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Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14

Objective Questions 1) A commensal bacterium A) Does not receive any benefit from its host. B) Is beneficial to its host. C) May be an opportunistic pathogen. D) Does not infect its host. E) B and D only. ) !hich of the follo"ing statements is true# A) $ymbiosis refers to different organisms living together. B) Members of a symbiotic relationship cannot live "ithout each other. C) A parasite is not in symbiosis "ith its host. D) $ymbiosis refers to different organisms living together and benefiting from each other. E) At least one member must benefit in a symbiotic relationship. %) A nosocomial infection is A)

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


Al"ays present but inapparent at the time of hospitali&ation. B) Ac'uired during the course of hospitali&ation. C) Al"ays caused by medical personnel. D) (nly a result of surgery. E) Al"ays caused by pathogenic bacteria. )) *he ma+or significance of ,och-s "or. "as that A) Microorganisms are present in a diseased animal. B) Diseases can be transmitted from one animal to another. C) Microorganisms can be cultured. D) Microorganisms cause disease. E) Microorganisms are the result of disease. /) ,och-s postulates don-t apply to all diseases because A) $ome microorganisms can-t be cultured in laboratory media. B) $ome microorganisms don-t cause the same disease in laboratory animals. C) $ome microorganisms cause different symptoms under different conditions.

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


D) $ome microorganisms can-t be observed. E) All diseases aren-t caused by microorganisms.

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


0) !hich of the follo"ing diseases is not spread by droplet infection# A) Botulism B) *uberculosis C) Measles D) Common cold E) Diphtheria 1) Mechanical transmission differs from biological transmission in that mechanical transmission A) Doesn-t re'uire an arthropod. B) Involves fomites. C) Doesn-t involve specific diseases. D) 2e'uires direct contact. E) Doesn-t "or. "ith noncommunicable diseases. 3) !hich of the follo"ing definitions is incorrect# A) Endemic a disease that is constantly present in a population B)

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


Epidemic fraction of the population having a disease at a specified time C) 4andemic a disease that affects a large number of people in the "orld in a short time D) $poradic a disease that affects a population occasionally E) 5one of the above 6) !hich of these infections can cause septicemia# A) Bacteremia B) 7ocal infection C) 8ocal infection D) $epticemia E) $ystemic infection 19) !hich type of infection can be caused by septicemia# A) Bacteremia B) 7ocal infection C) 8ocal infection D) $epticemia

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


E) $ystemic infection

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


11) ,och observed Bacillus anthracis multiplying in the blood of cattle. !hat is this condition called# A) Bacteremia B) 7ocal infection C) 8ocal infection D) $epticemia E) $ystemic infection 1 ) 5osocomial infections are most often caused by A) Escherichia coli. B) Staphylococcus aureus. C) Enterococcus. D) Pseudomonas. E) Klebsiella. 1%) *ransient microbiota differ from normal microbiota because transient microbiota A) Cause diseases. B)

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


Are found in a certain location on the host. C) Are ac'uired by direct contact. D) Are present for a relatively short time. E) 5one of the above. 1)) !hich of the follo"ing statements about nosocomial infections is not true# A) *hey occur in compromised patients. B) *hey are caused by opportunists. C) *hey are caused by drug:resistant bacteria. D) *hey are caused by normal microbiota. E) 5one of the above. 1/) (ne effect of "ashing regularly "ith antibacterial agents is the removal of normal microbiota. *his can result in A) Body odor.

B)

7e"er diseases. C) Increased susceptibility to disease. D)

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


5ormal microbiota returning immediately. E) 5o bacterial gro"th because "ashing removes their food source.

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


10) !hich of the follo"ing is not a reservoir of infection# A) A sic. person B) A healthy person C) A sic. animal D) A hospital E) 5one of the above 11) All of the follo"ing are communicable diseases except A) Malaria. B) AID$. C) *uberculosis. D) *etanus. E) *yphoid fever. 13) !hich of the follo"ing is a fomite# A) !ater B)

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


Droplets from a snee&e C) 4us D) Insects E) A hypodermic needle 16) All of the follo"ing statements about biological transmission are true except A) *he pathogen reproduces in the vector. B) *he pathogen may enter the host in the vector-s feces. C) ;ouseflies are an important vector. D) *he pathogen may be in+ected by the bite of the vector. E) *he pathogen may re'uire the vector as a host. 9) !hich of the follo"ing definitions is incorrect# A) Acute a short:lasting primary infection B) Inapparent infection characteristic of a carrier state C) Chronic a disease that develops slo"ly and lasts for months D) 4rimary infection an initial illness

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


E) $econdary infection a long:lasting illness

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


1) $ymptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms A) Are changes felt by the patient. B) Are changes observed by the physician. C) Are specific for a particular disease. D) Al"ays occur as part of a syndrome. E) 5one of the above. ) *he science that deals "ith "hen diseases occur and ho" they are transmitted is called A) Ecology. B) Epidemiology. C) Communicable disease. D) Morbidity and mortality. E) 4ublic health. 7igure 1).1

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14

%) 7igure 1).1 sho"s the incidence of influen&a during a typical year. !hich letter on the graph indicates the endemic level# A) a B) b C) c D) d E) 5one of the above

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


)) Emergence of infectious diseases can be due to all of the follo"ing except A) Antibiotic resistance. B) Climatic changes. C) Digging up soil. D) Microbes trying to cause disease. E) *ravel. /) !hich of the follo"ing pairs is mismatched# A) Malaria vector B) $almonellosis vehicle transmission C) $yphilis direct contact D) Influen&a droplet infection E) 5one of the above 0) All of the follo"ing can contribute to postoperative infections except A) <sing syringes more than once. B)

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


5ormal microbiota on the operating room staff. C) Errors in aseptic techni'ue. D) Antibiotic resistance. E) 5one of the above. 7igure 1).

1) In 7igure 1). = "hat is the endemic level of rotavirus infections# A) 9>

B)

Appro?imately 19> C) Appro?imately 9> D) %/>

E)

*he month of @anuary 3) A cold transmitted by a facial tissue is an e?ample of

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


A) Direct contact B) Droplet transmission C) 7omite

D)

Aector

E)

Aehicle transmission 6) Influen&a transmitted by an unprotected snee&e is an e?ample of A) Direct contact. B) Droplet transmission. C) 7omite.

D)

Aector.

E)

Aehicle transmission. %9) A se?ually transmitted disease is an e?ample of A) Direct contact. B) Droplet transmission. C)

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


7omite.

D)

Aector.

E)

Aehicle transmission. %1) Bastroenteritis ac'uired from roast beef is an e?ample of A) Direct contact. B) Droplet transmission. C) 7omite.

D)

Aector.

E)

Aehicle transmission. % ) A needlestic. is an e?ample of A) Direct contact. B) Droplet transmission. C) 7omite.

D)

Aector.

E)

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


Aehicle transmission.

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


%%) 8egionellosis transmitted by a grocery store mist machine is an e?ample of A) Direct contact. B) Droplet transmission. C) 7omite. D) Aector. E) Aehicle transmission. %)) 4lague transmitted by a flea is an e?ample of A) Direct contact. B) Droplet transmission. C) 7omite. D) Aector. E) Aehicle transmission. %/) *he most li.ely mode of transmission of pneumonic plague bet"een humans is A) Direct contact. B)

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


Droplet transmission. C) 7omite. D) Aector. E) Aehicle transmission. $ituation 1).1 During a 0:month period= %6 cases of pneumonia occurred in a to"n of %99 people. A clinical case "as defined as fever C%6DC lasting E days "ith three or more symptoms Fi.e.= chills= s"eats= severe headache= cough= aching musclesG+oints= fatigue= or feeling ill). A laboratory:confirmed case "as defined as a positive result for antibodies against Coxiella burnetii. Before the outbrea.= 999 sheep "ere .ept north"est of the to"n. (f the 9 sheep tested from the floc.= 1/ "ere positive for C. burnetii antibodies. !ind ble" from the north"est and rainfall "as 9./ cm compared "ith 1 to 19 cm during each of the previous three years. %0) $ituation 1).1 is an e?ample of A) ;uman reservoirs. B) A &oonosis. C) A nonliving reservoir. D) A vector.

E)

A focal infection.

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


%1) In $ituation 1).1= the etiologic agent of the disease is A) $heep. B) $oil. C) C. burnetii. D) 4neumonia. E) !ind. %3) In $ituation 1).1= the method of transmission of this disease "as A) Direct contact. B) Droplet. C) Indirect contact. D) Aector:borne. E) Aehicle. %6) !hich one of the follo"ing is not an e?ample of microbial antagonism# A) Acid production by bacteria B)

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


Bacteriocin production C) Bacteria occupying host receptors D) Bacteria causing disease E) 5one of the above )9) *he yeast Candida albicans does not normally cause disease because of A) $ymbiotic bacteria. B) Antagonistic bacteria. C) 4arasitic bacteria. D) Commensal bacteria. E) 5one of the above. )1) Haemophilus bacteria re'uire heme protein produced by Staphylococcus bacteria. *his is an e?ample of A) Antagonism. B) Commensalism. C) 4arasitism. D)

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


$ynergism. E) 5one of the above.

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


) ) !hich one of the follo"ing is not a &oonosis# A) Cat:scratch disease B) Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome C) 2abies D) *ape"orm E) 5one of the above )%) Pseudomonas bacteria coloni&ed the bile duct of a patient follo"ing his liver transplant surgery. *his is an e?ample of a A) Communicable disease. B) 8atent infection. C) 5osocomial infection. D) $poradic disease. E) 5one of the above. 7igure 1).%

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14

))) *he graph in 7igure 1).% sho"s the incidence of polio in the <nited $tates. *he period bet"een 16)/ and 16// indicates A) An endemic level. B) An epidemic level. C) A sporadic infection. D) A communicable disease. E) 5one of the above.

Microbiology, 9e (Tortora) Chapter 14


)/) !hich one of the follo"ing does not contribute to the incidence of nosocomial infections# A) 7ormation of biofilms. B) 8apse in aseptic techni'ues. C) Bram:negative cell "alls. D) 8ac. of hand:"ashing. E) 8ac. of insect control.