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It is tempting to guess where primitive humans found the idea of a long lasting fire.

The oil fields became the fertile ground where the ape men discovered the source of constant fires. It does not come as a surprise that the first civilisation spread out from the Fertile Crescent. The Semitic people not only invented the means of preserving the life of fire but they also discovered the means of setting it up anywhere they needed to fight the cold of the night. And that is how the seeds of modern humans spread out to Europe, Asia, the Americas and Australia. Semitic people not only changed their landscape but they also changed the hunter gatherer into a new being, human. As soon as they discovered the writing system, they invented a new race of gods and half gods. Finally they invented the language of the gods itself Sumerian. The transformation from ape humanoid hunter gatherer human half god god was complete. !nli"e #arwin and other scientists though, Semitic people assumed that gods evolved into lesser gods, and then the lesser gods married humans and produced the new race of man"ind. The theory of evolution was born five millennia ago but it stood upside down. $hat is important through was the fact that Semitic scribes reali%ed that there was some sort of evolution at all. The problem with Sumerian language was that it did not e&ist. It had to be invented out of nothing. The solution to this problem was to transfer the phonetic value from an A""adian word to a new concept that was born in the artificial language. 'ne of the most spectacular cases of this "ind of phonetic transfer was the word for (bitumen, pitch). A.LAGABKUL esir (eer) esir (*IT!+E,). Full listing. Also: "unin&-.A./A0A*12!/.3, sar&-.A./A0A*12!/.3. 4 /E56'ld *abylonian6,ippur [[esir2]] = e-e-er = [LAGABNUMUN] = [...] '* Aa 789:. LAGAB ellag (illag) ellag (*A//) -;e<ellag3. gir8 "id (*=EA2). girim (guru ! giri ) girim (F/'$E=).

gur" gur (T>IC2). #a$ (#a$a #a%) hab (+A/'#'='!S). hab (?'T). &ili$ gilim (='?E). "ilib (T'TA/). &ir! "ir (0='@E/). &ur" "ur ($''#) -;e<"ur73. laga$ lagab (*/'C2)-na7lagab3. lagab (#E*TA,'TE). lagab (E5CESS). lagab (=AI/). lugu'2 lugud (S>'=T). i(i 2 ( igi 2 i)* igi2) ni;in (E,CI=C/E). ni;in (T'TA/). ri! -see full listing3 rim -see full listing3 ri -see full listing3 +u&ur tu"ur (C>E$). tu"ur (I+?'=TA,T). A""adian wor"shop9 Also: ellaB, ella;, gilB, giliB, giren&-/A0A*3, giriC, gudC, "el, "ele, "il, "ili, "u&-/A0A*3, "uru7, ni;iB, nimenB, nin7, Dil, DirE, reE, reme, sim7, su&-/A0A*3, sur&-/A0A*3, tu"uF, tu"ul&-/A0A*3, turF. ni;in (E,CI=C/E) -B:7&9 E# IIIb, 'ld A""adian, /agash II, !r III, 'ld *abylonian3 wr. ni;inBGni;in Hto prowl, roamG to enclose, confineG to encircleG to searchG to turnG to returnG to go aroundG to tarryH A"". esIruG lawJG sahKruG tLruG tLruG sahKruG MLdu See ;iri ni;in(circle), <u ni;in(ma"e a round trip). (:) (B) ni;inB ni;in -ninniB3

NO distinct forms attestedG clic" to view forms table. +o %ro,l- roam (2)"./)**0) 4 /E56'ld *abylonian6,ippur [[ i(i 2]] = i-mi-e = LAGAB = la-wu-u-um '* Aa EP9:G [[ i(i 2]] = = = saE-ha-rum '* Aa EP9BG [[ i(i 2]] = = = <a-a-a-um '* Aa EP9EG [[ igi 2]] = = = e-ge-e-rum '* Aa EP97G [[ igi 2]] = = = pa1-ha-rum '* Aa EP98G [[ igi ]] = i-[mi-e ] = LAGAB.LAGAB = seB-"e-ru-um '* #iri ,ippur OPG [[ igi ]] = = =saE-ma-"um '* #iri ,ippur O:G [[ igi ]] = = = e-du-uB-um '* #iri ,ippur O7G [[ igi ]] == = Ma-a-du-um '* #iri ,ippur O8G [[ igi ]] = = = li-ta-wu-[um] '* #iri ,ippur O8aG [[ igi ]] = = = saE-ha-ru-um '* #iri ,ippur OFG [[ igi ]] = = = la-wu-uBum '* #iri ,ippur OOG [[ igi ]] = = = <a-[a]-a-uB '* #iri ,ippur OCG [[ igi ]] = = = ege-ru-um '* #iri ,ippur ONG [[ igi ]] = = = e-beB-Qum '* #iri ,ippur CPG [[ igi ]] = = = i-ta-asB-hu-rum '* #iri ,ippur C:G [[ igi ]] = = = "a-na-nu-um '* #iri ,ippur CB. /E56'ld *abylonian6un"nown [[ i(i ]] = = LAGAB.LAGAB = e-ge-ru-[um] '* #iri H'&fordH F8G[[ i(i ]] = = = <a-a-uB-[um] '* #iri H'&fordH FFG [[ i(i ]] = = = saEma-["um] '* #iri H'&fordH FOG [[ i(i ]] = = = seB-"e-[ru-um] '* #iri H'&fordH FCG [[ i(i ]] = = = li-[ta-wu]-um '* #iri H'&fordH OP. /E56'ld *abylonian6un"nown lu2 igi i(i 2- a = mu-te-er [i-nim] '* /uAA%lag A BCN. E/A6'ld A""adian60irsu mu lugal-e uri2&i-+a i$ru&i-e! [i!]- igi 2 =TC BOO :. E/A6!r III6#rehem 'a-'a gala u" lugal a-ga$2-+um mu- igi 2- a-a?#T B, ::OP ::G u" lugal-e e2-u'u mu- igi 2- a-a =A PN, P8: SA BPB -pl.83 7. E/A6!r III60irsu ge&iri3 igi -'e! ge - a ITT B, PPF8F :G )($a 2) i 'a u-ur2-e)8'ar lu2&as" a-a! igi 2-'e! ge - a ITT 8, PFOPF :G [mu] lugal-e i - igi 2 ITT 8, PFCBP FG &ige-i! igi 2-'e! ge - a =A :N, P7B C8 :EG mu lugal-e i - igi 2 =A F8, P:N B 8G [mulugal]-e i - igi 2 =A F8, P:N E OG mu lugal-e i - igi 2 =A F8, PBP 8 E. E/A6!r III6!r)(a) gu2 ge gu" $a- igi 2 a-ra2 4al-la a-ra2 )('i)-&am !ET E, POCO E. E/A6!r III6unclear iri-&i igi 2- igi 2-e-'e! RA 88, O: 7G a-mu- igi 2igi 2 TCS :, BNP 7.E/A6!r III6un"nown e2-&ii$!-$a mu- igi 2- a ChristieSs NE OB :OP ::. un"nown6'ld *abylonian6un"nown [[ i(i 2]] = = LAGAB = saE-ha-rum +S/ PN, :B7A:EO viii 8PCG[[ i(i 2]] = = = Ma-a-du +S/ PN, :B7A:EO viii 8:PG [[ i(i 2]] = = = la-wu-um +S/ PN, :B7A:EO viii 8::G [[ i(i 2]] = = = i-ta-asB-hu-rum +S/ PN, :B7A:EO viii 8:BG [[ i(i 2]] = == li-ta-wu-5um6 +S/ PN, :B7A:EO viii 8:EG [[ i(i 2]] = = = ta-rum +S/ PN, :B7A:EO viii 8:7G [[ i(i 2]] = = = e-gi-rum +S/ PN, :B7A:EO viii 8:F. un"nown6E# IIIb60irsu sar-ru-am3 'u$ +ur-+ur-+a e-+a-[ igi 2] #? B7F r i BG 'u$ +ur-+ur-+a e-+a- igi 2 #? B7C o iii 8.un"nown6!r III60irsu !('i) sila! &a 2('i) sila! 4i! )('i) i! i'-gur2 4a-4a-+i lu2 &as" a'u)*-ga i gi 2- igi 2-'e! ge - a *+ +essenger :7P BG igi 2- igi 2-'e! ge - a *+ +essenger :88 BG 2($a 2) 4i! &as&al-e! i-ar-%a2-'a 'umu u-$a 'a! a-a$$a igi 2-'e! ge - a SAT :, ::8 EG )($a 2) 4i! &as&al-e! $u!-u2-a su&&al a-a$$a igi 2-'e! ge - a SAT :, :BP 8G 3('i) i'-gur2 i! u" 3('i)-&am $u!-u2a su&&al a-a$-$a igi 2-'e! 'u- i SAT :, :78 EG i!-'a-$e-li2 a-a! igi -'e! ge a TCTI B, PBOOE CG 'ul-gi-#a-si2-is a-a! igi -'e! ge - a TCTI B, PBOOE :B. See9 agar ni;inG eg ni;inG iri ni;inG "ar ni;inG "id ma <ag ni;inG par ni;in.

+o e 7lose- 7o 8i e +o e 7ir7le +o sear7# +o +ur +o re+ur +o go arou ' +o +arr9 A"". esIruG lawJ Hto enclose, confineHG sahKru Hto go around, turnHG tLruG tLruG sahKru Hto turn, returnHG MLdu Hto prowl, roamG turnH. (BPPB) T. >oyrup, /engths $idths Surfaces 78. (BPP:) ?. Attinger, RA N: :7P. :ee ;<=:L: ni;inBUto go around. The Sumerian word e-e-er = [LAGABNUMUN] (bitumen, pitch) has the e&act phonetic value of A""adian e-se-ru Hto enclose, confineHG <utanuhu Hto encloseH Sumerian e-e-er = [LAGABNUMUN] (bitumen, pitch) and A""adian e-se-ru Hto enclose, confineH share the same ideogram LAGAB allophones -otherwise ideogramoAphones3 which ma"es them partial

es>ru pag (E,C/'SE) wr. pag Hto enclose, confine, cage -a bird3H A"". esIruG <utanuhu es>ru ni;in (E,CI=C/E) wr. ni;inBG ni;in Hto prowl, roamG to enclose, confineG to encircleG to searchG to turnG to returnG to go aroundG to tarryH A"". esIruG lawJG sahKruG tLruG tLruG sahKruG MLdu esru esa;tur (0=A,A=V) wr. esa;tur Ha granaryH A"". esru es>ru to enclose , to confine -personne, oiseau3 , to surround -army, ennemy3 , to encircle 6 to gird 6 to fence G eser+a es>ru 9 to ta"e a concubine G B3 to hold bac" -water, illness, shout, tears ...3 G E3 a frame G # 9 is surrounded 6 encircled -ennemy3 , is enclosed -gall bladder3 #t 9 passive of # :3 to shut oneself in G B3 -windpipe3 is constricted G See also 9 esru, esertu, asWru, asirtu, asWrX, esIru -:3, isirtu -:3, mIseru, mIseru, lussiru, usurtu

esru 9 confined , enclosed , -bird3 captive 6 in captivity , -street3 no thoroughfare 6 culA deAsac G Cf. esIru See also 9 esertu eser+u esra+u G 9 ese++u G3

(>uman Y Family) -poetic3 9 confined woman , concubine G $?+ eser+u 9 haremG Cf. esru, esIru @ariants 9 esirtu See also 9 bIt isKti, se"ret e"alli, se"rutu as?ru -n. G (Army) prisoner of war G Cf. esIru See also 9 <allu, KbX<u, <allutu, ubtu, lWu Comparison with other Semitic languages 9 Arabic 9 asir Z[\] ^pow_ $?+ as?rim prison 3

usur+u (Army) siege , encirclement -of ennemy3 , bloc"ade G See also 9 nWtu, "albKnu `, dK S WDu `

Comparison with other Semitic languages 9 Arabic 9 iKr abcd e ^siege_ esir (*IT!+E,) -:PNO&9 E# IIIb, 'ld A""adian, /agash II, !r III, Early 'ld *abylonian, 'ld *abylonian3 wr. esirBG esirG esirB-./A0A*&>A/.3 Hbitumen, pitchH A"". iQQJG "upru (:) (B) (E) esirB esir esirB-./A0A*&>A/.3

:B distinct forms attestedG clic" to view forms table. $i+ume - %i+7# ()*@A./)**0) 4 /E56'ld *abylonian6,ippur [[esir2]] = e-e-er = [LAGABNUMUN] = [...] '* Aa 789:./E56un"nown6un"nown esir S/T P:8 prism iii 8. E/A6E# IIIb6un"nown )(uB7) la2 )(aB7)ge+i esir2 su$3-$a ,i" :, BCE o ii EG 2(aB7) ge+i esir2 u-su$3-$a ,i" :, BCE o ii 7.E/A6'ld A""adian60irsu 2(aB7) esir2 e2-a gur CT 8P, :OC BG 2(u) esir2 #a'2 gur-saggal2 ITT :, P:78: :G 2($a 2B7) esir2 e2-a =TC :PB r ii BG )($a 2B7) )(aB7))/2(aB7) sila! esir2 e2-a STTI PCC :G [.] la2 )(aB7) sila! esir2 e2-a STTI ::8 :.E/A6'ld A""adian6un"nown )(u) gu2 esir2(LAGABCAL) CT 8P, PFC 8. E/A6!r III6#rehem!('i) sila! esir2 e2-a An'r PO, :7F :G @('i) ge$ugi esir2 *I, PE, E:F :G 2('i)gi&as&al esir2 su-$a *I, PE, ECP :. E/A6!r III60irsu esir2 a-$a-al siga AI', E:, :O: P: BG )(geu) 8(ge2) )(u) 2('i) gu2 esir2 #ur-sag AI', E:, :O: P: EG !(a) !($arig)esir2 e2-a gur lugal AI', E:, :O: P: 7. E/A6!r III6,ippur sis&ur2 gir" esir2 *E PE6:, :7F :G )/2('i) sila! esir2 2('i) gi 2 egi 2 +@, P7, :7E :G )(u) guru u" )('i)-e!u2gug" guruAa esir2 gi$il BU u2 ra ,AT, FBP r i 7. E/A6!r III6!mma 8('i) )/2('i) maa esir2 #a'2 AAS PF8 :7G )(a) 2($arig) !('i) )/2('i) sila! esir2 e2-a gur AAS PF8 7G 2(u) "('i) ma- a sa)*-am! esir2 Act'r>un 'r B, :F8 r i 8. E/A6!r III6!r ig2-sa)*-ma esir2 GDN2-4i !ET E, PECB BG !(u) !(a) gu2 esir2 gi 2 4i [...] !ET E, POCF ::G 2('i)sila! esir2 e2-a !ET E, PCEO :. E/A6!r III6$ilayah ig2-sa)* esir2 e2-a TCS EC, PFC E: B.E/A6!r III6unclear esir2 a2 . e2-'uru2 A!CT :, :NN :G )('i) lugal esir2 e 2(u) 2('i) .A!CT :, :NN EG 2(u) esir2 #a'2 gur A!CT :, E8E 7. E/A6Early 'ld *abylonian6un"nown)('i) sila! esir2 e2-a *I, PN, PBO EG )/2('i) sila! esir2 e2-a *I, PN, PEP OG )($a 2)esir2 e2-a *I, PN, :E7 E. un"nown6E# IIIb60irsu !(uB7) 2(aB7) )($arigB7) esir2 gur2('i)-UL #? E77 o i :G )(uB7) !(aB7) )($arigB7) esir2 gur 2('i)-UL #? E77 o i 7G)(uB7) 2(aB7) esir2 #a'2 gur 2('i)-UL #? E78 o i :. un"nown6!r III6#rehem "('i)gi&as&al !('i) sila! sag)* esir2 su-$a Aleppo :7C :G )('i) gima-a -sim sag)* esir2su-$a Aleppo :FP :G esir2-a sa)*-a Aleppo E:B 8G EUFLAGAB @(a) esir2 $a$$ar gurSAT B, ::PE r iii :OG EUFLAGAB )(u) 2('i) esir2 e2-a SAT B, ::PE r iii :CG @(a) esir2$a$$ar gur SAT B, ::PE r i :7G )(u) 2('i) esir2 e2-a SAT B, ::PE r

i :8. un"nown6!r III60irsu 2('i) gu2-gir esir2-ra AST :C, BB7 >S+ F7E7 :EG A('i) ma2 esir2 AST :C, BB7 >S+ F7E7 ::G 2(u) )(a) gu2 esir2 #a'2 *+ +essenger E:F :. un"nown6!r III6,ippur)($arig) esir2 e2-a **@' ::, B8F, 7,A T:N: o iv ::G EUFLAGAB )($arig) esir2 e2-a**@' ::, B8O, 7,AT:NO r iii OG EUFLAGAB )(a) esir2 #a'2 gur **@' ::, B8O, 7,AT:NO r iii C. un"nown6!r III6!mma !(a) gu2 "(u) ma- a esir2 #a'2 A= =I+ PO PC o i :G)(ge2) !(u) 3(a) gu2 2(u) "('i) ma- a esir2 #a'2 A= =I+ PO PC o i :EG )(ge2) !(u)8(a) gu2 2(u) 3('i) 2/!('i) ma- a esir2 #a'2 A= =I+ PO PC o i O. un"nown6!r III6un"nown esir2 e2-a )('i) gi 2 &u!-$a$$ar-&am +@, :8, EOB E. un"nown6'ld *abylonian6un"nown esir2-$i 2('i) sila! T/* 8, :P C. 4 e(leave)/E56un"nown6un"nown esir e'2-a S/T P:8 prism iii F. 4 sur(press) u/E56un"nown6un"nown esir sur . S/T P:8 prism iii O. See9 igi esirG masab esir <ubG na;a esir ea. A"". iQQJ HbitumenHG "upru Hbitumen, pitchH. (:NNOA:NNC) =. de +aaifer and *. Tagersma, Af' 77A78 BCP. (:NNB) +. Sigrist, #rehem ENB. :ee ;<=:L: esirBUbitumen. The A""adian scribe used the transfer of phonetic values again when he created the verb to leave9 ; e (e&i eg2 ig2 i)2) e (*A=/EV). e (I,TE=TECTI',). e (/EAT>E=). e (/EA@E). e (?=I,CE/V). e (S?EA2). ni (FEA=). eg2 eg (/E@EE). A""adian wor"shop9 Also: <uru&-E3, yiE. 4 e(leave)/E56un"nown6un"nown esir [$i+ume ] e'2-a (leave) S/T P:8 prism iii F. The phonetic value <uru&-E3 of the ideogram E (leave) derived its imposed phonetic value <uru from its adfacent word [[esir2]] = e-e-er [$i+ume ] = A&&a'ia e-se-ru [to enclose, confine]