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Pini
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pini (fl. 4th century BCE ) (Sanskrit: , IPA: [pin i]; a patronymic meaning "descendant of Pai"), or Panini, was a Sanskrit grammarian from Pushkalavati, Gandhara, northwestern Iron Age India (in the modern-day [1][2] Charsadda of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan). Pini is known for his Sanskrit grammar, particularly for his formulation of the [2] 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology, syntax and semantics in the grammar known as Ashtadhyayi ( Adhyy, meaning "eight chapters"), the foundational text of the grammatical branch of the Vedanga, the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of Vedic religion [Hinduism] .

[1][2]

Pini
Born 4th century BC Gandhara Indian philosophy

Region

Main interests Sanskrit grammar Books Ashtadhyayi (lit. "Eight Chapters"), the earliest known treatise on descriptive linguistics, that defines

The Ashtadhyayi is one of the earliest known grammars of Sanskrit, although Classical Sanskrit Pini refers to previous texts like the Unadisutra, Dhatupatha, and [2] Ganapatha. It is the earliest known work on descriptive linguistics, and together with the work of his immediate predecessors (Nirukta, Nighantu, Pratishakyas) stands at the beginning of the history of linguistics itself. His theory of morphological analysis was more advanced than any equivalent Western theory before the mid [3] 20th century, and his analysis of noun compounds still forms the basis of modern linguistic theories of compounding, which have borrowed Sanskrit terms such as bahuvrihi and dvandva. Pinis comprehensive and scientific theory of grammar is conventionally taken to mark the end of the period of Vedic Sanskrit, introducing the period of Classical Sanskrit.

Contents
1 Date and context 1.1 Later biographical traditions and modern reception 2 Ashtadhyayi 2.1 Rules 2.2 List of IT markers 2.3 Auxiliary texts 2.3.1 Shiva Sutras 2.3.2 Dhatupatha 2.3.3 Ganapatha 2.4 Commentary 2.5 Editions 3 Bhaikvya 4 Modern linguistics 4.1 De Saussure 4.2 Leonard Bloomfield 4.3 Comparison with modern formal systems 5 Other works 6 In popular culture 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Date and context


Nothing definite is known about when Pini lived, nor even in which century he lived. Most scholarship suggests a 4th-century BC floruit (corresponding to the Pushkalavati site in Gandhara), contemporary to the Nanda Dynasty ruling the Gangetic plain,

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but a 5th or even late 6th century BC date cannot be ruled out with certainty. Pinis grammar defines Classical Sanskrit, so Pini by definition lived at the end of the Vedic period. He notes a few special rules, marked chandasi ("in the hymns") to account for forms in the Vedic scriptures that had fallen out of use in the spoken language of his time. These indicate that Vedic Sanskrit was already archaic, but still a comprehensible dialect. An important hint for the dating of Pini is the occurrence of the word yavann ( ) (in 4.1.49, either "Greek woman", or [4] "Greek script"). Some Greeks, such as the Persian admiral Scylax of Caryanda were present in Gandhara as co-citizens of [5] the Persian empire, well before the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 330s BC; the name could also have been transmitted via Old Persian yauna, and the administrative languages Elamite or Aramaic, so that the occurrence of yavann taken in isolation allows for a terminus post quem as early as 519 BC, i.e. the time of Darius the Greats Behistun inscription that includes the Indian province of Gandara (Sanskrit Gandhra). It is not certain whether Pini used writing for the composition of his work, though it is generally agreed that he knew of a form [6] of writing, based on references to words such as "script" and "scribe" in his Ashtadhyayi. These must have referred to [citation needed] Aramaic or early Kharosthi writing. It is believed by some that a work of such complexity would have been difficult to compile without written notes, though others have argued that he might have composed it with the help of a group of students whose memories served him as notepads (as is typical in Vedic learning). Writing first reappears in India in the form of the Brhm script from c. the 3rd century BC in the Ashokan inscriptions. While Pinis work is purely grammatical and lexicographic, cultural and geographical inferences can be drawn from the vocabulary he uses in examples, and from his references to fellow grammarians, which show he was a northwestern person. New deities referred to in his work include Vasudeva (4.3.98). The concept of dharma is attested in his example sentence (4.4.41) dharmam carati "he observes the law" (cf. Taittiriya Upanishad 1.11).

Later biographical traditions and modern reception


Nothing certain is known about Pinis personal life. According to the Mahbhya of Patajali, his mothers name was [7] [7] Dk. Patajali calls Pini as Dkputra (meaning son of Dk) at several places int the Mahbhya. As per later [8] [9] traditions, his maternal uncles name was Vyi. Some scholars suggest that his brothers name was Pigala. Not much is [citation needed] known about his father, whose name has been suggested as Pai, but most scholars reject this suggestion. [citation needed] [7] As per Rambhadracharya, the name of his father was Paina, from which the name Pini derives. Panini is believed to have been born in Gandhara. Based on the Mahbhya, it is believed that altura was the birthplace of [7] Pini. In the Ashtadhyayi also, the place altura is mentioned. According to Xuanzang (Hieun-Tsang), a statue of him [10] existed at altura, the place of his birth. Some writers identify altura with the Shalatur village near Taxila in what is now [11] the Punjab province of Pakistan. More than a thousand years after he lived, the Pacatantra mentioned that Pini was killed by a lion: Pini was depicted on a five rupees Indian postage stamp in 2004.
[13] [12]

Ashtadhyayi
The Ashtadhyayi (IAST: Adhyy Devanagari: ) is the central part of Pinis grammar, and by far the most complex. Regarded as extremely compact without sacrificing completeness, it would become the model for later specialist [14] technical texts or stras. It takes material from lexical lists (Dhatupatha, Ganapatha) as input and describes algorithms to be applied to them for the generation of well-formed words. It is highly systematised and technical. Inherent in its approach are the [15] concepts of the phoneme, the morpheme and the root. His rules have a reputation for perfection that is, they are claimed to describe Sanskrit morphology fully, without any redundancy. A consequence of his grammars focus on brevity is its highly unintuitive structure, reminiscent of modern notations such as the "BackusNaur Form". His sophisticated logical rules and technique have been widely influential in ancient and modern linguistics. The Ashtadhyayi was not the first description of Sanskrit grammar, but it surpassed its predecessor on such a monumental scale that all earlier works are now lost except for the extent to which they are mentioned by Panini. The Ashtadhyayi became the foundation of Vykaraa (Sanskrit grammatical tradition), and the classical works of Sanskrit grammarians which flourished during ca. the 8th and 15th centuries (and a revival in the 17th and 18th) are essentially commentaries on Panini. In the Ashtadhyayi, language is observed in a manner that has no parallel among Greek or Latin grammarians. Pinis grammar marks the entry of the non-sacred into Indian thought, and according to Renou and Filliozat, it then defines the [16] linguistic expression of that thought. Pini made use of a technical metalanguage consisting of a syntax, morphology and

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lexicon. This metalanguage is organised according to a series of meta-rules, some of which are explicitly stated while others can be deduced. The two fundamental principles on which the metalanguage is based are non-redundancy, or the principle of [17] economy, and the necessity of all the rules in the Ashtadhyayi. The Ashtadhyayi consists of 3,959 sutras (stri) or rules, distributed among eight chapters, which are each subdivided into four sections or padas (pd). From example words in the text, and from a few rules depending on the context of the discourse, additional information as to the geographical, cultural and historical context of Pini can be discerned.

Rules
The first two sutras are as follows: 1.1.1 vddhir daiC ( (http://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/ _) ) 1.1.2 ade gua ( (http://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/ _) ) In these sutras, the capital letters are special meta-linguistic symbols; they are called IT () markers or, in later writers such as Katyayana and Patanjali, anubandhas (see below). The C and refer to Shiva Sutras 4 ("ai, au, C") and 3 ("e, o, "), respectively, forming what are known as the pratyhras comprehensive designations aiC, e. They denote the list of phonemes {ai, au} and {e, o} respectively. The (T) appearing (in its variant form /d/) in both sutras is also an IT marker: Sutra 1.1.70 defines it as indicating that the preceding phoneme does not represent a list, but a single phoneme, encompassing all supra-segmental features such as accent and nasality. For further example, (T) and (aT) represent {} and {a} respectively. When a sutra defines a technical term, the term defined comes at the end, so the first sutra should have properly been daiJ vddhir instead of vddhir daiC. However the order is reversed in order to have a good-luck word at the very beginning of the work; vddhir happens to mean prosperity in its non-technical use. Thus the two stras consist of a list of phonemes, followed by a technical term; the final interpretation of the two stras above is thus: 1.1.1: {, ai, au} are called vddhi. 1.1.2: {a, e, o} are called gua. At this point, one can see they are definitions of terminology: gua and vddhi are the terms for the full and the lengthened ablaut grades, respectively.

List of IT markers
its or anubandhas are defined in P. 1.3.2 through P. 1.3.8. These definitions refer only to items taught in the grammar or its ancillary texts such at the dhtupha; this fact is made clear in P. 1.3.2 by the word upadee, which is then continued in the following six rules by anuvtti, Ellipsis. As these anubandhas are metalinguistic markers and not pronounced in the final derived form, pada (word), they are elided by P. 1.3.9 tasya lopa There is elision of that (i.e. any of the preceding items which have been defined as an it). Accordingly, Pini defines the anubandhas as follows: 1) Nasalized vowels, e.g. bhajO. Cf. P. 1.3.2. 2) A final consonant (haL). Cf. P. 1.3.3. 2a) except a dental, m and s in verbal or nominal endings. Cf. P. 1.3.4. 3) Initial i u u. Cf. P 1.3.5 4) Initial of a suffix (pratyaya). Cf. P. 1.3.6. 5) Initial palatals and cerebrals of a suffix. Cf. P. 1.3.7 6) Initial l, , and k but not in a taddhita secondary suffix. Cf. P. 1.3.8. A few examples of elements that contain its are as follows: suP nominal desinence

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-IT i strong case endings lu elision aP active marker P-IT luP elision P -stems CP P P LyaP (7.1.37) L-IT K-IT Ktv luK elision saN Desiderative C-IT M-IT -IT Causative ii -stems P N ti verbal desinence lU Aorist lI Precative S-IT GHU class of verbal stems (1.1.20) GHI (1.4.7)

Auxiliary texts
Pinis Ashtadhyayi has three associated texts. The Shiva Sutras are a brief but highly organized list of phonemes. The Dhatupatha is a lexical list of verbal roots sorted by present class. The Ganapatha is a lexical list of nominal stems grouped by common properties. Shiva Sutras Main article: Shiva Sutras The Shiva Sutras describe a phonemic notational system in the fourteen initial lines preceding the Ashtadhyayi. The notational system introduces different clusters of phonemes that serve special roles in the morphology of Sanskrit, and are referred to throughout the text. Each cluster, called a pratyhara ends with a dummy sound called an anubandha (the so-called IT index), which acts as a symbolic referent for the list. Within the main text, these clusters, referred through the anubandhas, are related to various grammatical functions. Dhatupatha The Dhatupatha is a lexicon of Sanskrit verbal roots subservient to the Ashtadhyayi. It is organized by the ten present classes of Sanskrit, i.e. the roots are grouped by the form of their stem in the present tense.

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The ten present classes of Sanskrit are: 1. bh-daya (root-full grade thematic presents) 2. ad-daya (root presents) 3. ju-ho-ti-daya (reduplicated presents) 4. div-daya (ya thematic presents) 5. su-daya (nu presents) 6. tud-daya (root-zero grade thematic presents) 7. rudh-daya (n-infix presents) 8. tan-daya (no presents) 9. kr-daya (ni presents) 10. cur-daya (aya presents, causatives) Most of these classes are directly inherited from Proto-Indo-European. The small number of class 8 verbs are a secondary group derived from class 5 roots, and class 10 is a special case, in that any verb can form class 10 presents, then assuming causative meaning. The roots specifically listed as belonging to class 10 are those for which any other form has fallen out of use (causative deponents, so to speak). Ganapatha The Ganapatha (gaapha) is a list of groups of primitive nominal stems used by the Ashtadhyayi.
[citation needed]

Commentary
After Pini, the Mahbhya ("great commentary") of Patajali on the Ashtadhyayi is one of the three most famous works in Sanskrit grammar. It was with Patajali that Indian linguistic science reached its definite form. The system thus established is extremely detailed as to shiksha (phonology, including accent) and vyakarana (morphology). Syntax is scarcely touched, but nirukta (etymology) is discussed, and these etymologies naturally lead to semantic explanations. People interpret his work to be a defense of Pini, whose Stras are elaborated meaningfully. He also attacks Katyayana rather severely. But the main contributions of Patajali lies in the treatment of the principles of grammar enunciated by him.

Editions
Otto Bhtlingk, Paninis Grammatik 1887, reprint 1998 ISBN 3-87548-198-4 Katre, Sumitra M., Astadhyayi of Panini, Austin: University of Texas Press, 1987. Reprint Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1989. ISBN 0-292-70394-5 Misra, Vidya Niwas, The Descriptive Technique of Panini, Mouton and Co., 1966. The Ashtadhyayi.(of Pini) Translated into English by Srisa Chandra Vasu (1897) (http://www.archive.org/stream /ashtadhyayitrans06paniuoft#page/n3/mode/2up), from this (http://www.archive.org/details/ashtadhyayitrans06paniuoft) archive.

Bhaikvya
Main article: Bhaikvya The learning of Indian curriculum in late classical times had at its heart a system of grammatical study and linguistic [18] [19] analysis. The core text for this study was the Adhyy of Pini, the sine qua non of learning. This grammar of Pini had been the object of intense study for the ten centuries prior to the composition of the Bhaikvya. It was plainly Bhais purpose to provide a study aid to Pinis text by using the examples already provided in the existing grammatical commentaries in the context of the gripping and morally improving story of the Rmyaa. To the dry bones of this grammar Bhai has given juicy flesh in his poem. The intention of the author was to teach this advanced science through a relatively easy and pleasant medium. In his own words: This composition is like a lamp to those who perceive the meaning of words and like a hand mirror for a blind man to those without grammar. This poem, which is to be understood by means of a commentary, is a joy to those sufficiently learned: through my fondness for the scholar I have here slighted the dullard. Bhaikvya 22.3334.

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Modern linguistics
Pinis work became known in 19th-century Europe, where it influenced modern linguistics initially through Franz Bopp, who mainly looked at Pini. Subsequently, a wider body of work influenced Sanskrit scholars such as Ferdinand de Saussure, Leonard Bloomfield, and Roman Jakobson. Frits Staal (1930-2012) discussed the impact of Indian ideas on language in Europe. After outlining the various aspects of the contact, Staal notes that the idea of formal rules in language proposed by Ferdinand de Saussure in 1894 and developed by Noam Chomsky in 1957 has origins in the European exposure to the [citation needed] formal rules of Pinian grammar. In particular, de Saussure, who lectured on Sanskrit for three decades, may have been influenced by Pini and Bhartrihari; his idea of the unity of signifier-signified in the sign somewhat resembles the notion of Sphoa. More importantly, the very idea that formal rules can be applied to areas outside of logic or mathematics may [20] itself have been catalyzed by Europes contact with the work of Sanskrit grammarians.

De Saussure
Pini, and the later Indian linguist Bhartrihari, had a significant influence on many of the foundational ideas proposed by Ferdinand de Saussure, professor of Sanskrit, who is widely considered the father of modern structural linguistics. Saussure himself cited Indian grammar as an influence on some of his ideas. In his Mmoire sur le systme primitif des voyelles dans les langues indo-europennes (Memoir on the Original System of Vowels in the Indo-European Languages) published in 1879, he mentions Indian grammar as an influence on his idea that "reduplicated aorists represent imperfects of a verbal class." In his De lemploi du gnitif absolu en sanscrit (On the Use of the Genitive Absolute in Sanskrit) published in 1881, he specifically [21] mentions Pini as an influence on the work. Prem Singh, in his foreword to the reprint edition of the German translation of Pinis Grammar in 1998, concluded that the "effect Paninis work had on Indo-European linguistics shows itself in various studies" and that a "number of seminal works come to mind," including Saussures works and the analysis that "gave rise to the laryngeal theory," further stating: "This type of structural analysis suggests influence from Paninis analytical teaching." George Cardona, however, warns against overestimating the influence of Pini on modern linguistics: "Although Saussure also refers to predecessors who had taken this Paninian rule into account, it is reasonable to conclude that he had a direct acquaintance with Paninis work. As far as I am able to discern upon rereading Saussures Mmoire, however, it shows no direct influence of Paninian grammar. Indeed, on [21][22] occasion, Saussure follows a path that is contrary to Paninian procedure."

Leonard Bloomfield
The founding father of American structuralism, Leonard Bloomfield, wrote a 1927 paper titled "On some rules of Pini".
[23]

Comparison with modern formal systems


Pinis grammar is the worlds first formal system, developed well before the 19th century innovations of Gottlob Frege and the subsequent development of mathematical logic. In designing his grammar, Pini used the method of "auxiliary symbols", in which new affixes are designated to mark syntactic categories and the control of grammatical derivations. This technique, [24] rediscovered by the logician Emil Post, became a standard method in the design of computer programming languages. Sanskritists now accept that Pinis linguistic apparatus is well-described as an "applied" Post system. Considerable evidence shows ancient mastery of context-sensitive grammars, and a general ability to solve many complex problems. Frits Staal has written that "Panini is the Indian Euclid."

Other works
Two literary works are attributed to Pini, though they are now lost. Jmbavati Vijaya is a lost work cited by one Rajashekhar in Jahlanas Sukti Muktval. A fragment is to be found in Ramayuktas commentary on Namalinganushasana. From the title it may be inferred that the work dealt with Krishnas winning of Jambavati in the underworld as his bride. Rajashekhara in Jahlanas Sukti Muktval:

nama pinaye tasmai yasmdvira bhdiha

dau vykaraa kvyamanu jmbavatjayam

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Ascribed to Pini, Ptla Vijaya is a lost work cited by Namisadhu in his commentary on Kavyalankara of Rudrata.

In popular culture
India released a stamp in honor of Panini in 2004. There is also a Panini temple (Panini Smarak Mandir) in Kashi, built on soil [25] brought from Paninis birthplace in Pakistan.

Indian stamp honoring Panini

See also
Sanskrit grammarians Bhaikvya Pingala se and ani roots

References
1. ^
ab

Frits Staal, Euclid and Pini, Philosophy East and

7. ^

abcd

Mishra, Giridhar (1981). "

[Introduction]"

West, 1965; R. A. Jairazbhoy, On Mundkur on Diffusion, Current Anthropology (1979). 2. ^


abcd

(http://jagadgururambhadracharya.org/works/arapv /prastavana.php) (in Sanskrit).

Sanskrit Literature (http://dsal.uchicago.edu

[Deliberation on
non-Paninian usages in the Adhyatma Ramayana] (Ph.D.). Varanasi, India: Sampurnanand Sanskrit University. http://jagadgururambhadracharya.org/works/arapv /prastavana.php. Retrieved May 21, 2013. 8. ^ Shripad Krishna Belvalkar (1915). An account of the different existing systems of Sanskrit grammar. 9. ^ Bhavnrv A. Pingle (1898). Indian music. 10. ^ Singh, Nagendra Kr., ed. (1997), Encyclopaedia of Hinduism (http://books.google.com/?id=Vl8_VgikeLcC& pg=PA1988&dq=statue), New Delhi: Centre for International Religious Studies : Anmol Publications, pp. 19832007, ISBN 978-81-7488-168-7 11. ^ Dwivedi, Bhanwar Lal (1994). Evolution of educational thought in India. Northern Book Centre. p. 56. ISBN 9788172110598.

/reference/gazetteer /pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V02_298.gif) The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2 (1909), p. 263. 3. ^ Staal, Frits (1988). Universals: studies in Indian logic and linguistics. University of Chicago Press. p. 47. 4. ^ Cardona, George (1998), Pini: A Survey of Research (http://books.google.com/?id=adWXhQ-yHQUC&pg=PA261& dq=yavana), Motilal Banarsidass, p. 261, ISBN 978-81-208-1494-3 5. ^ "Aside from the more abstract considerations of long-distance artistic or philosophical influence, the concrete evidence we have for direct contact between Greeks and Indians is largely limited to the period between the third century BCE and first century CE.", Hellenistic India by Rachel R. Mairs, University of Cambridge (http://web.archive.org/web/20070927013033/http: //www2.open.ac.uk/ClassicalStudies/GreekPlays/showcase /issue1/rrmairs.doc), p.2 6. ^ Hartmut Scharfe (2002). Education in Ancient India.

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12. ^ George Cardona (1997). Pini: a survey of research. The verse reads siho vykaraasya kartur aharat prn priyn pine "a lion took the life of the sage Panini, author of the grammatical treatise". The context is a list of scholars killed by animals, siho vykaraasya kartur aharat prn priyn pine / mmsktam unmamtha sahas hast muni jaiminim // chandojnnanidhim jaghna makaro veltae pigalam / ajnvtacetasm atiru korthas tiracm guai // "A lion killed Pini, an elephant madly crushed Jaimini, Pingala was killed by a crocodile: What do senseless beasts care for scholarly attainments?" (Pacatantra II.33, sometimes ascribed to Vallabhadeva) The New International Encyclopaedia (http://books.google.com /books?id=Sk0rAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA294&dq=lion) [1] (http://www.jstor.org/stable/25221320?seq=2)[2] (http://books.google.com/books?id=ql0BmInD1c4C& pg=PA462&dq=%22simho+vyakaranasya%22)[3] (http://books.google.com/books?id=1DYLAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA44&dq=%22simho+vyakaranasya%22)[4] (http://books.google.com/books?id=BCl0qRJTpHwC& pg=PA400&dq=%22sahasa+hasti%22) 13. ^ Ministry of Communications & Information Technology, 30 August 2004 (Release ID 3583; Stamps 2004 (http://www.indiapost.gov.in/Stamps2004.aspx)) 14. ^ Jonardon Ganeri, Sanskrit Philosophical Commentary (http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pollock/sks/papers /Ganeri(commentary).pdf) "Udayana states that a technical treatise or stra, in any discipline, should aspire to clarity (vaiadya), compactness (laghut), and completeness (ktsnat). A compilation of stras maximises compactness and completeness, at the expense of clarity. A bhya is complete and clear, but not compact. A group of stras, a section or prakaraa of the whole compilation, is clear and compact, but not complete. The stras achieve compactness i) by making sequence significant, ii) letting one item stand for or range over many, and iii) using grammar and lexicon artificially. The background model is always Pinis grammar for the Sanskrit language, the Adhyy, which exploits a range of brevity-enabling devices to compose what has often been described as the tersest and yet most complete grammar of any language." In the 1909 Imperial Gazetteer of India, it was still possible to describe it as "at once the shortest and the fullest grammar in the world" (vol. 2, p. 263 (http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer /pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V02_298.gif)). The monumental multi-volume grammars published in the 20th century (for Sanskrit, the Altindische Grammatik 18961957) of course set new standards in completeness, but the Ashtadhyayi remains unrivalled in terms of terseness.

15. ^ Bloomeld, L., 1929, "Review of Liebich, Konkordanz Pini-Candra," Language 5, 267276. 16. ^ Louis Renou & Jean Filliozat. LInde Classique, manuel des etudes indiennes, vol.II pp.86-90, cole franaise dExtrmeOrient, 1953, reprinted 2000. ISBN 2-85539-903-3. 17. ^ Angot, Michel. LInde Classique, pp.213-215. Les Belles Lettres, Paris, 2001. ISBN 2-251-41015-5 18. ^ Filliozat. 2002The Sanskrit Language: An Overview History and Structure, Linguistic and Philosophical Representations, Uses and Users. Indica Books. 19. ^ Fallon, Oliver. 2009. Bhattis Poem: The Death of Rvana (Bhaikvya). New York: Clay Sanskrit Library[5] (http://www.claysanskritlibrary.org/). ISBN 978-0-8147-2778-2 | ISBN 0-8147-2778-6 | 20. ^ The science of language, Chapter 16, in Gavin D. Flood, ed. The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism Blackwell Publishing, 2003, 599 pages ISBN 0-631-21535-2, ISBN 978-0-631-21535-6. p. 357-358 21. ^
ab

George Cardona (2000), "Book review: Pinis

Grammatik", Journal of the American Oriental Society 120 (3): 4645, JSTOR 606023 (//www.jstor.org/stable/606023) 22. ^ DOttavi, Giuseppe (2013). "Paini et le Mmoire" (http://arenaromanistica.uib.no/?document_id=84). Arena Romanistica 12: 164193. 23. ^ Leonard Bloomfield (1927). "On some rules of Pini" (http://books.google.com/books?id=kvHBzZ63GHEC& pg=PA94). Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society) 47: 6170. doi:10.2307/593241 (http://dx.doi.org/10.2307%2F593241). JSTOR 593241 (//www.jstor.org/stable/593241). 24. ^ Kadvany, John (2007), "Positional Value and Linguistic Recursion", Journal of Indian Philosophy 35: 587520. 25. ^ http://news.oneindia.in/2007/01/05/pakistani-soil-for-dreamkashi-temple-1167988598.html

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Pini. Ashtdhyy. Book 4 (http://www.wilbourhall.org/pdfs/chandravasu/book4.pdf). Translated by Chandra Vasu. Benares, 1896. (Sanskrit)(English) Pini. Ashtdhyy. Book 6-8 (http://www.archive.org/details/ashtadhyayitrans06paniuoft). Translated by Chandra Vasu. Benares, 1897. (Sanskrit)(English) OConnor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Pini" (http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Pini.html), MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews. 2000. Prince, Alan and Paul Smolensky (2004): Optimality Theory: Constraint Interaction in Generative Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell. Kadvany, John (2007). Positional Value and Linguistic Recursion. Journal of Indian Philosophy December 2007. T.R.N. Rao. Pini-backus form of languages. (http://www.infinityfoundation.com/mandala/t_es/t_es_rao-t_syntax.htm) 1998. Tiwary, Kapil Muni 1968 Pinis description of nominal compounds, University of Pennsylvania doctoral dissertation, unpublished.

External links
Pini biography (http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Panini.html), at the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive PaSSim - Paninian Sanskrit Simulator (http://sanskrit.sai.uni-heidelberg.de/) simulates the Pinian Process of word formation The system of Panini (http://www.languageinindia.com/feb2004/panini.html) Ganakastadhyayi (http://www.taralabalu.org/panini/), a software on Sanskrit grammar, based on Pinis Sutras Forizs, L. Panini, Nagarjuna and Whitehead - The Relevance of Whitehead for Contemporary Buddhist Philosophy (http://www.forizslaszlo.com/filozofia/relevance_of_whitehead/forizs_relevance_of_whitehead.pdf) The Astadhyayi of Panini (http://www.wilbourhall.org/index.html#panini), with the Mahabhashya and Kashika commentaries, along with the Nyasa and Padamanjara commentaries on the Kashika. (PDF) Sanskrit.

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