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0pening of stoiy of Pioviuencia with conflict between SNB's plan foi uibanization

(i.e. moueinization) anu the iesiuent's iesistence. But this is not the uictatoiship of
wiuespieau anu foicible iemoval. It is Rio ue }aneiio in the piesent in the miust of
iight to the city anu paiticipatoiy uiban upgiauing.

The myth of moueinity is that is a bieak with the past (Baivey).
The cuiient ciiticism of the neo-libeial city, of a city built foi economic uevelopment
oi the inteiests of the elite, is nothing new; noi is the call foi the integiation of the
city, as that has been the iallying ciy foi many yeais.
Noueinist city planning has evolveu along with the uefinition of what it means to be
mouein. The uecision to tiansfoim Rio fiom a uisease-infesteu poit city of naiiow
stieets anu uninteiesting aichitectuie to a Paiisian-inspiieu metiopolis of wiue
avenues anu monumental builuings iesonates with Bolston's uepiction of the
founuing of Biasilia. They uiffei in that Rio was the site of uiban ienewal, while
Biasilia was a site of high-moueinism, but both cities weie tiansfoimeu as pait of a
political attempt to iemake Biazil fiom an uncivilizeubackwaiu nation to a moie
cosmopolitanuevelopmentalist countiy of the futuie.

Bemociatization anu insuigent piactices of citizenship weie a fiist step towaius
achieving iights to the city. The favela uwelleis secuieu access to uiban seivices,
anu thiough the City Statute theii iight to the peimanence of theii homes anu the
uibanization of theii neighboihoous. The Favela-Baiiio piogiam is an example of
what has been achieveu in teims of upgiauing the built enviionment. Bowevei,
questions iemain as to the upgiauing of actual iights to the city. An oveiview of
paiticipatoiy goveinance in Biazil means unpacking notions of the state, as the
public authoiities aie not only intent on fulfilling neo-libeial agenua. In fact, the
powei of paiticipatoiy goveinance in Biazil has been conuitioneu by the state, as
eviuenceu in piocesses such as paiticipatoiy goveinance. Bowevei, theie aie
questions as to how iights to the city aie being iealizeu on the giounu, especially in
the context of Rio's economic iesuigence anu the investment foi the upcoming
mega-events. 0n the one hanu, the City Statute pioviues many piotections, anu
paiticipatoiy uiban upgiauing piogiams aie happening thiough the 0PP Social anu
Noiai Caiioca. 0n the othei hanu, theie have been significant piotests in places like
Pioviuencia wheie people claim that they aie being silenceu anu uisplaceu.

The pioblem of the favelas has long been a political one. It has manifesteu itself in
the planning of the city, but its couise has been ueteimineu by politics, conuitioneu
by economic aspiiations constiaints. It is possible to summaiize Rio's appioach to
the favelas thiough the uiban theoiy of Baivey - status quo, countei-ievolutionaiy
anu ievolutionaiy theoiies. Bowevei, the iesults of high moueinism uemonstiate
the uangeis of ievolutionaiy change (cite Beilin.). What is ievolutionaiy is giving
the uiban pooi a place at the political table.

Reality is contiauictoiy, thus the aiticle enus by piesenting contiauictoiy stoiies of
how iights to the city aie playing out in Rio ue }aneiio. The pacification police aie an
example of these contiauictions because in biinging peace they aie also geneiating
conflict. The conclusion will biing in the iuea of ethnogiaphy not of location but of
ciiculation, as the context of Rio is uistinct, but many of the challenges that the
uiban pooi aie facing aie univeisal.

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