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ABSTRACT:Bio-metrics is modern security system. It uses a persons biological features to give access rights. The biological features like finger print, voice print, iris pattern, face print, signature(dynamic), retina, hand geometry, ear form , !", odor, keyboard stroke, finger geometry, vein structure of back of hand etc. are used. #o, in this any unauthori$ed person cannot trap the information or assets. Today, to prevent illegal operations this techni%ue is &idely used. It is a user-friendly techni%ue, &hich is accepted by almost all fields. The problem of the personal identification has become a great matter in todays &orld. Biometrics, &hich means biological features based identity recognition, has provided a convenient and reliable solution to this problem. This recognition technology is relatively ne& &ith many significant advantages, such as speed, accuracy, hard&are, simplicity and applicability Biometrics is a means of identifying a person by measuring a particular physical or behavioral characteristic and later comparing it to a library of characteristics belonging to many people. Biometric systems have t&o advantages over traditional I methods.

'irst, the person to be identified does not have to present anything but himself. #econd, the critical variable for identification cannot be lost or forged. (etinal identification is the most accurate of the biometric methods used at this time. It &ill replace traditional I methods such as ).I.!. numbers for accessing ".T.*.s and virtually every other

electronic device used for conducting business &here identification is a re%uirement and prere%uisite. "fter the arrival of IT(Information Technology) this techni%ue is used along &ith computer and this embedding gives the perfect result.


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1) Brief on Security System 2) Introduction to Bio-metrics 3) A Few Defination ) !istory of Bio-metrics ") Internationa# Bio-metrics society "$1 %ur&ose "$2 'ourna# "$3 (eetin)s "$ Biometrics Bu##etin *) +eneric mode# of ,io-metrics *$1 Data Ac-uisition:*$2 Transmission: *$3 Si)na# %rocessin):*$ Decision (*$" Data Stora)e:/) %0ases of Bio-metrics /$1 In&ut /$2 %rocess /$3 2ut&ut 1) Bio-metrics Identification 1$1 4oice %rint 1$2 Fin)er %rint 1$3 Iris %attern 1$ Face %rint 1$" !and +eometry 1$* Retina# Scan 1$/ 5eystro.e Dynamics 1$1 Facia# Reco)nition 1$6 Si)nature Reco)nition

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,) -aptured .sing /eb -am and *icrophone

13) Com&arision of Bio-metrics tec0ni-ue

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13$1 7ni-ueness of ,iometric features 11) !ow we## do Bio-metrics wor.s8 11$1 Fa#se Acce&t Rates 11$2 Fa#se Re9ect Rates 11$3 :-ua# :rror Rates 11$ 4a#idity of Test Data 12) Is D;A Bio-metrics 8 23

2" 2*

12)A,out Bio-metrics 13$1 <i## Bio-metrics so#=e a## security concerns 8 13$2 <0ic0 is t0e ,est identification tec0ni-ue 8 13$3 Is Bio-metrics more >secure? t0en &assword 8 13$ A&&#ications 13$" ;ew 2&&ortunities 13$* Future Tec0no#o)y 13$/ Benefits 1") Conc#usion 1*) Reference

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1$ <!AT S:C7RIT@ 8 <!@ S:C7RIT@ 8

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'rom the beginning of the human culture, people are al&ays trying to secure their properties. Because some people are al&ays eager to snatch others properties. #ecurity refers to prohibit some unauthori$ed persons from some important data or from some precious assets. To restrict this kind of theft human beings are making special systems that can prevent the thieves such systems are kno&n as security systems. /e can consider the starting of these kinds of systems through lock and key. " 'renchman "le1ander 'ish has made a strong, fire proof safe in 0233. "nd 4inas 5el 6an "merican, has invented a )in lock kind of lock. Both these e%uipments are used to provide security to money, important documents and 7e&ellary. #o this is the first step in the &orld of security system. "t that point of time this arrangement for security &as considered the best. But as time passes it &as found that any unauthori$ed person could access these through duplicate keys or using any techni%ue. #o as the &orld progresses, the thieves become more intelligent to break the security. Thus, &e al&ays need a ne& and strong security system to protect our assets. #o, security system is ever developing field. Today in the &orld of e-commerce and Internet this thing is becoming more and more important because today the &orld is like village, from any&here, any time, any body can harm you. e$). +-If you are purchasing something from &eb and because of lack of security someone come to kno& your bank account number. Then that person &ill have all the information of your bank account, &hich can perhaps put you in a big trouble8

!o& a days, there are many security systems are available. But &e shall concentrate on >BI2-(:TRICS?.

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2$ I;TR2D7CTI2;
BI9:)ertaining to biology; *"T(I-#:#cience and art of measurement. o The term <biometrics< is used to refer to any and all of a variety of identification techni%ues &hich are based on some physical and difficultto-alienate characteristic. o Today, the science of biometric technology refers to the =automated= methods used to recogni$e a person based upon physiological or behavioral characteristics. o Biometric technologies are becoming the foundation of an e1tensive array of highly secure identification and personal verification solutions.

Biometrics is a modern technological field that focuses on identifying an individual through his or her uni%ue physical traits. " biometric is a measurable, physical characteristic or personal behavioral trait used to recogni$e the identity or verify the claimed identity of an enrolled user. Biometrics is automated methods of recogni$ing a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic.

)hysiological techni%ues include fingerprint recognition, retinal and iris scanning, facial recognition, hand and finger geometry and !" analysis. Behavioral techni%ues include hand&riting recognition, voice or speech recognition, gait, and keystroke dynamics. In all automated systems, the fundamental operational steps are+ 0. -apture+ The biometric data is captured, digiti$ed and entered into a database. >. ?1traction+ " template is created using this measurable uni%ue data. @. -omparison+ The template is compared &ith a ne& sample. 3. *atchA!on-*atch+ The e1isting template matches the ne& sample or it does not. The goal of most automated biometric I systems is one of t&o outcomes+ 0. Berification+ Is the person &ho the they claim to beC >. Identification or recognition+ /ho is thisC Is the person already kno&n to the system under a different identityC D9nly biometrics can identify you as you E!ot )ass&ordF.G

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3$ A F:< D:FI;ATI2;
Biometrics Aut0entication
)erson authentication or simply authentication is a task of confirming or denying a persons claimed identity. Biometrics is a measurement using a persons behavioural or physiological characteristics. ?1amples of these characteristics are fingerprints, face, voice and signature. Biometric authentication is a task of confirming or denying a persons claimed identity using his behavioural or physiological characteristics. BiometricsA Biometric or Biometry Biometry refers to a much broader field involving application from statistics to biology and medicine. Biometrics is a noun and biometric is an ad7ective. !ote the distinction bet&een the terms biometrics and biometry. Biometry refers to a much broader field involving application from statistics to biology and medicine. Biometrics is a noun and biometric is an ad7ective. Aut0entication =ersus Identification "ccording to EHain, 0,,,F, associating an identity &ith an individual is called personal identification. This problem can be categorised into+ (i) authentication and (ii) identification. "uthentication refers to the problem of confirming or denying a persons claimed identity &hile identification refers to the problem of establishing a sub7ects identity. The differences bet&een identification and authentication can be summarised in Table ".0. Table ".0 Identification versus authentication Identification It determines the identity of the person. There is no identity claim from the user. The system has to search through its record to find the identity. This search is called a many-to-one mapping. The cost of computation in the identification task increases in proportion to the number of "uthentication It determines &hether the person is indeed &ho he claims to be. The user makes an identity claim. By using the claim as a key, the system searches the users record to compare. It is a one to one mapping. The system uses the identity as a key to call for the identitys record. The cost of computation is not dependant on the Page 7


record of users. It is often assumed that a captured biometric signature comes from a set of kno&n biometric feature stored in the system. This is referred to as closed-set identification.

number of record of users. The captured biometric signature comes from a large set of unkno&n users. This is referred to as open-set verification.

$ !IST2R@ 2F BI2-(:TRICS

'rancis Ialton is one of the founders of Bio-metrics. In 02,>, Ialton invented the first system of fingerprinting. Je has observed that !o t&o persons have same finger print. ?ach and every person has got a uni%ue finger print pattern. In 0,K2, Bio-metrics techni%ue &as implemented successfully &hen &ell-kno&n bank of !e& 5ork has arranged the finger print scanning to access the currency &alt , first time in the &orld. But after 0,,L, &hen IT (Information Technology) comes into the picture, through its advancement and simplicity Bio-metrics techni%ue becomes very popular. This ne& technology is very easy to understand compare to its heavy label. Because of user-friendly environment this techni%ue is very &ell &elcomed by various fields.

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"$ T!: I;T:R;ATI2;AB BI2-(:TRICS S2CI:T@

The International Biometric #ociety, founded in 0,3M, is an international organi$ation for the advancement of the sub7ect-matter sciences through the development of %uantitative theorgies and the development, application, and dissemination of effective mathematical and statistical techni%ues.

"$1 %ur&ose
To this end, it &elcomes to membership biologists, statisticians, and others interested in applying statistical techni%ues to research data. The International Biometric #ociety and its 7ournal, Biometrics, serve as an invaluable means of communication bet&een the sub7ect-matter specialists and the statisticians.

"$2 'ourna#
Biometrics is published %uarterly. Its general ob7ectives are to promote and e1tend the use of mathematical and statistical methods in the various sub7ect-matter disciplines, by describing and e1emplifying developments in these methods and their application in a form readily assimilable by e1perimenters and those concerned primarily &ith analysis of data. The 7ournal is a ready medium for publication of papers by both the e1perimentalist and the statistician. The papers in the 7ournal include statistical, authoritative e1pository or revie& articles, and analytical or methodological papers contributing to the planning or analysis of e1periments and surveys, or the interpretation of data. *any of the papers in Biometricscontain actual &orked e1amples of the statistical analyses proposed.

"$3 (eetin)s
?ncouragment is given the sub7ect-matter e1perimenter by holding symposia dealing &ith applied statistics as a part of annual meetings of the biological, chemical, engineering, and physical science societies. #uch symposia afford an opportunity for sub7ect-matter specialists and statisticians to discuss problems of mutual interest. "t (egional meetings of the #ociety, a member is afforded an opportunity to present technical papers. This permits the e1change of ideas and information through formal presentation and informal contacts &ith fello& statisticians and e1perimentalists.

"$ Biometric Bu##etin

The International Biometric #ociety also publishes an informal ne&sletter Page 9

Biometrics containing ne&s about membership activities, letters to the editor, and membership and editorial commentaries. It is a means for e1pressing ideas on a &ide range of statistical and biometrical matters and is also published %uarterly.

*$ +:;:RIC (2D:B 2F BI2-(:TRICS

*$1 Data Ac-uisition:ata collection involves use of sensors to detect N measure an individuals physiological or behavioral characteristics. The biometric feature must have the follo&ing characteristics+(a) .niversality, &hich means that every person should have the characteristic, (b) .ni%ueness, t&o persons should not have the same term or measurement of characteristic, (c) )ermanence, the characteristic should be invariant &ith time, (d) *easurability, the characteristic can be %uantified that is the origin of the -ameras used in biometric systems are generally either -- (charge couple device) or -*9#(combined metal o1ide semiconductor) image sensors.-- s are comparatively more costlier than -*9#. The cost of -- is nearly >OLL (s. "nd -*9# is about 2LL Page 10

Biometrics to 0LLL (s. )rice depends on the resolution &hich reflects the accuracy of biometric system.

*$2 Transmission: !ot all the biometric systems process and store data on the measuring device. 9ften measurement is made using relatively simple device to a computer or server for processing andAor storage. epending on the system, the data may be relatively large and thus &ould need to be compressed for %uick transfer. The compression algorithm needs to be selected carefully; other&ise it may introduce some artefacts that could impact the decision process. In any image scanning Biometric system, H)?I compression is preferred due to the blockness it produces at high compression ratios. The data can also be transmitted to the database for storage as ra& data.

*$3 Si)na# %rocessin):The signal processing unit uses features e1traction algorithms to e1tract true biometric information from the sample in presence of noise introduced during data collection and transmission. "dditional measurements are made if any fla& or corruption is noted, to ensure good %uality. )attern matching involves comparing the feature sample to a stored sample. (The biometric data can be stored locally on the biometric data can be stored locally on the biometric device, some central databaseAserver, or on a smart card issued to users.) The result of the comparison is sent to the decision system to determine the match.

*$ Decision ( final step is the decision to accept or re7ect user, and is based on a security threshold. The threshold value is either a parameter of comparison process itself, or the system compares the resulting match value &ith the threshold value. If for e1ample, in a system performing identity verification, the match value is e%ual to or higher than the threshold value, the user is accepted. In an identification system, acceptance might re%uire a match value that is both higher than threshold value and higher than the second-best match by a specific amount.

*$" Data Stora)e:"fter e1tracting the biometric features, the system stores and maintains the ne& master template. -hoosing proper discriminating characteristics for categori$ing records can facilitate future searches. The system stores the templates in one of four locations+ a card, a servers central database, a &orkstation, or an authentication terminal. If privacy is a concern, a card is the only choice because sensitive biometric data should not be stored (and potentially misused) in a central database.

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/$ %!AS: 2F BI2-(:TRICS
/$1 In&ut

.sing appropriate input device it &ill collect the data of the persons biological features. These features are kno&n as the master key for the computer. 4et us put in a simple manner.

'or recording and converting biometric traits to usable computer data, one needs an appropriate sensor (see table). 9f course, costs can greatly vary for different sensors. Jo&ever, &e can<t forget that many technical devices already have sensors built in, and therefore, offer possibilities to measure biometric features nearly free of cost. Biometric Trait 'ingerprint (*inutia) #ignature (dynamic) 'acial #tructure Iris pattern (etina Jand geometry 'inger geometry Bein structure of the back of the Jand ?ar form Boice (Timbre) !" 9dor Peyboard #trokes -omparison+ )ass&ord Sensor capacitive, optic, thermal, acoustic, pressure sensitive Tablet -amera -amera -amera -amera -amera -amera -amera *icrophone -hemical 4ab -hemical sensors Peyboard Peyboard

/$2 %rocess

)rocesses the input data. Jere, computer takes the measurement of inputed Biological features. !o t&o persons have same finger print. #o, computer 7oins the points of that finger print features and make the pattern of it and it &ill store that pattern into its memory. Then computer compares this pattern against the master keys. Page 12

Biometrics e$)$: - )utting the tracing paper on Indian map, if &e 7oin Banglor, -hennai, elhi, Jyderabad, *umbai, !agpur, "hmedabad, Haipur and 4ukhno& dra&ing a line then by chance the original map is lost. !o& if &e &ant to kno& the distance bet&een "hmedabad and Bhavnagar for that &e re%uire the original one, &hich is dra&n &ith the same measurement. But In this case, actual map is lost so &e are helpless. #imilarly, the finger print used by the computer to make its pattern is deliberately hidden. Thus, the security system does not allo& any unauthori$ed person.

/$3 2ut&ut

Testing of processed data and give the access rights to the person. Jere, /hen any person scanned hisAher finger print , computer &ill store a Bio-logical featured pattern and compares it against the stored masterkey in its memory. "nd if it is matched, then permission granted else not.

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-9!B?!TI9!"4 *?TJ9 # 9' BI9*?T(I- I ?!TI'I-"TI9! "(?QQQ. 0 B9I-? )(I!T > 'I!I?( )(I!T @ I(I# )"TT?(! 3 '"-? )(I!T O J"! I?9*?T(5 K (?TI!"4 #-"! M P?5#T(9P? 5!"*I-# 2 '"-I"4 (?-9I!ITI9! , #II!"T.(? (?-9I!ITI9!

1$1 42IC: %RI;T:

In this &orld of bio-metrics the first invention is of voice print. Boice recognition is very different to speech recognition. #peech recognition detect &ords and sentences from an incoming audio signal &hereas voice recognition tries to detect the speaker given a voice sample. Jere voice is recorded by microphones. But as each N every person has got different voice pattern thats &hy no t&o voice prints are matched. Boice print is determined by many different factors+ si$e of the vocal cavities (throat, oral, nasal) as &ell as the characteristics of the vocal chords themselves. 5our voice is further modified by the &ay you speak - the &ay your mouth, lips, tongue, 7a& and teeth move (these are called articulators). Therefore, the chances of t&o people have the same vocal characteristics are minute. But this techni%ue is not 0LLR authentic because of the follo&ing reasons. ?ach and every persons voice changes as per the mood. "ll microphones, &hich are used to fetch the voice, may not &ork properly. Page 14

Biometrics uring the recording of voice if there is any background sound or noise then it &ill not be able to give perfect result.

The computer converts the voice pattern into L N 0."fter taking the input that input is also converted into L N 0.If the both code matches the person is authori$ed.

1$2 FI;+:R %RI;T:

In this techni%ue, no t&o persons have the same

finger print, 'rancis Ialton proves this after a long observation in 02,>.

!o I -ard is as best as finger print because the possibility of matching t&o persons finger print is LR. 'inger print is also called finger scanning. To scan the finger print, a special kind of scanner that can &ork &ith optical rays is used. /hen a person put hisAher finger on the transparent glass of scanner ,-- chip scans the biological features of finger. It fetches the diagram of finger print N delivers it to the computer &here a special programme measures the distance bet&een the special features N that print. Jere, those special features are core, split, island, end N delta.

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The ne& sophisticated soft&are of bio metrics scans the finger as &ell as palm. In this case, it takes the ,L types of measurement of palm N matches that ne& digits against the stored digits in the computers memory as &ell as finger print is matched N then it gives the access rights. Jand technology is similar but surprisingly uses smaller amount information. Jand technology is also susceptible to in7uries to hand and can be fairly e1pensive to install. *ost fingerprint data takes up around >OLPb. 'ingerprinting is a &idely used and accepted technology &ith very good accuracy rates. Thus this techni%ue is more authentic than the voice print. The computer converts the finger pattern into L N 0."fter taking the input that input is also converted into L N 0.If the both code matches the person is authori$ed.

1$3 %ATT:R; 2F IRIS:

an iris has a mesh-like te1ture to it, &ith numerous overlays and patterns. The iris is located behind the cornea of the eye, but in front of the lens. Its only physiological purpose is to control the amount of light that enters the eye through the pupil, but its construction from elastic connective tissue gives it a comple1, fibrillous pattern.

Iris recognition is the epitome of biometric identification - the

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entire planet could be enrolled into an iris database and there &ould still be a minute chance of false identification or re7ection. In finger print techni%ue there are only 63 special features, but in iris pattern there are 2** special features. In 0,,2, r. Hohn augman. -inventor of -ambridge .niversity of Britain has compared the appro1 @,LL,LL,LLL the iris but he couldnt find at least one similarity. In this techni%ue -- camera, &hich looks like small camcorders, scans the eyes iris pattern. The iris pattern of a persons left and right eyes are different. Jere, -- scan either left or right eyes iris pattern. "fter scanning that pattern is delivered to the computers processing unit. -omputer only considers the data of iris and removes other data and analy$es the total >KK features and assigns a particular value to each feature. The pattern of iris is converted into the total 3,L,K bits of L N 0. Then computer compares the ne& data of L N 0 to the iris print stored as master key and if it is matches then gives the access rights. Iris has stable and distinctive features for personal identification. That is because every iris has fine and uni%ue patterns and does not change Page 17

Biometrics over time since t&o or three years after the birth, so it might be called as a kind of optical finger print The Iris -ode is so speciali$ed that the chances of t&o irises having the same code are 0 in 0LO> 8

S2(: C7RR:;T A;D F7T7R: A%%BICATI2;S 2F IRIS R:C2+;ITI2;+

Secure accesses to ,an. cas0 mac0ine accounts: The banks of .nited, iebold and #ensar have applied it. "fter enrolling once (a D@L Gsecond process), the customers need only approach the "T*, follo& the instruction to look at the camera, and be recogni$ed &ithin >-3 seconds. The ultimate aim is to provide safe and secure transactions. #essA document-free air tra=e#: )assengers and airline employees &ill store digital images of their irises on a database. "fter the image of your iris is on the file, a video camera &ill be able to instantly verify your identity and clear you to board the aircraft. Com&uter #o)in: t0e iris an #i=in) &assword$ ;ationa# ,order contro#s: t0e iris as a #i=in) &ass&ort$ %remises access contro# C0omesA officeA #a,oratory)$ Credit card aut0entication$ Secure financia# transactions$ Internet security$



'acial biometrics use various features of the face to recogni$e or verify a user. 'ourth type of biometrics identification is of face print. To capture face print of any person special kind of camera is used. This vide camera delivers the capture image to compute Page 18


-omputer make a pattern of that image using a soft&are . To make this pattern it &ill use appro1 OL features of face like the distance bet&een t&o eyes, breath of nose, cheeks, area of forehead, 7a&s etc. These features are converted into digital form. Though it is not necessary that a high 6tech and sophisticated soft&are identify proper person. The computer converts the face pattern into L N 0."fter taking the input that input is also converted into L N 0.If the both code matches the person is authori$ed. Jere are some possibilities. To create a pattern of a persons face, the face of the person must be &ithin the range of @O degrees. " camera cannot recogni$e a person &earing goggles. e$)$: uring a testing at )alm Beach, "merica, the camera has recogni$ed simultaneously t&o persons as culprit. The face of one of them is really stored into the computer soft&are as culprit. 'or that person Bio-metrics technology has been proved 0LLR true. /hile according to plan other person is eating a Hellybeans candy and he acts as if he is blo&ing. By doing this face &as looking %uite similar to the first one. #o, camera recogni$es him as a culprit by ringing an alarm. Because of continuous movement of head camera cannot recogni$e the face. In short, in compare to finger print and iris pattern -face print is less authentic. In some circumstances this is very useful like &hen &e caught the culprit and make himAher to stand against the camera. " soft&are FaceIt can compare K,LL,LL,LLL photos against the faceAminute. In this process there is no chance of any error. But &e cannot relay on it completely. Because of Bio-metrics the human body is serving s mobile lock and key.

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1$" !and +eometry: Jand geometry is by far the most &idely used biometric system. The I @ Jand key system from (ecognition #ystems, Inc. is the most popular. Barious methods are used to measure the hand; these methods generally fall into one of t&o categories + 0. *echanical >. Image-edge detection ?ither method produces estimates of certain person. Pey measurements of the hand (length of fingers and thumb, &idths, etc.); this data are used to =categori$e= a person.

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Biometrics It &orks as follo&s+ The user first enters a )I! number on a keypad, and then positions their hand on a plate using a set of guidance pins &hich ensures that the hand &ill be in generally the same position for every measurement. Then a digital camera mounted above the plate, &ith the aid of a mirror, takes a picture of the top and side vie&s of the hand. The dimensions of the hand, such as finger length, &idth and area, are e1trapolated from the image and the magnification of the camera. This system, ho&ever, is sub7ect to an attack using a fake hand modeled after that of an authori$ed user.

1$ * Retina# Scan: (etinal #can technology is based on the blood vessel pattern in the retina of the eye. " retinal scan can produce almost the same volume of data as a fingerprint image analysis. It &orks as follo&s+ The user positions their head against a support, and a lo& po&er infrared light is directed against the back of the retina. The image of the pattern of veins is reflected back to a camera.

1$/ 5eystro.e Dynamics: This method analy$es the &ay in &hich a user types at a computer keyboard. The input is monitored thousands of times a second, and the durations of keystrokes and the latencies bet&een them are recorded. The goal for keyboard dynamics is continual authentication of the user &hile at a computer; so that if an intruder user had access to the users session &hile they &ere a&ay, the machine &ould eventually be able to recogni$e the discrepancy. ?ven though typing patterns are behavioral characteristics, they are very hard to mimic. Page 21


1$1 Facia# Reco)nition: 'acial recognition technology has recently developed into t&o areas of study+ 0. 'acial metrics >. ?igenfaces. 'acial metrics technology relies on the measurement of specific facial features (e.g., the distance bet&een the inside corners of the eyes, the distance bet&een the outside corners of the eyes and the outside corners of the mouth, etc.) and the relationship bet&een these measurements. /ithin the past t&o years, an investigation has been made into categori$ing faces according to the degree of fit &ith a set of =eigenfaces=. It has been postulated that every face can be assigned a =degree of fit= to each of 0OL eigenfaces; further, only the template eigenfaces &ith the 3L highest =degree of fit= scores are necessary to reconstruct a face &ith over ,,R accuracy. The difference bet&een the eigenface method of facial categori$ation and the police artist method of building a face from template parts is that the eigenface method is based upon an actual photo of the individual and the =eigenface= information is derived from a computer-based analysis of the digital image of the photo. ?igenfaces are (reportedly) highly repeatable and are not affected by human sub7ectivity. ?igenface technology has some promise, but it is a techni%ue that is 7ust in the infancy stage of development. Bery little data regarding eigenface error rates (false negative, false positive) e1ists at this point.

1$6 Si)nature Reco)nition: #ignature recognition is based on the dynamics of making the signature, i.e., acceleration rates, directions, pressure, stroke length, etc., rather than a direct comparison of the signature after it has been &ritten. The problems &ith signature recognition lie in the means of obtaining the measurements used in the recognition process and the repeatability of the signature. The instrumentation cannot consistently measure the dynamics of the signature. "lso, a person does not make a signature in a fi1ed manner; therefore, the data obtained from any one signature from an individual has to allo& for a range of possibilities. #ignature recognition has the same problem &ith match discrimination (i.e., finding a match in a large database) as does hand geometry.

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6$Biometrics Ca&tured 7sin) <e, Cam and (icro&0one

'igure 0 is made up of images of @>L>3L pi1els. 'igure 0(a) is the typical upright front image that &e captured before processing it. "t OLmm, the shortest depthof-field, &e can capture eye at a resolution of @>L>3L, as sho&n in 'igure 0(b). By visual 7udgement, this is %uite promising for the authentication purpose, &hen lighting and reflection can be controlled. #ince all eyes are round, colour analysis becomes an important property for e1traction.






Figure 1 : Biometrics captured by the WebCam in this project 'igure 0(c) sho&s an ear. "n ear has more structure thus creates different shading. #egmenting ear can be very challenging. Jo&ever, if ear can be segmented reliably and represented in a canonical image space, it is possible to e1tract ear shape information. The same goes to fist as sho&n in 'igure 0(d). /e tried to capture thumb too in the hope that fingerprints might be observed. Jo&ever, at such resolution, fingerprints are partially captured and is not clear. By visual 7udgement, &e have decided to use face biometrics, over eye biometrics, ear and fist in decreasing order of priority.

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13$C2(%ARIS2; 2F BI2-(:TRICS T:C!;ID7:

13$1 7ni-ueness of ,iometric features Table sho&s the cross accuracy of different biometrics. Table + -omparison of Biometrics Techni%ues E(uggles, 0,,2F

Biometrics (etinal #can Iris #can 'ingerprints Jand Ieometry #ignature ynamics Boice ynamics

Crossover Accuracy 0+0L,LLL,LLLS 0+0@0,LLL 0+OLL 0+OLL 0+OL 0+OL

-rossover accuracy is the ratio of the crossover fre%uency as compared to the &hole population of test data. The smaller the crossover accuracy, the more uni%ue the biometrics is. It should be noted that comparison across biometrics is by no means measurable. ?ven the %uality of same biometrics is difficult to 7udge unless the results are tested on the same data set. E9Iorman, 0,,,F. Therefore, sufficient bias is e1pected from the readers as &ell. 'rom Table >, (etinal scan, after E augman, 0,,OF, appears to have the highest crossover accuracy. ?ven though Iris scan has high cross over accuracy, its user acceptability is lo&. 'ingerprints and hand geometries are e%ually Duni%ueG. #ignature dynamics and voice dynamics have the lo&est accuracy rates according to E(uggles, 0,,2F. In addition, these t&o techni%ues rely on behavioural measurements as opposed to physical measurements. In general, behavioural biometrics is less reliable than physical biometrics. Page 24

Biometrics (etinal scan has high accuracy but also has a high data collection error rate and lo& user acceptability. 'or this reason, retinal scan e1ists only in science fiction movies but not in real life applications8 The fingerprint biometric has a lo& data collection error rate and high user acceptability. 'urther, fingerprint technology has had the most research and development money applied to both identification and authentication problem. 'inally, fingerprint biometrics has the highest acceptance in the identification community and virtually every large biometrics system in operation today uses fingerprint biometrics. !ot&ithstanding it<s association &ith =criminal= applications, fingerprint biometrics is generally accepted by clients. The chosen biometrics in this pro7ect, i.e., face and voice, are based on user acceptability and another important factor, the availability of resources in the laboratory. 9nce the system is established, moving into other biometrics &ould be easier. Table @ + -omparison of biometrics technologies based on perception of three biometrics e1perts according to EHain, 0,,,F

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11$!2< <:BB D2 BI2(:TRICS <2R58

00.0 '"4#? "--?)T ("T?# 00.> '"4#? (?H?-T ("T?# 00.@ ?T."4 ?((9( ("T?# 00.3 B"4I IT5 9' T?#T "T"

Biometric devices can be ad7usted to favor security or user convenience. Jo& &ell do Biometrics &orkC Is depending on four points.

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Fa#se Acce&t Rates

The probability that a biometric device &ill unauthori$ed person is called the ='alse "ccept (ateG. allo& an

'alse "ccept (ates claimed for today<s biometric access systems range from L.LLL0R to L.0R. It<s important to remember that the only &ay an unauthori$ed person can get access is if a unauthori$ed person tries. Thus, the 'alse "ccept (ate must be multiplied by the number of attempts by unauthori$ed person to determine the number of possible occurrences.

11$2 Fa#se Re9ect Rates

The probability that a biometric device &on<t recogni$e an authori$ed person is called the ='alse (e7ect (ateG. The 'alse (e7ect (ates %uoted for current biometric systems range from L.LLLKKR to 0.LR. " lo& 'alse (e7ect (ate is very important for most applications, since users &ill become e1tremely frustrated if they<re denied access by a device that has previously recogni$ed them.

11$3 :-ua# :rror Rates

The point &here false accept and false re7ect curves cross is called the =?%ual ?rror (ateG. Page 27


?rror curves give a patternical representation of a biometric device<s =personality.= The ?%ual ?rror (ate provides a good indicator of the unit<s performance. The smaller the ?%ual ?rror (ate, the better.


4a#idity of Test Data

Jere, it checks for validity of the processed data and decides &hether the person is authori$ed or not. Testing biometrics is difficult, because of the e1tremely lo& error rates involved. To attain any confidence in the statistical results, thousands of transactions must be e1amined. It<s important to remember that error rates are statistical+ they are derived from a series of transactions by a population of users. In general, the larger the population and the greater the number of transactions, the greater the confidence level in the accuracy of the results. If the reported error rate is 0+0L, then a sample of 0LL transactions may provide a sufficient confidence level. -onversely, a 0LL-transaction sample &ould be too small if the error rate &as reported as 0+0LL,LLL.

Biometric devices are e1tremely secure, thanks to the combination of lo& 'alse "ccept (ates at moderate sensitivity settings, combined &ith a short user keypad code. "t the same time, biometrics are e1tremely convenient and error-free, thanks to lo& 'alse (e7ect (ates.

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12$IS D;A A BI2(:TRIC8

!" differs from standard biometrics in several &ays+ !" re%uires a tangible physical. !" matching is not done in real-time, and currently not all stages of comparison are automated. !" matching does not employ templates or feature e1traction, but rather represents the comparison of actual samples. (egardless of these basic differences, !" is a type of biometric inasmuch as it is the use of a physiological characteristic to verify or determine identity.

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13$AB27T BI2-(:TRICS
0@.0 /I44 BI9-*?T(I-# #94B? "44 #?-.(IT5 -9!-?(!#C 0@.> /JI-J I# TJ? B?#T I ?!TI'I-"TI9! T?-J!IT.? C 0@.@ I# BI9-*?T(I-# *9(? U#?-.(? TJ?! )"##/9( C 0@.3 "))4I-"TI9! 0@.O !?/ 9))9(T.!ITI?# 0@.K '.T.(? T?-J!949I5 0@.M B?!?'IT#

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13$1 <i## Biometric So#=e A## Security Concerns8

!o #ystem -an be 0LLR #afe Biometric *easures -an be Bery #uccessful in 'ighting Today<s #ecurity -oncerns *a7or ra&back in "dopting Biometric #ystems is that -oncerned person !eed to be )hysically )resent

13$2 <0ic0 is t0e ,est tec0ni-ue amon) a,o=e 8

"ccordingly, the pattern of iris is the best one to recogni$e a person. Because the possibility of t&o persons having the same iris pattern is 0 per 0LLL million , the population of earth is K million so eyes are 0> million and that is &hy probability is not at least 0R.

13$3 Is Bio-metrics more EsecureE t0an &asswords8

This %uestion at least poses t&o problems+ biometrics is not e%ual to biometrics, and the term =secure= is in fact commonly used, but it is not e1actly defined. Jo&ever, &e can try to collect pros and cons in order to find at least an intuitive ans&er. It is a matter of fact that the security of pass&ord protected values in particular depends on the user. If the user has to memori$e too many pass&ords, he &ill to use the same pass&ords for as many applications as possible. If this is not possible, he &ill go to construct very simple pass&ords. If this &ill also fail (e.g., if the construction rules are too comple1), the ne1t fall-back stage is to notify the pass&ord on paper. This &ould transform =secret kno&ledge= into =personal possession=. 9f course, not every user &ill react this &ay. (ather the personal motivation plays an important role+ is he a&are of the potential loss caused by careless handling of the pass&ordC It is easy if the user is the o&ner. But often foreign possession (e.g., that of the employer) has to be guarded, &hose value one often can hardly estimate. If motivation is missing, any pass&ord primarily tends to be felt bothersome. In this case, and that seems to be the normal case, it is assumed that biometrics has considerable advantages. -ontrari&ise, pass&ords feature an unbeatable theoretic protection ability+ an eight-digit pass&ord &hich is allo&ed to contain any symbol from an 2-bit alphabet offers 0L>L possible combinations8 This is a real challenge for any biometric feature. The re%uirements are obvious+ such a pass&ord is ma1imally difficult to learn, it must not be &ritten do&n, it must not be passed to anyone, the input must take place absolutely secret, it must not be e1torted, and the technical implementations must be perfect. This leads us to the practical aspects+ the implementation must be protected against replay Page 31

Biometrics attacks, keyboard dummies (e.g., false "T*s), &iretapping etc. ?ven biometric features have to cope &ith such problems. Jo&ever, it can be assumed that the protection of biometric feature ac%uisition is not easier than the ac%uisition of the pass&ord, provided the implementation e1pense is comparable8


<0ere BI2-(:TRICS is used8

For Security )rotect #ensitive ata Jigh degree of identity certainty in transactions -reate databases &ith singular identities For Accounta,i#ity Improve auditing A reporting A record keeping Time keeping For :fficiency (educe pass&ord-related problems It is also used in follo&ing areas. ?nterprise-&ide net&ork security infrastructures #ecure electronic banking, investing and other financial transactions (etail sales 4a& enforcement Jealth N #ocial services

13$" T0e ;ew 2&&ortunities For Biometrics

The unfortunate events of #eptember 00,>LL0 have placed the recent focus on creating ne& systems and installations employing biometrics. ?1amples include facial recognition at airports and fingerprint and iris scanning solutions at ne& government facilities.

Com,ination of Biometrics wit0 smart cards #mart cards, &hen combined &ith biometrics, offer a number of benefits. o smart cards provide a portable storage mechanism for the biometric template. This means template management is eliminated across the Page 32

Biometrics biometric reader net&ork. ?nrolled users present their smart card to the biometric reader at any location &here the card is valid. The biometric template stored on the card (&hich is usually encrypted) is compared to the live biometric. If the t&o match, the system grants the user access. o "nother benefit of combining biometrics &ith smart cards pertains to dualtechnology cards that are embedded &ith a smart chip. These combination cards function as both smart cards and pro1imity cards. This grouping permits organi$ations currently using pro1imity-based access control to incorporate biometric security and limit card issuance to users &ho are permitted access to the biometrically secured area. o 4astly, since the biometric templates are stored on individual cards, the number of users for any particular biometric reader is unlimited. This scenario differs from biometric readers that store the template, thereby limiting the template capacity to the reader<s storage capacity.

13$* ;ear Future Tec0no#o)ies

In near future every person having a Bio-chip in the body. This Bio-chip concept is recently used in an "frican #afaris to trap the activities and diseases of animals. 'or this every animal has a Bio-chip in its body. 'or Bio-chip in human &e &ill store identification information. #o, in future it may not re%uire to ask D/hat is your nameCG 7ust make a shake hand and allo& the Bio-chips to interact and &ill kno& the persons Identification. /e dont kno&, But Bio-metrics identification may include brain -hemistry because every one has got different brain chemistries. !o&adays, a UBio-)rocessor-chip is available &hich can recogni$e the bacteria that can cause diseases- spread through blood, saliva and urine in fe& minutes instead of hours.

13$/ Benefits of Ado&tin) Biometrics

;o ;eed to Remem,er %asswords: "s it uses our biometry &e are not supposed to give any pass&ord. Because &here ever &e go our finger print, iris pattern, our face, voice definitely &ith us8 Page 33


7naut0oriFed Access to %ersona# Data Can ,e %re=ented+ It is a one type of security system that no one can hack it because they do not have our fingerprint, iris,voice,face etc. #o, it prevents the data from an unauthori$ed person. Fraudu#ent 7se of AT(sA Credit Cards Can ,e %re=ented: !one can use our "T* 7ust by kno&ing our )I!. Because no number or pass&ord is there.

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1 $ C2;CB7SI2; :/e conclde that for biometrics is better techni%ue for any security. This techni%ue is improve then unauthori$ed person can not access any thing our assets. It depends on physical behavior. This techni%ue is possible only on the man identification not its document needed for it.

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1"$R:F:R:;C:S:0. #"'"(I EHune >LL@ VIssue !o.003WF+ - The *onthly *aga$ine >. &&& @. &&&.ho&stuff&

C2;CB7SI2; :/e conclde that for biometrics is better techni%ue for any security. This techni%ue is improve then unauthori$ed person can not access any thing our assets. It depends on physical behavior. This techni%ue is possible only on the man identification not its document needed for it.

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