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301 Fourth Street SW., Washington, DC 20547

Phone, 202-619-4700

Director ........Joseph D. Duffey

Deputy Director ........Penn Kemble

Counselor ........Donna M. Oglesby

Director, Office of Civil Rights ........Hattie P. Baldwin

Inspector General ........Marian C. Bennett

General Counsel ........Les Jin

Director, Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs

........Douglas Wilson

Director, Office of Public Liaison ........Michael D. Schneider, Acting

Director, Office of Research ........Ann T. Pincus

Deputy Director ........Stephen M. Shaffer

Associate Director for Broadcasting ........Joseph B. Bruns, Acting

Deputy Associate Director ........Joseph B. Bruns

Chief of Staff ........Janie Fritzman

Senior Adviser ........Joyce Kravitz

Director, Office of Administration ........Dennis D. Sokol

Director, Office of Personnel ........Janice H. Brambilla

Director, Office of Budget and Planning ........Earl Klitenic

Director, Office of Policy ........Steve Munson

Director, Office of External Affairs ........Joseph D. O'Connell, Jr.

Director, Office of Engineering and Technical Operations ........Robert Kamosa

Director, Voice of America ........Geoffrey Cowan

Director, Office of Television and Film Service ........Charles W. Fox III

Director, Office of Cuba Broadcasting ........Richard Lobo

Director, Radio Marti ........Rolando Bonachea

Director, TV Marti ........Antonio Dieguez

Associate Director for Policy and Programs ........Robert A. Powers, Acting

Deputy Associate Director ........(vacancy)

Executive Assistant ........Joel Anthony Fischman

Director, Office of Policy Guidance ........James T.L. Dandridge II

Director, International Exhibits Service ........Stephen G. Sinclair, Acting

Director, Office of Program Coordination and Development ........C.

Anthony Jackson

Director, Foreign Press Centers ........Phillip C. Brown

Director, Press and Publications Service ........John Dwyer, Acting

Executive Officer ........Nellie C. Nelson

Associate Director for Educational and Cultural Affairs ........Barry

Fulton, Acting

Deputy Associate Director ........Barry Fulton

Executive Director, Cultural Property Staff ........Marie Papageorge


Staff Director, J. William Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board

........Ralph H. Vogel

Director, Office of Cultural Centers and Resources ........James Hogan

Director, Office of Citizen Exchanges ........Robert Schiffer

Director, Office of International Visitors ........Karl Olsson, Acting

Director, Office of Academic Programs ........Thomas Spooner, Acting

Director, Office of Arts America ........Robin Blerrington

Director, Office of Policy and Evaluation ........David Michael Wilson

Executive Officer ........Robert R. Gouding, Acting

Associate Director for Management ........Richard T. Stephens, Acting

Deputy Associate Director ........Richard T. Stephens

Director, Office of Administration ........Eileen Keane Binns

Director, Office of Technology ........Daniel S. Campbell

Director, Office of Personnel ........Harlan F. Rosacker

Comptroller, Office of the Comptroller ........Stanley M. Silverman

Director, Office of Security ........Bernard C. Dowling

Director, Office of Contracts ........Phillip R. Rogers

Executive Officer ........Daniel D. Dunning

Director, Washington Relocation Project ........William Jones

Director, Office of African Affairs ........Robert LaGamma

Deputy Director ........Cornelius Walsh

Director, Office of American Republics Affairs ........Donald R. Hamilton

Deputy Director ........Louise Crane

Director, Office of East Asian and Pacific Affairs ........Jodie Lewinsohn

Deputy Director ........George F. Beasley

Director, Office of West European and Canadian Affairs ........John P. Harrod

Deputy Director (Western Europe and Canada) ........Jacob Gillespie

Director, Office of East European and NIS Affairs ........Anne M. Sigmund

Deputy Director ........Morris E. Jacobs

Director, Office of North African, Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs
........Kent D. Obee

Deputy Director ........Thomas Homan

[For the United States Information Agency statement of organization, see

the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 22, Part 504]


[Insert United States Information Agency chart]@U0

The United States Information Agency (USIA) is responsible for the U.S.
Government's overseas information and cultural and academic programs,
including the Voice of America. The Agency, which is known overseas as the
U.S. Information Service, conducts a w ide variety of communication
activities -- from academic and cultural exchanges to press, radio,
television, film, seminar, library, and cultural center programs abroad --
in order to strengthen foreign understanding of American society, obtain
greater su pport of U.S. policies, and increase understanding between the
United States and other countries. The Agency reports to the President and
the Secretary of State on worldwide public opinion as it is relevant to
the formulation and application of U.S. forei gn policy.

The legislative mandates of the United States Information Agency

derive from the United States Information and Educational Exchange Act of
1948 (22 U.S.C. 1431), and the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange
Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2451). The U.S. Information and Educational
Exchange Act's purpose is to increase mutual understanding between the
people of the United States and the people of other countries. It
prohibits, with certain exceptions approved by Congress, dissemination
within the Uni ted States of materials produced by the Agency for
distribution overseas. It also requires the Agency to make its overseas
program materials available for public inspection at its Washington, DC,
headquarters. The Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act authorizes
educational and cultural exchanges between the United States and other
countries as well as United States participation in international fairs
and expositions abroad.


The objectives of USIA are:

-- to promote and strengthen international understanding of and

support for United States policies and actions;

-- to advance democratic and free market values, processes, and


-- to foster mutual understanding between the people of the

U.S. and other peoples by means of the exchange of individuals and ideas;

-- to serve as a reliable and authoritative source of U.S.,

world, and regional news through its broadcasting mandate;

-- to encourage international discussion and cooperation on

fundamental concerns such as arms proliferation, trade and investment,
conflict resolution, drug abuse, the global environment, human rights, and

-- to advise the President, Secretary of State, and other key

officials on the implications of foreign public opinion for U.S. policies
and interests; and

-- to strengthen U.S. capacity to engage effectively in world

affairs by facilitating greater U.S. private-sector involvement in
international educational, cultural, and informational activities.

To accomplish its purposes, the Agency conducts a variety of

activities overseas -- educational and cultural exchanges,
English-teaching programs, television, radio, and film programs, Wireless
File, book distribution, exhibits, and library and cultural center
programs. The Agency offers facilitation to foreign press and television
journalists working overseas and in the United States and to American
journalists overseas.

The Agency conducts programs for the international exchange of

students, teachers, and other educators. It brings leaders in government,
politics, social welfare, and other professional fields to the United
States to consult with their counterpa rts, observe American society and
institutions, convey an understanding of their own cultures, and develop
their particular fields of interest. Through all these programs, the
Agency seeks to enlarge the circle of those able to serve as influential
interp reters between the United States and other nations, encourage key
institutions to strengthen their contacts across national boundaries, and
reduce impediments to the exchange of ideas and information. It
administers a program through which American groups and individuals in the
performing arts and athletics are sent abroad to perform, advise, and
consult with their professional colleagues in other societies.
The Agency also is charged with advising the President, the
President's representatives abroad, and the various departments and
agencies on the implications of foreign opinion for present and
contemplated United States policies, programs, and of ficial statements.

Abroad, the head of each Agency post, the Public Affairs

Officer, provides the Ambassador and other members of the U.S. diplomatic
mission with professional advice and expertise on all matters relating to
the work of the Agency.

Functional Elements

The four major functional elements of the Agency are: the

Bureaus of Broadcasting, Policy and Programs, Educational and Cultural
Affairs, and Management.

Bureau of Broadcasting

The Bureau of Broadcasting consists of the Voice of America, the Office of

Cuba Broadcasting, and the Television and Film Service.

The Voice of America (VOA) is the Bureau of Broadcasting's

functional element for worldwide radio broadcasting. VOA operates in
accordance with the act of January 27, 1948, as amended (22 U.S.C. 1463)
which requires that it serve as a consistent ly reliable, authoritative,
accurate, objective, and comprehensive news source. It must present a
balanced and comprehensive projection of significant American thought and
institutions. VOA produces and broadcasts radio programs in English and 46
foreign languages for overseas audiences, and to over 2000 affiliate
stations worldwide. Its programming includes world and regional news,
reports from correspondents on the scene, analyses of worldwide events,
feature programs, music, and editorials.

The Office of Cuba Broadcasting is located within the Voice of

America. It oversees all programming broadcast for Cuba on VOA's Radio
Marti and TV Marti programs. In keeping with the principles of the VOA
charter, both services offer their audie nces accurate and objective news
reports and features on American culture and opinion. Radio Marti
broadcasts on medium and shortwave frequencies. TV Marti is available on
VHF (very high frequency) and international satellite.

The Television and Film Service is responsible for organizing

and directing the Bureau of Broadcasting's worldwide television and film
activities. The areas of responsibility encompass: producing programs and
interactive press conferences for th e WORLDNET satellite delivery system;
newsfiles in English, Spanish, French, Arabic, Ukranian, and Russian;
producing and acquiring films and videotapes for direct projection or
placement overseas; providing facilitative assistance to visiting foreign
tel evision and film producers; operating television news bureaus at
foreign press centers; providing assistance to foreign broadcasters in the
production and telecast of cooperative television programs; serving as the
Bureau's primary point of contact with A merican motion picture and
television industries; and coordinating with other U.S. and foreign
government agencies on the dissemination of information overseas through
motion pictures and television.

Bureau of Policy and Programs

The Bureau of Policy and Programs comprises the Agency's Policy Guidance
Office and four major offices responsible for most of USIA's information
production and support services, including: the Wireless File, a daily
press se rvice dating back to 1935; 4 regular periodicals, appearing in 19
languages; pamphlets and other special publications, in over 40 languages;
the U.S. Speakers and Professionals-in-Residence Programs; teleconference
programs, including the use of new digit al video technology; Foreign
Press Centers in Washington, New York, and Los Angeles; and USIA's
International Exhibits Service.

The Bureau will terminate on September 30, 1994, and most of its
functions will be incorporated into new management structures of the
Policy and Planning Unit and the Bureau of Information.

The Office of Policy Guidance provides direction on policy

issues for overseas posts and operating elements of the Agency. The Office
also develops USIA's public diplomacy plans, maintains interagency liaison
on key policy concerns, advises on f oreign public opinion, and assists in
clarifying issues and developments and in countering misinformation about
the United States.

The Press and Publications Service supports U.S. foreign policy

objectives overseas through a variety of press articles, periodicals,
pamphlets, photos, and other visual materials. It produces the Wireless
File, a press service which transmits d aily to overseas posts texts of
major speeches and official Government statements, analytical and
background articles explaining foreign policy and domestic developments,
selected materials from U.S. publications, and reports from correspondents
on develo pments pertinent to foreign audiences. The Wireless File is
produced in English, Russian, Arabic, French, and Spanish. The Press and
Publications Service also produces special thematic pamphlets and 4
magazines in 19 languages. Additionally, the Press and Publications
Service manages printing and translation facilities in Manila.

The Office of Program Coordination and Development recruits U.S.

speakers to explain U.S. policies and society to overseas audiences, both
in person and through electronic media from the United States. The
speakers address a wide variety of poli tical, economic, and social
subjects. The Office also recruits Professionals-in-Residence as
consultants to media outlets, government ministries, parliaments, and
other organizations promoting the development of democratic institutions.
Also, sports exper ts travel abroad to assist foreign sports

The Foreign Press Centers in Washington, DC, New York, and Los
Angeles assist foreign journalists by sponsoring press conferences and
policy briefings by U.S. officials and outside experts, conducting
thematic tours, and providing general facil itative assistance. Both
resident correspondents and hundreds of others who visit the United States
annually benefit from these services.

The International Exhibits Service is responsible for

developing, producing, and managing exhibits and multimedia presentations.
Using an array of audiovisual tools, the Service gives millions of people
overseas a graphic view of American life a nd an appreciation for our
country's policies, history, and values.
Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs

The Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs administers programs

authorized by the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961
(the Fulbright-Hays Act), including academic exchanges, short-term profes
sional exchanges, youth exchanges, cooperative projects with private
organizations; and overseas book, library and English teaching programs.
It also provides staff support for the Presidentially appointed J. William
Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board an d for the Cultural Property
Advisory Committee. The Bureau consists of five major offices:

The Office of Academic Programs develops and coordinates a wide

variety of academic educational exchange programs. It oversees the
administration of more than 7,000 grants each year to U.S. citizens to
study, teach, and conduct research abroad, and for foreign nationals to
conduct similar activities in the United States. The best known of the
exchanges supported by this office is the Fulbright Program which operates
in more than 120 countries. The Office of Academic Programs also supports
a worl dwide information network about education opportunities in the
United States, and programs which enchance the experiences of foreign
students enrolled in U.S. colleges and universities. The Office also
encourages and supports American studies at foreign u niversities and
other institutions of higher learning.

The Office of International Visitors arranges informative visits

to the United States for more than 5,000 influential foreign leaders each
year in such fields as government, economics, labor, journalism, the arts,
and education. Selected individ uals, who are nominated by United States
Information Service posts, travel throughout the country meeting
counterparts in their fields of interest. They also meet with Americans in
their homes or other informal settings. The Office also manages the Agency
's two reception centers; serves as the Agency's liaison with the large
network of public and private organizations involved in the international
visitor program; and arranges programs in the United States for United
Nations fellows and foreign government trainees.

The Office of Citizen Exchanges provides funding to American

nonprofit institutions for international exchange and training programs
which support agency goals and objectives. Nonprofit institutions may
submit proposals only in response to reque sts for proposals (RFP's)
published by the Office, and these proposals are judged among others in
the competition. Programs usually involve professional, nonacademic
exchanges -- often with study tours, workshops, and internships as key
components, and ta king place in multiple phases overseas and in the
United States. Emphasis is usually on nontechnical themes such as
democracy-building, journalism, the role of government, or conflict
resolution. The Office also administers all high school exchange progra ms
sponsored by USIA, including major special initiatives in East Europe and
the former Soviet Union, and the Congress-Bundestag program with Germany.

The Office of Cultural Centers and Resources provides policy

direction, program support, and professional guidance and materials to
United States Information Service libraries and binational centers
overseas; provides library services to domesti c Agency offices; promotes
the publication of American books translated and reprinted in English;
provides grants for a donated-books program; supports English-teaching
programs abroad; and publishes the English Teaching Forum quarterly.
The Office of Arts America administers fine and performing arts
programs, sending performing arts groups and fine arts exhibitions on
overseas tours. Arts America identifies and recruits speakers and
specialists in the fields of literature, film , and the visual and
performing arts to speak at or work with host country institutions in
their fields of expertise. The Office also awards grants to American
nonprofit institutions involved in the international exchange of
performing and visual artists and encourages linkages between U.S. and
foreign cultural institutions. Arts America also represents the Agency in
the Fund for U.S. Artists at International Festivals and Exhibitions.

The Office of Policy and Evaluation provides policy analysis,

coordination, and evaluation of the activities and programs of the Bureau
of Educational and Cultural Affairs. The Office is responsible for
advising the Associate Director on concept ual approaches to the Bureau's
activities and on the development and implementation of its policies. It
coordinates activities with the Bureau to ensure consistency of approach;
evaluates the success, strengths, and weaknesses of programs; and provides
st aff support to the Cultural Property Advisory Committee, which advises
the Director on U.S. efforts to curb illicit trade in artifacts.


The Bureau of Management is responsible for planning, organizing,

directing, and controlling the Agency's administrative and management
operations. The Bureau's offices provide support services in the areas of
administration, advanced technolog y, personnel and training, budget and
fiscal operations, management analysis, security, contracts, and

Executive Level Offices

The five executive level offices of the Agency are the Office of
Public Liaison, Office of the General Counsel, Office of Congressional
Liaison, Office of the Inspector General, and the Office of Research.

The Office of Public Liaison is charged with increasing

awareness of and support for USIA in the United States, within the
framework of agency legislation. Its mandate covers three principal
functions: media relations, external affairs, and edit orial services. The
Office is responsible for planning, directing, coordinating, and
evaluating USIA's domestic public affairs program. The Director of Public
Liaison serves as the official spokesperson for the Agency within the
United States and is the p rincipal public affairs adviser to the Agency

The Office of General Counsel:

-- provides general legal support, assistance, and

representation to the Director and all elements of the Agency, both
domestic and overseas, in all aspects of Agency operations;

-- carries out the designation and supervisory authority of the

Director with respect to international educational and cultural exchange
visitor program sponsors;

-- makes recommendations on requests of alien exchange visitors

for waiver of the 2-year home-country residence requirement of section
212(e) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended (8 U.S.C. 1182),
and passes on all requests made un der the Freedom of Information and
Privacy Acts; and

-- makes determinations to implement the act of October 19,

1965 (22 U.S.C. 2459), to render cultural objects imported for temporary
exhibition immune from judicial seizure.

The Office of Congressional Liaison and Intergovernmental

Affairs is the principal point of contact for the Agency with Members of
Congress and Office of Management and Budget legislative offices. It also
is responsible for agency contact and ou treach with State and local
elected officials, who are interested in and affected by transnational

The Inspector General, who reports to the Director, is

authorized under the Inspector General Act of 1978 conducts independent
audits, investigations, and inspections of USIA's domestic and overseas
activities to prevent and detect waste, fraud, and abuse in the
administration of these activities. The Office is responsible for
preparing appropriate reports with recommendations, including referrals to
the Attorney General on possible violations of Federal criminal or civil
laws. Although the Insp ector General is under the supervision of the
Director of USIA, the Inspector General has independence in selecting
activities to be reviewed. The Inspector General monitors compliance with
recommendations and prepares reports to the Congress summarizing the
activities of the Office. In addition, the Inspector General receives,
evaluates, and investigates employee ``whistleblower'' complaints.

The Office of Research conducts assessments of foreign attitudes

and communications issues, analyzes foreign media commentary, and reports
foreign media reactions. These activities are carried out daily in support
of the Director's statutory rol e as adviser to the President, the
Secretary of State, and the National Security Council on the impact of
U.S. foreign policy decisions abroad. To provide program guidance on
Agency activities, the Office also evaluates Agency programs at the
request of t he Director or Agency officials.

The Office transmits research memos, reports, briefing papers,

and daily and special media reaction reports to the White House, foreign
affairs agencies, and other interested Government departments.


The Counselor of the Agency reports to the Director and Deputy Director.
As the senior career officer in the Agency, the Counselor assists in the
overall direction of the Agency and shares responsibility for establishing
broad Agency policies an d assuring their effective execution. The
Counselor is a member of the Resource Management Committee and the
Agency's core management group. The Counselor also oversees the activities
of the five Area Directors.

Civil Rights

The Office of Civil Rights (OCR) reports directly to the Agency Director
and develops and administers Agency policies, practices, and procedures
under title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, the
Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and related statutes and Executive orders
which prohibit discrimination in programs and activities receiving Federal
financial assistance. OCR develops policies and guidelines for the
Agency's Federal Equal Opportunity Recruitment Program and directs,
impleme nts, and manages the Agencywide Equal Employment Opportunity and
Affirmative Action Programs to assure equal opportunity for minorities,
women, and individuals with disabilities. OCR oversees the review of
policy implications of legislative proposals, new legislation, Executive
orders, regulations, or administrative actions to determine their impact
on USIA's civil rights functions; develops policies to provide equal
employment opportunities for individuals with disabilities; and assures
that qualified wo men, minorities, and individuals with disabilities are
treated equitably in hiring, placement, and advancement.

Geographic Areas

The five geographic area offices are the principal Agency contacts with
its overseas posts. They provide broad managerial oversight of the post's
operations and programs, present area and post perspectives to the Agency
Director, and rela y requirements to functional support offices in
Washington, DC.

Overseas Posts

Principally an overseas agency, the USIA's work is carried out

by its foreign service officers and staff assigned to American missions
abroad. Overseas posts engage in political advocacy of American foreign
policy objectives and conduct communic ation, cultural, and educational
exchange activities on behalf of the U.S. Government. The Agency maintains
204 posts in 127 countries.

Sources of Information

Administrative Regulations

Inquiries regarding administrative staff manuals and instructions to staff

affecting members of the public that were issued, adopted, or promulgated
on or after July 5, 1967, should be directed to the Directives, Forms and
Recor ds Management Staff, United States Information Agency, Washington,
DC 20547. Phone, 202-619-5680.


Contact the Office of Contracts, United States Information Agency,

Washington, DC 20547. Phone, 202-205-5498.


For information concerning employment opportunities, contact the Domestic

Personnel Division, Office of Personnel, United States Information Agency,
Washington, DC 20547. Phone, 202-619-4659. For Voice of America (VOA) and
the Television and Fi lm Service (WORLDNET TV) employment information,
contact the Office of Personnel, Bureau of Broadcasting, United States
Information Agency, Washington, DC 20547. Phone, 202-619-3763. For Office
of Cuba Broadcasting, contact the Office of Personnel, Office of Cuba
Broadcasting, United States Information Agency, Washington, DC 20547.
Phone, 202-401-7114.

International Audiovisual Programs

For information concerning a certification program under international
agreement to facilitate the export and import of qualified visual and
auditory materials of an educational, scientific, and cultural character,
conta ct the Chief Attestation Officer of the United States, United States
Information Agency, Washington, DC 20547. Phone, 202-475-0221.

For further information, contact the Office of Public Liaison, United

States Information Agency, Washington, DC 20547. Phone, 202-619-4355.


320 Twenty-first Street NW., Washington, DC 20523-0001

Phone, 202-647-1850

Director, U.S. International Development Cooperation Agency ........J.

Brian Atwood, Acting

Deputy Director ........(vacancy)


320 Twenty-first Street NW., Washington, DC 20523-0001

Phone, 202-647-1850

Administrator ........J. Brian Atwood

Deputy Administrator ........Carol Lancaster

Counselor ........Kelly C. Kammerer

Chief of Staff ........Richard L. McCall, Jr.

Executive Secretary ........Aaron S. Williams

Assistant to the Administrator, Bureau for Policy and Program Coordination

........Terrence J. Brown

Assistant Administrator for Management ........Larry E. Byrne

Assistant Administrator for Africa ........John Hicks

Assistant Administrator for Asia and the Near East ........Margaret Carpenter

Assistant Administrator for Europe and the New Independent States

........Thomas A. Dine

Assistant Administrator for Latin America and the Caribbean ........Mark


Assistant Administrator for Humanitarian Response ........Douglas M.


Assistant Administrator for Global Programs, Field Support and Research

........Roxann A. VanDusen, Acting

Assistant Administrator for Legislative and Public Affairs ........Jill


Director, Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization

........Ivan R. Ashley

Director, Office of Equal Opportunity Programs ........Jessalyn L.


General Counsel ........Wandra G. Mitchell

Inspector General ........Herbert L. Beckington


1100 New York Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20527

Phone, 202-336-8400; Fax, 202-408-9859

President and Chief Executive Officer ........Ruth R. Harkin

Executive Vice President ........Christopher Finn

Senior Vice President, Policy and Investment Development ........Richard

L. Morningstar

Vice President and General Counsel ........Charles D. Toy

Vice President and Treasurer ........Mildred O. Callear

Vice President, Finance ........Robert O. Draggon

Vice President, Insurance ........Felton McL. Johnston

Vice President, Management Services ........Richard K. Childress

Chairman of the Board ........J. Brian Atwood

[For the Agency for International Development statement of organization,

see the Federal Register of Aug. 26, 1987, 52 FR 32174]


[Insert United States International Development Cooperation Agency chart]@U0

The United States International Development Cooperation Agency's function

is policy planning, policymaking, and policy coordination on international
economic issues affecting developing countries. The Agency's mission is
twofold: first, to ensure that dev elopment goals are taken fully into
account in all executive branch decisionmaking on trade, financing and
monetary affairs, technology, and other economic policy issues affecting
the less-developed nations; and second, to provide strong direction for
U.S . economic policies toward the developing world and a coherent
development strategy through the effective use of U.S. bilateral
development assistance programs and U.S. participation in multilateral
development organizations.
The United States International Development Cooperation Agency
(IDCA) was established by Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1979 (5 U.S.C.
app.), to be a focal point within the Federal Government for economic
matters affecting U.S. relations with deve loping countries. The Agency's
function is policy planning, policymaking, and policy coordination on
international economic issues affecting developing countries.

The Director of the Agency serves as the principal international

development adviser to the President and the Secretary of State, receiving
foreign policy guidance from the Secretary of State. The Agency for
International Development and the Ove rseas Private Investment Corporation
are component agencies of the U.S. International Development Cooperation

Agency for International Development

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID)

administers U.S. foreign economic and humanitarian assistance programs in
more than 100 countries in the developing world, Central and Eastern
Europe, and the New Independent States of the former Soviet Union. The
Agency functions under an Administrator, who is concurrently serving as
the Acting Director of the U.S. International Development Cooperation


To meet the challenges of the post-Cold War era, USAID has

redefined its mission and developed a strategy for achieving sustainable
development in developing countries. The Agency supports programs in four
areas: population and health, broad-bas ed economic growth, environment,
and democracy. USAID also provides humanitarian assistance and aid to
countries in crisis and transition.

Population and Health

USAID contributes to a cooperative global effort to stabilize world

population growth and support women's reproductive rights. The types of
population and health programs supported vary with the particular needs of
individual countri es and the kinds of approaches that local communities
initiate and support. Most USAID resources are directed to the following
areas: support for voluntary family planning systems, reproductive health
care, needs of adolescents and young adults, infant an d child health, and
education for girls and women.

Economic Growth

USAID promotes broad-based economic growth by addressing the factors that

enhance the capacity for growth and by working to remove the obstacles
that stand in the way of individual opportunity. In this context, programs
concentrate on stre ngthening market economies, expanding economic
opportunities for the disadvantaged in developing countries, and building
human skills and capacities to facilitate broad-based participation.


USAID environmental programs support two strategic goals: reducing

long-term threats to the global environment, particularly loss of
biodiversity and climate change; and promoting sustainable economic growth
locally, nationally, and regionally by addressing environmental, economic,
and developmental practices that impede development. Globally, USAID
programs focus on the reducing sources and enhancing sinks of greenhouse
gas emissions and on promoting innovative approaches to the conservation
and sustainable use of the planet's biological diversity. The approach to
national environmental problems differ on a country-by-country basis,
depending upon a particular country's environmental priorities. Country
strategies may include improving agricu ltural, industrial, and natural
resource management practices that play a central role in environmental
degradation; strengthening public policies and institutions to protect the
environment; holding dialogs with country governments on environmental
issue s and with international agencies on the environmental impact of
lending practices and the design and implementation of innovative
mechanisms to support environmental work; and environmental research and


The Agency's strategic objective in the democracy area is the transition

to and consolidation of democratic regimes throughout the world. Programs
focus on some of the following types of problems: human rights abuses;
misperceptions of democracy and free-market capitalism; lack of experience
with democratic institutions; the absence or weakness of intermediary
organizations; nonexistent, ineffectual, or undemocratic political
parties; disenfranchisement of women, indigenous peoples, and minoriti es;
failure to implement national charter documents; powerless or poorly
defined democratic institutions; tainted elections; and the inability to
resolve conflicts peacefully.

Humanitarian Assistance and Post-Crisis Transitions

USAID provides humanitarian assistance that saves lives, reduces

suffering, assists victims in returning to self-sufficiency, and
reinforces democracy. Programs focus on disaster prevention, preparedness
, and mitigation; timely delivery of disaster relief and short-term
rehabilitation supplies and services; preservation of basic institutions
of civil governance during disaster crisis; support for democratic
institutions during periods of national transit ion; and increasing local
capability to anticipate and handle disasters and their aftermath.

Overseas Organizations

AID country organizations are located in countries where a

bilateral program is being implemented. The in-country organizations are
subject to the direction and guidance of the chief U.S. diplomatic
representative in the country, usually the Amb assador. The organizations
report to the Agency's Assistant Administrators for the four geographic
bureaus -- the Bureaus for Africa, Asia and Near East, Europe and the New
Independent States, and Latin America and the Caribbean.

There are three types of country organizations: AID Missions,

Offices of the AID Representative, and AID Sections of the Embassy. AID
missions are located in countries in which the U.S. economic assistance
program is major, continuing, and usual ly involves multiple types of aid
in several sectors. Each Mission is headed by a Mission Director, who has
been delegated program planning, implementation, and representation
authorities. Offices of the AID Representative are located in countries
where t he economic assistance program is moderate, declining, or has
limited objectives. The offices are usually headed by an AID
Representative, who also has delegated authority for program
implementation and representation. AID Sections of the Embassy are loca
ted in countries where the assistance program is nominal or is being
phased out. Program planning and implementation authorities are delegated
to the chief U.S. diplomatic representative who is assisted by the AID
Affairs Officer.

The overseas program activities, which involve more than one

country, are administered by regional offices. These offices may also
perform country organizational responsibilities for assigned countries.
Generally, the offices are headed by a Reg ional Development Officer.

Development Assistance Coordination and Representative offices

provide liaison with various international organizations and represent
U.S. interests in development assistance matters. Such offices may be only
partially staffed by Agency personne l and may be headed by employees of
other Federal agencies.

---------------------------(TABLE START)---------------------------

Country Organizations -- Agency for International Development

Missions, Offices, or Sections of Embassy

head level 1 :Country
head level 1 :Officer in Charge\1\


Albania/Tirana ....... Dianne M. Blane (OR)

Angola/Luanda ....... Keith Brown (CO)

Armenia/Yerevan ....... Suzanne Olds (OR)

Bangladesh/Dhaka ....... Richard Brown (MD)

Belize/Belize City ....... Barbara Sandoval (OR)

Benin/Cotonou ....... Thomas F. Cornell (OR)

Bolivia/La Paz ....... Carl H. Leonard (MD)

Botswana/Gaborone ....... Howard R. Handler (MD)

Brazil/Brasilia ....... John Pielemeier (OR)

Burkina Faso/Ouagadougou ....... Thomas C. Luche (OR)

Bulgaria/Sofia ....... Gerald H. Zarr (OR)

Burundi/Bujumbura ....... Myron Golden (MD)

Cambodia/Phnom Penh ....... Lee A. Twentyman (OR)

Cameroon/Yaounde ....... Peter Benedict (MD)

Cape Verde/Praia ....... Barbara Kennedy (OR)

Chad/N'Djamena ....... Anne Williams (OR)

Chile/Santiago ....... Thomas Nicastro (OR)

Colombia/Bogota�AE1 ....... Edward Kadunc (OR)

Costa Rica/San Jose ....... Stephen Wingert (MD)

Croatia/Zagreb ....... Michael Zak (OR)

Czech Republic/Prague ....... Lee D. Roussel (OR)

Dominican Republic/Santo Domingo ....... Marilyn Zak (MD)

Ecuador/Quito ....... John Sanbrailo (MD)

Egypt/Cairo ....... Henry Bassford (MD)

El Salvador/San Salvador ....... Charles E. Costello (MD)

Estonia/Tallinn ....... Adrian deGraffenreid (OR)

Ethiopia/Addis Ababa ....... Margaret Bonner (MD)

FYR Macedonia/Skopje ....... Linda Gregory (OR)

Gambia/Banjul ....... Rose Marie Depp (OR)

Ghana/Accra ....... Joseph B. Goodwin (MD)

Guatemala/Guatemala City ....... William Rhodes (MD)

Guinea/Conakry ....... Wilbur Thomas (MD)

Guinea-Bissau/Bissau ....... Michael F. Lukomski (OR)

Haiti/Port-au-Prince ....... Larry Crandall (MD)

Honduras/Tegucigalpa ....... Marshall Brown (MD)

Hungary/Budapest ....... David L. Cowles (OR)

India/New Delhi ....... Walter Bollinger (MD)

Indonesia/Jakarta ....... Charles F. Weden (MD)

Israel/Jerusalem (West Bank) ....... Karen Turner (AAO)

Israel/Tel Aviv (Gaza) ....... Harry Birnholz (AAO)

Jamaica/Kingston ....... Robert S. Queener (MD)

Jordan/Amman ....... William T. Oliver, Jr. (MD)

Kazakhstan/Almaty ....... Craig G. Buck (MD)

Kenya/Nairobi ....... John R. Westley (MD)

Latvia/Riga ....... Baudouin De Marcken (OR)

Lesotho/Maseru ....... F. Gary Towery (MD)

Liberia/Monrovia ....... Lowell Lynch (OR)

Lithuania/Vilnius ....... John Cloutier (OR)

Madagascar/Antananarivo ....... George Carner (MD)

Malawi/Lilongwe ....... Cynthia Rozell (MD)

Mali/Bamako ....... Charles Johnson (MD)

Mexico/Mexico City ....... Arthur Danart (OR)

Mongolia/Ulaanbaatar ....... William Nance (OR)

Morocco/Rabat ....... Martin Dagata (MD)

Mozambique/Maputo ....... Roger Carlson (MD)

Namibia/Windhoeck ....... Edward Spriggs (OR)

Nepal/Kathmandu ....... Philip Michael Gary (MD)

Nicaragua/Managua ....... Janet C. Ballantyne (MD)

Niger/Niamey ....... James Anderson (MD)

Nigeria/Lagos ....... Eugene Chiavaroli (AAO)

Oman/Muscat ....... Mark S. Matthews (OR)

Pakistan-Afghanistan/Islamabad ....... John Blackton (MD)

Panama/Panama City ....... Kevin Kelly (MD)

Papua New Guinea/Port Moresby ....... Paul Greenough (RD)

Paraguay/Asuncion ....... Richard Nelson (OR)

Peru/Lima ....... George Wachtenheim (MD)

Philippines/Manila ....... Thomas Stuckel (MD)

Poland/Warsaw ....... Donald Pressley (OR)

Romania/Bucharest ....... Richard J. Hough (OR)

Russia/Moscow ....... James A. Norris (MD)

Rwanda/Kigali ....... Dirk Djikerman, Acting (MD)

Senegal/Dakar ....... Douglas Sheldon, Acting (MD)

Slovakia/Bratislava ....... Patricia Lerner (OR)

Slovenia/Ljublana ....... Michael Zak (OR)

Somalia/Mogadishu ....... Mark Wentling (MD)

South Africa/Pretoria ....... Leslie A. Dean (MD)

South Pacific Regional/Fiji, Suva ....... David Leong, Acting (RD)

Sri Lanka/Colombo ....... David Cohen (MD)

Swaziland/Mbabane ....... Valarie Dickson-Horton (MD)

Tanzania/Dar es Salaam ....... Dale B. Pfeiffer (MD)

Thailand/Bangkok ....... Thomas H. Reese III (MD)

Thailand/Bangkok (ASEAN) ....... Dennis Zvinakis (OR)

Togo/Lome�AE1 ....... Sarah C. Clark (OR)

Tunisia/Tunis ....... James A. Graham (MD)

Uganda/Kampala ....... Keith W. Sherper (MD)

Ukraine, Kieve ....... Terrence J. McMahon (MD)

Uruguay/Montevideo ....... Robert J. Asselin, Jr. (OR)

Yemen/Sanaa ....... William D. McKinney (OR)

Zaire/Kinshasa ....... Wayne King (AAO)

Zambia/Lusaka ....... Fred E. Winch (MD)

Zimbabwe/Harare ....... Ted D. Morse (MD)

Footnote: \1\MD: Mission Director; D: Director; OR: Office of the AID

Representative; DO: Development Officer; RD: Regional Director; AAO: AID
Affairs Officer for Section of Embassy; CO: Coordinator in Washington.

----------------------------(TABLE END)--------------------------

---------------------------(TABLE START)---------------------------

International Organizations -- Agency for International Development

(Selected Regional Organizations)

(A: Advisor; AID R: AID Representative; C: Counselor; ED: Executive

Director; R: Representative; RD: Regional Director)
head level 1 :Country
head level 1 :Officer in Charge

Regional Offices

Regional Economic Development Services Offices

Office for East and Southern Africa -- Nairobi, Kenya ....... Fred C.
Fisher (RD)

Office for West and Central Africa -- Cote d'Ivoire, Abidjan .......
Williard Pearson (RD)

Regional Development Office/South Pacific -- Suva, Fiji ....... David

Leong, Acting (RD)

Caribbean Regional Development Office -- Bridgetown, Barbados .......

Mosina H. Jordon (RD)

Development Assistance Coordination and Representation Offices

U.S. Mission to the United Nations Agencies for Food and Agriculture --
Rome, Italy ....... Hugh Smith (ED)

Office of the U.S. Representative to the Development Assistance Committee

of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development -- Paris,
France ....... Dennis Brennan (R)

Office of the AID Development Adviser to the U.S. Executive Director to

the Asian Development Bank -- Manila, Philippines ....... Terry Barker (A)

U.S. Mission to the European Office of the United Nations and Other
International Organizations -- Geneva, Switzerland ....... (Vacancy) (AID

AID Office for Development Cooperation -- Tokyo, Japan ....... Paul White

----------------------------(TABLE END)--------------------------

Overseas Private Investment Corporation

[For the Overseas Private Investment Corporation statement of

organization, see the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 22, Chapter VII]

The Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) is a

self-sustaining, Federal agency whose purpose is to promote economic
growth in developing countries by encouraging U.S. private investment in
those nations. The Corporation assists American investors in three
principal ways: financing investment projects through direct loans and/or
guaranties; insuring investment projects against a broad range of
political risks; and providing a variety of investor services. All of
these programs are design ed to reduce the perceived stumbling blocks and
risks associated with overseas investment.

Organized as a corporation and structured to be responsive to

private business, OPIC's mandate is to mobilize and facilitate the
participation of U.S. private capital and skills in the economic and
social development of developing countries and emerging economies.
Currently, OPIC programs are available for new business enterprises or
expansion in some 140 countries worldwide. OPIC encourages American
overseas private investment in sound business projects, thereby improving
U.S. global competitiv eness, creating American jobs and increasing U.S.
exports. OPIC does not support projects that will result in the loss of
domestic jobs or have a negative impact on the host country's environment
or workers' rights.

The Corporation is governed by a 15-member Board of Directors --

8 appointed from the private sector and 7 from the Federal Government.


By reducing or eliminating certain perceived political risks for

investors and providing financing and assistance not otherwise available,
the Corporation helps to reduce the unusual risks and problems that can
make investment opportunities in t he developing areas less attractive
than in advanced countries. At the same time, it reduces the need for
government-to-government lending programs by involving the U.S. private
sector in establishing capital-generation and strengthening private-sector
ec onomies in developing countries.

The Corporation insures U.S. investors against the political

risks of expropriation, inconvertibility of local currency holdings, and
damage from war, revolution, insurrection, or civil strife. It also offers
a special insurance policy to U.S. c ontractors and exporters against
arbitrary drawings of letters of credit posted as bid, performance, or
advance payment guaranties. Other special programs are offered for
minerals exploration, oil and gas exploration, and development and leasing
operation s.

The Corporation offers U.S. lenders protection against both

commercial and political risks by guaranteeing payment of principal and
interest on loans (up to $200 million) made to eligible private

Its Direct Investment loans, offered to small- and medium-sized

businesses, generally cover terms of from 7 to 12 years, and usually range
from $500,000 to $6 million with varying interest rates, depending on
assessment of the commercial risks o f the project financed.

Programs are available only for a new facility, expansion or

modernization of an existing plant, or technological or service products
designed to generate investment which will produce significant new
benefits for host countries.

Sources of Information

U.S. International Development Cooperation Agency

General Inquiries

Inquiries may be directed to the Office of External Affairs, U.S.

International Development Cooperation Agency, Washington, DC 20523-0001.
Phone, 202-647-1850.

Agency for International Development

Congressional Affairs

Congressional inquiries may be directed to the Bureau for Legislative and

Public Affairs, Agency for International Development, Washington, DC
20523-0001. Phone, 202-647-8440.

Contracting and Small Business Inquiries

For information regarding contracting opportunities, contact the Office of

Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, Agency for International
Development, Washington, DC 20523-0001. Phone, 703-875-1551.


For information regarding employment opportunities, contact the Workforce

Planning, Recruitment and Personnel Systems Division, Office of Human
Resources, Agency for International Development, Washington, DC
20523-0001. Phone, 202-663-2400.

General Inquiries

General inquiries may be directed to the Bureau for Legislative and Public
Affairs, Agency for International Development, Washington, DC 20523-0001.
Phone, 202-647-1850.

News Media

Inquiries from the media only should be directed to the Press Relations
Division, Bureau for Legislative and Public Affairs, Agency for
International Development, Washington, DC 20523-0001. Phone, 202-647-4274.

Overseas Private Investment Corporation

General Inquiries

Inquiries should be directed to the Information Office, Overseas Private

Investment Corporation, 1100 New York Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20527.
Phone, 202-336-8799.


OPIC programs are further detailed in the Annual Report and the Program
Summary. These publications are available free of charge.


500 E Street SW., Washington, DC 20436

Phone, 202-205-2000

Chairman ........Don E. Newquist

Vice Chairman ........Peter S. Watson

Commissioners ........Lynn M. Bragg, Carol T. Crawford, Janet A. Nuzum,
David B. Rohr

Director of Operations ........Robert Rogowsky

Director of Investigations ........Lynn Featherstone

General Counsel ........Lyn Schlitt

Executive Liaison ........William T. Hart

Congressional Liaison ........Charles Hansen

Chief Administrative Law Judge ........Janet D. Saxon

Secretary ........Donna R. Koehnke

Inspector General ........Jane Altenhofen

Director, Office of Public Affairs ........Margaret M. O'Laughlin

Director, Office of Economics ........Peter Morici

Director, Office of Industries ........M. Vern Simpson, Jr.

Division Chief, Agriculture and Forest Products ........Cathy L. Jabara

Division Chief, Minerals, Metals and Miscellaneous Manufactures

........Larry L. Brookhart

Division Chief, Energy, Chemicals, and Textiles ........John J. Gersic

Division Chief, Machinery and Transportation ........Aaron Chesser

Division Chief, Services and Electronics ........Norman McLennan

Director, Office of Tariff Affairs and Trade Agreements ........Eugene A.


Director, Office of Unfair Import Investigations ........Lynn Levine

Director, Trade Remedy Assistance Office ........Elizabeth Seltzer

Director, Office of Administration ........Lorin Goodrich


[Insert United States International Trade Commission chart]@U0

The United States International Trade Commission furnishes studies,

reports, and recommendations involving international trade and tariffs to
the President, the Congress, and other Government agencies. In this
capacity, the Commission conducts a variety o f investigations, public
hearings, and research projects pertaining to the international policies
of the United States.

The United States International Trade Commission is an

independent agency created by act of September 8, 1916 (39 Stat. 795), and
originally named the United States Tariff Commission. The name was changed
to the United States International Trade Commission by section 171 of the
Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2231). The Commission's present powers and
duties are provided for largely by the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C.
1654); the Agricultural Adjustment Act (7 U.S.C. 601); the Trade Expansion
Act o f 1962 (19 U.S.C. 1801); the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2101); the
Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (19 U.S.C. 2501); and the Omnibus Trade and
Competitiveness Act of 1988 (19 U.S.C. 2901).

Six Commissioners are appointed by the President with the advice

and consent of the Senate for 9-year terms, unless appointed to fill an
unexpired term. The Chairman and Vice Chairman are designated by the
President for 2-year terms, and succeed ing Chairmen may not be of the
same political party. The Chairman generally is responsible for the
administration of the Commission. Not more than three Commissioners may be
members of the same political party (19 U.S.C. 1330).


The Commission performs a number of functions pursuant to the

statutes referred to above. Under the Tariff Act of 1930, the Commission
is given broad powers of investigation relating to the customs laws of the
United States and foreign countries ; the volume of importation in
comparison with domestic production and consumption; the conditions,
causes, and effects relating to competition of foreign industries with
those of the United States; and all other factors affecting competition
between arti cles of the United States and imported articles. The
Commission is required to make available to the President and to the
Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and to the
Committee on Finance of the Senate, whenever requested, all in formation
at its command and is directed to make such investigations and reports as
may be requested by the President or by either of said committees or by
either branch of the Congress. The Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act
of 1988 amended several of the statutes administered by the Commission
and, in addition, required the Commission to conduct several industry
competitiveness investigations.

In order to carry out these responsibilities, the Commission is

required to engage in extensive research, conduct specialized studies, and
maintain a high degree of expertise in all matters relating to the
commercial and international trade poli cies of the United States.

Trade Negotiations

The Commission advises the President as to the probable economic effect on

the domestic industry and consumers of modification of duties and other
barriers to trade that may be considered for inclusion in any proposed
trade agreement wi th foreign countries (19 U.S.C. 2151).

Generalized System of Preferences

The Commission advises the President with respect to every article that
may be considered for preferential removal of the duty on imports from
designated developing countries as to the probable economic effect the
prefere ntial removal of duty will have on the domestic industry and on
consumers (19 U.S.C. 2151, 2163).

Industry Adjustment to Import Competition (Global Safeguard Actions)

The Commission conducts investigations upon petition on behalf of an
industry, a firm, a group of workers, or other entity representative of an
industry to determine whether an article i s being imported in such
increased quantities as to be a substantial cause of serious injury or
threat thereof to the domestic industry producing an article like or
directly competitive with the imported article (19 U.S.C. 2251-2254). If
the Commission's finding is affirmative, it recommends to the President
the action that would address such injury and be most effective in
facilitating positive adjustment by the industry to import competition.
The President has discretion to take action that could be in the form of
an increase in duties, imposition of a quota, negotiation of orderly
marketing agreements, or provision of adjustment assistance to groups of
workers, firms, or communities. If the President does not provide relief
in the form recommended by t he Commission, and if a joint resolution
disapproving the action of the President is enacted by Congress, then the
President is required to provide the relief recommended by the Commission
(19 U.S.C. 2251-2254).

The Commission reports with respect to developments within an

industry that has been granted import relief and advises the President of
the probable economic effect of the reduction or elimination of the tariff
increase that has been granted. Th e President may continue, modify, or
terminate the import relief previously granted.

Imports from NAFTA Countries (Bilateral Safeguard Actions)

The Commission conducts investigations to determine whether, as a result

of the reduction or elimination of a duty provided for under the North
American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), a Canadian ar ticle or a Mexican
article, as the case may be, is being imported into the United States in
such increased quantities and under such conditions so that imports of the
article constitute a substantial cause of serious injury or (except in the
case of a Can adian article) a threat of serious injury to the domestic
industry producing an article that is like or directly competitive with
the imported article (19 U.S.C. 3351-3356). If the Commission's
determination is in the affirmative, the Commission recommend s to the
President the relief which is necessary to prevent or remedy serious
injury. Such relief generally would take the form of the suspension of any
further reduction in the rate of duty for such article from the subject
country provided for in NAFTA, or an increase in the rate of duty on such
article from such country to the lesser of the general column 1 rate of
duty on such article or the column 1 rate of duty in effect immediately
prior to the entry into force of NAFTA. Commission investigations u nder
these provisions are similar procedurally to those conducted under the
global safeguard action provisions.

Market Disruption From Communist Countries

The Commission conducts investigations to determine whether increased

imports of an article produced in a Communist country are causing market
disruption in the United States (19 U.S.C. 2436). If the Commission's
determination is in the affirmative, the President may take the same
action as in the case of serious injury to an industry, except that the
action would apply only to imports of the article from the Communist
country. Commission investigations conducted under this provision are
similar procedurally to those conducted under the global safeguard action
East-West Trade Monitoring System

The Commission monitors imports into the United States from

nonmarket-economy countries and makes a report at least once each calendar
quarter on the effect of such imports on the production of like or
directly competitiv e articles in the United States and on employment
within the industry (19 U.S.C. 2240).

Imported Articles Subsidized or Sold at Less Than Fair Value

The Commission conducts preliminary investigations under the Tariff Act of

1930 to determine whether there is reasonable indication of material
injury to, threat of material injury to, or materi al retardation of the
establishment of an industry in the United States by reason of imports of
foreign merchandise allegedly being subsidized or sold at less than fair
value (19 U.S.C. 1671, 1673, 1675). If the Commission's determination is
affirmative, and the Secretary of Commerce further determines that the
foreign merchandise is being subsidized or is being, or is likely to be,
sold at less than its fair value, or there is reason to believe or suspect
such unfair practices are occurring, then the Com mission conducts final
investigations to determine whether a U.S. industry is materially injured
or threatened with material injury, or its establishment is materially
retarded by reason of such imports.

If the Secretary of Commerce determines to suspend an

investigation upon acceptance of an agreement to eliminate the injurious
effect of subsidized imports or imports sold at less than fair value, the
Commission may conduct an investigation to d etermine whether the
injurious effect of imports of the merchandise that was the subject of the
suspended investigation is eliminated completely by the agreement. The
Commission also conducts investigations to determine whether in light of
changed circums tances such a suspension agreement continues to eliminate
completely the injurious effect of imports of the merchandise.

The Commission conducts investigations to determine whether

changed circumstances exist that indicate that an industry in the United
States would not be threatened with material injury, or the establishment
of such an industry would not be mater ially retarded, if the
countervailing duty order or antidumping order resulting from affirmative
final determinations by the Commission and Secretary of Commerce were
modified or revoked.

With regard to imports of articles from countries not party to

the Agreement on Interpretation and Application of Articles VI, XVI, and
XXIII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the Commission
determines, with respect to any such duty -free article that the Secretary
of Commerce has determined is being subsidized, whether an industry in the
United States is materially injured or threatened with material injury, or
its establishment is materially retarded by reason of such imports (19 U
.S.C. 1303).

Import Interference With Agricultural Programs

The Commission conducts investigations at the direction of the President

to determine whether any articles are being or are practically certain to
be imported into the United States under such conditions and in such
quantities as to render or tend to render ineffective, or to materially
interfere with, programs of the Department of Agriculture for agricultural
commodities or products thereof, or to reduce substantially the amount of
any product processed in t he United States from such commodities or
products, and makes findings and recommendations (7 U.S.C. 624). The
President may restrict the imports in question by imposition of either
import fees or quotas.

Unfair Practices in Import Trade

The Commission applies U.S. statutory and common law of unfair competition
to the importation of products into the United States and their sale (19
U.S.C. 1337). The statute declares unlawful unfair methods of competition
and unfair acts in the importation or sale of products in the United
States, the threat or effect of which is to destroy or substantially
injure a domestic industry, prevent the establishment of such an industry,
or restrain or monopolize trade and commer ce in the United States. The
statute also declares as unlawful per se infringement of a valid and
enforceable U.S. patent, copyright, registered trademark, or maskwork; no
resulting injury need be found. If the Commission determines that there is
a violat ion of the statute, it is to direct that the articles involved be
excluded from entry into the United States, or it may issue
cease-and-desist orders directing the person engaged in such violation to
cease and desist from engaging in such unfair methods o r acts.

Provision is made for the Commission to make certain public

interest determinations that could result in the withholding of an
exclusion or cease-and-desist order. The President may, within 60 days
after the issuance of a Commission order, disap prove the order for policy
reasons. Commission determinations of violation are subject to court

Uniform Statistical Data

The Commission, in cooperation with the Secretary of the Treasury and the
Secretary of Commerce, establishes for statistical purposes an enumeration
of articles imported into the United States and exported from the United
States, and seeks to establish comparability of such statistics with
statistical programs for domestic production (19 U.S.C. 1484).

In conjunction with such activities, the three agencies are to

develop concepts for an international commodity code for reporting
transactions in international trade and to report thereon to the Congress
(19 U.S.C. 1484).

Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, Annotated

The Commission issues a publication containing the U.S. tariff schedules

and related matters and considers questions concerning the arrangement of
such schedules and the classification of articles (19 U.S.C. note prec.
1202, 1484).

International Trade Studies

The Commission conducts studies, investigations, and research projects on

a broad range of topics relating to international trade, pursuant to
requests of the President, the House Ways and Means Committee, the Senate
Finance Co mmittee, either branch of the Congress, or on its own motion
(19 U.S.C. 1332). Public reports of these studies, investigations, and
research projects are issued in most cases.

The Commission also keeps informed of the operation and effect

of provisions relating to duties or other import restrictions of the
United States contained in various trade agreements (19 U.S.C. 2482).
Occasionally the Commission is required by statute to perform specific
trade-related studies.

Tariff Summaries

The Commission prepares and publishes, from time to time, a series of

summaries of trade and tariff information (19 U.S.C. 1332). These
summaries contain descriptions (in terms of the Tariff Schedules of the
United States) of the thousand s of products imported into the United
States, methods of production, and the extent and relative importance of
U.S. consumption, production, and trade, together with certain basic
factors affecting the competitive position and economic health of domestic

Sources of Information

Inquiries should be directed to the specific organizational unit

or to the Secretary, United States International Trade Commission, 500 E
Street SW., Washington, DC 20436. Phone, 202-205-2000.


The Chief, Contracting and Procurement Division, has responsibility for

contract matters. Phone, 202-205-2730.


Information on employment can be obtained from the Director, Office of

Personnel. The agency employs international economists, attorneys,
accountants, commodity and industry specialists and analysts, and clerical
and other support personnel. Ph one, 202-205-2651.


The Commission publishes results of investigations concerning various

commodities and subjects; it also publishes a series of reports on
chemicals. Other publications include Summaries of Trade and Tariff
Information; an annual report to the Congress on the operation of the
trade agreements program; and an annual report to the Congress of
Commission activities. Specific information regarding these publications
can be obtained from the Office of the Secretary.

Reading Rooms

Reading rooms are open to the public in the Office of the Secretary and in
the Commission Library.

For further information, contact the Secretary, United States

International Trade Commission, 500 E Street SW., Washington, DC 20436.
Phone, 202-205-2000.

475 L'Enfant Plaza SW., Washington, DC 20260-0010

Phone, 202-268-2000

Board of Governors: ........

Chairman of the Board ........Sam Winters

Vice Chairman of the Board ........Tirso del Junco, M.D.

Secretary of the Board ........David F. Harris

Governors ........Susan E. Alvarado, LeGree S. Daniels, Einar V. Dyhrkopp,

Bert H. Mackle, Norma Pace, Robert Setrakian, (vacancy)

Postmaster General ........Marvin Runyon

Deputy Postmaster General ........Michael S. Coughlin

Management: ........

Chief Operating Officer and Executive Vice President ........Joseph R. Caraveo

Chief Financial Officer and Senior Vice President ........Michael J. Riley

Chief Marketing Officer and Senior Vice President ........William J. Henderson

Senior Vice President and General Counsel ........Mary S. Elcano

Senior Vice President, Customer Service and Sales ........Samuel Green, Jr.

Senior Vice President, Processing and Distribution ........Peter A. Jacobson

Vice President, Consumer Advocate ........Ann McK. Robinson

Vice President, Corporate Relations ........Larry M. Speakes

Vice President, Diversity Development ........Veronica O. Collazo

Vice President, Employee Relations ........Suzanne J. Henry

Vice President, Engineering ........William J. Dowling

Vice President, Facilities ........Rudolph K. Umscheid

Vice President, Information Systems ........Richard D. Weirich

Vice President, Labor Relations ........Joseph J. Mahon, Jr.

Vice President, Legislative Affairs ........Robert F. Harris

Vice President, Marketing Systems ........Gail G. Sonnenberg

Vice President, Product Management ........Allen R. Kane

Vice President, Purchasing ........Darrah Porter

Vice President, Quality ........Bernie Hylton, Acting

Vice President, Technology Applications ........Robert A.F. Reisner

Judicial Officer ........James A. Cohen

Chief Postal Inspector ........Kenneth J. Hunter

Deputy Chief Inspector, Criminal Investigations ........Jeffrey J. DuPilka

Deputy Chief Inspector, Operations Support ........Recie Springfield, Jr.

Deputy Chief Inspector, Audit ........Kenneth C. Weaver

[For the United States Postal Service statement of organization, see the
Code of Federal Regulations, Title 39, Parts 221-226]


[Insert United States Postal Service chart]@U0

The United States Postal Service provides mail processing and delivery
services to individuals and businesses within the United States. The
Service is committed to serving customers through the development of
efficient mail-handling systems and operates i ts own planning and
engineering programs. It is also the responsibility of the Postal Service
to protect the mails from loss or theft and to apprehend those who violate
postal laws.

The Postal Service was created as an independent establishment

of the executive branch by the Postal Reorganization Act (39 U.S.C. 101 et
seq.), approved August 12, 1970. The United States Postal Service
commenced operations on July 1, 1971.

The Postal Service has approximately 692,000 employees and

handles about 171 billion pieces of mail annually. The chief executive
officer of the Postal Service, the Postmaster General, is appointed by the
nine Governors of the Postal Service, wh o are appointed by the President
with the advice and consent of the Senate for overlapping 9-year terms.
The Governors and the Postmaster General appoint the Deputy Postmaster
General, and these 11 people constitute the Board of Governors.

In addition to the national headquarters, there are area and

district offices supervising approximately 39,000 post offices, branches,
stations, and community post offices throughout the United States.


In order to expand and improve service to the public, the Postal

Service is engaged in customer cooperation activities, including the
development of programs for both the general public and major customers.
The Consumer Advocate, a postal ombuds man, represents the interest of the
individual mail customer in matters involving the Postal Service by
bringing complaints and suggestions to the attention of top postal
management and solving the problems of individual customers. To provide
postal servi ces responsive to public needs, the Postal Service operates
its own planning, research, engineering, real estate, and procurement
programs specially adapted to postal requirements, and maintains close
ties with international postal organizations.

A fundamental commitment of the Postal Service is to provide

swift and reliable mail delivery. Activities designed to facilitate postal
operations include maintenance and refinement of the postal rate
structure, development of mail classificatio n standards, and generation
of internal information necessary for effective management of the postal

The Postal Service is the only Federal agency whose employment

policies are governed by a process of collective bargaining. Labor
contract negotiations, affecting all bargaining unit personnel, as well as
personnel matters involving employees no t covered by collective
bargaining agreements, are administered by Labor Relations or Employee

The United States Postal Inspection Service is the Federal law

enforcement agency which has jurisdiction in criminal matters affecting
the integrity and security of the mail, and operates as the Inspector
General for the Postal Service. Postal I nspectors enforce more than 100
Federal statutes involving mail fraud, mail bombs, child pornography,
illegal drugs, mail theft, and other postal crimes, as well as being
responsible for the protection of all postal employees. Inspectors also
audit postal contracts and financial accounts.

There are 30 divisions, and information regarding postal law

violations should be reported to the Postal Inspector in charge at the
nearest division office.

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Postal Inspection Service -- United States Postal Service

head level 1 :Division Office
head level 1 :Address
head level 1 :Telephone


Atlanta, GA ....... P.O. Box 16489, 30321-0489 ....... 404-765-7369

Boston, MA ....... P.O. Box 2217, 02205-2217 ....... 617-654-5825

Buffalo, NY ....... 685 Ellicott Sq. Bldg., 14203-2545 ....... 716-856-3674

Charlotte, NC ....... 2901 I-85 South GMF, 28228-3000 ....... 704-329-9120

Chicago, IL ....... 433 W. Van Buren St., MPO, 60669-2201 ....... 312-765-4500

Cincinnati, OH ....... P.O. Box 14487, 45250-0487 ....... 513-684-5700

Cleveland, OH ....... P.O. Box 5726, 44101-0726 ....... 216-443-4000

Denver, CO ....... P.O. Box 329, 80201-0329 ....... 303-297-6220

Detroit, MI ....... P.O. Box 330119, 48232-6119 ....... 313-226-8184

Fort Worth, TX ....... P.O. Box 162929, 76161-2929 ....... 817-625-3411

Houston, TX ....... P.O. Box 1276, 77251-1276 ....... 713-238-4400

Kansas City, MO ....... Suite 850, 3101 Broadway, 64111-2416 .......


Los Angeles, CA ....... P.O. Box 2000, Pasadena, CA 91102-2000 .......


Memphis, TN ....... P.O. Box 3180, 38173-0180 ....... 901-576-2137

Miami, FL ....... 6th Fl., 3400 Lakeside Dr., Miramar, FL 33027-3242

....... 305-436-7200

Newark, NJ ....... P.O. Box 509, 07101-0509 ....... 201-596-5400

New Orleans, LA ....... P.O. Box 51690, 70151-1690 ....... 504-589-1200

New York, NY ....... P.O. Box 555, James Farley Bldg., 10116-0555 .......

Philadelphia, PA ....... P.O. Box 7500, 19101-9000 ....... 215-895-8450

Phoenix, AZ ....... P.O. Box 20666, 85036-0666 ....... 602-223-3660

Pittsburgh, PA ....... 1001 California Ave., 15290-9000 ....... 412-359-7900

Richmond, VA ....... P.O. Box 25009, 23260-5009 ....... 804-775-6267

St. Louis, MO ....... 1106 Walnut St., 63199-2201 ....... 314-539-9300

St. Paul, MN ....... P.O. Box 64558, 55164-2201 ....... 612-293-3200

San Diego, CA ....... P.O. Box 2110, 92112-2110 ....... 619-233-0610

San Francisco, CA ....... P.O. Box 882000, 94188-2000 ....... 415-550-5700

San Juan, PR ....... P.O. Box 363667, 00936-3667 ....... 809-749-7600

Seattle, WA ....... P.O. Box 400, 98111-4000 ....... 206-442-6300

Tampa, FL ....... P.O. Box 22526, 33622-2526 ....... 813-281-5200

Washington, DC ....... P.O. Box 96096, 20066-6096 ....... 202-636-2300

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Sources of Information

Inquiries on the following information should be directed to the

specified office, U.S. Postal Service, 475 L'Enfant Plaza SW., Washington,
DC 20260.

Consumer Information
Contact the Consumer Advocate. Phone, 202-268-2284. Information on past
and present schemes used to defraud the public is available through
Congressional and Public Affairs, Postal Inspection Service. Phone,

Contracts and Small Business Activities

Contact Purchasing. Phone, 202-268-4633.


General information about jobs such as clerk, letter carrier, etc.,

including information about programs for veterans, may be obtained by
contacting the nearest post office.

Individuals interested in working at the Postal Headquarters in

Washington, DC, may obtain information by calling 202-268-3218.

Information about Inspection Service employment may be obtained

from the Chief Postal Inspector. Phone, 202-268-4267.


Contact Corporate Relations for films available for loan to the public.
Phone, 202-268-2189.

Philatelic Information

Contact Stamp Services. Phone, 202-268-2312.

Philatelic Sales

Contact Philatelic Fulfillment, Kansas City, MO 64144-9998. Phone,



Pamphlets on mailability, postage rates and fees, and many other topics
may be obtained free of charge from the nearest post office.

Most postal regulations are contained in Postal Service manuals

covering domestic mail, international mail, postal operations,
administrative support, employee and labor relations, financial
management, and procurement. These manuals and other p ublications
including the National Five-Digit ZIP Code and Post Office Directory
(Publication 65) may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents,
Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402-0001. (The National
Five-Digit ZIP Code and Post Offi ce Directory is also available through
local post offices.)

Reading Rooms

Located on 11th Floor North, Library. Phone, 202-268-2900.

For further information, contact the U.S. Postal Service, 475 L'Enfant
Plaza SW., Washington, DC 20260. Phone, 202-268-2000.