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Corruption In Pakistan Corruption has become synonymous with our existing system and is pushing our nation to a dead

end. Favouritism, nepotism, misappropriation of public fund, bad debts and misuse of power are on the rise. Corruption has gained roots in our society because of wrong decisions and weak policies of the successive governments. The agencies responsible for checking corruption have completely failed in their mission. Thus accountability seems non-existent.First of all we must define the corruption. Apparantly, it would look like suspicious financial transaction alone. But that is too narrow view. Corruption today has become a way of life and it encompasses the ideological, moral and ethical values of society. It has become a part of our culture. Think about everyone else who is engaging in corruption .If we dont do the same thing, will not it be to our loss? If a thousand people are engaging in corruption, the one who doesnt, is only hurting himself. Corruption is a series of developed reactions to the same situation that has strengthened with time and repetition. According to Novak, Built upon the desire to prevail are all other forms of corruption. Degrading others or their realities or property makes it easier to prevail. Gaining lying stifles the competing influence of others. In this scenario, there is no room for cooperation, fair play and justice. It is all about who is better ,powerful, influential and dominating than the others and also about how you use your advantages to subdue your opponent by talking away his or her assets. While addressing to the constituent assembly of Pakistan, Quaid-e-Azam said, One of the biggest curses from which India is suffering is bribery and corruption that really is a poison. We must put that down with an iron hand. His words were not directed at any particular group. He foresaw corruption as a deadly virus, a poison which could sap the very foundation of a state and lay it open to all kinds of dangers. According to Navak, Acquiring power is the purpose of corruption, since power is needed to prevail over other persons. When succeeding, power is acquired, and its desirability causes the behaviour to be repeated. The positive rewards are the acquisition of wealth, power and dominance. The act of corruption thus becomes so automatic in the human brain that it escapes the awareness of the perpetrator of corruption. Corruption in Pakistan comes in as many forms as there could be. It comes in the form of bribery receiving and giving. It exists in the show of power and influence through real and concocted relationships with people in authority and the gains they can obtain from others. The worst form of corruption is intellectual and professional dishonesty to please or benefit a few individual at the cost of others. Equally dangerous is sycophancy which misleads people in decision making and has extremely harmful effects. In America the rising expenses of elections have created a strange situation. The jewish business magnates have turned into kingmakers because of their money and the entire American nation is being held hostage to their ability to provide enormous amount of money for the election of key

contenders. This is also a form of corruption which is monopolised by a few people. The position in the East is worse because the democratic system has not been institutionalized. And because of this practice the level of corruption is much higher while the level of discipline much lower. In china and India corruption is gaining momentum. The indiscipline is also following in the footsteps of corruption and several uprisings point out that corruption has gained firm roots in soil too. The major reason of fast creeping corruption are political instability, poverty, unequal structure of society, unemployment, lack of accountability, weak political institutions and absence of rule of law. Resultant they are affecting political stability, equal distribution of resources and power, confidence of local and foreign investors and political institutions. It is pity that we are working without effective planning. Whole of the society is running aimlessly with no destination or target in view. In the process, everyone picks whatever he finds on his way. It is also one of major reason of backwardness. If we want to kill corruption at grass root level, we will have to cap those cavities where the virus of corruption nourished. If we confine ourselves to the systems alone, we will, at the most, be applying cosmetic treatment. It merely touches the tip of the iceberg. For a more lasting solution we will have to adopt effective measures to check corruption. Some of them (given below) can be helpful in reducing it if not uprooting it. 1. People should be made aware of their rights. By providing general awareness to the masses, the chances of grabbing money from the people lowers to the minimum. 2. Institutions should be made strong for proper working of the democratic system. 3. Proper system of accountability and check and balance should be implemented. 4. Red tapism is the major cause of corruption and e-governance is the best solution for this solving this problem. 5. Anti-social activities should be condemned and resisted. 6. Justice delayed is justice denied. In time justice can minimize corruption practices, 7. Salaries and wages should be increased in order to decrease the chances of corruption. 8. The unemployed class should be provided jobs and recruited purely on merit. 9. Education system must be revised and improved according to national needs. 10. Stable governments are essential to prevail justice and to uproot corruption. It is multi-faceted problem so it should be countered on all possible fronts with sincerity. We must reform ourselves. Only proper planning and strictly implemented policies with public support can put halt to this growing menace CORRUPTION AND ITS IMPACT ON THE SOCIETY The menace of corruption has links to a multitude of vices. Its roots are linked to injustice, mistrust, suspicion, extremism and terrorist activities. It creates a sense of insecurity, exacerbates poverty and adds to the misfortune of the vulnerable segments of the society. It also instills a sense of hopelessness and despondency and threatens the strength of good values which have been established over centuries of civilized struggle. The word Corruption has its origin in a Latin verb corruptus meaning to break. Literally, it means a broken object. In simple words, corruption means the misuse of entrusted power for private benefit. Conceptually, corruption is a form of behavior which departs from ethics, morality, tradition, law and civic virtue. The term corruption has various definitions. The United Nations Manual on Anti-Corruption, the

Transparency International, and the multilateral financial institutions like the World Bank and Asian Development Bank define corruption as, abuse of public office for private gains The National Anti Corruption Strategy (NACS) has defined corruption as a behavior on the part of office holders in the public or private sector whereby they improperly and unlawfully enrich themselves and/or those close to them, or induce others to do so, by misusing the position in which they are placed. Section 9 of the National Accountability Ordinance 1999 has defined corruption and corrupt practices in a comprehensive manner. It has enlisted about twelve different shades of corruption. Illegal gratifications, bribery, extortion, abuse of office, fraud, cheating and criminal breach of trust are some of the corrupt practices mentioned in the NAO 1999 (Annex A). Starting with the Prevention of Corruption Act 1947, there are about sixty pieces of enactments and rules that deal with offences of corruption and corrupt practices in Pakistan (Annex B). The ultimate victim of corruption and poverty is the human dignity itself. Hence corruption causes breach in the social order and emerges as a potential threat to the prosperity, peace and stability of human civilization across the globe. Corruption in government spending leads to serious reduction in impact of development program and results in perpetual increase in cost of maintenance of public assets. The primary responsibility of ensuring the culture of sound management or what we generally call good governance lies directly on shoulders of the civil administration. In a democratic dispensation, the process of accountability starts at the first stage of the conversion process the elections, which is the connecting link between the rulers and the ruled. It is at this stage that the foundation of sound and transparent political culture could be laid. The electorate ought to carefully demonstrate their first choice (right to vote) of the process and to exercise their right only under the dictates of their conscience. In return, the rulers who are the custodians of the political environs ought to honour the trust reposed in them and to judiciously exercise the powers they derive from that trust. In order to ensure consistency and sustainability of an accountable, transparent and open political process, it is imperative to keep the connecting link intact. On independence, Pakistan inherited weak political institutions. Performance of these institutions in the country over the years further damaged the culture of transparency and accountability. Admittedly, efforts at establishing a strong political dispensation have been facing frustrations head on but these institutions have also failed to capitalize upon the available opportunities. Their internal democratic traditions are still weak and non transparent. Due to lack of respect for participative values, the mainstream political parties are generally dominated by a single person. The corporate sector is also littered with failures due to corrupt practices. Scandals in the corporate sector are subjects of headlines in the media. Wrong practices seem too common, and unacceptable behavior has become a normal practice. Corporate governance has been practiced only in form and not substance. Chairmen, chief executive officers and directors are appointed on the basis of political and personal clout. Merit is a less visible commodity. Thus politicization and inefficiency at the top management levels has resulted in steep decline in the quality of output. Illegal convergence of interest has encouraged insider trading which causes frustration and setback to the genuine investor. Real demand and supply factors have negligible role in shaping the market behavior which is predominantly controlled by the middleman. Prices are determined by unscrupulous profiteers through the middleman mafia. Counterfeit products have flooded the markets. Consumers are left with no option but to live with inferior quality stuff. There is no effective consumer's rights protection regime. The monopoly control mechanism has

turned out to be of least effect. The Monopoly Control Authority has to be improved to play an effective role in curbing the menace that has infected the corporate sector. Need and greed are cited as the reasons of corruption and corrupt practices. Need as a reason is applied to low paid employees specially those entrusted with service delivery powers and public contact. Corruption occurs out of compulsion, as those indulging in corruption are in need of the basic necessities and lack access to social entitlement. However, need very easily merges with greed once need is taken as a justification by those indulging in corruption and corrupt practices. It is because of this fact that corruption is linked to poverty which is termed as corruption of need. Absence of an ethical base in societal attitudes is also cited as one of the root causes of corruption. Corruption and corrupt practices are indicative of breaches in the governance edifice. They pose serious threats to the sanctity of ethical and democratic values and weaken administrative, political and social institutions. The issues of corruption, poverty and governance are cross cutting. These issues, put together, form an integral part of the development literature. Recently, the terms governance and good governance are being profusely used in such literature. Good governance remains at the forefront of every aspect of our life, be that political, social or economic. Governance has to be good in its manifestation, and if it is not so, it is certainly no governance at all. The mere suffix or prefix of the term 'good' does not serve the purpose. The essential components of good governance are the RULE OF LAW, accountability, transparency and predictability. The RULE OF LAW means equal application of law, equal protection by law and equality before law. In the absence of the RULE OF LAW, institutions get weak and become hatcheries for corrupt practices. The realization of the goals of good governance and prosperity becomes a myth. Major causes of corruption in Pakistan are as follows: a. Lack of effective Internal accountability mechanism b. Discretionary powers and their flagrant abuse by the public office holders c. Absence of and weakness of the watch-dog agencies d. Elected government's perpetual failure to develop proper ethical and business 1. standards for the public and private sector e. Political leaders' incompetence and betrayal of public trust with penchant for 2. self-enrichment f. Lack of transparency in the government's decision-making process g. Lengthy and cumbersome procedures in the executive system h. Weaknesses in the judicial system i. Illiterate, apathetic or ignorant populace with inadequate discernment of 3. political choices j. Power of influential people k. Inadequate wage envelope