is a strong relationship between participation and job satisfaction, and role conflict, which suggests that participation would be a very effective way to deal with stress. Increasing participation requires decentralization of decision making to more people and delegation of responsibility to those who are already accountable for work performance. •Increasing communication with employees is the most

obvious way to reduce uncertainty. It may also have direct

79

effects on role conflict if increased communication clarifies line of responsibility and authority. Each job should have clear expectations and the necessary information and support so that the jobholder is not left with conflicting demands or an ambiguous understanding of what he or she is to do. •Stress management programs give employees assistance in coping with stress. These include counseling and psychotherapy. A counselor and/or therapist should be made available to employees when they experience job stress. They determine the sources of stress, help modify the outlook, and develop alternative ways to cope. Relaxation techniques such as biofeedback or meditation help to eliminate the immediate stressful situation or manage a prolonged stressful situation more effectively. Regular seminars and lectures also help the employees better understand stress, its ramifications, and possible ways to reduce its effects. The suggestions given above are forwarded in light of the responses received from the executives. The questionnaire had the open-ended question, which asked for how to overcome stress. Fifty one percent of the executives left the question unanswered which illustrates either of the following: a)They were least interested in the study. b)They are reserve towards their rights and do not demand willfully due to hesitation. c)They had the notion that their suggestions will not be

accounted for and there was no use of writing them down.

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The rest of the forty nine percent of the executives responded to this question with great enthusiasm and interest and expected that they would see the outcome of their suggestions in the years to come. Apart from the specific categories given above, some responses received are: •System of promotion and remuneration are outdated – should be overhauled. •Job rotation should be effectively implemented to enhance knowledge in all spheres. •Categorization of jobs based on urgency and importance. •Healthy and transparent environment. •Enhance means of social interaction like picnic, parties, etc. •Hobbies, sports activities after office hours by providing membership in nearby premises. •Trust between the employees for execution of the role. The peer must be supportive and encouraging enough to appreciate good work. A pat from boss boosts an employee’s morale more than anything else. The suggestions given above, if implemented, will help the executives to cope with stress effectively as they have offered the same. The organisation should try to implement them.

INDIVIDUAL APPROACHES TO MANAGING STRESS
Stress is a powerful force, which can either do a lot of good or cause extensive harm. It is like a flowing river. When you tame

81

it by putting up bunds and dams, you are able to direct the water to the places where you need it. But when the river is untamed, it can cause havoc. So it is with stress. Unless we make commitments to our own wellness and thereby take personal responsibility for our stress problems, little is accomplished. Taking responsibility for you - for your own health and well being - is one of the most important keys to successful stress management and life-style change. If you do not take responsibility for yourself, who will?

LIFESTYLES AND STRESS
In our society it is easier to slip into a vicious-circle kind of life style. First we rush to embrace material goods, conveniences, and “the good life”, thereby reducing our abilities to cope with stress. Second, we reward competition and achievement above most other human endeavors and design our lives around left brain (rational, linear thought) concepts, thereby increasing the amount of stress in our daily lives. There are tremendous pressures on all of us to follow both these paths and to ignore our physical, mental, and spiritual wellness. If anything goes wrong with one of these aspects of our lives, our expectation is that one or another of the high-technology healing professions can probably fix it. Although it is difficult of to change life the materialistic conditions and or

achievement

bases

our

styles,

other

situations exist that we probably cannot change at all: our personalities and certain other idiosyncratic characteristics, the relationships we share with our environments, and the basic nature of both our work and the organisation in which we work.

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We each inherit strengths and weaknesses or develop them through personal habits or accidents. Further, our orientations predispose us to certain types of stress; for example, an individual who needs close direction in his work may find himself experiencing stress from an ambiguous job role. Our orientations also influence the ways in which we might be affected by stress; for example, competitive, deadline- and achievement-oriented people are more likely to have heart attacks. If we are aware of our personality idiosyncrasies, we can choose to avoid extremely stressful situations. We must also recognize the fact that the organisation in which we work can either heighten or reduce stress levels. Factors such as the number of deadlines, the manner of facing crises, or the frequency and nature of client demands all need to be considered with regard to their role in increasing or decreasing stress. In addition, people working in an environment lacking in social support probably will have more health and emotional problems than people working in more supportive settings will. Although we cannot change many of these situational factors, we need to develop an understanding of how they affect stress levels in order to promote effective stress management. It is possible to diagnose a few sources of stress that can be removed or avoided. However, most are present everyday or come along as unavoidable surprises. Thus, it is imperative that we learn to manage stress by ensuring that our physical, psychological and spiritual states are able to cope. In summary, we need to accomplish the following:

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•Avoid whatever stressors we can; •Manage and buffer ourselves against unavoidable stressors; •Devise ways of making our organisation better places in which to work.

MANAGING STRESS
Both long-term (preventive) and immediate (responsive)

stress-management techniques are needed to protect us from the effects of stress. The stress management plans should suit our own unique situations and preferences. The short-term or immediate responses are extremely

important to effective stress management. Specific, immediate responses that work are unique for each of us. Most of these responses fall into following categories: •Creatively avoiding or withdrawing from the situation; •Confronting the situation in an assertive manner; •Exercising influence over others; •Establishing ways to give and receive help. It is a good idea to assess abilities in each of these areas. The long-term protective or preventive techniques for stress management are described below:

(a) Self-Management:
Self-management activities can be adopted to effectively

manage our experience of stress. These are described below:

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•Enhancing self-awareness:

We

all

need

to

work

continually on enhancing our self-awareness. With increased knowledge of our idiosyncrasies, preferences and needs, we can actively choose to avoid stressful situations. On the job, we can receive helpful can feedback be from such by sources as trusted in and are colleagues and performance reviews. Away from work, selfawareness taking developed tests, of reading, engaging therapy, We all introspection, requesting feedback from family and friends, psychological in a undergoing group participating variety activities.

surrounded with sources of information that can enhance our self-awareness if we make use of them. •Maintaining proper nutrition: Most of us are

insufficiently aware of the principles of good nutrition and fail to eat three meals a day with a balance of vitamins, minerals, proteins and fiber. Instead, we eat on the run; consume foods that are high in fat and sugar; drink too much alcohol and caffeine; and rely too often on overcooked, heavy, restaurant meals. Good nutritional habits are necessary for long-term protection against the effects of stress. •Engaging in regular exercise: Most of our jobs

require little of the physical exertion our bodies are designed for and indeed require maintaining good health. Therefore, we are risking our health if we do not engage in regular, non-work activities jumping that rope, require and sustained exertion. sports Such that activities are not include running, swimming, vigorous walking, rowing, bicycling, certain team characterized by frequent time-outs (such as hockey, soccer, and rugby). These activities create an aerobic effect, which improves the efficiency of the cardio-vascular system 85 and

lowers the resting pulse rate. So one should set apart some time for it either in the mornings or evenings. •Learning and practicing relaxation: such a practice probably would Although it

seldom is possible to take a half-hour rest break on the job, enhance performance considerably more than do traditional tea/coffee breaks. An easy relaxation technique is as follows: With eyes closed, take ten slow, deep breaths. With each exhalation, count silently: one after the first breath, two after the second breath, and so on. This activity results in a feeling of relaxation, a temporary lowering of high blood pressure, and a sense of readiness to concentrate fully on the next task. Twenty minutes of uninterrupted relaxation can have a tremendous impact on work effectiveness and can increase the ability to withstand stress. Being positive in thinking and in action may make stress more bearable and may even lead to mastery over what appears unbearable.

(b) Creating and using support networks:
Often those of us who work vigorously to advance our careers keep ourselves so busy with our jobs that we have little time or energy to devote to the development of ongoing relationships with others either on or off the job. Also, frequently the inherent nature of the organisational systems forces us to compete with each other for promotions. We all need supportive relationships to feel a sense of

belonging, to be challenged, to be respected, and so on. For reasons not yet clearly known, when we lack such relationships

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for too long, the risk of our developing stress-related physical and psychological conditions increases.

(c) Helping others to manage stress:
We can help others who are experiencing too much stress on the job. Once we have determined that people are in need of assistance, we must either use our acquired stressmanagement skills to intervene directly or refer these people to other sources of help. The superiors should be particularly sensitive to and willing to help with the stress their subordinate’s experience.

(d) Maintaining work:

a

balance

between

home

and

A manager should have a balanced personality keeping both fronts- home as well as work managed simultaneously, with the priorities they deserve, which would vary for each issue and each occasion. Trouble in one area is not without its ramifications in the other. You work for your and your family’s happiness, which in turn makes you work better. Hence their roles are complementary to each other, not competitive. They are at loggerheads only when you neglect one at the cost of the other, which is when your personal and work priorities are in imbalance. A periodic break - a fortnight’s holiday that takes you away from your workplace and the formal home atmosphere has an immense therapeutic effect. Not only does it rejuvenate you with added zeal when you return, but it also gives you an opportunity to see things in their proper perspective, and to introspect.

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Thus, stress is an all-pervading and inevitable part of life. A person can lead a healthy, productive and progressive life - by learning to manage and cope with it. It is in the person’s selfinterest, in every sense, to reduce the negative effects of stress.

COPING WITH ROLE STRESS - EFFECTIVE COPING STRATEGIES
When individuals experience stress, they try to adopt ways of dealing or coping with it, as they cannot remain in a continual state of tension. Effective coping strategies are approach strategies, which confront the problem of stress as a challenge, and increase the capability of dealing with it. Approach or effective strategies of coping include efforts to increase physical and mental readiness to cope (through physical exercises, yoga and meditation, diet management), creative diversions for emotional enrichment (music, art, theatre, etc.), strategies of dealing with the basic problems causing stress, and collaborative work to solve such problems. Ineffective coping strategies are escape or avoidance strategies, which reduce the feelings of stress by, for example, denying the reality of stress, or through the use of alcohol, drugs or other aids to escapism. It is useful for both individuals and organisations to examine the strategy that they are using to cope with stress. The absence of a coping strategy may lead to ineffectiveness. Coping is also related to the quality and intensity of emotional reactions.

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People

can

be

classified

into

two

types

on

the

basis

of

strategies employed to deal with stress: One category consists of persons who decide to suffer, deny the experienced stress, or put the blame on somebody (self or others) or something. These passive or avoidance strategies are termed dysfunctional styles of coping with stress situations. The other category consists of persons who face the realities of stress consciously, and take some action to solve problems either by themselves or with the help of other people. These active approaches are termed functional styles of dealing with stressful situations. Coping strategies can be conceptualized as a product of a combination of externality, internality and mode of coping. Externality is the feeling that external factors are responsible for role stress, resulting in aggression towards, and blaming of, these external factors. It may also indicate the tendency to expect and get a solution for the stress from external sources. Externality may be high or low. Internality is quite the opposite. The respondent may perceive himself as responsible for the stress, and may therefore express aggression or blame towards himself. Similarly, the respondent may expect a solution for the stress from within. Internality may be high or low. Coping may take the form of avoiding the situation (reactive strategy) or confronting and approaching the problem (proactive strategy). This is mode of coping. Avoidance mode is characterized by any one of the following; (a) aggression and blame, (b) helplessness and resignation, (c) 89

minimizing

the

significance

of

the

stressful

situation

by

accepting it with resignation, (d) denying the presence of stress or finding an explanation for it. Such behavior helps a person in not doing anything in relation to the stress. Approach mode is characterized by (a) hope that things will improve, (b) effort made by the subject will help to solve the situation, (c) expectations that others will help, or asking for help in relation to stress, and (d) jointly doing something about the problem. The various coping strategies or styles used in role stress have been studied, and the findings show that approach styles have strong relationship with internality, optimism, role efficacy, job satisfaction, and effective role behavior in organisations. Two contrasting approaches (avoidance or dysfunctional and approach or functional) for some role stresses have been discussed below:

•Self-Role Distance
Many individuals, who find a conflict between their self-concept and the role they occupy in an organisation, may either play that role in a routine way to earn their living. They take no interest in their role, and this is indicative of self-role distance. They have rejected the role. On the other hand, some other individuals may seriously occupy their roles and in due course of time, completely forget their self-concept and play their role effectively, but reject their self. Both these approaches are avoidance approaches, dysfunctional. If an individual rejects the role, he is likely to be ineffective in the organisation. However, if he rejects the self, 90 he is likely to lose his

effectiveness as an individual and it is likely to be bad for his mental health. An approach or functional strategy of dealing with this stress is to attempt Role Integration. The individual may analyse the various aspects of the role which are causing self-role distance and may begin to acquire skills if this may help him to bridge this gap, or carry his own self into the role by defining some aspects of the role according to his own strengths. In other words, an attempt both to grow into the role and make the role to grow to use the special capabilities of the person would result in role integration, where the individual gets the satisfaction of occupying a role, which is nearer to his selfconcept. Such integration is not easy to achieve, but with systematic effort, it is also not very difficult to attain.

•Role Expectation Conflict
When the various expectations from the role one occupies conflict with one another, role stress may develop. One way of dealing with this stress is to eliminate those expectations from the role, which are likely to conflict with other expectations. This is the process of role shrinkage. Role shrinkage is the act of pruning the role in such a way that some expectations can be given up. Role shrinkage may help to avoid the problem, but it is a dysfunctional approach since the advantage of a larger role is lost. Instead of role shrinkage, if Role Linkages are established with other roles, and devising some new ways of achieving the conflicting expectations solves the problem, the individual can experience both the processes of growth as well as satisfaction.

•Role Stagnation
91

It is a common stress in organisations, when individuals get into new roles as a result of their advancement in the organisations, or as a result of taking over more challenging roles. There may be a feeling of apprehension because the role is new and may require skills, which the role occupant may not have. In such situation, a usual way is to continue to play the previous role about which the individual is sure, and which he has been doing successfully. In many cases this is the tragedy of the organisations that even after advancement people at the top continue to play the role of the lower level managers. This is role fixation, and is an avoidance strategy. As it is necessary for an individual to grow out of his role as a boy into that of an adolescent, and out of adolescence into adulthood, similarly, it is important for people to grow out of their old roles into new ones and face up the challenge. An approach and a more functional way to resolve this conflict is that of Role Transition. Role transition is the process by which a previous role, howsoever successful and satisfying it may have been, is given up to take a new and more developed role. Various clarity, processes, help role including transition, anticipatory substitute socialization, gratification role and

transition procedure. In order to make role transition more effective, it is necessary to have anticipatory socialization, that is preparation of the taking of the new role. This would also include delegation of responsibility and functions to people below one’s own role, so that the person can be free to experiment and he can take help in such experimentation from others. Such a process of role transition may be very useful.

92

•Inter-Role Distance
In inter role distance, an individual may experience stress due to conflict between the roles he occupies, and which conflict in expectations. The usual approach to deal with this problem is either to partition the roles clearly, so that a person is a husband or father when he is at home, and an executive when he is in his office, or there may be role elimination that is, accepting one role at the cost of the other role. In such a case, the individual takes recourse to rationalization. For example, an executive who neglects his family at home and who in this process eliminates the role of father and husband, rationalizes the process by thinking that he makes a unique contribution to the company and therefore, can afford to neglect his family, or he earns enough for his family who should pay the price of losing him as a husband and as a father. Such rationalization is part of the process role elimination. These are avoidance strategies. A more functional approach to the problem is Role

Negotiation. The process of role negotiation is the process of establishing mutuality of roles and getting necessary help to play the roles more effectively, and giving help in turn to the other role. For example, an executive who is not able to find time for his family, may sit down and negotiate with his wife and children on how best he can spend time meaningfully within the given constraints so that neither of roles had to be sacrificed or eliminated.

•Role Ambiguity
For role ambiguity, the usual approach is to make the roles clear by putting various things on paper. This is role

93

prescription. The various expectations are defined more clearly. Or, the individual may remove ambiguity by fitting into the role as described in some expectations. This is the process of role taking. Both are avoidance strategies. An approach strategy may be to seek clarification from various sources and to define the role in the light of such clarifications. In contrast with role taking, a more creative is to define the role according to one’s own strength and to take some steps in making the role more challenging.

•Role Overload
To deal with the stress of role overload, that is, a feeling of too many expectations from several sources, the role occupant usually prepares a list of all functions in terms of priorities. He gives top priority to those functions, which are important. This kind of prioritization may help put things in order of importance. However, the problem may be that the functions with which a person is less familiar and comfortable may tend to be pushed lower down the priority list, and may be neglected. Those functions, which a person is able to perform without any effort, get top priority. Those, which are in a lower level of priority, always remain neglected, and in his sense, this approach may be dysfunctional. This is an avoidance strategy. A more functional approach may be to redefine the role and see which aspects of the role may be delegated to other persons who may be helped to develop take on these functions. This may help the other individuals also to grow. This may be called Role Slimming. The role does not lose its vitality in the process of delegating some functions; in fact the vitality increases with decrease in obesity.

94

•Role Isolation
When there is tension and distance between two roles in an organisation, the usual tendency is for each role occupant to play the role more efficiently, and avoid interactions. The role occupant confines himself to his own role. This may be called role boundness. He voluntarily agrees to be bound by the role. This strategy avoids the possible conflict. There are individual executives and managers who are highly efficient in their roles but who do with in not a take kind corporate are of isolation responsibility weak. of and He whose gets linkages withdraws other roles very The individual

efficiency.

satisfaction out of playing the individual role effectively and efficiently, but does not contribute as much as he could have done to the overall responsibility for the organisation. This is likely to be dysfunctional, as it does not help the individual play his role in the larger interest of the organisation. A better method and an approach with peers, strategy is Role or

Negotiation.

Negotiating

subordinates

supervisors will help to deal with the situation more effectively.

•Role Erosion
In role erosion, which an he individual would feels to that some important are being

functions,

prefer

perform,

performed by some other roles. The usual reactions in such a situation is to fight for rights of the role, and to insist on clarification of roles. The solution is sought in making structural clarifications. However, this is not likely to be functional and helpful, since the basic conflict is avoided and it continues.

95

An approach strategy may be that of Role Enrichment. Like job enrichment, the concept role enrichment suggests vertical loading of the role. Analyzing the role systematically can do role enrichment, and helping the individuals to see the various strengths in the role and the various challenges the role contains but which might not have been apparent to the individual when he performs it. Significant role set members can help make the role more challenging and satisfying to the role occupant. In summary, stress effective for management of stress involves role

directing

productive

purposes,

preparing

occupants to understand their strengths and usual styles, and equip them to develop approach strategies of coping with stress.

96

CHAPTER-9 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Certain limitations do creep in a research study due to constraints of time, money and human efforts. The present study is also not free from certain limitations, which were unavoidable. Some of them are listed below: •The extent of the study was limited to the corporate centers situated at NOIDA & BADARPUR. •Due to the very large size of the population, only a selected sample of people could be interviewed. •Due to fast pace in life, sometimes the executives were not able to do justification to the questionnaire •Personal to others. •Some of the employees did not have time to interact, as they were busy with their work. •Few employees of the organisation were reluctant to give the response as they either were not interested in finding out whether they were under stress or not or were thinking that the information they give might be used against them. biases might have come while answering the

questionnaire. Some executives rank them best in comparison

97

Steps taken to reduce these limitations:
•The sample was selected in such a manner that all the departments were covered so as to get a true and complete picture of the organisation. •The respondents were also assured that the questionnaire is to be used only for the purpose of the project and in no case be used for any other purpose by any other person. Since I took the questionnaires personally to every person of my sample I could not only get the questionnaire filled up but also extract the other information needed. Also the questionnaires were distributed randomly so that there does not exist the element of showing bias towards anybody.

98

CHAPTER-10 CONCLUSION
There were several interesting observations in the results obtained from the survey on Role Stress. 1. Alarmingly high levels of stress at level E1. 2. Surprisingly low levels of stress at level E5. 3. Surprisingly RO for execution at level E1 –E4. Especially Level E3 – alarmingly high. 4. Low levels of RA & REC at levels E5-E7 opposite incase of levels E1-E4. 5. Significantly higher levels of PI experienced by No I would level E1-E4 like to analyze one at a time. (1) The direct execution induction happens at level E2A the executives at level E1 are mostly those who have risen from the supervisory levels over the years. The transition from level S4 (highest supervisory level) to level E1 involves a sudden shift in the expeditions of the people around where suddenly they are expected to be more accountable and efficient. (2) Low levels of stress at level E5 : Reasons could be : (i) (ii) low workload E1-E4 working level executives – E3 & E4 highly

overburdened. Therefore, on reaching E5

tend to relax.

Promotion at level E4 is crucial because it’s a transition from the working level towards the group head category. (iii) Large numbers in E5 level which causes dilution of work where there were earlier few (2) executives now there are several (20) executives taking care of the same

99

responsibilities which were shared by few (2).

Therefore,

workload and therefore stress in general is low except for Role erosion which is experienced to a near median level because of the creation of these new roles and redefinition of the old ones. These executives may feel that the functions they would like to perform are being done by some other roles.

There are several implications of this finding:
(1) These low levels of stress may be affecting the productivity of the executives at this level adversely which implicates that they might require an optimum level of stress for performing most effectively. This could be perhaps done in either of these ways; (i) Club E5 with (E1-E4) categories, i.e., the working level executives where they would have more workload (ii) Club (E5/ LR) with the group heads categories, i.e., E6 level levels. (iii) Enrich the jobs at level E5 which added responsibilities and higher workloads. This condition also has a very positive implication for the management where they can utilize the time with level E5 executives for training for higher levels. Since a large number of them would be reaching higher levels and heading the company eventually. Therefore, their spare time can be effectively utilized for imparting them training skills, values, etc. to ensure a healthy and a competent as well as a valueladder organizational culture in times to come. 100 where again they would have several added responsibilities which would again take care of their stress

(2) High levels of RO for the working level executives, especially level E3 which is alarmingly high. The probable reasons for this is that levels E1- E4 are actually the working level executives who mostly do all the ground work. In fact here it is of extreme interest to note the decision of executives at various levels, instead of the expected paranoid structure, the structure is more like a rocket, i.e., a bulk of the executives are at levels E5 – E6. This could perhaps be attributed to the fact that E1 recruitment process started in 1977. Over the period of 13-14 years, most of the executions who joined during the earlier years (77-80) over the due course (of timely promotions) have reached level E5-E6. Whereas those at levels E1-E4 are chiefly those who have gradually risen from supervisory levels over the years. (therefore since the past 10 years or so, the corporate centre has inducted very few freshers). Resultantly, these few E1-E4 are catering to the work of the huge numbers of E5-E6. (Infact there is a popular joke at CC, that when 2 executives at levels E1-E4 meet, they ask each other “How many bosses are you taking case of ?) because of which they are grossly overworked. (3) Low levels of RA & REC at levels E5 –E7 whereas its high for executives at levels E1-E4. This was contrary to new hypothesis where I assumed that the higher level executives would have greater RA & REC as compared to executives at levels E1-E4 who have relatively structured roles. There are fewer E1-E4 executives taking case of the work assigned by several bosses. Even amongst themselves, they don’t divide the work in a very organized manner which resultantly leads to RA & REC. Incase of PI, execution at level E1-E4

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experienced significantly higher stress as compared to those at levels E5-E7. Thee could be several reasons for this: (i) Over the past couple of years, there have been very few direct recruits or ET introduction at CC due to which most of the executives at levels E1-E4 are those who have gradually risen from the supervisory levels over the years. They might experiences this stress because of (I) lack of formal training (education i.e., qualification wise ) required for some of the tasks. (ii) Most of them (due to the above stated reason) are mostly in the higher age bracket (i.e., above 40 years) and might experience mental facility burnout. (iii) Perhaps because of high work overload and pressure they might experience lack of control and hence feel PI.

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QUESTIONNAIRE
1. 2. My role tends to interfere with my family life I am afraid I am not learning enough in my present role for taking up higher responsibility. 3. I am not able to satisfy the conflicting demands of various people above me. 4. 5. 6. My role has recently been reduced in importance. My workload is too heavy. Other role occupants do not give enough attention and time to my role. 7. I do not have adequate knowledge to handle the responsibilities in my role. 8. I have to do things, in my role, that are against my better judgement. 9. I am not clear on the scope and responsibilities of my role (job). 10.I do not get the information needed to carry out

responsibilities assigned to me. 11.I have various other interests (social, religious, etc) which remain neglected because I do not get time to attend to these. 12.I am too preoccupied with my present role responsibility to be able to prepare for taking up higher responsibilities. 13.I am not able to satisfy the conflicting demands of my peers and juniors.

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14.Many functions that should be a part of my role have been assigned to some other role. 15.The amount of work I have to do interferes with the quality I want to maintain. 16.There is not enough interaction between my role and other roles. 17.I wish I had more skills to handle the responsibilities of my role. 18.I am not able to use my training and expertise in my role. 19.I do not know what the people I work with expect of me. 20.I do not get enough resource to be effective in my role. 21.My role does not allow me enough time for my family. 22.I do not have time and opportunities to prepare myself for the future challenges of my role. 23.I am not able to satisfy the demands of clients and others, since these are conflicting with one another. 24.I would like to take on more responsibility than I am handling at present 25.I have been given too much responsibility. 26.I wish there was more consultation between my role and other roles. 27.I have not had the right training for my role. 28.The work I do in the organisation is not related to my interests 29.Several aspects of my role are vague and unclear 30.I do not have enough people to work with me in my role.

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31.My organizational responsibilities interfere with my extra organizational roles. 32.There is very little scope for personal growth in my role. 33.The expectations of my seniors conflict with those of my juniors. 34.I can do much more than what I have been assigned. 35.There is a need to reduce some parts of my role. 36.There is no evidence of several roles (including mine) being involved in joint problem solving or collaboration for planning action. 37.I wish I had prepared myself well for my role. 38.If I had full freedom to define my role, I would be doing some things differently from the way I do them now. 39.My role has not been defined clearly and in detail. 40.I am rather worried that I lack the necessary facilities needed in my role. 41.My family and friends complain that I do not spend time with them due to the heavy demands of my work role. 42.I feel stagnant in my role. 43.I am bothered with the contradictory expectations different people have from my role. 44.I wish I had been given more challenging tasks to do. 45.I feel overburdened in my role. 46.Even when I take the initiative for discussions or help, there is not much response from the other roles.

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47.I need more training and preparation to be effective in my work role. 48.I experience a conflict between my values and what I have to do in my role. 49.I am not clear what the priorities are in my role. 50.I wish I had more financial resources for the work assigned to me.

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ORS SCALE
Name: Organisation: Role: Date:

Read instructions carefully before responding on this sheet.

People have different feelings about their roles. Statements describing some of them are given below. Use the answer sheet to write your responses. Read each statement and indicate, in the space against the corresponding number in the answer sheet, how often you have the feeling expressed in the statement in relation to your role in the organisation. Use the numbers given below to indicate your own feelings.

If you find that the category to be used in answering does not adequately indicate your own feelings, use the one which is closest to the way you feel. Do not leave any item unanswered. Answer the items in the order given below:

Write 0 Write 1 Write 2 Write 3 Write 4

If you never or rarely feel this way. If you occasionally (a few times) feel this way. If you sometimes feel this way. If you frequently feel this way If you very frequently or always feel this way.

1

-

11

-

21

-

31 107

-

41

-

1

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

-

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

-

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

-

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

-

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

-

… … … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … … …

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

REFERENCES
•Understanding and Managing Stress, John D.

108

Adams. •Managing Executive Stress – A Systems Approach, James W. Greenwood. •Organizational Behaviour, Stephen P. Robbins •Human Resource Management, Dr. N. K. Chadha. •NTPC Guide book &CD •PMI of NTPC •www.vanderbilt.edu/psychology •www.psybertron.org •www.hreffects.com •www.ntpc.com

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