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CEL 773- Management of Quality and Safety in Construction Management initiatives in construction safety and risk assessment in confined

spaces Abhay Sharma 2012CEC2950, Anirudh Jaswal 2012CEC2940 Site(s) Location: DMRC Metro Station site at ITO and tunneling site at Mandi House PROBLEM DEFINITION: A compilation of the different initiatives taken by the management of L&T construction which happens to be the contractor and assessment for this was carried out by Abhay Sharma. Secondly, as the site considered involves tunneling work, risk assessment for confined spaces was studied by Anirudh Jaswal and the data is presented along with his suggestions. Part 1: Management Safety Initiatives: Standards followed at site: ISO 14001:2004 and OHSAS 18001:2007 Common Features: Compilation of accident statistics viz. Manhours worked, Manhours lost, Number of Reportable Fatal and NonFatal Accidents, Frequency rate etc. Pre-employment medical examination for new trainees. Monthly training of 96 hours duration for both workmen and staff in variety of topics ranging from Housekeeping to Vehicle Driving. Monthly Safety Award/Incentive Programme in which safety awards/incentives are given to staff and workers for their excellent safety performance. E.g. Best safety conscious Crane Operator. st rd Bi weekly safety meeting is conducted with all the subcontractor representatives on the 1 and 3 Fridays of every month. Site safety issues are discussed and corrective/preventive actions are discussed with sub contractors. Planned safety audits (both internal and external). Constant monitoring of environment such as noise monitoring and personal hygiene including spraying of mosquito repellents at site and constant housekeeping. Imposition of fines on workers and staff personnel who do not wear their PPEs (Personal Protective Equipments) like helmets and safety jackets.

Novel Features: Physical training and exercises are conducted for workers every morning at 8.00 a.m. to rid them of any lethargy. Safety Walks are conducted by Dy. Project Leader, DMRC representative and other higher management officials and corrective actions taken on basis of observations. Free Health Check-up camps for workers. Tool Box Talks are conducted daily for 10 minutes in presence of site engineers and SHE (Safety, Health and Environmental) personnel based on observations and lessons learned and monitoring of safety oath. E.g. Road safety while crossing the roads. Work is being put in setting up of an Occupational Health Centre at site. A rolling trophy is awarded every month to the department head viz. quality, safety, planning for excellent work.

Part 2: Risk assessment of confined spaces (shafts): Definition of Risk assessment: It is the determination of quantitative or qualitative value of risk related to a prevailing concrete situation and a recognized threat/hazard. Definition of confined space: It is an enclosed or partially enclosed space that is not primarily designed or intended for human occupancy, except for the purpose of performing work and has restricted means of entrance/exit.

Definition of Shaft: A shaft is (1) a passage made from the surface of the ground to a point underground, the longer axis of which makes an angle greater than 20 degrees to the horizontal; or (2) a pit in which there are employees, and it is foreseeable that they may enter (or do enter) the horizontal excavation; or (3) a pit that has typical underground construction hazards and is connected to a horizontal excavation. Quantitative risk assessment requires calculations of two components of risk (R): the consequence (C), and the probability (P) that the loss will occur.

P R O B A B I L I T Y | P



Hazard/Environment Aspect Source/ Situation/ Act Possible Outcome People At risk worker s

Existing control Measures

Excava tion for shaft using excava tor

Dumping location


Water sprinkling

Pr ob abi lity rati ng 2

Sever ity rating

Risk/ Impa ct Level

Addition al Control Measure s -

Residual Risk/ Impact

Action By

Low Site manager/site engineer

Oil leakage

engine ers supervi sors

Drip tray

2 4


Soil muck Gas emission

Temporary disposal area Gas detector

2 2

2 4

4 8

Regular mainten ance Regular mainten ance Regular disposal -



Low High

Proposed solutions to reduce risk of hazards: 1. Use methods like LOCK OUT TAG OUT. The supervisor of the shaft workers can lock the gear and steering of the excavator and tag it out when the workers enter the shaft. 2. Barricading the swing area of the excavator to avoid any accidents due to striking against a moving body. 3. Shaft monitoring devices such as gas detectors are to be calibrated in accordance with the manufacturers specifications. 4. The shaft should be properly illuminated and the shaft workers should have access to emergency lighting in case of power failure. 5. Shaft workers should not be allowed a prolonged stay in the confined space. 6. No matchsticks are to be permitted inside the shaft as flammable substances such as oil and gas are present.