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Rajan Mathew, D a n Houghton, Wardina Oghanna Centre for Railway Engineering, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton. Q 4702 Australia.

This paper discusses the basic principles of vector

control as applied to induction motors. Two common implementations are described and modelled. The rotor flux reference frame is used for both systems. The first is an indirect strategy for impressed stator current control, and the second a direct strategy for impressed stator voltage control. Both were modelled using the dynamic analysis package "SIMULMK". The response of a 37.5kW induction motor for step load and speed changes is shown.

1.0 Introduction Squirrel cage induction motors enjoy many advantages over dc motors, inclliding better power to weight ratio, lower inertia and fewer maintenance requirements. However dc motors are simple to control and inherently offer better dynamic response. [1.2] This is because the dc motor has physically separated armature and field windings whose MMFs are always orthogonal to eachother in space, and machine torque is produced by the interaction of these MMFs. Armature current can be controlled independently of field current, thus giving decoupled control of torque and flux, which results in fast torque and speed response. This decoupling is not readily available in induction machines (IM's). The IM has a nonlinear and a highly interactive multivariable control structure, which presents an involved control task. However, the dynamic behaviour of IM's can be viewed in a manner analogous to dc motors provided the machine is modelled in an appropriate manner, and decoupled control of torque and flux current components can then be achieved. Such control is termed vector control, and its implementation allows the IM to develop dynamic operating characteristics comparable to a dc motor. 2.0 'Ibe vectorcontrol strategy A central difference between dc motors and I M ' s is M airgap flux rotates at synchronous speed, that the I whereas in the dc motor it is stationary. In the IM, rotor MMF travels past the rotor at slip speed. Thus the relative angular position of rotor MMF is stationary with respect to the stator MMF, and their mutual interaction produces machine torque. With vector control, the object is to control IM's in the same manner as dc motors, and thus obtain their good

dynamic response. Dc machines essentially have stationary, and orthogonal field and armature fluxes. Vector conh-ollers develop similar flux components in a rotating 2-axis co-ordinate system. These two components maintain orthogonality and are controlled independently in all situations by control of their corresponding stator current components. [3] To realise such control, a mathematical transformation is used to represent the 3-phase stator currents in an equivalent rotating 2-axis co-ordinate system. In 3-phase form the stator currents (4,4, i, ) are stationary in space, with directions defined by the stator windings along a-b-c axes. In rotating 2-axis form, the stator currents are resolved into direct and qudmture (d-q) axis components, (id and i, ) with the d-axis fixed to the machine flux. Hence the d q axes rotate in space at synchronous speed. With stator currents in d-q form, the torque expression of the IM is analogous to that of the dc machine. For the dc machine, Te= K, I, I, ; where the field current, I, , can be held constant, with the armature current, I, , used to control machine torque. For the IM, T . = K. I, I, ; where the d-axis current, I, corresponds to field current, and the q-axis current, I, corresponds to armature current. Control of I, and I, therefore allows dc machine performance to be obtained from induction machines. The transformation from stationary 3-phase (a-b-c) reference frame to synchronously rotating 2-axis (d-q) reference frame (and the inverse from d q to a-b-c) requires the instantaneous angular position of the machine flux (hence the d-axis) with respect to the reference stator winding. Two methods are used to obtain this angle, resultmg in two classes of vector control, named direct and indirect. For direct vector control, the flux is either obtained from a flux model, or directly measured with flux sensors (although the latter is not popular due to the additional hardware requirements). Indirect vector control combines a calculated slip angle with measured rotor position. In an IM, the mutual inductances between stator and rotor windings vary according to rotor position. Hence the motor voltage equations are functions of rotor speed. with time-varying coefficients. Thus dynamic analysis i s cumbersome. Transformation of the equations to a synchronously rotating reference frame eliminates the time-variance thereby reducing For the complexity of the differential equations. vector control, the rotating reference frame can be

IEEE Catalogue No. 95TH8025 0-7803-2423495/$4.O@1995 IEEE


oriented to rotor flux, stator flux. or air-gap flux. Generally the feasibility of an implementation determines the selection of the most suitable flux reference. Consequently, the rotor flux reference is the most common, due to the practicality of its implementation. Therefore in this paper, the machine equations and vector control strategy are developed using rotor flux oriented reference frame. [4,5]

3.0 Space phasor model of an induction machine

Central to vector control is the concept of the
space phasor. The space phasor provides a means of

representing a set of three phase variables - be they cunents, voltages or fluxes - as a single vector which rotates in space. A clear physical demonstration of the concept is provided by the rotating magnetic flux of the IM, where a stationary 3-phase set of fluxes combine to produce one magnetic field which rotates in space at a velocity determined by the supply frequency. The same concept can be applied to voltages and currents, except that the resulting space phasors are virtual rather than physical. Once in space phasor form, it is convenient for IM analysis to express the phasor in terms of 2 axes A stationary 2-axis rather than the original 3. reference frame is represented by windings a and p, having the same number of t u m s (Ns ) as the original windings, as shown in figure I(a).

1 , = 2/3 . , i [ + a ib + a' b]= i, + j i, = I 1 i ek (1) where; a = gfl I ,= Re ( 1 , = 2/3 [I,, - 1/2 ib - 1/2 i,] (2) i, = I m { L, ) = 1/43 fib - i~ (3) Stator voltage and flux space phasors are similarly obtained as, 5 = v , + j vs8 = 1 5 1ek (4) ys = Y, + j Yw = ['PSI e " (5) The same transformation applied to rotor variables 1 . . and Yr ) referred to the yields space phasors ( rotor windings, which are themselves at an angle 8, with respect to the stator. (See figure I(b)). Therefore to express the rotor variables in terms of the stator axes it is necessary to rotate the rotor space phasors by 0, as shown by equations (6) to (8). (All rotor quantities are referred to the stator side.) I,@ = Ii[&*) = h+ji, . (6) 3 '= 3@ = 1 3 1$P*) = v, + j v.B (7) y; = Yr - ep = Iyr[ &T*) = Y + jv.B (8) The magnetising current space phasor, , i , is given by equation (9), and machine fluxes in terms of currents and inductances, by equations (1 0) and (1 1). k=&+< (9) y, = L,i-+ L,$ (10) y = L, $ + L, i (1 1) where; L, magnetising inductance L, 3 stator self inductance = L,, + L, rotor self inductance = L, + L, L, L,, , L, stator, rotor leakage inductance


i 3
Stator Rotor


3.1 Rotor flux oriented reference frame



Stator r a a

Figure 1. (a) 3 to 2 Axis Conversion. (b) Rotor Angle

Considering stator currents I,,, ib and i , , the 1 , ) is given by transformation to space phasor form ( equations (1) to (3), and shown by Figure 2(a).

Since the vector control is to be implemented in the rotor flux reference frame, it is necessary to fix the IM model in that reference frame by rotating the variables as appropriate. The rotor flux reference , (and angle p) with respect frame rotates at speed a to the stator reference, and the d-q axes are fixed to the rotor flux space phasor, 'fl, . Figure 2(b) and equation (12) describe the rotation for stator current. Similar working applies to all other variables. i w = 1 ,e-b = L + i & (12) The IM model consists of the machine voltage equations, an expression for electromagnetic torque, and the mechanical equation of motion. From [4, 51, a simplified model suitable for vector control implementation can be realised by equations (13) to (16). Linear magnetic conditions, and balanced sinusoidally distributed stator and rotor windings are assumed, and flux harmonics are not considered. For the rotor flux oriented reference frame, the machine voltage equations are, L~ = R. + %XKJ +j 0 , ' Y ~ (13)



figum 2. (a) Space Phasor. (b) Vector Rotation

Expressions for electromagnetic torque, T, can be derived in many forms using various space phasors. Where the d-q axes are oriented to the rotor flux

b & +@ d t w d / ! >

+ Xamr

- a r ) 'fl-



space phasor, the developed electromagnetic torque of an IM with P pole pairs, is given by, T, = 3/2 P (LJL,) yid (15) Rotor speed, w, can be obtained from the mechanical torque equation, J d/dto, = Te- T, , (16) where; J is the rotor moment of inertia. Equation (15) shows that Te can be controlled by , , and the manipulation of the d-axis rotor flux, y ,. Therefore torque component of the stator current, i if ynl is kept constant, then Tc is linearly dependent on i ,, and thus the torque expression resembles that of a separately excited dc machine. Similar expressions are obtained with the reference f m C . aligned to the stator or air gap flux space phasors.

yv = Y, + j Y , = Y, (19) Considering equations (17) and (19), it is seen that Lr can only have a d-axis component. Thus, (20) 1 ,= id+j.k,. = h = li,l Then substitutmg equations (17) to (20) into (14), the rotor voltage equation can be re-written as,
t, '/dtlbl


i , - j(amc0 , ) T ILI


where; rr3 rotor time constant = LJR, Separating the real and imaginary parts yields, (22) (23) Equation (22) shows that ~ I J = h for constant rotor flux. Therefore the rotor flux llnkage space phasor can be set at a desired level by control of h . Equation (23) shows that the synchronous speed of , , is the s u m of the the rotor flux space phasor, a ahd the slip speed, oSI, where, rotor speed, a,,

" = , "r + 4(r,Id)

4.0 Vector contml systems implementation

The vector control systems discussed in this paper are suitable for IM's with PWM voltage sourced inverters (VSI's), having either current or voltage control. Two models are considered. The fist is an indirect method with impressed stator current control, and the second a direct method with impressed stator voltage control. In both cases the system inputs are flux and torque references which respectively ,. determine the required current values for id and 4 From these, the 3-phase current or voltage modulating signals are determined for the PWM generator. Note however, that vector control principles can be used to obtain high performance from any rotating field machine, synchronous or asynchronous, either with field windings or permanent magnets.

4.1 Indirect cumnt vector contml

The control laws required to implement indirect current vector control in the rotor flux oriented reference frame are derived from the rotor voltage equation, (1 4). and the torque equation, (1 5). The equivalent rotor magnetising current in the rotor flux reference frame is defined as, 1 ,= Y & , (17) and can be re-written (using equation 11) as, 1 ,= (LJL,,,)&+L,, = i , + ( l +0,)1, (18) where; 3 rotor leakage factor = L&, Also, since the d-axis is aligned to the rotor flux space phasor, then Y , must be zero, and,

= Ibl) (25) Finally, the torque expression (equation 15) can be written as, To = 312 P [L,/(l+o,)] IQ i, (26) Equations (22), (25), and (26) provide the means and oSI of calculating the required values of & , respectively, from the input quantities T. and I k I . Hence they provide the control laws for the indirect current vector control system. Figure 3 shows the block diagram of the controller. A function generator sets the modulus of the , which is speed magnetising current reference dependant. Below base speed, &-,is constant, and above base speed it is inversely proportional to motor speed. (A rotor speed input is employed.) The d-axis stator current reference, &,, is calculated from using equation (22). The q-axis reference, k ,is calculated from equation (25) using , i and the torque reference, T,, , w h c h comes from the speed controller. The reference slip frequency is then evaluated using equation (24), and integrated to obtain , . This is combined with the the slip angle, I measured rotor angle, 8, , to obtain the rotor flux angle, p, which is used to rotate the d-q current references to the stationary ap reference frame. Finally a 2-+3 axis transformation provides the 3-phase current references for the current controlled VSI whch impresses the desired currents on the IM.




Figum 3.

Indirect Vector Control Scheme for Impressed Stator Current Control


Note that this method can only be implemented where the current controlled VSI operates in its linear region, and with a speed of response sufficient to impose the demanded currents on the IM. If the inverter saturates, the drive response will deteriorate. Vector control can also be implemented in the stator or magnetising flux oriented reference frames. However, for current control, those implementations are more complicated than for rotor flux orientation. Furthermore, in the steady state, both constant stator n IM operating and magnetising flux operations result i characteristics with pull-out values of electromagnetic torque. Beyond the pull-out slip, the IM has an unstable region. By contrast, constant rotor flux control gives linear torque response, provided there is no limitation of stator currents. Therefore rotor flux oriented control is generally preferred

Resolving the real and imaginary components gives,

r; d/dt(i,) + 1 ,= v&, - T:anw id - (T,-T:) a , ii,J (28)

Equations (27) and (28) yield the control laws necessary to extend the vector control system to give impressed stator voltages. It follows that with respect to stator current and i, , the IM behaves as a fust order components id time delay element, whose time constant is the stator transient time constant of the machine, and whose gain is the inverse of the stator resistance. To achieve vector control, the stator d-q axis currents must be controlled independently. However, equations (28) and (29) show coupling between the two stator voltage expressions. For constant rotor flux operation (d/dtlkl = o), the term riam affects vd in equation (27), and in equation (28) the term -T;a,id (rs-rs')a,,,JiJaffects v, . This can be compensated for by use of a voltage decoupling circuit (as shown in figure 4), where voltages due to these terms are generated separately and added to the outputs of the dand q-axis current controllers.

4.2 Dimct voltage vector control

Torque production in the IM is fundamentally dependant upon machine fluxes, and hence directly related to machine currents. Therefore current controlled VSI's are a logical choice to implement the required current signals. However, it is also possible to convert the reference current signals into reference voltage signals, and hence use a voltage controlled VSI. This is achieved with the IM stator voltage equation. Note therefore that voltage vector control systems are based on current vector control systems, but with additional elements. Therefore, considering equation (13) and substituting from equations (IO), (IS), and (20), the stator voltage equation expressed in terms of stator current and rotor magnetismg current becomes,

z ; d/d,(i,) +i , =

- (rs-z2)


-j o , r; i w I d + d/dl/kA) (26)

Figure 4. Voltage Dewupling Network Figure 5 shows the implementation of the direct vector controller for a voltage controlled inverter in the rotor flux oriented reference frame. The block diagram consists of a flux model, various controllers, voltage decoupling circuits, and transformation blocks.

Vector Control Scheme for Impressed Stator Voltage Control. The flux model uses monitored values of stator where; rs jstator time constant = L,& , , ly and rotor speed a , . The stator currents b , & t , ' 3 stator transient time constant = L,'IR, cments are fust transformed into the stationary 2-axis L,' stator transient inductance = (up)reference frame, and then rota& to the rotor L, - Lm2/L,= OL, flux (d-q) reference frame with the rotor flux angle, pc jtotal leakage factor = I - L,~/(L,L,)
F i g m 5. Direct


. e

time (sec)

time (sec)

(a). Motor speed and time

(b). Motor to'rque and time

(c). Direct axis current and time

..- . ....

tint= (sec)


time (sec)

; . ;

! a 1

I !

(d). Quadrature axis current and time

(e). Magnetising current and time

(0.Motor line current

time (soc)

Figure 6. Indirect vector control results

s n




I '







2 ,.
I ' ,

'.. .

4 .i I.~.. . {


; . . .


. ~~. .

1 /



Figure 7. Direct vector control results


Equation (22) is solved to provide a feedback value of Equation (23) can then be solved to obtain rotor flux speed, a , , and hence angle, p (= l a , dt), and equation (25) solved to yield a feedback value of T, . In contrast to the indirect scheme, the speed controller now provides a torque reference, T , , for a torque controller. The torque controller in tum provides a reference, hc , for the q-axis current controller, which implements the uncoupled section of equation (28) to provide an uncompensated q-axis stator voltage reference, %q For the d-axis, a function generator again provides the (speed dependant) magnitude of the rotor A flux magnetising current space phasor Lf. controller then provides the stator current reference, &, for the current controller which implements the uncoupled part of equation (27) to provide an uncompensated d-axis voltage reference, Avd The uncompensated voltage references are then combined with the output from the decoupling circuit to obtain the fmal d-q axis voltage references. These are then rotated and transformed to stationary 3-phase form and impressed on the IM via the voltage controlled VSI. Such a scheme provides good dynamic response, with full load torque available right down to standstill.

During acceleration and deceleration periods

@ and


@, the machine produces maximum electromagnetic

torque (set in the torque controller), which is slightly in excess of the rated full load torque of periods @ and 0. The expected correspondance between d-q axis currents and IM magnetisation and torque are clearly demonstrated. A notable difference between the two schemes i s evident in the start-up transient response of the indirect scheme. This is due to the open-loop d-axis control, and absense of any minor loops in the q-axis control Hence the responses are consistent with theoretical expectations, and thereby demonstrate the validity of the controllers.

6.0 Conclusion The basic concepts of vector control of IM's in the rotor flux oriented reference frame were developed for impressed stator voltage and impressed stator current control. Two such schemes were simulated, and the results obtained verified the control strategies.

7.0 References
[I] R Mathew, W Oghanna, "Static variable speed induction motor drives", Research report 2/92, DPETS laboratoty, University of Central Queensland, 1992. [2] D Houghton, W Oghanna, "Vector controlled pulse width modulated converter system", Research report 6/92, DPETS laboratory, University of Central Queensland, 1992. [3] V T Ranganathan, V Ramanarayanan, "Variable frequency ac drives", course notes, Indian Institute of Science, India, 1990. [4] P Vas, "Vector control of ac machines", Oxford Science Publications, UK, 1990. [5] I Boldea, S A Nasar, "Vector control of ac drives", CRC Press, Florida, USA, 1992. [6] The Mathworks Inc., Simullnk Users Guide and Matlab Users Guide, Massachusetts, USA, 1992.

5.0 Vector contml systems simulation

The control systems were simulated using SIMULINK [ 6 ] , which is a dynamic simulation package with a graphical user interface. Functional blocks were grouped to mask inconvenient detail, and interconnected to form the desired systems. The IM for both simulations was rated at 37.5 kW, 460 V, 60 Hz, with full load torque of 200 N.m. Both systems were simulated for step load and speed changes, with n figures 6 and 7 . the responses shown i Similar test sequences were followed for each system. During time @ the IM accelerates with a set maximum machine torque to 1500 rpm, with no extemal load. Since frictional losses are ignored, Tc then drops to zero until a full load step is applied in period @, and similarly for a negative full load step in period @ Period @ shows a no load speed reversal.