BACKDIRT

Winter 2006

ANNUAL REVIEW

The Annual Review of News, Research & Activities of the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology at UCLA www.ioa.ucla.edu/backdirt

DIRECTOR’S MESSAGE

BACKDIRT
ANNUAL REVIEW
a publication of the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology at UCLA Director Charles Stanish Director of Publications Julia L.J. Sanchez EDITORIAL Executive editor Julia L.J. Sanchez Editor Shauna Mecartea Editorial consultant Helle Girey ART Art/Design director Shauna Mecartea Photo editor Shauna Mecartea Design consultant Mac Marston EDITORIAL SERVICES Electronic publishing Estella Tse Administration Megan Carney and Judy Prays CIRCULATION Circulation director Julia L.J. Sanchez Member services Sheryol Threewit To receive a copy of Backdirt: Annual Review contact Sheryol Threewit at threewit@ucla. edu or (310) 794-4839. To download this issue in PDF format visit our Web site at www.ioa.ucla.edu/backdirt. Archive issues are also available online. Any questions or comments? Please contact Shauna Mecartea at (310) 825-7411.

The future of the Cotsen Institute
UCLA is an engine for real-world innovation that impacts our lives on a daily basis. Our scholars, through their work, enrich society at all levels. The Cotsen Institute, the largest program of its kind in North America, serves as a national center of archaeological study— through its public education programs, graduate student training, field research projects, publications and books, and international seminars on breakthroughs in research. With active field programs in 17 countries including Albania, Bangladesh, California, Canada, Chile, China, Egypt, Greece, Iceland, India, Italy, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Sudan, Syria, and Turkey, the research that we conduct spans the full range of archaeological approaches, from the most humanistic to the most scientific. The Cotsen Institute brings together the talents of students and scholars in fields that span the university in explorations of human societies and the natural world—through “classical” studies in archaeology and anthropology, as well as the spectrum of new knowledge in humanistic and scientific fields. Our laboratory’s work on materials from these and other projects produces invaluable knowledge. Our research seminars and public lectures bring together scholars from a wide range of perspectives serving to stimulate and create new theoretical knowledge. In our new, expanded issue of Backdirt, we will highlight the three core missions of the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology: research, education, and publications. On behalf of all of our faculty, research associates, staff, and students, I welcome you to read about the exciting discoveries around the archaeological world conducted here at UCLA. Charles Stanish
Director of the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Professor of Anthropology Lloyd E. Cotsen Chair in Archaeology

BACKDIRT
Winter 2006

ANNUAL REVIEW

NEW BACKDIRT SECTIONS: •Distinguished Alumni page 6 •Making a Difference page 7 •Reflections on Research page 12 •Faculty and Laboratory Profiles page 46

The Annual Review of News, Research & Activities of the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology at UCLA www.ioa.ucla.edu/backdirt

contents
FEATURES
19 The Tarapaca Multidisciplinary Archaeological Expedition
An overview of the project and first findings By Ran Boytner, Maria Cecilia Lozada, Ioanna Kakoulli and Mario Rivera

Winter 2006

24 Archaeology, Conservation and the new UCLA/Getty Program
An in-depth discussion of the conservation program and its curriculum By Ellen Pearlstein

23

29 Understanding Dufile: Archaeology in Uganda
A team of 20 surveys a site in Northern Uganda By Merrick Posnansky Discussion of interdisciplinarity in archaeology at UCLA By Richard Lesure

32 The Archaeology Program

DEPARTMENTS
2 4 6 7 8

Student News Volunteer Profiles Distinguished Alumni Making a Difference Institute Notes

24

12 Reflections on Research 36 Alumni Happenings 37 Institute News 40 Between the Lines 46 Faculty Profiles 54 Laboratory Profiles 59 Faculty Publications & Grants 63 Cotsen Institute Donors 65 Calendar

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STUDENT NEWS

First conservation program class enrolls at Institute
By Vanessa Muros
The UCLA/Getty Program in Archaeological and Ethnographic Conservation is pleased to announce its first class of incoming students: Christian De Brer recently earned a B.F.A. in Art from UCLA. He worked as an intern at the Fowler Museum of Cultural History and as a research assistant in the UCLA/Getty Conservation Program. Ozge Gencay Ustun became interested in conservation during her M.A. work in Art History and Archaeology at the University of Maryland, College Park. Her internship at the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore and her B.S. degree in Chemistry from the Istanbul Technical University in Turkey paved the way to her conservation career. Although she is mainly interested in ancient civilizations, during her internships she has worked on diverse materials at places such as the new National Museum of American Indian and an excavation site in Turkey. Molly Gleeson became interested in conservation as an undergraduate at the University of Delaware, where she majored in Art Conservation. She also pursued coursework in archaeology, participated in a summer field school and completed internships in paintings, objects and archaeological conservation. After graduating in 2002, she was an intern in archaeological conservation at the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation in Williamsburg, VA, and worked on a field project on Easter Island. Allison Lewis received a B.A. from Stanford University in Classics with a minor in Archaeology. She has interned at the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco and worked for five years at the Iron Age Site of Monte Polizzo, Sicily. Her interests are in the conservation of archaeological objects, archaeological field conservation, and site management. Steven Pickman received a B.A. in Anthropology from Brandeis University. He is interested in a range of topics in conservation, but has a specific interest in the conservation of materials from marine environments. Steven has worked as an intern at the South Street Seaport Museum and at a private conservation practice, Cultural Preservation and Restoration. Liz Werden received a B.F.A. with a specialty in photography and film from Massachusetts College of Art in Boston. Upon graduation, she moved to Los Angeles where she became fascinated with archaeology and completed the Certificate in Archaeology Program at UCLA Extension. Liz has contributed towards a number of field and lab projects throughout California, including the Santa Barbara Maritime Museum, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, and California rock art conservation.
Muros is Staff Research Associate at the UCLA/Getty Program in Archaeological and Ethnographic Conservation. 2
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New archaeology program students
By Helle Girey
The Archaeology Graduate Program extends a warm welcome to five new archeology students and one new anthropology student, all of whom started their studies in Fall 2005: Jack Davey will study the archaeology of the Korean peninsula, focusing on the Three Kingdoms and Unified Silla periods (c. 50 BCE to 936 CE). He is interested in how the developing Korean kingdoms in these periods influenced and were influenced by societies in China and the Japanese archipelago. To do this he will focus on two areas: the city of Gyeongju and the Gaya polity. Gyeongju was a loose collection of villages that transformed over the course of 600 years to become the expansive capital city of the Silla kingdom, while the Gaya polity was a confederacy of tribes in southern Korea during the early Three Kingdoms period. He will study with Lothar von Falkenhausen, Professor of Art History. Kelly Fong is an historical archaeologist focusing on Asian American sites. She is interested in studying historic Chinatowns, particularly in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta area. Her research is interdisciplinary, integrating method-ologies and theories from archaeology and Asian American Studies. Her committee chair is Jeanne Arnold, Professor of Anthropology. Susanna Lam is a student of von Falkenhausen. Her primary research interest is the ancient Silk Road, with specific focus on Central Asia and Western China. She is interested in exploring the connectivity between the East and the West in that area from the second millennium BCE through the first millennium AD. Besides the Silk Road, she is also interested in antiquity law and public archaeology. Abigail Levine is studying archaeology in the Department of Anthropology, working with Charles Stanish and Christopher B. Donnan, Professors of Anthropology. She received her B.A. and M.A. from Stanford University in Anthropological Sciences. Her Master’s thesis focused on mold-made pottery production on the north coast of Peru during the Inka conquest period. For her dissertation she plans on studying the evolution of cooperative polities in the northern Titicaca Basin, in the southern Peruvian highlands. She received an NSF graduate research fellowship. Lyssa Stapelton’s areas of interest are Central European Iron Age, material culture, and mortuary studies. She is interested in the cultural significance of grave goods and burial style and ritual. The technology behind material culture is of great interest as is human osteology because of its obvious importance to mortuary studies. Lyssa participated in the UCLA excavations in Albania this summer with her co-chairs Sarah Morris and John Papadopoulos, Professors of Classics. Sebastian Wärmlander is a Swede with a background in science, who will be working with Viking Age archaeology, particularly with Jesse Byock’s (Professor of Germanic Languages) excavation in Mosfell, Iceland. Sebastian will also spend some time in David Scott’s (Professor of Conservation and Art History) conservation laboratory, using spectroscopic techniques to characterize ancient materials. Richard Lesure, Chair of the Archaeology Graduate Program, will be concentrating this year on increasing funding opportunities for the graduate students. To stay competitive among the top universities in the field of archaeology, there is a need to offer multi-year fellowships to our applicants. Both fundraising and extramural fellowship opportunities will be explored. Welcome back, faculty and students (new and old) for another successful year at the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology.
Girey is Director of Public Programs.
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VOLUNTEER PROFILES

Getting involved
By Shauna Mecartea
Being a second generation UCLA alumnus is only one way Charlie Steinmetz is associated with Los Angeles and its campus. At the Cotsen Institute alone, Charlie is a devoted volunteer and founding member of the Director’s Council, a group of supporters who donate a $1,000 or more to the Cotsen Institute. “Charlie is a great supporter of archaeology at UCLA,” said Charles Stanish, Director of the Cotsen Institute. “His keen business sense has been a great help and his advice has helped us be a more effective organization. We owe him a lot.” Charlie, who received his M.B.A. from the UCLA Anderson School of Management and later became Vice President of Tiernay Metals, always had an interest in archaeology, but was only able to dedicate free time to it when he sold the company after 20 years of employment, and retired in 1999. “I figured, I’m 50—now I can grow up and do what I want to do,” Charlie said. After searching the Internet for public lectures on archaeology, Charlie found the Cotsen Institute and attended the lecture where he met Richard Leventhal, former Director of the Cotsen Institute. Since that evening Charlie has invested much of his energy into archaeology at UCLA. In 2001, Charlie funded a chair, and Sarah Morris was the first to receive the distinguished title: Steinmetz Professor of Classical Archaeology and Material Culture. As part of the Director’s Council, which allows the privilege of traveling with resident archaeologists to their respective sites upon further funding, he visited Egypt, China, Peru, and most recently Albania, where he dug for six weeks with Morris and John K. Papadopoulos, Professor of Classics. “This Institute is set up to get people to volunteer and donate,” Charlie said. “It’s really open to volunteers—you just have to come in here and there’s a wide variety of opportunities,” continued Charlie, noting that the Friends of Archaeology, a Cotsen Institute support group, does a great job of making volunteer positions available. As a person dedicated to education and outreach, Charlie also set up an Archaeology Program grant that requires the recipient to give a presentation on archaeology to elementary students in the Los Angeles area. Charlie believes that many are interested in archaeology, including children, and that the best way to encourage children to read is by introducing them to an interesting topic. Charlie funds outreach programs here at the institute and
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Charlie Steinmetz in Tarapaca, Chile.

throughout Los Angeles by financing inner-city literacy projects through the Steinmetz Foundation. He also works with the UCLA Cultural Virtual Reality Laboratory, and was project manager on the Port Royal Virtual Reality reconstruction at the Ocean Institute, which allows children to virtually explore the famous pirate colony. On top of all of this, Charlie also maintains a spot on the Board of Visitors of UCLA Library, Board of the UCLA Alumni Association, and Board of the American Institute of Archaeology. And with all of these commitments Charlie still has enough energy to contemplate future goals like acquiring more graduate student funding. When asked what he is most proud of in his years volunteering at the Cotsen Institute he simply said: “It’s what we’re going to do next.”

Ways to Get Involved Volunteer Attend a lecture or event Contact Julia Sanchez at (310) 825-4004 or sanchezj@ucla.edu Contact Helle Girey at (310) 825-0612 or hgirey@ucla.edu or go to www.ioa.ucla.edu/events/ events.php Contact Don Corbett at dcorbett@ucla.edu Contact Don Corbett at dcorbett@ucla.edu Contact Helle Girey at (310) 8250612 or hgirey@ucla.edu Contact Summer Sessions at (310) 825-2460 or travel@summer.ucla.edu Contact Extension at (310) 2068456 or slocke@uclaextension. edu

Friends of Archaeology Institute Circle Director’s Council Travel Study Program

UCLA Extension’s Certificate of Archaeology Program

Engineering a passion
By Shauna Mecartea
By combining his enthusiasm for engineering and archaeology, While Michael focused on conducting research in Peru, he D. Michael Henderson has been able to share his expertise also enjoyed getting to experience different cultures “in a way with the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology. that is just not possible as a tourist.” Being able to interact Since April 2004, Michael has been volunteering for Charles with a diverse group of people was an “unexpected and very Stanish, Director of the Cotsen Institute, in Taraco, Peru, in rewarding benefit from the experience,” Michael said. order to fulfill a research requirement for UCLA Extension’s Although Michael only recently became involved in the field Certificate in Archaeology Program. of archaeology, he always held an interest in it during his 30Michael, who received year professional career. his Ph.D. in Engineering Previously, he served and Applied Science as Division Manager from Yale University, and Director of Calirecently added another fornia Engineering credential to his belt for Raytheon System in April 2005 when he Company’s Sensors completed his research and Electronic Systems project and paper entitled Segment. Prior to the “Water Management merger of Hughes in the Taraco Region Aircraft Company with of Altaplano Peru: Raytheon in 1997, Contemporary Practices he spent 25 years in with Implications for the various technical and Archaeological Studies of management positions. the Region.” Upon retirement, Over the past two Michael finally had time seasons at Taraco, to pursue his long-held Michael has focused Michael Henderson in a residual raised field complex on the shore of Lake Titicaca. interest and traveled to on the topography and Hungary and Ecuador hydrology of the region in order to investigate how earlier with University Research Expeditions Program. people manipulated the land for domestic usage, plants and “I got the bug,” said Michael, who decided to enroll at UCLA animals. Extension after his travels to learn more Michael explains that in many ways, about archaeology. water usage in the Taraco region has “I wanted to be considered more than changed little throughout history, and a volunteer,” he said, explaining that it that “by studying how water resources was important for him to develop skills are used today, it is hoped that it will that would allow him to contribute at a give insight into water usage by earlier higher level. people.” Michael looks forward to exploring According to Stanish, Michael water management at the Taraco site studied the mechanisms of ancient with Stanish next season, noting, like water management and developed most scholars do, that “[research] is an mathematical models to understand Michael Henderson (right) with Edgar (left) at Charles unending process.” canal construction and use, and then Stanish’s excavation site next to the Rio Ramis. He hopes that starting next season went to the field to ground check his he will begin to understand the extent calculations. that the earlier people of the Taraco region transformed their “Mike has done a phenomenal job working under tough natural environment. conditions,” Stanish said. “He has discovered a number of important patterns in the ancient land use of the Taraco area.”
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DISTINGUISHED ALUMNI

Tracking Christine Hastorf
By Shauna Mecartea
As a graduate student in the late 1970s and early 1980s, she began studying plant remains in the Upper Mantaro Valley of Peru, and later found herself focusing on seed identification in the Titicaca Basin of Bolivia. As the first person to study paleoethnobotany at UCLA she helped pave the way for others at UCLA and beyond. Christine Hastorf, now a leading paleoethnobotanist (or archaeobotanist) and Professor of Anthropology at UC Berkeley, received her M.A. in 1977 and Ph.D. in 1983 from the Department of Anthropology at UCLA. “Christine has emerged as one of the premier archaeologists of her generation. Her work on two hemispheres is a model for cutting edge research,” said Charles Stanish, Director of the Cotsen Institute. “UCLA is proud to produce Ph.D.s of such distinction.” During her time at UCLA Christine achieved a myriad of accomplishments—foreshadowing her notable archaeological career. In 1977, Christine joined two other UCLA graduate students and Timothy Earle (then Assistant Professor of Anthropology and chair of Christine’s doctoral committee) to form the Upper Mantaro Archaeological Research Project (UMARP) in the highlands of Peru. With funding from a Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Award, Christine conducted her dissertation fieldwork on South American agriculture from 1979 to 1980 in the Mantaro Valley. And in 1986, Christine directed UMARP for a season. Earle, now a Professor of Anthropology at Northwestern University, fondly remembers traveling the region in an old Toyota Land Cruiser with Christine “poking into every upland valley and checking out the conditions of modern agriculture … talking a mile a minute on issues of anthropological theory and Andean ethnography.”

Christine Hastorf digging in 1983 as a graduate student at UCLA.

When Christine was not in the field she was on campus taking courses with other anthropology and archaeology students. She remembers the intensity of the seminars she took with Earle and other professors at the time. She found the mixture of students studying various disciplines beneficial as it stimulated engaging discussions. At UCLA, Christine also began analyzing plant remains from her fieldwork in 1980, marking the very beginnings of the paleoethnobotany lab (that would later be officially organized by another UCLA alumnus, George Gumerman). Aside from her field and course work, Christine was intensely involved in Bharata Natyam, a classical Indian dance. She practiced with her teacher, Medha Yodh, so much that other people in the dance department thought she was studying for her M.F.A. Wanting to complete her training, she decided to perform her final dance after she defended her dissertation in the Department of Anthropology in front of her committee and other special invitees. Virginia Popper, Director of the Paleoethnobotany Lab, remembers Christine’s passionate performance: “She was agile, graceful, witty, and expressive as she culminated her study of this entirely different discipline.” Popper also noted that “working diligently on and excelling at both of these goals at the same time is typical of Chris.” In her time at UCLA Christine received a multitude of grants

Drawing of Inka food preparation. 6
Backdirt: Annual Review

and honors, including Friends of Archaeology Fellowship, Regents Fellowship, Anthropology Departmental Award, and UCLA Female Graduate Student of the Year. After filing her dissertation, Christine was ready to leave UCLA and begin teaching in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Minnesota in March 1983. As the university was searching for someone who studied New World archaeology with an interest in agriculture Christine found the position to be a perfect match for her. “It allowed me to teach the topics I had mostly engaged in at UCLA,” Christine said, noting that the 11 years she spent there were formative as she was able to set up an official paleoethnobotany lab, among other things. In January 1994, Christine accepted a professorship at UC Berkeley where she is now. With seven microscopes, a fume hood and a range of botanical collections, Christine’s new lab is by far the biggest she has directed in her archaeobotanical career. As a tenured professor, she continues to research long-term human-plant relationships in the Andean region of South America. While most of her research has been at the Formative site of Chiripa, she has also been excavating at a range of sites that span the time up to Tiwanaku. Christine’s projects aim to better understand the past through the study of plant-use. For example, she explains that certain crops are highly charged symbolically, and that they occur in certain places and at certain times. Looking at patterns like these in agriculture can suggest things about social relations, gender ideology, the rise of complexity, and more. These topics are expounded upon in her many publications. As Director of the UC Berkeley McCown Archaeobotany Laboratory, Christine will also continue to work on expanding their seed collections like the California Historic Seed Collection that they inherited from the Geography Department, which has over 5,000 specimens. She also has several thousand entries for her Andean seed collection and she plans on continuing to expand and place them in a database as well. Christine has made a significant contribution to archaeology through her research, publications and lab work. “Since [graduation] she has been one of the most innovative thinkers in our field and has greatly contributed to publicizing the need for studies of plant remains along with the other sets of data recovered from archaeological sites,” Popper said. She has also made a significant impact on the people she has worked closely with—especially her former colleagues at UCLA. When working with her in the Mantaro Valley, Earle remembers Christine’s vivid and creative dream sequences that she would discuss with him each day in the field. “I thought, how boring my dream fragments are in comparison to this young woman’s active mind even as she slept,” Earle said.

MAKING A DIFFERENCE
I’ve volunteered at the British Council in East Jerusalem. East Jerusalem is the name given to parts of the city that are primarily Palestinian; the area serves as the financial and cultural center of the Arab community. Since the outbreak of violence (or Intifada) in September 2000 in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt), Palestinian living standards have declined sharply and the economy has fallen into one of the worst recessions in modern history, according to the World Bank. Aid has consequently shifted to deal with short-term emergency needs and the most recent statistics from the United Nations indicate that development assistance has declined by 70 percent. There has been a sharp decline in education and health standards as well as rises in poverty and unemployment following the outbreak of violence, the attendant closures and the erection of the Barrier intended to reduce the number of attacks by Palestinian militants on Israeli citizens. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) has reported that the combination of significant distress and long-lasting effects of rising poverty and unemployment is having an extremely negative effect on all basic human development indicators and put the psychosocial well-being of children under significant strain. While I’m on a Samuel H. Kress fellowship this academic year at the WF Albright Institute of Archaeological Research I’ll be teaching English as a volunteer to Palestinian children from East Jerusalem and the West Bank.
Christine Thompson, Classics graduate student.

Thompson, Classics graduate student, in Jerusalem, Israel.

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INSTITUTE NOTES

Field notes
Compiled by Shauna Mecartea
“I had an interesting field season in Peru this summer, working as a volunteer on Ilana Johnson’s Pampa Grande Archaeological Project. Fellow Archaeology graduate student Colleen Donley and I joined her for a couple weeks and excavated a room in a residential area on a 6-km2 site, a Late Moche population center and one of the earliest examples of urbanism on the Andean coast. We uncovered a rare ceramic spoon with a feline head, and what I believe is a burned cane post and cane impressions in adobe, giving Ilana her first indications of what the superstructure of these apartment-block like residences were made from (cane and adobe). Finally, I found a ceramic representation of what Moche archaeologists call the “King of Assyria,” a character associated almost exclusively with the important burial ground of San Jose de Moro to the south. This is one of the first pieces of evidence that the two sites were in contact with each other, as far as I know.”

Lysistrata actors in Roman odeon at Apollonia, Albania.

bouleterion as the backdrop, was one of the highlights of the summer!”

Mac Marston Archaeology graduate student

John Dietler Archaeology graduate student

Ceramic spoon with a feline head.

“I have spent the summer trying, unfortunately unsuccessfully, to finish my report on the excavations of the Temple of Zeus Megistos at Dura Europos, on which I have given many pizza talks. I went to Rome in September 2005 for a conference on the Middle Euphrates in antiquity, where I presented a paper on religious communities at Dura-Europos.”

“John Papadopoulos and I are pleased to report the success of a second season at the burial mound of Lofkënd in Albania (see Backdirt Fall/Winter 2004), during Summer 2005. Joined by Archaeology graduate students Jamie Aprile, Mac Marston, and Lyssa Stapleton, this year’s team included the participation of a soil scientist (supported by an Ahmanson grant from the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology), and two students from the Virtual Reality lab of the School of Architecture working on a digital model of our site and its landscape setting. In the field, 35 new graves were uncovered, primarily of the Early Iron Age with a few early modern ones, containing exciting new finds of pottery, bronze, iron, and even gold. More lies beneath the surface, and we plan a third season to finish excavating this highly rewarding site; a Web site is posted.”

Sarah P. Morris Professor of Classics

Susan B. Downey Professor of Art History

“This last summer I worked on John Papadopoulos’ and Sarah Morris’ excavation at Lofkënd in Albania, along with Cotsen Institute graduate students Jamie Aprile and Lyssa Stapleton. We lived in a dighouse at the site of Apollonia, a classical Greek colony with some reconstructed architecture, including a Roman odeon. Greek and Albanian theater companies collaborated to put on a production of Aristophanes’ comedy Lysistrata. Their innovation was to have all the men’s lines in Albanian and the women’s in Greek, emphasizing the central theme of the play: the struggle of wills between the sexes. The production, performed in the odeon with the reconstructed
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Charlie Steinmetz with daughter, Laura, wearing Cotsen Institute gear in the field in Albania.

Milestones
Compiled by Shauna Mecartea
To maintain connection with Cotsen Institute students, alumni, research associates, faculty and other affiliates, please mail in your updates to the address on page 66 or e-mail them to shaunam@ioa.ucla.edu. We look forward to hearing about the latest acheivements from our archaeological community. Alumni are recognized by acknowledging the year of their graduation after their name.

On July 19, 2005, Douglas P. Wheeler, Chairperson of the National Park System Advisory Board, announced the appointment of Jo Anne Van Tilburg, Research Associate and Director of the UCLA Rock Art Archive, to the National Landmarks Committee. As a member of the Landmarks Committee, Van Tilburg will help form opinions about the adequacy of historic landmarks nominations, including their proposed boundaries, and whether the properties or sites in question meet the established criteria for national significance and historic integrity. Also, the Japan Times featured two articles on her work. The first discussed Van Tilburg’s recent study of Katherine Routledge, who traveled to Easter Island and studied the statues there in the early twentieth century. The second article focused on Rapa Nui and Van Tilburg’s research there. For more information on her research, see www.easterislan dstatueproject.org . dstatueproject.org/ In February 2005, Thomas Wake, Director of the Zooarchaeology Lab, was featured on “Modern Marvels” on the History Channel in an episode entitled “The Butcher.” Hans Barnard, Research Associate, presented his paper, “Eastern Desert Ware: Microtraces of a Lost People,” at the 55th Annual Meeting of the American Research Center in Thomas Wake in the ZooarchaeEgypt in Tucson, AZ, and at ology Laboratory at the Cotsen the “People of the Red Sea” Institute. Conference at the British Museum in London. He recently published “T16#178277: A life of travel and tacheometry,” in Reporter (The Magazine of Leica Geosystems). David Carballo ’05 filed his dissertation, “State Political Authority and Obsidian Craft Production at the Moon Pyramid, Teotihuacan, Mexico,” in the Department of Anthropology last June. Richard Lesure, Associate Professor of Anthropology and Chair of the Interdepartmental Archaeology Graduate Program, was the chair of his committee. Carballo is now a

Lecturer at the University of Oklahoma in the Department of Anthropology, and a Research Associate at the Cotsen Institute. Last summer he started post-doctoral research at a site called La Laguna, with Aleksander Borejsza (Archaeology graduate student), in Tlaxcala, Mexico. Philip de Barros ’85 , Research Associate, received a Fulbright in 2002 and, in 2001, won the Research Award at Palomar College, where he is Professor of Anthropology. Willeke Wendrich, Professor of Near Eastern Languages & Cultures, has been asked to be the first director of the UCLA Digital Humanities Incubator Group (UDHIG), a cooperation between North Campus faculty, the Center of Digital Humanities, the UCLA Library, the Academic Technology Services, the Experiential Technology Center and the Institute for Digital Research and Education. The purpose of UDHIG is to help faculty develop digital projects and write grant applications for support of IT applications for research and research-based instruction. Applications that may be of interest for faculty of the Cotsen Institute are, for instance, long-term data storage and access, spatial (map-based) research and virtual reality models. Faculty members interested in exploring these avenues of research or teaching are invited to contact her at wendrich@humnet.ucla.edu. Laurie Wilkie ’94, Associate Professor of Anthropology at the UC Berkeley, received both her M.A. and Ph.D. from the Archaeology Program was awarded the prestigious James Deetz Award for 2005 at the York meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology in York, England, for her 2003 book, The Archaeology of Mothering: An African-American Midwife’s Tale. On July 7, 2005, Christopher DeCorse ’89, Chair of the Anthropology Department at Syracuse University, wed Elizabeth Kellar, chief archaeologist at The Hermitage (Andrew Jackson’s residence in Duxbury). Among the many archaeologists celebrating the occasion were Dr. Douglas Armstrong, also of Syracuse and past student of both the Archaeology Program and the Department of Anthropology, who is now working in St. John, and former Archaeology Program Director, Merrick Posnansky (Professor Emeritus of History and Anthropology). DeCorse hopes to undertake research in Sierra Leone, but joined Posnansky for fieldwork on the Egyptian Imperial fort
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D

SNAPSHOT

URING A SHORT TRIP THROUGH THE

NETHERLANDS, AFTER THE SECOND MEETING OF THE USERS GROUP FOR MASS SPECTROMETRY AND CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH KYM FAULL (RESEARCH ASSOCIATE) AND ALEK DOOLEY (IN PHOTOGRAPH), WE CAME ACROSS THIS BIG BLUE TROWEL, LEFT BY A TEAM OF GIANT ARCHAEOLOGISTS...?
Hans Barnard Research Associate

at Dufile in northern Uganda in December 2005. Judith Rasson, Research Associate, recently published The Last Frontier: Historical Archaeology of the Domenigoni and Diamond Valleys, 1880-1940, Riverside County, California with Coyote Press in Salinas, CA (available through their Web site www.coyotepress.com for $22). This is a summary of the historical archaeology conducted in what is now the Los Angeles Metropolitan Water District’s Eastside Reservoir. The report details the historic settlement process, comparing and contrasting the agricultural strategies used by different settlers (noteworthy for including a number of Italian-Swiss) and the archaeological remains they left behind. Bill Sapp ’02 was hired by the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service in a permanent position as the forest archaeologist and Heritage Resources Program manager at the San Bernardino National Forest. Marianna Betti, Archaeology graduate student, received a sixmonth paid position as a researcher in the Center for Medieval Studies at the University of Bergen, Norway. Her work will be to theorize previously analyzed bone material from Norwegian archaeological sites dated around AD 1000. She will write a report on the possible changes visible from the faunal data in the important historical context of the turn of the millennium. She will take advantage of her residence in Norway to learn Norwegian. Christine Thompson, Classics graduate student, was awarded a 10-month Samuel H. Kress research fellowship to spend this academic year at the W.F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research in Jerusalem (the oldest American research center for ancient Near Eastern studies in the Middle East which is today one of three separately incorporated institutes affiliated
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with the American Schools of Oriental Research). She will be working at the Albright Institute in Jerusalem where her research on the origins of coinage is related to the international research project, “The Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 7th century BC: A Study of Interactions between Center and Periphery,” which involves 50 researchers working in 13 countries in the Middle East and Mediterranean basin. Ernestine S. Elster, Research Associate, recently contributed to two publications. The first is published in Lithuanian and her contribution was translated by one of the editors, Dr. Zivile Gimbutas, Marija Gimbutas’ (former UCLA professor) daughter. She requested the chapter to be specifically about Marija’s archaeological projects. The volume includes several scholars discussing Marija’s contributions to folklore, mythology, folk art, Indo-European Studies and more personal historical reminiscenses from her Lithuanian colleagues and friends. Zivile asked Elster to contribute this because she knew she had been working on the second article, which examines her contributions to the field in more depth. Both include photos of Gimbutas from childhood through her final years. Elster was asked to contribute to the second volume because of her long relationship with Marija: she was chair of Elster’s commmitte and Elster worked in some capacity on all five of her excavations. They travelled together, broke bread, drank wine, worked hard and did not always agree, but they remained friends and colleagues till her death. Elster, Ernestine 2005 “Marija Gimbutiene Savo Archeologijos Pasaulyje,” in Zivile Gimbutaite and Kornelija Jankauskaite, eds., Marija Gimbutiene...is laisku ir prisiminimu. Chicago:Lithuanian Publications, Inc., Lithuania:

Lietuva, 242-259. Elster, Ernestine S. 2005 “Marija Gimbutas: Setting the Archaeological Agenda,” in Sue Hamilton, Ruth Whitehouse and Katherine Wright, eds., Archaeology and Women. University College London Press: London. From Fall 2004 to Summer 2005, Gregory Areshian conducted research in two areas of Near Eastern archaeology: (1) As a member of the Mozan/Urkesh Project Areshian started a comprehensive study of the interaction between the natural environment and social processes in the Bronze Age of Northern Mesopotamia. (2) He continued the study of social complexity in the Early Bronze Age of Caucasia, presenting this, second topic at two international conferences devoted to the archaeology of Caucasia (University of Van, Turkey) and to the archaeology of Eurasia (University of Chicago). In Summer and Fall 2004, Areshian participated in the field season at Tell-Mozan, Syria. Two of his papers were published during the same period of time: (1) “Sequences of Signs: Eurasian Archaeology from a perspective of Cultural Semiotics”, Colloquia Pontica 13:286299, Leiden: Brill (2005); (2) “Herakles, the SunGod-Archer, Tyr, and Kerberos,” Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual UCLA Indo-European Conference (K. Jones-Bley et al. eds.), Journal of Indo-European Studies Monograph Series 49, (2004) Institute for the Study of Man: Washington, DC, p. 45-73. This has been another successful year in academic advancement for Cotsen Institute students. Jamie Aprile, student of Sarah Morris, Professor of Classics, and Jennifer Carey, student of Susan Downey, Professor of Art History, completed their M.A. degrees in 2005. Ph.D. degrees were granted to Minna Haapanen (Lothar von Falkenhausen, Professor of Art History) and Bekir Gürdil (Elizabeth Carter, Professor of Near Eastern Languages & Cultures) with dissertations titled: “From a Community to Communities of Practice – The Late Shang Dynasty Site of Miaopu Locus North at Anyang, Henan Province, China,” and “Architecture and Social Complexity in the Laste Ubaid Period: A Study of the Built Environment of Değirmentepe in East Anatolia,” respectively. Anna Noah, student of Jeanne Arnold (Professor of Anthropology), also completed her dissertation on the faunal assemblages on Santa Cruz Island.

SUMMER OF SYNERGY: STAFF EXPLORE POSSIBILITIES
By Julia L.J. Sanchez
Summer at UCLA is usually a quiet time for staff to catch up on work, take vacations, and relax before the chaos of new and returning students and faculty in the fall. Last summer, the dedicated staff of the Cotsen Institute took on the “Summer of Synergy” project—a bold effort to examine everything our institute does and how it can be done better. The staff met weekly, interviewed faculty, staff, and students, and took field trips to other institutions. We visited the Getty Conservation Institute and Getty Museum, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, and the Skirball Cultural Center. At each institution, we explored best practices and areas for potential collaboration. The results are 33 new initiatives, ranging from improving our e-mail notifications to fundraising for graduate students. We have already completed 17 of these new initiatives, including the expanded, full-color edition of Backdirt, which you are now reading. All those interviewed described the strength of the Cotsen Institute as integration: bringing together people, resources and ideas through seminars and shared space. Over the coming months, you will see more efforts to bring people and ideas together, including new event and calendaring systems, ensuring that our successful Cotsen Visiting Scholar, Cotsen Advanced Seminar, and other programs are advertised more effectively. The staff of the Cotsen Institute is a dedicated team, all of whom genuinely enjoy working with each other and are passionate about their role: to facilitate archaeological research and education. Without their hard work, nothing could be done at the Cotsen Institute, but with it, the possibilities are endless. I thank and congratulate them for continuing to strive for excellence, and for achieving it.

(Left to right, back to front) Staff: Sheryol Threewit, Amber CordtsCole, Helle Girey, Gillian Bailey, Shauna Mecartea, Julia Sanchez, Vanessa Muros, and Magda Yamamoto.
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REFLECTIONS ON RESEARCH

On (e)-tic and -emic
By Giorgio Buccellati
Following Kenneth Pike and Marvin Harris, the terms -etic and -emic have come to be in common use, particularly in American anthropology. They are the abbreviations of terms first used in linguistics, as in “phonetics” and “phonemics.” The abbreviated form of the first term, -etic, is however, etymologically improper, for the correct Greek suffix is -tik(os) – as seen, for instance, in such words (derived in English from Greek) as pneuma-tic, poli-tic, hermeneu-tic (with vowels other than the e of phone-tic), or galac-tic, phantas-tic (with consonants). In other words, the “e” of -etic does not belong to the suffix but is rather an intrinsic component of the nominal base to which -tic is appended. To illustrate the point from the perspective of an ear attuned to English, -etic stands to “phonetic” the way -tiful stands to “beautiful”–hence my seemingly odd writing (e)-tic in the title. The term -em-ic, on the other hand, is a proper (double) suffix, with the element -em(a) constituting words in their own right, such as problem, from which adjectives with the suffix -tik- may in turn be derived, as in probl-ema-tic. And yet, however etymologically inappropriate these terms may be, they serve a useful purpose in providing a shorthand reference to a very specific and important theoretical construct– one which, however, is not generally understood with sufficient precision. It is this construct that I would like to elucidate here, bringing out its importance for archaeological reasoning. In my view, the basic underlying concept is the distinction between an open and a closed system, where -etic refers to the first, and -emic to the second. For the sake of simplicity, let us take a set of three colors, red, yellow and green, to serve as a simple database for my analysis. In and of themselves, we may categorize them chromatically according to their physical properties. This system is open because any number of gradations may be introduced at any time, depending on the standards we use, from a common sense list to a Munsell chart to the millions of combinations allowed on a computer. These properties are extracultural or -etic, and may be considered “real” in the sense that a given definition of “green” will always correspond univocally to the same physical entity. Distributional clustering is also possible. Thus yellow and green form a cluster because of their spectral qualities, in opposition to red, thus yielding two distinct nodes, yellow-green and red. Such an open system is extracultural, hence it does not, as a matter of principle, tell us anything about any given culture in which these colors may have acquired a special meaning – though obviously it might help us classify extant documents
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that happen to be colored yellow, green or red. We will then have a precise set of colors, which we know we can reproduce even without having the documents in front of us – but we will have gained no insight into the culture from which the documents stem, i. e., no insight into the meaning of the documents. Our documentation will be objective, but our understanding close to nil. Let us now look at these documents intraculturally, or -emically. In the specific case in point, the documents are stoplights found at street intersections, and for the purposes of our example we will claim ignorance as to their use. We will notice a preponderant correlation between the appearance of, respectively, the color red and the number of cars that are stopped, the color yellow and the number of cars that come to a halt, the color green and the number of cars that go through. If our evidence were so limited that we had only one attestation for each distributional class, we could not draw any conclusion; but assuming a larger corpus, we could safely attribute meaning to the correlation–though the nature of this meaning would remain unclear if based only on the observations mentioned so far. But what is clear is that the system is closed in the specific sense that the addition of any other color would alter the very nature of the system. The importance for an archaeological context is that we can indeed establish the existence of such closed systems, and that once this is established, we may safely assume meaning even if its full import escapes us. To proceed further with the question of meaning, we must seek for binary oppositions. Chromatically (-etically), all colors are irreducible: the digital signature of a given color is absolutely different from that of another. In a closed system, on the other hand, the exact “-etic” quality of the colors is not of great consequence. As long as they are within a given range (say, yellow may “-etically” be orange), their contrast is more important than the exact hue of any one color (-emically, yellow is the same as orange). In linguistics, one would say that yellow and orange are allophones (allochromes?) of the same phoneme (chromeme?). There is a profound correlation between the -emic and (etic) dimensions of a set of data, for the components of the former are univocally bracketed to those of the latter. Thus, the phonemic inventory of a language accounts for each and every one of the phonetic realizations of the same language (clustered as allophones within a single phoneme), and conversely, every phonetic realization has one, and only one, correspondence with the phonemic inventory. Such tight bracketing of the two systems, closed and open, makes the “closeness” of the former all the more complex, since it is not only closed in itself, but doubly closed by reference to the open system to which it is bracketed. As more binary oppositions are noticed, the attribution of meaning can become more specific. For instance, the correlation between the flashing of colors and their impact on the traffic suggests that we may combine green and red as representing a fixed state, and yellow as representing a transitional state. Or again, since we can verify that the appearance of the color is

irreversible with the status of the traffic (the colors change in a sequence that is independent of any change in traffic flow, i.e., they change regardless of how many cars there are), we may attribute not only generic meaning, but causality. The red causes the cars to stop. Even greater specificity in the attribution of meaning can come from a widening circle of distributional classes applied to the same data. Given such additional information, we may be able to determine whether red causes cars to come to a halt because it holds a special religious, or aesthetic, or legal status for the car drivers, or because it triggers automatically a response in the engines that approach. To this extent, the intracultural or -emic analysis of the data is within the data, not in any ontological way, but only in terms of conditioned distributional patterns. To make cars stop, the red must be within a range of red (blue would definitely not work), and it must be associated with the specific set of two additional colors. Clearly, it is not as though red by its nature causes things to stop. If in doubt, ask a bull!
Buccellati is Professor Emeritus of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures and Director of the Mesopotamian Laboratory.

Numerical patterns in Moche tombs
By Christopher B. Donnan
Three high status Moche tombs were recently excavated at the site of Dos Cabezas, located at the delta of the Jequetepeque River on the north coast of Peru (Donnan 2003). Careful observation of the types, numbers, and locations of objects in these tombs indicates that the Moche were deliberately clustering objects in sets of five, 10, 20, and 40. The tombs also include some objects that appear to have been deliberately made using these numbers. This evidence for the deliberate and repetitive use of specific numbers implies that the Moche considered these numbers to be significant, perhaps carrying some symbolic importance, and also appreciated how the Figure 1: Plan of a Dos Cabezas numbers could be combined and tomb. Note the cluster of 20 divided into sets. ofrendas at the south end of the The three tombs were located tomb that are divided into two in a massive adobe pyramid. Each groups of 10. tomb consisted of a rectangular

burial chamber with a small compartment adjacent to one end. The compartments were meant to be miniature versions of the full size tombs. Both the tombs and their adjacent compartments had clusters ofrendas (small, crudely made ceramic vessels resembling cooking ollas or jars) almost invariably in groups of five, 10, or 20 (Figures Figure 2: Plan of a Dos Cabezas compart1, 2). ment. Note the cluster of 10 ofrendas, and Two of the tombs two clusters of five ofrendas 1. were roofed with large wood beams. One had 10 beams extending east-west, while the other had 10 beams extending north-south and five beams extending east-west. One of the tombs had a layer of 40 adobes resting directly on top of the roof beams that were carefully positioned-20 adobes at the north end separated by a space from 20 adobes at the south end (Figure 3). Each set of 20 was arranged in four rows, with five adobes in each. The principal individual in that tomb was buried wearing a necklace of 40 quartz crystal beads, and had five gold objects in his mouth. Among the many objects inside the funerary bundle were two gilded copper headdress ornaments – each made in the form of 10 feathers. It is also possible to observe the use of numbers and number sets in the royal tombs of Sipán (Alva and Donnan 1993). In one of the Sipán tombs there were six necklaces, each consisting of 10 large gold or silver beads, as well as 10 gilded copper backflaps decorated with lizards, and 10 silver backflaps without decoration (op. cit.: 205). The latter may have been conceptualized by the Moche as a set of 20, divided into two sets of 10. There were also 10 silver and 10 gold bells (ibid.)–again possibly seen Figure 3: Plan of the adobes above one of as a set of 20 divided into the Dos Cabezas tombs.
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two sets of 10. And finally, there were 20 gilded-copper bells (op. cit.: 184), and 10 gilded copper discs with hollow spheres around their circumference (op. cit.: 193-195). Another Sipán tomb had a spectacular necklace consisting of 20 gold and silver peanuts. These were strung in two rows of 10, with each row consisting of five gold peanuts and five silver peanuts (Figure 4). This necklace therefore used five, 10,

The rescue of Scaloria cave
By Ernestine S. Elster
Grotta Scaloria, located just inland from the Gargano Peninsula in south eastern Italy is a unique and important double-chambered ritual cave which a UCLA-University of Genoa excavation team explored and studied in 1978, 1979, and 1980. It was occupied intermittently from the Upper Paleolithic through the end of the Neolithic. Many burials and evidence of habitation were found in the Upper Chamber while the Lower Chamber gave evidence of ritual use. Aside from a brief monograph of the 1978 campaign the excavations were never published. Thus one of the richest and most fascinating sites in Mediterranean prehistory was for years consigned to oblivion. However, “help is on the way,” for we here at the Cotsen Institute intend to rescue Scaloria from ignominy; our preliminary plans are outlined below.

Figure 4: Necklace of gold and silver peanut beads from a Sipán tomb.

and 20, as well as the division of 10 into sets of five, and the division of 20 into sets of five and 10. At both Dos Cabezas and Sipán the deliberate use of numbers and number sets can only be observed in high status tombs; tombs of lesser rank have no evidence of it. The tombs where it has been found are among the richest Moche tombs ever excavated archaeologically. Perhaps the use of these numbers and number sets was restricted to the upper echelon of Moche society. REFERENCES CITED Alva, Walter and Christopher B. Donnan 1993 Royal Tombs of Sipán. Fowler Museum of Cultural History, University of California, Los Angeles. Donnan, Christopher B. 2003 Tumbas con Entierros en Miniatura: Un Nuevo Tipo Funerario Moche. In Moche: Hacia el Final del Milenio, Tomo I. Santiago Uceda and Elias Mujica, eds. Universidad Nacional de Trujillo y la Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru–Fondo Editorial.

Donnan is Professor of Anthropology, Associate Director of Research, and Director of the Moche Laboratory. 14
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BACKGROUND The cave is just at the edge of one of the largest plains in Italy, the Tavoliere, which itself holds evidence of Neolithic village life. Blocked by rock collapse, the entrance to the cave and the inner chambers remained undisturbed until the 1930s, when works for water pipes cut into it and revealed its existence. Over the years Italian archaeologists mounted brief campaigns, thus some Scaloria artifacts are stored in the local museums along with the materials from our excavation. Scaloria was also the object of destructive attention by energetic pothunters and for some years now its entrance has been officially closed. In 1977, UCLA’s Marija Gimbutas and the University of Genoa’s Santo Tinè planned a three-season joint excavation with an international team of scholars, students, and scientific specialists including this author. I participated during the study season of 1980 both directing much of the analysis and initiating an edge-ware study of the many thousands of stone tools. At the same time, other archaeologists (among whom was S. Tine) were excavating several of the village sites in the Tavoliere Plain. One of the goals was to learn whether, how, when, and if the Tavoliere settlers used the cave in connection with their living sites. That interesting question can be investigated once the cave is published. I have the dubious honor of being the only member of Gimbutas’ team who is still involved in archaeology, and Scaloria is the only one of her five excavations that was never fully published. Indeed, before her death she handed over to

“Archaeology” and “history”
By John K. Papadopoulos
Like many words in the English language, the word “archaeology” derives from a Greek word: ajrcaiologiva (archaiologia). As a word, “archaeology” has a venerable history, stretching back at least 2,500 years. In classical Greek, archaeology had the meaning more of “antiquarian lore” and “ancient legends,” than it did “history.” One of the earliest extant uses of the word appears in Plato’s Hippias (the Greater), a dialogue between Socrates and Hippias, which took place in the later fifth century BC. Here “archaeology” had the meaning of “antiquity” in general. The geographer Strabo (ca. 64 BC – AD 21) in relating an ancient story of the Armenian race uses the word archaeology to denote “ancient story.” In a similar vein, the historian Diodorus Siculus, writing in the first century BC, uses the word “archaeology” to mean “antiquities” (as in the antiquities of the Greeks and Barbarians), and “ancient stories” or “legends,” including those of the Amazons. A contemporary of the emperor Augustus, the Greek critic and historian Dionysius of Halikarnassos wrote a 20-chapter account of what is today generally referred to as Roman Antiquities, though the title in Greek was Romaïkē Archaiologia – Roman Archaeology. This was one of several ancient studies that used the word archaeology in the title, one of the most famous being Josephus’ (born AD 37-38) magnum opus that is popularly known as Jewish Antiquities, but is more properly the Jewish Archaeology (although a rabbi and zealous defender of Jewish religion and culture, Josephus wrote in Greek). In Dionysius’ Roman Archaeology the word “archaeology,” in at least one passage, appears with the word “history.” Writing about the ascendancy of Rome over Macedon and Carthage, Dionysius uses the word “archaeology” to refer to “antiquarian lore,” whereas “history” was used in a context referring to the “historical record.” By the time Dionysius wrote his Roman Archaeology, the word “history” was already several hundred years old. Another historian from the Greek city of Halikarnassos – indeed, the person whom Cicero dubbed the “father of history” – had used the word “history” (iJstoriva) in the opening sentence of his study: “What Herodotus the Halikarnassian has learnt by inquiry is here set forth…” Writing in the fifth century BC, Herodotus used the word history to refer to inquiry or knowledge so obtained through inquiry. Whereas the logographoi had written down current stories, the historian set out to “find” the truth. Hence, the natural historian Theophrastos (372-371—288-287 BC) entitled his study on the research on plants Peri phytōn historia: His “History” was a systematic study based on scientific observation. Herodotos’ use of the word “history” marks not only a literary revolution, but the very beginning of the social sciences.
Papadopoulos is Professor and Chair of Classics and Director of the Classics Laboratory.
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Cave interior: pottery.

me a large box labeled ‘Scaloria’ and said, “You will see that it is published.” We will indeed, with initial support from the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology and gracious cooperation from those team members from far and wide whom I have located including field directors, Drs. Shan Winn (Florida), and Dan Shimabuku (Manila), and draftsman CPh.D. Linda Mount-Williams (San Marcos). I hope to enlist student and volunteer help and participation and collaboration with other scholars whose research has been into the prehistory of Italy— especially Professors John Robb, Cambridge (published a preliminary report on the burials in the Upper Chamber) and Ruth Whitehouse, University College London (the doyenne of Italian prehistory). STRATEGY A multi-year project disturbs a lot of dirt and reveals thousands of artifacts. We can begin to put together the stratigraphy, which reflects the occupation of the cave and the activities of the occupants from the drawings of the sections, depositional contexts, plans of each excavation square, and the artifacts isolated. My goal has been to locate all the site records, which as of last month and with the assistance of Dr. Juvile Gimbutas, Marija’s daughter, seems finally successful. MountWilliams and Shimabuku have been extremely cooperative locating records and copying many for us. More documents and specialist studies may already exist; in some cases, re-study is likely to be necessary. Scaloria is a large, complex, and multiperiod site and only these data will allow us to analyze it period by period and to interpret its complexities. I am still attempting to contact other members of the team. It may be that Gimbutas was required to provide the Soprintendenza in Taranto with copies of key documentation, and some copies may also reside with Tinè in Genoa. To locate both sets of archives will require both diplomacy and luck. We are just at the beginning and I invite any reader interested in this rescue expedition to join our company of scholars.
Elster is Research Associate and Director of the Mediterranean Laboratory.

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Archaeological discourse
By James R. Sackett
Having been exposed to it daily for more than half a century, to be unaware of the I often find myself musing about the idiom of archaeological fact. The problem discourse. Its ebb and flow is always a matter of interest, and here is not so much occasionally of alarm. It seems astounding now, for example, one of professional that the word “humanist” was used in the parlance of the New competence as of archaeology of the 1960s and 1970s to mean undisciplined timing, that is, where scholarship that proceeds only by intuitive guesswork and aims his or her graduate simply to confirm what has already been assumed to be true. student career And, more recently, the once valuable word “essentialist” lost happened to fall in the any substantial meaning altogether and has now become an cycle of ever-changing all-purpose term of disparagement used to dismiss any theory changing fashions in or point of view one happens to disagree with. No more than archaeological thought. Important topics go in and out of style, a verbal brick to throw through the window of a competitor’s and this intellectual tidal flow inevitably dictates what students paradigm. are given to understand, what they need to know and what they Some of the stock phrases of the trade are of even greater can safely ignore. And hence, when an old problem or idea interest because of their propensity to carry multiple meanings. happens to come back into fashion after they have left school When, for example, a speaker opens with the phrase and entered upon their careers, they can waste a great “this is only a work in progress,” it can be deal of effort working out anew ideas and issues “My either a plea to deflect criticism or an honest that were already an established part of the favorite phrase, admission that, regardless of how long we archaeologist’s stock in trade a generation or however, is the one have worked at a problem, we can never be two before. The best way to avoid this trap used by authors who sure we’ve got the damn thing right. is to devote one’s library time to making introduce their work My favorite phrase, however, is the one friends with the old literature as much as with the claim that it used by authors who introduce their work keeping track of the new. With luck one concerns a hitherto with the claim that it concerns a hitherto might find an important topic that has ‘sadly neglected “sadly neglected topic.” This can signify indeed been sadly neglected and deserves to three quite different things. be recast in contemporary terms. topic.’ ” One is that the topic has in fact exercised fine Finally, the phrase can be literally true—in other archaeological minds for a long time, but the author words, the topic can fairly be characterized as having is about to misrepresent their contributions in such a been sadly neglected before the writer hit upon it. In this fashion as to construct a strawman against which his or her own case it can signal the presence of an exciting, original mind at ideas can gain a semblance of novelty by way of contrast. The work. Unhappily, however, it is more likely to appear in the phrase used in this sense probably enjoys its greatest popularity first draft of an article we only see ourselves, one we never get in group efforts by coteries of young scholars who aim to gain around to finishing. For it gradually dawns on us in the process visibility by clothing old ideas in new jargons. One thing that of writing that our topic has justifiably been sadly neglected gives them away is that their bibliographies largely reference because it is either a pseudo-problem to begin with or because only those scholars (usually each other) who use the same its significance is of mind-boggling inconsequentiality, one argot. Another is that the word “rethinking” often appears in whose intellectually niggling nature only becomes increasingly their titles—a term newcomers find hard to resist even though apparent the harder we wrestle with it. This is why archaeologists they are in reality thinking about the business at hand only for sometimes find themselves wide awake in the small hours of the first time. More experienced scholars, by way of contrast, the morning, staring into the darkness and wondering if they tend to find the term superfluous. For they know instinctively too are in danger of becoming sadly neglected. that, just as sharks are said to die if they stop moving, their own working days are over once they stop critically rethinking their own opinions. (See “work in progress” above.) Sackett is Professor Emeritus of Anthropology and Director of the The phrase can have a second and rather different meaning. European Laboratory. This is that, as in the above, the topic itself has not in fact been sadly neglected, but that in this case the author truly seems
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A new twist on archaeological cartography
By Monica L. Smith
What is the purpose of maps in an archaeological publication? Perhaps we are so used to the standard illustration of the Roman Empire or the “Maya region” that we don’t think about the meaning of that large shaded blob. Most articles and books have just one map of an ancient culture and that too at its largest extent, giving a visual suggestion that states were somehow destined to fill up continent-sized portions of the landscape. Instead of this passive display of manifest destiny, however, there are several ways that archaeologists can make our study of ancient states and empires more productive and dynamic. Archaeological surveys now give us more information about different types of sites in a landscape, so that we can make maps showing networks of social, economic, ritual and political interaction in which different towns and cities might take precedence. This kind of network approach can also show changes over time, so that we can appreciate the many steps that political systems went through: alliances, wars of conquest and loss, capture of mineral wealth or breadbaskets, even the impact of natural disasters. Perhaps the most compelling reason to reconsider our use of maps is a better understanding of how ancient states worked. Even in the modern world, there are a surprising number of ongoing border disputes in which neighboring nations have very different looking maps of their territories. Such circumstances probably would have been even more common in the ancient world where boundaries were

porous, shifting, and for the most part undefended except in areas of prized resources. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and other map-making tools can thus give us better ways of thinking about the past, in addition to providing us with maps that are still pleasing to look at. Smith’s article “Networks, Territories, and the Cartography of Ancient States” will appear in the Annals of the Association of American Geographers December 2005 issue.
Smith is Associate Professor of Anthropology and Director of the South Asian Laboratory.

The enduring chiefdom concept
By Charles Stanish

The concept of the chiefdom has a long and checkered career in archaeological and anthropological theory. As a mainstay of evolutionary approaches in archaeology, it has been both acclaimed and disdained by scholars from many theoretical perspectives. Whether you hate or embrace the term, the fact is that for more than two millennia scholars have searched for a concept to describe those societies that were larger than small settled villages and less complex than the large, urbanized states in which most of the scholars lived. For me, the word chiefdom is a perfectly good term that captures this kind of intermediate socio-political and economic organization between undifferentiated bands or villages and hierarchical states. The use of the term “chief” to define a political leader has a long history in our language. It derives from the Latin “caput” or “head.” An archaic version of the word “chef” as well as “cheef” is found in Old French and Middle English. One definition in the Oxford English Dictionary most relevant to anthropological theory is: “The head of a body of men ... foremost authority, leader, ruler.” The first known use of the term in this sense is listed as early as 1297 (OED, definition #6). One of the first modern uses of the chiefdom concept as an Inscriptions from the Mauryan Empire of the 3rd century BC can be used as the basis for a traditional territorial intermediate society is found map (left) or as nodes in a network of interaction (right). in Herbert Spencer’s Principles
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of Sociology (1879:708) where he argues for the surprisingly modern notion that: “There is a natural relation between constant fighting and development of chiefly power.” Throughout the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, there were isolated references to chiefdoms in the anthropological literature, generally with little theoretical content. James Dawson (1881:5-6) used the term to describe aboriginal groups in Australia distinguishing them from others without strong political heads, echoing a modern sense of the concept. The sociologist Eben Mumford (1906:394), in his rather simplistic evolutionary theoretical work on the “origins of leadership,” used the term “chieftainship” and chiefs to describe political authority in intermediate societies. Image of a Florida Indian chieftain from The Spanish Main, by Peter Wood and the Editors of Time-Life The term chiefdom was quite current Books. in the 40s among social anthropologists, particularly those working in Africa. Monica Wilson (1949:21) describes a Bantu-speaking group of REFERENCES the Great Rift Valley as “divided up onto a number of small, independent chiefdoms . . . [that] developed no centralized Dawson, James political authority. . .” Her use of the term was more precise 1881 Australian Aborigines, the Languages and Customs of than her colleagues’ use of the term a decade before, and this Several Ttribes of Aborigines in the Western District of reflected the more rigorous work of her peers in the post-war Victoria, Australia. G. Robertson, Melbourne. years. Outside of Africa, the great Mayanist J. Eric Thompson Miller, Eric J. (1945:22) described small states or “chiefdoms” among the 1954 Caste and territory in Malabar. American Yucatecan groups at the time of Spanish conquest. He intended Anthropologist. 56(3):410-420. this usage to refer to a polity that had decreased in size and power after the Late Classic, and he most likely borrowed the Mumford, Eben term from his British social anthropology colleagues. A bit 1906 The origins of leadership. II. The American Journal of later, societies in India were described by Eric Miller (1954) Sociology. 12(3):367-397. as chiefdoms. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, the term was sporadically found throughout the anthropological literature. Oberg, Kalervo In this context, the anthropologist Kalervo Oberg (1955:473) 1955 Types of social structure among the lowland tribes of offered the modern evolutionary concept of the chiefdom as South and Central America. American Anthropologist. one of several intermediate level societies between hunter57(3):472-487. gatherers and states. From that point on, theorists have developed the chiefdom concept into the powerful theoretical Thompson, J. Eric tool that it is today. While a few scholars still disparage the 1945 A survey of the northern Maya area. American term chiefdom, the empirical reality of intermediate societies in Antiquity. 11(1):2-24. the archaeological and ethnographic record will always require us to use some variation of this most curious and enduring Wilson, Monica concept. 1949 Naykyusa age villages. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 70(1/2):21-25.
Stanish is Professor of Anthropology, Director of the Costen Institute of Archaeology, Director of the Andean Laboratory and Lloyd E. Cotsen Chair in Archaeology. 18
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The Tarapaca Multidisciplinary Archaeological Expedition
AN OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT AND FIRST FINDINGS
By Ran Boytner, Maria Cecilia Lozada, Ioanna Kakoulli and Mario Rivera

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INTRODUCTION n 1924, Isaiah Bowman traveled across the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, and discovered that the modern desolate landscape was much different in the time before the arrival of Spaniards to South America. Bowman reported the ruins of many sites in the area, drawing particular attention to the archaeological richness of the Tarapaca Valley, one of the very few areas where water was flowing across the desert. Bowman’s report was forgotten, until the early 1960s. At that time, a major expedition to the Atacama Desert was created, a program dubbed the California-Chile expedition. Among the principle leaders of the expedition was Clement Meighan, a renowned UCLA archaeologist. During the late 1960s, Meighan and his co-director – Dilbert True – surveyed portions of the valley and excavated sections of one of its early largest site, Casarones. Members of the expedition continued to explore the valley infrequently. But in 1973, Augusto José Ramón Pinochet came to power in Chile, halting much of the academic activities in the social sciences, declaring departments such as anthropology a potential hotbed for communist rebels. Outside of highly limited and controlled areas, archaeological research was brought to an almost complete halt in Chile. The return of democratic rule to Chile in 1990 slowly impacted the reestablishment of archaeological research in the country, and in July 2005, a UCLA team had returned to the Atacama Desert for the first time in more than 30 years. Following an initiative of Charles Stanish, Director of the Cotsen Institute and Professor of Anthropology, a collaborative project was launched between the CIOA and Universidad Bolivariana (sede Iquique). Under the co-direction of Ran Boytner (Research Associate, UCLA) and Dr. Mario Rivera (Universidad Bolivariana, Iquique) the project aims to reestablish archaeological research at the Tarapaca Valley and to provide training and research possibilities for graduate and undergraduate students. The project was also set up as a pilot

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Headless mummy recovered from Tarapaca 40 cemetery.

STUDENT VIEW
What better way to spend a summer as an undergraduate student of archaeology than frolicking in the desert of northern Chile? Being part of the Tarapaca Project field school was by far one of the most wonderful and impacting experiences of my life, and has truly inspired me to pursue archaeology in my future studies. To have the opportunity to meet and work with the students and scholars on the project and get to know them as the amazing people that they are was invaluable. I’ll never look at my professors quite the same way, now that I know what they’re like in the field. I definitely recommend field school, this one in particular, to any undergraduate interested in archaeology.
Kelley Cleaveland, Anthropology undergraduate student. 20
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collaborative effort with the newly established UCLA/Getty Program in Archaeological and Ethnographic Conservation to enhance collaborations between archaeologists and conservators and to set out guidelines for field archaeological conservation based on the conservation ethics and principles. The Tarapaca Project came under the overarching umbrella of the CIOA, managing the difficult logistics and availing its resources for a wide breadth of archaeological research. The first campaign took place in July 2005. What we found was beyond our expectations, both in density and richness of the archaeological material. For five weeks, our international team excavated, surveyed, and mapped portions of the area, revealing a rich life of intensive agriculture, metal working and warfare in levels we did not predict was possible given the aridity of the region. In the following paragraphs, we would like to share some of our amazing findings and describe the foundations for a long-term project we opt to establish in the region. It would be an important omission however not to mention our less then promising start. Five days before the arrival of our team to Chile, a 7.9 earthquake hit the Atacama Desert, with its epicenter about 100 km below the village of San Lorenzo de Tarapaca, our chosen site for the field house at the heart of the Tarapaca Valley. Although no life was lost in the village, devastation of the adobe structures, including the sixteenth-century local church, was almost complete. Consultation among team members, both faculty and students, yielded a strong desire to go ahead with the project as planned, despite the unexpected adverse conditions, and to assist with financial and in-kind contributions to the local community. In hindsight, we were generously rewarded for our decision and resolve. Owing to the geographical and cultural importance of the Tarapaca Valley and our aspiration to establish a long-term archaeological project in the area, this initiative was developed based on solid foundations right from the beginning. Specialists from various fields in the humanities, social and natural sciences were therefore invited to form a multidisciplinary team. Covering a wide range of expertise the team included:

all in good condition and well preserved. Although funerary goods were recovered, items that were buried provide a fascinating, and not entirely anticipated, picture about contacts outside the valley. In one burial, the individual was wrapped in a bird type skin. In another burial, the individual was holding the projectile end of a fishing harpoon. Such affinity to marine resources is expected among coastal fisher folk, but not for communities residing more then 100 km inland. The presence of these finds could suggest contacts with coastal communities. However, as the excavation is still at a very preliminary stage and the finds have not yet been examined in detail, interpretations are based on prompt assumptions and need to be further confirmed. Detailed studies of these human remains in the near future will allow us to examine the genetic composition of this population, as well as establishing their dietary and health patterns. Our bioarchaeological approach Mended sandals (note the brown string) found under a headless mummy from Tarapaca 40 cemetery. will become useful in elucidating not only the general health status of the inhabitants, but also the nature of •Archaeologists with specialization in physical anthropology, socio-political interactions between highland, valley and coastal paleoethnobotany, zooarchaeology and landscape archaeology; communities. •Archaeological and conservation scientists specializing SURVEY in field archaeological conservation and material Back in the 1960s, the Chile-California team surveyed the characterization; •Natural scientists from chemistry and biochemistry focusing Tarapaca Valley focusing primarily on pre-ceramic periods and covered an area of 1 km on either side of the river, as the desert on analytical studies of organic materials and residues. beyond the river bottom is extremely harsh and desolate. This is one of the very few places on earth completely devoid of any EXCAVATION In 1967, members of the Chile-California team discovered a plant life, not even sporadic patches. Unfortunately, neither Middle Horizon (AD 300-1000) cemetery, just on the opposite adequate documentation nor maps were found from this bank from Casarones. Artifacts from this work are now early survey and therefore, one of the principle goals of the scattered among different local and international institutions, current campaign was to re-survey and map a large area of the and only a few objects had been published. The periphery of Tarapaca Valley. We decided to expand the scope of the survey the cemetery with some scattered human remains, textile and and look at the promontories overlooking the valley instead of the quenbrada itself. The basketry looked promising for desert floor was covered with mortuary and physical material remains of human presence. evidence and an excavation It was difficult to determine trench was set up on a relatively The projectile end of an harpoon, found with a completely preserved where one site began and the flat area of the hill. mummy at Tarapaca 40 cemetery. other ended. The surface was Within a few days of excavations, remains of a number of disturbed burials were covered with ceramic sherds, stone alignments, and with many encountered. Well preserved mummies, although headless, paths crisscrossing each other. Neither the ceramic nor the stone alignments suggested were found in shallow burials at a depth of approximately 30 to 50 cm. As the practice of ritual removal of skulls was habitation. Many of the ceramic remains seem to be fragmentary a common practice in the Andes, it was not possible to tell evidence of complete vessels, and many of the stone alignments with certainty whether the removal of the head was an ancient were long, simply putting one stone after the other to form custom or the result of modern disturbance. Mummies were patterns of circles, walls, and sometimes, geometric patterns. found in fetal position and wrapped in bundles of textiles, and These patterns continued far into the desert, suggesting human basketry. A few of the mummies were found with grave goods, interaction with the deep desert for extended periods of time. although not of a rich kind. For example, one mummy bundle There is still no adequate information to explain why people (locus 3) was placed on top of a pair of leather sandals, so well invested so much into forming stone patterns on the Pampa preserved that mending done in antiquity using cotton strings (also known as geoglyphs), but a current working hypothesis is that these were created as part of ceremonial activities. Similar can still be clearly seen today. By the last day of excavation, six individuals were uncovered, activities are known from southern Peru (eg. Nazca lines), and
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Hans Bernard (right), Research Associate, and Alek Dooley (left), SRA in the Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, operating the Total Station at site 1024.

are not unique to the Tarapaca Valley. In addition to the many sites found on the Pampa, the survey also discovered sites on the bluffs overlooking the river itself. These sites were highly fortified, consisting of the remains of thick walls and in many cases, a mount dug in front of a series of particularly wide walls. These fortified sites – termed pukaras in the Andes – were not particularly large, but occurred in short distances between each other. These patterns suggest an environment of intensive competition and extensive warfare, where resources were especially scarce and required constant protection. Northern Chile is rich with natural mineral deposits, and it is today one of the most productive areas in the world for copper and other mineral mining. Our survey demonstrated that metal production in the area was an important local activity. The survey recovered many ceramics with evidence of metal slugs, residues and crucibles, found primarily at the edges of local bluffs, using the natural wind draft coming from the river valley to supply oxygen for fires used for metal smelting. Initial analysis of samples by David Scott, Professor of Conservation and Art History, suggests an advanced local knowledge of metal production. MAPPING Because archaeology had been practiced in Northern Chile only sporadically in the past 30 years, we know relatively
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little about local chronology and its material culture style manifestation. One of our initial goals is to create reliable stylistic serration, using ceramic, textile, architecture and stone tool styles as temporal indicators. To achieve such goals, we must understand the local stratigraphy and the evolution of style in the valley. Few of the local sites suggest multi-layer occupation. But site 1024, a long site occupying extensive lengths of a ridge overlooking the lower portion of the valley, seems particularly suitable. At its south-eastern edge, habitations seem to be associated with an architectural style we believe is early in the development of human presence in the valley – more circular structures made from local Caliche stones. At its north-western edge, structures seem to be of the style associated with Inca and early Colonial forms. In between, it appears to be at least one more style of architecture. It looks like 1024 represents horizontal stratigraphy and is a prime candidate for excavation to chronicle stylistic changes. Recognizing the significance of 1024 early in the season, the site and its topography was intensively surveyed and mapped in preparation for an extensive excavation for the following year. Hans Bernard (Research Associate, UCLA) ran the mapping operation, generating a plan for the site that clearly shows at least two different architectural styles.

CONSERVATION The presence of trained conservators in ongoing archaeological excavations and the short and long-term preservation of archaeological materials post-excavation have become important components of modern archaeological endeavors. Conservation is an essential parameter for this expedition, and all decisions regarding strategy of the field campaign were made together, archaeologists and conservators discussing and agreeing on methods and practices. During the first season, conservation actions were focused on understanding and evaluating the burial micro-environment and, during the final stages of the excavation, assisting with lifting, transportation and storage of the finds. Measurements of relative humidity and temperature were recorded at regular intervals and plans were made on the actions to be taken to minimize the impact on materials once removed from the ground and into our storage facilities. The dramatic shift in micro-conditions is the cause for many deterioration processes to rapidly accelerate, and the presence of a conservation team is crucial for the understanding and mitigation of such processes. Preventive and remedial conservation measures based on

minimum intervention will take place in future campaigns to assure the preservation of archaeological materials. The Tarapaca Project had been selected as a site for the training of graduate conservation students from the UCLA/Getty Conservation Program, who are expected to participate actively and add to the multidisciplinary nature of this project. CONCLUSIONS The first season at the Tarapaca Valley proved successful beyond our wildest imagination. The valley is extremely rich with archaeological remains while looting – endemic in most parts of the Andes – seems to be almost non-existent here. The preservation of materials is superb, ability to detect archaeology on the surface is excellent, and local interest in the success of our project is high. These conditions suggest that the project will provide important insights into Andean life, as can be seen from the fringes, and that it will become fruitful grounds for much archaeological work for years to come. We are all looking forward to getting back to the field, engaging in fascinating archaeology with one of the most international teams to currently be involved with archaeological research in the Andes. Oh, did we mention how good Chilean wine is?

Circular feature made from piled stones found on the pampa, 500 m north of the canyon edge.
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Archaeology, Conservation, and the new UCLA/Getty Program
By Ellen Pearlstein
he field of conservation has seen a steady increase in the areas of documentation, technical study, and preservation alongside the more traditional emphasis on individual object treatment. As each of these areas increases in complexity, they challenge the conservator and the conservation educator. The application of digital techniques to conservation documentation is introducing new methods of imaging, and of manipulation, capture, and storage of images. Documentation and digital replication sometimes replace conservation methods where original materials are deemed too transient to preserve, or where these materials are important to multiple users. Technical studies often provide the primary material identification of objects, and afford insights into the cultural use and handling of materials. As the conservation profession matures, its practitioners are evaluating the value of caring for single objects versus preventing damage to whole collections or sites, and negotiating preservation within complex values and demands made on collections and sites. This is the backdrop against which the new UCLA/Getty Program in Archaeological and Ethnographic Conservation has welcomed its first class in September 2005. The seeds for the UCLA/Getty Program began in 1981 when the National Institute of Conservation (now Heritage Preservation) assembled an expert committee to examine the
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specialized requirements for conservation training in the fields of archaeological and ethnographic material. The committee issued its report in 1984 outlining the curriculum and facility requirements for such a program. A significant premise for the training appeared in the statement that: “each object of a culture is a tangible historical document. This means that the object preserves, even in microscopic form, its method of manufacture, evidence of its functions, its use in more than one geographic location, and the course of its deterioration. In the absence of written records, the ethnographic and archaeological artifact is all anthropologists have for examining the dynamics of cultural change expressed through materials and objects.” Ethnographic and archaeological objects are described in that report as “the products of human necessity and cultural tradition.”
One of the conservation labs at the Getty Villa.

stabilization, technological studies, archaeological archives and repositories, and collaboration and community involvement. The emphasis on the areas of documentation, technical study and interpretation, stabilization of sites and records, and collaboration is noteworthy. With the inception of the UCLA/Getty Program, collaboration will be fostered as future conservators, anthropologists and archaeologists undertake graduate study together. The UCLA/Getty Program in Archaeological and Ethnographic Conservation has received the generous support of a Getty Conservation Fellowship Endowment. The program receives support and is administered through the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology at UCLA. The Cotsen Institute is interdepartmental and draws on faculty from Anthropology, Art History, Near Eastern Languages & Cultures, and Museum Studies, among others. In this program, students will study for a three-year Master’s degree in Conservation. In 2006, teaching of conservation courses will take place in new purpose built teaching laboratories housed at the Getty Villa. The program will share certain aims of other North American conservation training programs. These include providing training in material properties, technology, sources of deterioration, and treatment and prevention methods. The program will be distinguished by its emphasis on materials and technologies closely associated with archaeological and ethnographic objects and sites. The curriculum for the program begins with students taking

The passing of 20 years between the committee recommendations and the program inception has not changed the significance of each object as an historical and cultural document; however, it has dramatically changed the way objects and sites are studied and documented. It has increased the number of considerations taken to consider whether and how treatment is executed. These changes have occurred as the fields of conservation, anthropology and archaeology have changed. While the 1981 committee was prescient in recognizing the specialized training required for preparing archaeological and ethnographic conservators, they could not forecast the increased complexity of documentation and the increased role of communication and collaboration in all conservation activities. The recent past has seen conservators presenting sessions at anthropological and archaeological conferences, and publishing in scholarly journals read in these fields. Members of the American Institute for Conservation established an Archaeological Discussion Group in 2004. This group of objects conservators organized a conference entitled “The Conservation of Archaeological Materials, Current Trends and Future Directions” held in November 2005 at Colonial Williamsburg (see complete program at www.history.org/History/institute/ Images/ConsCon.pdf). f). The sessions at this conference cover f the definition of archaeological conservation, the training of its practitioners, techniques for on-site documentation and

View from the conservation laboratories at the Getty Villa in Malibu, California. Backdirt: Annual Review 25

Ellen Pearlstein (left) and Vanessa Muros (right) test samples inside conservation lab at the Cotsen Institute.
a total of 17 required courses, many of which are available to students in allied departments. The curriculum begins with courses in conservation ethics and decisions, one in technology and characterization, and a course in object and field documentation techniques. An important emphasis in the documentation course is digital recording, photogrammetry, and computer aided design. A UCLA anthropology course on Repatriation of Native American Human Remains and Cultural Objects is required for the conservation students. The following semester includes the first course on the science of conservation materials, and on scientific methods applied to the examination of archaeological and ethnographic objects. Five materials based courses from the series of “Deterioration and Conservation” courses. These are designed to introduce students to the major media found within archaeological and ethnographic materials, including “Ceramics, Glass and Frits,” two courses on “Organic Materials,” “Metals and Small Stone Objects,” and “Ancient Building Materials and Sites.” These courses, which include lectures and practical sessions, emphasize the understanding and characterization of damage, and mitigation using preventive and treatment techniques. These courses will permit students to apply documentation and examination methods learned previously to varying conservation problems. Distinguished aspects of this program include two courses “Program graduates will be equipped with technical skills and an appreciation of multiple values and meanings that archaeological and ethnographic objects hold for society. They will be prepared to work as part of an interdisciplinary team in the field, in a museum, regional, or private laboratory, or within an agency committed to collection or site management.”

in preventive conservation, a course on “Ethnography and Conservation,” and a course on “Management of Collections and Sites.” Preventive courses will include techniques applied to both collections and sites, and will include practical exercises carried out in local collections and involving collaboration. “Ethnography and Conservation” will permit students to carry out treatments of objects from one of the many indigenous repositories housed in Los Angeles. Part of this course will include discussions with collections staff about multiple values, treatment goals, and partnering required for future care. The
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course on “Management of Collections and Sites” introduces students to the need to work as part of an interdisciplinary team, with ethnographers, indigenous communities, cultural resource managers or curators. Students in the UCLA/Getty Conservation Program can follow more specialized study as they take four required electives, which may be drawn from a wide array of UCLA departments including Archaeology, Anthropology, Art History, Chemistry, Geology, Near Eastern Languages & Cultures, and Materials Science. Electives may also include individual supervised research, collections projects, or treatments arranged with colleagues at area museums and sites, including the Getty Conservation Institute, the J. Paul Getty Museum, the Fowler Museum of Cultural History, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, and Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History. Opportunities for field experience during the summer are presented by numerous expeditions carried out by UCLA faculty. Summer and third-year internships are required, along with a Master’s thesis, and these can be tailored to the needs and interests of individual students. The partnership between UCLA, a university dedicated to training anthropologists and archaeologists, and the Getty, an institution devoted to the conservation of world heritage, create a rich and vibrant conservation training opportunity. Program graduates will be equipped with technical skills and an appreciation of multiple values and meanings that archaeological and ethnographic objects hold for society. They will be prepared to work as part of an interdisciplinary team in the field, in a museum, regional, or private laboratory, or within an agency committed to collection or site management.
Pearlstein is Faculty in the UCLA/Getty Program in Archaeological and Ethnographic Conservation.

Conservation: Course Contents Overview
Conservation Principles and Decisions Provides an introduction to the conservation of cultural materials in both museum and site contexts, representing movable (artifacts) and immovable (buildings, sites) cultural heritage. Repatriation of Native American Human Remains and Cultural Examines this phenomenon by reviewing the development Objects of legislation, historical practices of collecting, and conflicts between scientific studies of Native material Ancient Materials: Technology and Characterization Provides an introduction to ancient materials, their technology and their deterioration. Documentation for Conservation Provides an introduction to techniques and methods for photographic and graphic recording and documentation for the conservation of artifacts, monuments and sites, enhancing the descriptive documentation. Science of Conservation Materials and Methods I Provides students with a understanding of the physical-chemical properties of conservation materials and their aging and products of degradation in the context of how these materials and their application methodology influence the design and implementation of conservation treatments. Deterioration & Conservation of Inorganic Materials I: Ceramics, Provides an introduction to the deterioration and conservation Glass, Frits of ceramic and glass. Scientific Methodologies for Conservation Provides an account of several of the basic scientific techniques employed for the examination of archaeological and ethnographic artifacts. Deterioration & Conservation of Organic Materials I Learn how to recognize characteristic deterioration problems found in organic materials from archaeological and ethnographic contexts, resulting from environmental, biological, or mechanical sources, as well as from previous treatments and use. Ancient Building Materials and Sites: Technology and Focuses on the study of building materials, such as stone, bricks, Characterization earth, lime and gypsum. Deterioration & Conservation of Inorganic Materials II: Metals Continues the study of inorganic materials and discusses the and Stone deterioration and conservation of metals and smaller stone artifacts Deterioration & Conservation of Organic Materials II Follows Deterioration & Conservation of Organic Materials I, however the focus is on leather; shell; bark and bark cloth, papyrus, and paper; gourd and other plant materials; and synthetic materials. Principles of Preventive Conservation I Provides a wide-ranging and challenging introduction to preventive conservation Deterioration & Conservation of Ancient Building Materials and Focuses on the causes and effects of deterioration of Sites archaeological sites and archaeological murals and mosaics and will present preventive, protective and remedial solutions to mitigate the deterioration Science of Conservation Materials and Methods II Provides students with a understanding of the chemical processes and chemistry of materials used for the conservation of archaeological sites and to keep them updated with new materials that [could] find extensive use in conservation practices. Principles of Preventive Conservation II Focuses on the application of techniques learned in Principles of Preventive Conservation I. Ethnography and Conservation Needs Permits students to carry out treatments of objects that are housed within an indigenous repository Management of Collections and Sites Focuses on resources, fundraising, and advocacy for the protection of collections and sites.
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Analysis at the Cotsen Institute
By Vanessa Muros
Since setting up its lab at the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, the UCLA/Getty Conservation program staff and faculty have collaborated with Cotsen Institute archaeologists on numerous projects involving the analysis of objects recovered from their respective excavations. One such project has involved the examination of seven samples excavated by Christopher Donnan, Professor of Anthropology, from the northern coastal Peruvian site of Dos Cabezas, which has both Moche (AD 300600) and Lambayeque (AD 900-1300) occupations. The samples were recovered from burials, six female and one male, that were beneath the floor of a Lambayeque temple. Each individual showed signs of ritual sacrifice by means of strangulation. The burials contained many associated objects, including woven baskets, textiles, copper knives, shell and bone jewelry, and ceramic vessels. The seven samples consisted of masses of red and brown soil with incorporated organic materials, small black rock chips and two types of beads. One red soil sample appeared to also contain remnants of a textile. The conservation department used various techniques to examine and identify the materials comprising the samples in order to provide information on their raw materials and on their method of manufacture. Stereomicroscopy and polarized light microscopy (PLM) were used for magnified examination and initial identification. Analysis by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) helped to identify the composition of the samples by identifying their specific chemical compounds and elements. By means of such techniques, the black rock chips were identified as quartz. The beads were found to be made up of two different types of materials. Green beads were determined to be made from turquoise, while the dark brown beads were organic, most likely of a plant material. The brown soil samples contained the remnants of skin or leather, either from clothing or from the burials themselves. The red soil was found to be red ochre and also contained similar skin or leather remains. Further work on the samples is still needed. The next step will be to apply scanning electron microscopy (SEM), allowing the samples to be viewed under very high magnification. With this technique it should be possible to better determine the specific plant material used to manufacture the organic beads, identify whether the textiles is made from a plant fiber or animal hair, as well as to determine whether it is skin or leather present in the samples.
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Photomicrograph of turquoise beads.

Photomicrograph of textile remains on a fragment of red ochre.

Excavation of a Lambayeque temple at Dos Cabezas.

Understanding Dufile: Archaeology in Uganda
By Merrick Posnansky

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n December 2005, Merrick Posnansky, Professor Emeritus foreigners after the Mahdi had defeated several British armies of History and Anthropology, began a six-week mission in in a story chronicled in such epic classic films as “Khartoum” Uganda at the former Egyptian fort of Dufile, close to the and the “Four Feathers.” All told the British lost six generals border with the southern Sudan in the west Nile of Uganda. and 16 colonels fighting the Mahdi and suffered their greatest The research will re-establish historical archaeology in Uganda losses in nineteenth-century imperial wars. In 1885 the Mahdi after a 35-year lapse. The project is aimed at finding out more sacked Khartoum and killed Gordon. The British sent the about inter-relations between the first Imperialists and the local foremost explorer/adventurer of his day, the American Henry population. The lead archaeologist is Christopher DeCorse, Morton Stanley, to relieve Emin by then promoted to the Chair of the Department of Archaeology at Syracuse University position of Pasha. Stanley arrived in the West Nile after taking (who obtained his a year walking in from Ph.D. in the UCLA the Congo basin and Archaeology Program losing two-thirds of his in 1989) and has men. extensive experience in Posnansky and his West Africa examining team of 20, which the African towns includes participants that grew up under from Canada, the the shadows of the UK, Ghana, Kenya European forts along and students from the Gold Coast. Uganda, are hoping They were acto find out more companied in the about the interactions field by Dr. Nigel between the local Fitzpatrick, presently a Madi villagers and the business entrepreneur fort’s inhabitants to working on hybrid develop the fort as a fuel technologies in sustainable historical Vancouver as well site and find out about as being an active part-time archaeologist, who in 1965, as a the ethnography and processes of change and memory among member of the University of London’s imperial College, was the Madi. They also want to find out more about the 1888 a member of a student team that surveyed Dufile and several battle of Dufile where some 2,400 troops from both sides were other nineteenth and early twentieth century forts in northern involved and where the Egyptian and Sudanese troops of Emin Uganda. Dufile was first built by Colonel Charles Gordon in inflicted the first defeat on the Mahdist forces. Using up-to-date 1874 when the Egyptians took control over parts of the Upper metal detectors they will use forensic archaeological methods Nile following Egyptian expansion similar to those pioneered at into the Sudan in the 1830s. An the 1876 battlefield of Little Big Imperial administration was Horn to show both the extent of necessary to control a rampant the battlefield and the nature of “The project is aimed at finding out the armaments. slave trade. Gordon brought more about inter-relations between with him the first four steam A second phase of the research the fi rst Imperialists and the local ships that were wharfed at Dufile will be undertaken from July to population.” to patrol the Albertine Nile with August of 2006 with the help the expectation of establishing a of Professor Christopher Ehret secure line for communication a leading historical linguist in and mails between the Great which the Madi language will be Lakes region of Africa and Egypt. examined with the objective of The largest of the steamers, the Khedive, had to be carried over finding changes that have occurred in the language since its the rapids in the Sudan in over a 1,000 parts and reassembled at first recording more than a century ago. Language loans reflect Dufile. Gordon appointed Dr. Eduard Schnitzer, later known cultural borrowing and Ehret and Posnansky hope to combine as Emin Bey, as Governor of the Equatoria region of the Upper a study of both craft work and language to gauge the nature Nile in 1878. of the interaction, or acculturation, between the Sudanese Equatoria was all that was left in Egyptian control after a soldiery (also known as Nubians) and the local Madi people. fundamentalist Muslim leader declaring himself Mahdi, or In 1891, the rump of Emin’s army was marched down to the Messiah, took over the Sudan between 1881 and 1883. General future Uganda capital area of Kampala to form the core of the Gordon was called back to the Sudan in 1884 to save the Uganda Rifles. The 500 soldiers brought with them nearly
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9,000 family members—the result of marriage links with the Madi. Presently there is a distinct population of over 11,000 Muslim Nubians in the Kampala area speaking a language and practicing crafts that owe much to their service a hundred years before on the Upper Nile. Dufile is on the banks of the Nile an area rich in avian fauna with some of the biggest freshwater fish in the world coming from its waters. Fishermen regularly catch Nile Perch more than 4 ft in length and lung fish weighing more that 50 lbs. Elephants that attracted ivory hunters and slavers a century ago still roam the area. In surface survey Posnansky and his team came across many piles of elephant droppings. In a pool in the river hippos still exist in great numbers and crocodiles growing to over 15 ft in length can be found along the river. The area is the home of the West Nile virus that in Uganda is regarded as a low-grade fever rather than the killer disease it has assumed in the United States. Nevertheless, visitors have to take care and in December the team found that “Buzz-Off” clothing really does keep mosquitoes at bay. Posnansky is no stranger to Uganda having been the curator of the Uganda Museum from 1958 to 1962 and later Director of the African Studies Programme at Makerere University College where he initiated the first archaeological teaching syllabus in

eastern and central Africa. Posnansky and Fitzpatrick made a site visit to Dufile in December 2004 going by small plane and by boat on the Nile. Though the area was closed for over 30 years because of Civil War, it is now peaceful, but 100 mi to the east a war zone still exists where the Lord’s Resistance Army has terrorized the region for over 10 years, abducting children to help serve its army. They found that the 12-acre fort had been little impacted. The 5-m high ramparts and the harbor are still visible as are the footings of various buildings within the fort where several thousand Egyptians, Sudanese and local Madi inhabitants lived and worked. Exploring away from the fort they located several former Madi settlements that will form the basis for exploratory work in the coming season. Part of the funding for the Uganda participation involves the sponsorship by businesses and foreign firms investing in Uganda of $1,000 studentships that help pay for the active participation of a student from one of Uganda’s local universities.
Posnansky is Emeritus Professor of History and Anthropology.

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The Archaeology Program

By Richard Lesure

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Near East including Egypt (Irene Bierman, Giorgio Buccellati, Aaron Burke, Elizabeth Carter, Robert Englund, Willeke Wendrich), East Asia (Jeff Brantingham, Hung-hsiang Chou, Lothar von Falkenhausen), and Andean South America (Christopher Donnan, Charles Stanish). We are also strong in: Viking Europe (Jesse Byock), South Asia (Robert Brown, Monica Smith), California and British Columbia (Jeanne Arnold), Mesoamerica (Cecelia Klein, Richard Lesure), the Paleolithic (Jeff Brantingham, Gail Kennedy, James Sackett), and conservation/material science (Ioanna Kakoulli, Ellen Pearlstein, and David Scott). We regularly attract applications from some of the very top students in the country, particularly in the case of those focusing on the Classical Mediterranean world or ancient China. Admissions are decided by a committee consisting of the Chair of the program and three additional members of the core faculty. Students are admitted at both the M.A. and Ph.D. levels. Students with any undergraduate major may be considered for admissions to the program, although students with little archaeological experience are advised to undertake OVERVIEW OF PROGRAM The Archaeology Program is designed to provide training that coursework or field training before applying. Criteria for is broad in theoretical perspective but which provides a deep admission, in addition to intellectual excellence, include knowledge of the specific areas of study chosen by each student. strong and specific interest in archaeology and interdisciplinary It is small by design (the current student body is 19), aimed at interests that can best be accommodated in our program rather students whose interests cross departmental boundaries (e.g., than in a department. Applicants must submit, among other classics and archaeology; archaeology and paleoethnobotany). items, a detailed plan of study and a research paper, preferably To this end we have designed a curriculum that requires a year- in archaeology or a related field. In order for a student to be long course in archaeological theory, laboratory-based courses admitted, one faculty member must agree to serve as major of the student’s choice, one course in archaeology outside adviser and at least one to serve as committee member. Academic advising is the student’s primary shared by the Chair of region of interest, and the Program and each substantial fieldwork. The student’s major adviser, curriculum, especially in consultation with in comparison to archamembers of the student’s eology tracks in our committee. The technical associated departments, is aspects of each student’s otherwise flexible to allow progress are monitored tailoring to the needs of by the administrative individual students. staff. The committee to The core roster of administer the program faculty includes 22 fullholds a student review at time professors and least once every academic three emeriti. Faculty year, with ad hoc reviews represent a wide range of individual students of interests, in terms as needed. There is also both of geographical an orientation for new area and of theoretical Archaeology graduate students Lyssa Stapleton (left) and Jamie Aprile (right) confer with students at the beginning and methodological their Albanian colleague, Esmeralda Agolli, at the Cotsen Institute’s joint project at the of each academic year. approaches to arch- tumulus of Lofkënd, Albania. The Archaeology aeology. Many faculty have ongoing field projects in which students are trained and Program has an active Graduate Students Association. The from which they develop their own research programs. We are Association sponsors a weekly series of lunch-time “pizza talks” particularly strong in: the Mediterranean world from Bronze by faculty, students, lab directors, and visitors; these are well Age through Byzantine times (Susan Downey, Sharon Gerstel, attended by students, faculty, staff, and members of the Friends Steven Lattimore, Sarah Morris, John Papadopoulos), the of Archaeology support group. Many of the program’s students he Interdepartmental Program (IDP) in Archaeology is exclusively a graduate program. While an MA is offered, we expect all entering graduate students to complete the Ph.D. The program is fundamentally interdisciplinary, currently drawing on faculty from Anthropology, Art History, Classics, East Asian Languages and Cultures, Germanic Languages, History, and Near Eastern Languages and Cultures. The Archaeology Program is unusual in the United States in its inclusion of archaeologists working from a broad variety of perspectives (from humanistic to social scientific) in both Old and New World areas. The Archaeology Program is housed in the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology (an Organized Research Unit or ORU). There is also a second IDP, the newly-created UCLA/Getty Master’s Program in Archaeological and Ethnographic Conservation in the Cotsen Institute. There is extensive overlap in the faculties associated with these two IDP’s and we anticipate a close, synergistic relationship in the immediate future.
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also attend a weekly Friday afternoon seminar sponsored by the Cotsen Institute. The Graduate Student Association has a representative on the Committee to Administer the Program. The student representative participates in all deliberations except those involving evaluations of students. STATEMENT: INTERDISCIPLINARITY IN ARCHAEOLOGY Having considered a variety of possible themes that might constitute a “core identity” of our program, we identify an interdisciplinary approach to archaeology as our central mission. The implications of this statement require some elaboration. Disciplines we regard as traditions of knowledge-production; they have characteristic subject matters but also their own histories. Further, they are internally structured. For instance, it is sometimes useful to distinguish theoretical, analytical, and methodological levels. Some disciplines are defined primarily by characteristic evidence or analytical orientations (for instance, anthropology or art history). In the case of area studies, however, it is subject matter (specifically, language) that provides the basis for defining disciplinary boundaries. Sometimes it is productive to think in terms of constellations of disciplines: the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. Research by our faculty spans all three constellations of disciplines. Specific disciplines represented include Anthropology, Art History, Classics, Conservation, Egyptology, Materials Science, and Near Eastern Archaeology. What unites us is our common interest in archaeology. We do not regard archaeology as itself a discipline. Nor is archaeology purely “method.” Archaeologists from different disciplines share methods, but they also share a general sort of analytical framework. They pose certain sorts of questions about a particular kind of evidence – material remains of the past. Probably due ultimately to the nature of that evidence, certain themes are characteristic of archaeology: it is material, tactile, MISSION

Graduate students and Albanian colleagues excavate a burial at Lofkënd.

performative. These themes manifest themselves in different ways at different levels. Theoretical archaeologists tend to be drawn towards materialism. But archaeologists are also perennially interested in the concrete properties of objects (size, shape, etc.) as well as in how things were made. Fieldwork holds place of particular importance. It is important that our curriculum train students at all these different levels. Archaeology is inherently multidisciplinary since to understand material remains of the past we regularly draw on a variety of disciplines across the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. Our unique mission is to be not just multidisciplinary but interdisciplinary. Interdisciplinarity refers to work that falls between disciplines (or between constellations of disciplines). It is fundamentally creative because it departs from traditions of knowledge-production characteristic of any particular discipline. Once we imagine disciplines themselves as internally structured, the challenges of interdisciplinary work become clear. It needs to be conducted with a sense of the historical context of knowledge in the disciplines that it brings together. Further, it is necessary to consider what it means to be interdisciplinary at different levels of analysis. For instance, interdisciplinarity at a methodological level might involve answering questions characteristic of one discipline by drawing on a new source of evidence or new technique for producing evidence. Interdisciplinarity at an analytical or theoretical level requires the intersection of frameworks of thought that may involve fundamentally distinct kinds of questions or different ways of posing questions. Finally, it is important to bear in mind that interdisciplinary work is a fundamentally social endeavor, involving dialogue between different specialists. Our students should receive training in the multiple disciplines, but they should also receive training in strategies for creative, interdisciplinary work.
Lesure is Associate Professor of Anthropology and Chair of the Interdepartmental Archaeology Program.

Team members of the Tarapaca field project, run by Cotsen Institute faculty, cross the river after a day of excavation in Chile. 34 Backdirt: Annual Review

Archaeology Program Core Seminars Archaeology This class is designed to be a theoretical “boot camp” M201A for entering archaeology graduate students in the Anthropology Department and in the Program in Archaeology. It provides students with foundation in breadth knowledge required of a professional archaeologist. Readings and discussions emphasize an historical perspective on theoretical debates in anthropological archaeology over the last 50 years. Archaeology The course aims at deepening and diversifying the M201B introduction to archaeological method and theory conveyed by Archaeology M201A. This course focuses on interpretive methods for the study of human culture using written as well as archaeological evidence, but it also considers prehistoric and preliterate cultures. By discussing the archaeological correlates or reflections of such categories of human experience as history, religious beliefs and ritual activity, power, the family, and the state, the course examines the similarities and differences between approaches in the social sciences and in the humanities, assuming that many techniques form an independent core of archaeological methods common to all archaeologists regardless of fields, disciplines, and departments. Archaeology The course, Regional Analysis, is a survey of analytical M201C methods used in archaeology to study prehistoric settlement systems. The students look at the techniques of archaeological survey, the practical considerations of mapping and conveying the recovered information, and the implications for understanding of economic, social, political and ideological aspects of human landscape use. The students use basic programs for data analysis and representation including Excel, GrabIt!, and Surfer.

Academic resources for archaeology at UCLA
COTSEN INSTITUTE More than 35 affiliated faculty at UCLA More than 40 Research Associates outside of UCLA Active field programs in 17 countries Over 11 affiliated departments 15 research laboratories, a computer laboratory, a reading room, a seminar room and teaching facilities • Hosts 60 lectures a year and the Cotsen Advanced Seminars • • • • • • • • • • • • LIBRARY & OTHER CAMPUS RESOURCES Eight million books Nearly 150,000 electronic resources 13 libraries Over 15 computer labs for student use COTSEN PUBLICATIONS Publish 5-10 books a year in 7 different series 14-month production time Over 100 publications in catalog

Undergraduates at the Cotsen Institute
You know that the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology houses two Graduate Programs (see pages 24 and 32). You may not know that we also have opportunities for undergraduate involvement. Undergraduate students volunteer on excavation projects, take summer session or travel study courses (see page 20), conduct research through independent study, and assist through informal internships in the laboratories. Contact Julia Sanchez for more information: sanchezj@ucla.edu. Archaeology graduate student Julie Bernard (right) oversees undergraduates from the Department of Anthropology while they assist in the sorting of archaeological materials from the Inland Chumash village Tashlipun in Fall 2005. This quarter, Angela Liu (left), and Ivan Valdez (middle) are applying their new skills and are each working on independent study projects analyzing lithics, and shell beads from the Tashlipun assemblage, respectively.

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ALUMNI HAPPENINGS

Join Alumni Network
Alumni Network is a new organization monitored by the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology that allows fellow graduates to stay connected, learn about job opportunities, and more. When you sign up you will receive a networking list containing the names and e-mail addresses of your fellow alumni in the network so that you can keep in touch with your archaeological community. Other benefits include e-mail notifications about job opportunities as they become available, invitations to special events at the Cotsen Institute, and a 20 percent discount on all full-price CIOA publications. To sign up for Alumni Network send an e-mail to Amber Cordts-Cole at acordts@ucla.edu with your full name and your mailing and e-mail addresses. We will not share any information with anyone outside of the Cotsen Institute. We look forward to hearing from you.

Name that place

This photograph was taken somewhere in the Cotsen Institute. Do you recognize what it is? Be the first to tell us and receive a Cotsen Institute T-shirt for free. Contact Shauna Mecartea at (310) 825-7411 or via e-mail at ioapubs@ucla.edu.

Alumni Placings
Listed below are just a few distinguished alumni from the Cotsen Institute:
Massoud Azarnoush ’87 Iranian Center for Archaeological Research Director Gwen P. Bennett ’03 Washington University in St. Louis Department of Art History & Archaeology Brendan R. Burke ’98 University of Victoria, British Colombia, Canada Greek & Roman Studies Roger Colten ’93 Yale University Peabody Museum of Natural History Collections Manager Pochan Chen ’04 National Taipei University Department of Anthropology Terrence D’Altroy ’81 Columbia University Department of Anthropology 36
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Elizabeth DeMarrais ’97 University of Cambridge, England Department of Archaeology Cigdem Eissenstat ’98 Middle Eastern Technical University, Turkey Archaeology Museum Rowan Flad ’04 Harvard University Department of Anthropology George Gumerman IV ’91 Northern Arizona University Department of Anthropology Minna Haapanen ’05 University of Helsinki, Finland Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies Christine Hastorf ’83 University of California, Berkeley Department of Anthropology

Lisa Lucero ’94 New Mexico State University Department of Sociology & Anthropology Bradley Parker ’98 University of Utah Department of History Robert Preucel ’88 University of Pennsylvania Department of Anthropology Stuart T. Smith ’93 University of California, Santa Barbara Department of Anthropology John Verano ’87 Tulane University Department of Anthropology Laurie Wilkie ’94 University of California, Berkeley Department of Anthropology

INSTITUTE NEWS

Long-time Student Affairs Officer steps down
By Julia L.J. Sanchez

On December 1, 2005, Helle Girey retired from her position at the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology. Helle has been involved with the Cotsen Institute for 23 years, with the Public Lecture program since 1982 and as Student Affairs Officer for the Archaeology Graduate Program. Helle has seen the Cotsen Institute through many changes, and one of her favorite phrases to reassure people in times of change is, “No one is irreplaceable; it will be fine.” We are pleased that we won’t have to test Helle’s theory on herself, as she will continue to be involved with the Public Lecture program. Former Cotsen Institute Directors and Archaeology Program Chairs reminisce about working with Helle: Merrick Posnansky (Cotsen Institute Director 1984-1987, Archaeology Program Chair) Helle, with whom I was proud to have worked actively with for over three years on Public Programs, was in many ways the most informed archaeologist that I knew as she had heard so many speakers, attended many conference and visited sites in the field in three continents. Archaeologists who visited UCLA remembered Helle for her expertise, good judgements, encyclopedic knowledge, enthusiasm and abilities to make any occasion a real success. Elizabeth Carter (Archaeology Program Chair 1994-1997) Working with Helle was always pleasant. She guided my actions through complex administrative procedures with good grace and yellow stickies. She did not let me postpone or prevaricate, but gently and politely led me down the right path in time and under budget. I benefited from her ability to communicate the student point of view with accuracy and compassion. There is no doubt that we will all miss her. Timothy Earle (Cotsen Institute Director 1987-1991) Successful organizations are often less about structures than they are about people. Helle created the Institute’s public programs through her cult of personality, cordially inviting and hosting each guest lecturer and welcoming in faculty, students, and Friends. Then she went on to do the same sort of thing for the Graduate Program in Archaeology. Students quickly felt that they had entered a family, in which the caring Helle

encouraged their academic development. During my time at the Institute, Helle did more to give it a human face and an effectiveness than all the rest of us combined. Richard Leventhal (Cotsen Institute Director 1991-2001) I have always thought that Helle was very much the heart of the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology: she loves archaeology, has gone on excavations around the world, works directly with students and truly wants to help them in the development of their careers, has been a critical player in the Friends of Archaeology, is the public face of much of the Institute through her lecture and public programs, and, most importantly, holds the institutional memory. Richard Lesure (Current Archaeology Program Chair) Helle knows everything! When a student comes in to ask me questions, we both routinely end up in Helle’s office asking her instead! Charles Stanish (Cotsen Institute Director 2001present) Helle was, is, and will be an invaluable member of the Cotsen. There are few irreplaceable people in this world, and Helle is one of them.
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Cotsen Visiting Scholar: Lord Colin Renfrew
2005-2006
This year the Cotsen Institute has the immense pleasure to host Lord Colin Renfrew, Disney Professor of Archaeology and Director of the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, as our Cotsen Visiting Scholar. As a scholar interested in theory of archaeology, European prehistory (especially the Aegean), archaeological science (with particular interest in DNA and molecular genetics), Renfrew has held various academic positions in his archaeological career. From 1965 to 1972 Renfrew was Lecturer and Reader at the University of Sheffield in the Prehistory and Archaeology Department. And from 1972 to 1981, he was Professor of Archaeology at the University of Southampton. During his stay, Renfrew will be will be team-teaching a course (Anthropology 118/285P) with Richard Lesure, Associate Professor of Anthropology and Chair of the Archaeology Program, with the lectures open to the public on Fridays from 3:30-5:00 p.m. in the Lenart Auditorium. Lesure, the professor of record, will give introductory lectures for students enrolled in the class from 2-3 p.m. each week. Specific dates are listed below with the lecture titles to the left.

Lord Colin Renfrew outside of the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology.

Cotsen Advanced Seminars in March and May 2006
The 6th Cotsen Advanced Seminar will take place March 23, 2006. The seminar, entitled “Ritual Economy: Untethered by Space, Time, or Economic Form,” will be organized by E. Christian Wells (University of South Florida) and Patricia A. McAnany (Boston University). Other participants include E. Paul Durrenberger (Pennsylvania State University), Rhonda H. Halperin (Montclair University), Susan M. Kus (Rhodes College), John D. Monaghan (University of IllinoisChicago), Jeremy A. Sabloff (University of Pennsylvania), Alan Sandstrom (Indiana-Purdue University-Fort Wayne), Katherine A. Spielmann (Arizona State University), and Richard Wilk (Indiana University). On May 19-21, the Cotsen Institute will host the 7th Cotsen Advanced Seminar, “Tiwanaku”, co-organized by Alexei Vranich of the University of Pennsylvania, and Charles Stanish, Director of the Cotsen Institute.

Colin Renfrew Lecture Schedule 1. Becoming human/ becoming modern: introduction to cognitive archaeology. January 13

2. The radiocarbon revolution and January 20 European prehistory. 3. Sitagroi and the origins of European metallurgy. 4. Art (contemporary) for archaeology (prehistoric). 5. The Indo-European problem: archaeology and language. 6. Explaining world linguistic diversity: the role of archaeology and molecular genetics. 7. Destroying the world’s cultural heritage: the traffic in illicit antiquities. 8. Cognitive archaeology and the archaeology of cult. January 27 February 3 February 24 March 3

March 10

March 17

All lectures are free and open to the public. Please use Parking Lot 4 (Sunset and Westwood). Parking is $8. For more information visit us on the Web at www.ioa.ucla.edu. To be informed about all Cotsen Institute events sign up for our events listserv by sending your name and e-mail address to ioaweb@ioa. ucla.edu. or call (310) 206-8934.

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Cotsen Archaeological Book Prize: Imprinting the past in honor of Jo Anne Stolaroff Cotsen
By Lloyd E. Cotsen
Back when archaeology at UCLA was struggling for support, Ernestine Elster, Research Associate and Director of the Mediterrean Laboratory, had an idea – award a prize to the outstanding book on archaeology that was being published by the Cotsen Institute. Thus was born the Cotsen Archaeological Book Prize – in memory of my late wife Jo Anne Stolaroff Cotsen. I might say that back at that time, I wondered whether there would be enough writers to keep the prize sustained over the many years. However, never underestimate those who chronicle the past. Every few years, another book leaps out of the minds of the gifted faculty, and jumps high enough to get our attention, and the prize. If memory serves me correctly, the first award went to Professor Jack The Jo Anne Stolaroff Cotsen Prize imprint that graces the covers of the Cotsen Institute Davis and John Cherry for books that receive the Cotsen Archaeological Landscape Archaeology as Book Prize.The most recent recipient is John Long-Term History: Northern K. Papadopoulos for The Early Iron Age Keos in the Cycladic Islands. Cemetery at Torone. Although they were not UCLA faculty at the time, they were colleagues and supporters of ours, dating back (it seems) to the early Bronze-age years. What I like about the award is that it renews ties with the old – not just archaeologically, but through the camaraderie among those bound together by a shared passion. As the shelf expands, so do the relationships, and I hope they continue to do so, because more than just the compilation of facts or records is the memory of friends and scholars who stimulate our thirst for knowledge of the past. Archaeology is more than just publish or perish, it is publish and savor the memories. And our hope is to establish a paper trail that celebrates this accomplishment.
For more information on the recent work that received the Jo Anne Stolaroff Cotsen Prize Imprint go to our Between the Lines section that features The Early Iron Age Cemetery at Torone on page 40. Former President and CEO of Neutrogena Corporation, Cotsen has been associated with UCLA for more than 30 years as a volunteer and donor and maintains a special interest in archaeology. Cotsen has been an advisor and supporter of the institute since 1980.
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BETWEEN THE LINES

Publishing “The Early Iron Age Cemetery at Torone”
By John K. Papadopoulos
Back in 1979, the first year I took part in the Australian excavations at Torone as an undergraduate student, the bus, once it had left behind the eastern sprawl of Thessalonike, made its way through a land of mounds (toumbes in Greek): this was textbook Prehistoric Macedonia, the land of Walter Heurtley, who in 1939 published a seminal account of Macedonia in prehistory. Indeed, a number of mounds, particularly those around modern Ormylia (Classical Sermylia), looked exactly the same as they were illustrated in Heurtley. To an undergraduate student, this was a revelation of the highest magnitude! Here was rich, fertile farming land, of a sort rare in modern Greece. After about three hours on one of the oldest of the fleet of KTEL buses, it finally turned right onto the peninsula of Sithonia. The landscape changed dramatically. The broad plains gave way to a hilly, rugged central spine of mountains, with numerous promontories and coves jutting out into the sea and some of the finest beaches anywhere in the Mediterranean. The land of mounds was left behind; this was no longer Macedonia but Chalkidike, a three-fingered promontory dominating the north Aegean. It was a landscape that was to become imprinted on my mind, and for the following 17 years I took part on the excavations at Torone, first as a student “dog’s body” (an Australian term for somebody who does all the grunt work), to trench supervisor, deputy director, and field director. The excavations were first initiated by my alma mater, the University of Sydney (which also happened to be V. Gordon Childe’s alma mater), under the direction of my “Doktorvater,” Alexander Cambitoglou. The Early Iron Age cemetery was first uncovered, after a project of trial trenches over various parts of the Classical city of Torone, in 1981, by which time I was a graduate student working on my Master’s thesis on Roman pottery in the eastern Mediterranean. Already by 1975, the basic line of the ancient fortification walls of Torone had been traced through the determined efforts of a team of local workmen and Australian
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archaeologists hacking with machetes through over four kilometers of dense undergrowth. With the fortification walls uncovered, we were in a position to begin testing the nature of settlement in various parts of the ancient city. Referred to by several ancient authors, not least of which was the fifth-century BC Athenian historian Thucydides, and also appearing prominently in a number of inscriptions, the city of Torone, it was clear, was one of the largest and wealthiest cities of the Chalkidike. Early on in the 1981 season, it was decided to lay out two long and narrow trial trenches across the largest and most prominent of the terraces of the Classical city, Terraces IV and V. On Terrace IV, we soon uncovered a cemetery of the Late Roman period (fourth-sixth centuries AD) overlying very well preserved domestic architecture of the Classical period (fifthfourth centuries BC). On the higher Terrace V, the removal of a few centimeters of topsoil brought to light the poorly preserved foundations of houses of the Classical period as well as tombs – both inhumations and cremations – dug into bedrock below the houses. On the basis of the small finds deposited in the tombs, the cemetery appeared to date to the very earliest phase of the Greek Early Iron Age (ca. 1200-850 BC). These discoveries warranted further investigation, and excavations on both terraces were greatly expanded in the course of the season. Little did I know in 1981 that the Early Iron Age cemetery at Torone, which was excavated over a course of three seasons (1981, 1982 and 1984) and yielded 134 tombs, including 118 cremations, was to become the subject of my doctoral dissertation. Having completed my MA in 1982, I set to work on my Ph.D., striking while the iron was hot, so to speak. I had funding for five years and fortunately, we were able to clear the cemetery virtually in its entirety by the conclusion of 1984. I say “virtually” because I can bet that there still might be an early burial under a privately owned pear tree that happened to be on top of the cemetery, and which the local landowner refused us permission

to destroy. So, there it was: An entire cemetery mine to study and to publish. In my naivety I thought that this was real neat, and although I filed my dissertation by February 1987, little did I know that it would take me almost 20 years to publish. By 1987, Jonathan Musgrave, my closest collaborator on the Early Iron Age cemetery, had only completed a summary draft of his report on the physical anthropology of the deceased. With 134 burials, several yielding multiple individuals, the task of studying the human skeletal remains was time-consuming and this was exacerbated by the fact that the majority of tombs were cremations, a little-studied genre of mortuary practices in the Mediterranean at that time. In 1988 I initiated, with Richard Jones, then Director of the Fitch Laboratory at the British School of Archaeology at Athens, and Ian Whitbread, then at MIT, an ambitious joint chemical and petrographic analysis of the pottery, one of the most comprehensive of its type carried out in Greece. At the same time, we completed, back at the Torone excavation base, the water-sieving of all the deposits associated with cremation tombs that contained the remnants of the funerary pyres. During the excavation seasons of 1981, 1982, and 1984, we did not have enough time to watersieve all of these deposits and sort through the copious residue. Moreover, it was only in the late 1980s that Professor Sandor Bökönyi of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences – a scholar who had earlier revolutionized the study of the Greek Neolithic with his systematic research on animal husbandry – took on the study of the faunal remains, while in the early 1990s Deborah Ruscillo joined the Torone team in order to study the seashell material and fish remains from the site. It was through the good services of Sandor Bökönyi that Ferenc Gyualai was able to study the floral remains in Budapest (I also invited some years later Kristina Kelertas, then a graduate student at UCLA, to pen an introduction on the plant remains from the tombs). The contributions of all these scholars and friends have made the publication of The Early Iron Age Cemetery at Torone not only so much more complete and scientific, but so much more fun, and to all of them I extend, once more, my thanks. By the end of 1995 I had, more or less, all of the final reports of my collaborators in hand. Yet it was to take a decade for the volume to see the published light of day. This was largely the result of my own reticence rather than sloth. By 1995 my mind was elsewhere, and I was working on all sorts of other exciting projects and publications. The thought of having to return to the subject of my doctoral dissertation and updating it for publication in the light of the final reports of my collaborators and in the light of all the new and cutting-edge books and articles that had been published on mortuary analysis was something I just did not want to do! As a consequence, The Early Iron Age Cemetery at Torone languished on the backburner, and it was not

until January 2002, when I joined the faculty at UCLA, moved into my new space in the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, and enjoyed my first ever research leave, that I turned – finally – to the subject of the cemetery and its publication. My deadline was September 2002, since that was when I was to start teaching. And in a fit of manic energy I had finished the manuscript for the book by the spring, shortly before going to Greece (I stupidly thought I was done). It was a hefty tome and I still remember the look on Julia Sanchez’s (Director of Publications) face when she saw and realized just how big this volume was. The readers’ reports were finally in by November and December 2002, and by early 2003 I submitted the extrafinal version, which took on board the readers’ comments. The daunting task of copy-editing a manuscript well over 1,000 pages began late in 2003 and was completed in 2004, just in time for me to take the twenty-pound copy-edited manuscript to Greece for proofreading. Once more I just did not want to do this! I was in Greece and I wanted to work on other stuff, but I persevered and in the end the process of proofreading both the copy-edited manuscript by Catherine Chambers and the page proofs that Carol Leyba had prepared so meticulously took somewhere in the vicinity of three months. Fortunately, I was on sabbatical. Finally, a few days before my birthday in late August – which I spent where else but Torone – I received an email from Carol Leyba and another from Julia Sanchez and Shauna Mecartea (Publications Assistant) that the final corrected volume was transmitted to the printer: I cannot recall enjoying Torone more than the four days I spent there at the very end of August this past summer. Without the hard work of Julia, Shauna, Carol, and Catherine, as well as the support of Charles Stanish (Cotsen Institute Director), publishing The Early Iron Age Cemetery at Torone may well have taken another decade. But I would like to end this account by spiraling back to that summer of 1981 and the halcyon days of graduate student life. Like so many of us working on the cemetery in 1981, I thought – and I still think – that the Early Iron Age cemetery was one of coolest things I had ever excavated (my previous excavation experience was on Australian Aboriginal shell middens, cave shelters, and rock platform sites). It was therefore heartening, many years later in 2004, to hear a UCLA archaeology graduate student, Jamie Aprile, declare, quite independently, a similar sentiment – “this is the coolest thing I’ve ever dug” – in reference to her first infant burial during the excavations of the Early Iron Age burial tumulus at Lofkënd in Albania. Let’s see how long it will take us to publish the Lofkënd cemetery…
Papadopoulos’ The Early Iron Age Cemetery at Torone (two-volume set) is available now. Please contact our distributor, David Brown Book Company, at (800) 791-9354 or www.oxbowbooks.com.
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Producing “Chinese Society in the Age of Confucius”
By Lothar von Falkenhausen
The Late Bronze Age was the crucial formative period of classical Chinese civilization. Starting in the middle of the eleventh century BC with the foundation of the Zhou dynasty in ca. 1046 BC, and ending shortly before the foundation of China’s first unified empire in 221 BC, this period encompasses the lifetime of the most influential early thinkers of the Chinese tradition, foremost of them, of course, Confucius (ca. 551-479 BC). The intellectual and political history of this epoch has the excavated evidence with the transmitted historical texts. Focusing on the structure of Zhou society and its changes over time, this new book — the culmination of almost two decades of research — attempts to fill this gap while also building bridges to the existing scholarly literature. It adopts a perspective that is explicitly and self-consciously archaeological and yet at the same time interdisciplinary. Although mostly devoted to the analysis of sites and artifacts, it also refers to pertinent inscriptions and transmitted texts, and it aims to establish a comprehensive frame of analysis in which diverse kinds of materials can be accommodated. The book is based on the most up-to-date archaeological discoveries. It introduces new data, as well as new ways to think about them — modes of analysis that, while familiar to archaeological practitioners in the West and in Japan, are here tried out on evidence from the Chinese Bronze Age for the first time. The treatment of social stratification, clan and lineage organization, as well as gender and ethnic differences will be of interest to those interested in the general or comparative analysis of grand themes in the Social Sciences. Most immediately, however, the book is targeted at two kinds of readers: those interested in archaeology — including general readers who might have seen some of the many successful exhibitions of Chinese archaeological relics during recent years, or who might have visited archaeological sites in China as tourists — and those who are interested in classical Chinese civilization and wish to explore its material and social background. While the book does not attempt to present a systematic descriptive treatment of Late Bronze Age archaeology in China, the most important sites are all covered or at least mentioned, and they are visually represented by a moderate number of newly formatted illustrations. While not compromising the considerable complexities of the subject, every attempt has been made to produce a text that is accessible to non-Sinologists and unencumbered by heavy annotation. The book should therefore be suitable as basic introductory reading and, if appropriately complemented by other readings, for university-level classroom teaching. SUMMARY The book contains an introduction, nine chapters forming three groups of three, and a conclusion. The Introduction explains the approach of the book: Addressing issues relevant to social analysis through archaeological case studies; and it points out the advantages and limitations of this exclusively material-

Set of bronze vessels from Tomb no. 2001 at Shangcunling, Sanmenxia (Henan). Probably early to mid eighth century BC. Typical example of a status-defining set seen in the tomb of a ruler during this period.

been amply explored through various texts that have been transmitted from this period or were written down during the two centuries or so after it had ended. Conversely, a treatment that makes full use of the relevant archaeological finds recovered over the past half-century to put the intellectual breakthroughs of Late Bronze Age China into their proper cultural context does not exist. This is due, no doubt, to the complexity and richness of the excavated materials accumulated in some seven decades of fieldwork, and to the difficulty of correlating
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culture focused approach. It customs, which determine previews the succeeding chapters how the funerary record is and presents some initial archaeologically constituted. discussion of the Zhou dynasty There follows a discussion and and its historiography. comparison of three rulers’ Part One (Chapters 1-3) cemeteries from the tenth to focuses on the Zhou lineage seventh centuries BC: The Yu and its internal organization. It cemetery in Baoji CShaanxi), introduces the sumptuary rules the Jin cemetery at Tianmathat were introduced during -Qucun in Quwo county, the Late Western Zhou period, Shanxi province), and the Guo and which, from the mid-ninth cemetery at Shangcunling, in century BC onward, became Sanmenxia (Henan province). a unifying standard of social These three cemeteries differentiation that was applied exemplify different ways of in élite ritual practice throughout expressing social distinctions the Zhou culture sphere in spite of within a lineage through the a lack of political centralization. cemetery layout; moreover, the To begin this discussion, assemblages of funerary goods Chapter 1 discusses a major found in the tombs allow one to reform of Zhou social institutions trace the genesis and adoption that occurred, or was completed, of the sumptuary distinctions around 850 BC. The ritual that were promulgated order that was to serve as a through the Ritual Reform basis of reference to Confucius Selected bronze vessels from the tomb of a ruler of Zheng at Lijialou, discussed in Chapter 1. The Xinzheng (Henan). Ca. 575 BC. The vessel-types shown were shared by (traditionally, but wrongly, overall impression is one of ascribed to the Zhou founders) all members of the ranked élite during this period, including both rulers considerable inequality of and ordinary aristocrats. took shape at that time; so, status within each lineage. apparently, did the system of Certain differences between lineage organization documented in later texts, which is the three cemeteries suggest flexibility in how the ritual rules characterized by emphasis on primogeniture and lineage fission were applied in detail, possibly highlighting the importance of after five generations. Even though this reform goes virtually local customs or family-specific rules. At all cemeteries, females unmentioned in the historical record, is clearly reflected in were provided with vessel assemblages of lesser complexity and archaeological finds, where it can be traced through changes in richness than those seen in tombs of males. the assemblage and style of ritual vessels. This chapter focuses Chapter 3 presents data from the only cemetery from the on the Plain of Zhou (the ritual center of the Western Zhou Chinese Bronze Age to have been excavated in its entirety: kingdom), and more specifically Shangma, in Houma city on the hoard of 103 bronzes from (Shanxi province), with 1387 Zhuangbai (in Fufeng county, tombs dating from the eighth “The book introduces new data, as Shaanxi province), which contains through the mid-fifth centuries objects from before and after the well as new ways to think about them BC. The data are sufficient to reform, bearing inscriptions that — modes of analysis that, while famil- reconstruct the demographic refer to successive heads of the iar to archaeological practitioners in structure and development of the Wei lineage that allow important the West and in Japan, are here tried local community to which the inferences as to the internal cemetery belonged. Once again, out on evidence from the Chinese organization of that lineage. The the evidence for social inequality Bronze Age for the fi rst time.” coordination of genealogical within the lineage is very strong. and stylistic data allows for a The funerary assemblages reflect relatively precise dating of the the sumptuary rules mentioned Ritual Reform. The chapter also earlier, albeit at a lower level discusses the value of bronze inscriptions as historical and of consumption than at the two cemeteries discussed in the archaeological evidence. preceding chapter. Juxtaposing the assemblage data with other Chapter 2 begins with a discussion of cemeteries as a source indicators of status and privilege — in particular, burial furniture of data for the archaeological reconstruction of society. It — one realizes that only a select number of those members of stresses the importance of first understanding a society’s burial the community who (theoretically) might have belonged to
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high-ranking segments of the lineage were in fact buried with (in Baoji, Shaanxi province), a tomb in Qin territory with the trappings of their rank. Among various possible reasons exceptionally rich but completely different burial goods, which for this, one may be deliberate parsimony as a manifestation very probably was the resting place of a high-ranking member of ritual virtue. of a non-Zhou group living in Qin territory. The early Qin Part Two (Chapters 4-6) shifts the site at Maojiaping (in Gangu, Gansu focus from lineages to observable province), which features materials differences between social units at that seem to reflect two different the clan and ethnic-group levels. The cultures, is discussed in order to shed archaeological data presented suggest light on the long-discussed question a relatively high degree of social of whether the Qin ruling group was cohesion within the Zhou culture itself non-Zhou in origin. Although sphere, occurring in tandem with archaeology cannot, as a matter of increasing differentiation from the principle, deliver a definitive decision outside. on such an issue, the Maojiaping Chapter 4 discusses alleged finds do seem to exemplify the various archaeological indicators for the ethnic elements that shaped the Qin cohabitation of distinct clan groups ruling group during its formative at various Zhou political centers in phase. the time after the Zhou conquest Chapter 6 continues the discussion of the preceding Shang dynasty (ca. of ethnic differences by contrasting 1500-1046 BC). At the center of this archaeological remains from polities discussion are aristocratic cemeteries allied with the Zhou royal house at the Zhou Eastern Capital of from those outside the Zhou political Luoyang (Henan province) and at structure. Cases under consideration Confucius’s hometown of Qufu include the “Eastern Barbarians” (Shandong province). At both places, and the kingdoms of Wu and Yue archaeologists have alleged that Shang on China’s East Coast, as well as the survivors of the Zi clan continued to northern kingdom of Zhongshan Main bronze-vessel types of the Late Springs and Autumns live as separate social groups alongside along the northern frontier of the period “Special Assemblage,” from Tomb no. 1 at Xiasi, with descendants of the Zhou invadors Xichuan (Henan). Ca. 550 BC. These types of bronzes Zhou culture sphere; all of these of the Ji clan. Even though it is found were restricted to the ruling stratum of the aristocracy became culturally amalgamated with that most of the material-culture during this period. the Zhou over time. The challenge elements that have been adduced to here consists in establishing a distinguish these two alleged groups in the funerary record are consistent scale for measuring cultural difference and its gradual problematic and may be explained in other ways, some of the decrease over time. Finds from the Chu kingdom in the Middle observed differences may still reflect a diversity of clan-based Yangzi area--a polity of complex ethnic composition, like Qin ritual traditions in the easterly (formerly Shang) parts of China discussed in the previous chapter — provide a useful standard during Zhou times. Comprehensive scrutiny of the material of adherence to Zhou principles of social organization, to leads one to suspect that differences between the Shang and which the evidence from surrounding areas can be compared. Zhou were small to begin with, and grew even smaller over The spread of “Chu Culture” into formerly non-Zhou border time. regions during the Warring States period (ca. 450-221 BC) can Easier to pinpoint through archaeological materials than be interpreted as reflecting the expansion of generalized Zhouinter-clan differences are differences between ethnic groups. As type social organization. one instance of this, Chapter 5 begins by discussing a cemetery Part Three (Chapters 7-9) traces social change in the at one of the pre-771 BC Zhou capitals near Xi’an (Shaanxi), archaeological record, mostly through mortuary data. It shows where typical Zhou aristocrats’ tombs of vertical-pit shape how the structure of society within the Zhou culture sphere was appear together with a small number of catacomb tombs (with thoroughly transformed during the final centuries of the Late cave-like chambers abutting a vertical shaft. The latter tomb Bronze Age. type has its nearest parallels in northwesterly regions hundreds Chapter 7 shows how, between ca. 700 and 250 BC, the of kilometers away. Shifting to the time after 771 BC, most nature of the aristocratic ancestor worship changed, and the of the chapter focuses on the polity of Qin, which occupied ancestral spirits, formerly welcome supernatural helpers of the northwestern corner of the Zhou cultural sphere, which the living, changed into potential evildoers who had to be throughout the Bronze Age had a multiethnic population. locked away in their tombs. This development represents the Ordinary Qin aristocratic cemeteries with their Zhou-type collapse of the Zhou aristocratic order in the religious realm. A ritual assemblages are contrasted to tomb no. 2 at Yimencun comparison of pre- and post-771 BC bronze inscriptions shows
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how the focus of ritual was shifted from the ancestors to the living community, and how ritual lost its supernatural point of reference. Various features of Eastern Zhou tombs and their contents reflect changes in the conceptualization of the tomb from a locus of ritual to a subterranean model of the cosmos. These developments are undoubtedly interlinked with the rise of philosophical thinking in China during roughly the same period. The rise of new rituals for newly diversified groups within the aristocratic hierarchy is discussed Chapter 8, which begins by focusing on a dozen or so of some of the most high-ranking tombs from the post771 BC period. On the one hand, Necropolis of a Warring States period ruler of Qi near Linzi (Shandong). Fourth or early third century BC. these tombs all show a continuing adherence to Zhou sumptuary standards; on the other, their gigantic scale show new ways of The Conclusion reviews the findings from the preceding highlighting their occupants’ power and ambitions. Moreover, chapters and points out significant aspects where archaeological this book points out for the first time that from approximately finds have provided novel evidence unavailable from the 600 BC onward, such tombs contain heterogeneous vessel consideration of other kinds of data. In particular, the new assemblages testifying to their occupants’ participation in two evidence enables a complete reevaluation of the role of the different kinds of ritual: one directly derived from Late Western Zhou founders and the early Confucian school as creators and Zhou practices and shared with other high-ranking aristocrats transformers, respectively, of the ritual standards transmitted across the Zhou culture sphere, and the other specific to each to later epochs. Not only do these standards not go back to the local area and shared with the lower-ranking aristocrats there. time of the foundation of the Zhou dynasty, but changes in This subdivision of the elite into two distinct strata, with its ritual that resonate with the alleged “Confucian” innovations significant ritual consequences, reflects the ever more exalted in ritual thought can in fact be traced to a time at least one social position of Eastern Zhou rulers. generation before Confucius; the Confucian school, in other Chapter 9 continues the scrutiny of cemetery evidence, but words, merely latched onto developments that were already focuses on the lower ranks of the elite as documented at Chu ongoing. cemeteries. In the area around the Chu capital, a stratum of Additionally, the chapter treats various aspects of Zhou people intermediary between the aristocracy and the commoner social history on which neither archaeological nor textual data class flourished from about the mid-sixth century BC onward; currently provide sufficient information, such as demography, their assemblages seem to indicate a philosophical rather settlement, territorial expansion and control, warfare, and than participatory preoccupation with earlier Zhou ritual. economic organization. Non-elite strata in Zhou society elite Between ca. 450 BC and the Qin unification of China in 221 agriculturalists, soldiers, merchants, and artisans, to name BC, the contrast between the lowest ranks of the aristocracy only a few – remain virtually undocumented. Generating and the commoner ranks became completely blurred, and archaeological data allowing a clearer understanding of their cheap ceramic imitations of the ritual vessel assemblages role, complementing the new view of the Zhou elite conveyed that had formerly been exclusive to ranked members of the in this book, should be a main priority in further research. aristocracy now spread to almost all documented strata of the The author privately hopes that some of this research will be population. While rulers and their entourage continued to undertaken under Cotsen Institute auspices. enjoy special prerogatives, sumptuary privileges became wellnigh meaningless for the lower strata of the population, which appear to have been socially homogenized — not in the sense Von Falkenhausen is Professor of Art History. His book will be that they all became equal, but in the sense that material wealth available Summer 2006. To order please contact David Brown Book now replaced hereditary privilege as the dominant criterion of Company at (800) 791-9354 or www.oxbowbooks.com. status.
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FACULTY PROFILES

Aaron A. Burke
Assistant Professor of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures (Archaeology of Ancient Israel and Early Judaism)
Burke started as a faculty member in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures in July 2005. His research interests are centered on the Levant, the region Aaron A. Burke in the field, 2005. consisting of Israel, the Palestinian territories, Jordan, Lebanon, western Syria, and the Hatay in Turkey. Since 1997 he has served as a staff member on archaeological expeditions to Israel, Egypt, and Turkey. He is currently conducting research on the study of the archaeology of warfare as a means of accessing the development of political complexity within Bronze and Iron Age polities in the Levant. As part of this research he has undertaken a comprehensive study of Bronze Age fortification systems, ca. 3000–1550 BC, within this region. His work has revealed the gradual evolution of the practice of warfare during this period and has also identified several Amorite kingdoms in the Levant during the Middle Bronze Age.

Burke conserving the floor of a Middle Bronze Age patrician villa at Tel Kabri in Israel, 2005.

T

HE REMAINS OF THE

MIDDLE BRONZE AGE MUDBRICK GATE WITH PLASTER AT TEL ASHKELON IN ISRAEL; THIS GATE IS AMONG THE BRONZE AGE FORTIFICATION SYSTEMS THAT BURKE HAS RESEARCHED.
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Susan B. Downey
Professor of Art History

Susan B. Downey, Professor of Art History, has largely finished her fieldwork on the Temple of Zeus Megistos at DuraEuropos (Syria) and is working on the final publication. She has also written articles for scholarly publications (“Zeus the Greatest in Syria”, for Parthica 2004) and a review of a major exhibition on the important Nabatean/Roman city of Petra is in press for the American Journal of Archaeology.

Ioanna Kakoulli
Assistant Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and Conservation
Detail of the painted decoration of the marble throne in the Tomb of Eurydice Sirra, circa 340 BC, Macedonia, Greece.

Kakoulli, a member of the UCLA/Getty Conservation Program, is a specialist in diagnostic technologies for the study and conservation of archaeological materials. Her current research interests focus on technology of manufacture and alteration processes of ancient pigments and the study of artifacts using non-invasive methods of examination and analysis exploring the potentials of spectral imaging technologies. In addition to research in ancient materials and technologies, she has also conducted research in the conservation science of porous materials. Prior to joining UCLA faculty, Kakoulli was the Director and Senior Application Specialist at Forth-Photonics, specializing in Artwork Diagnostic Technologies and was a Senior Conservation Scientist at the Malta Centre for Restoration. Awards •Mediterranean Archaeological Trust: April 2003. Publication Grant to complete the publication of her book on Greek Painting Techniques and Materials: 4th – 1st century BC. Forthcoming publication. Archetype publishers, London and the A.G. Leventis Foundation. •A.G. Leventis Foundation: Special Research Award. •A.G. Leventis Foundation: Educational Award for Research at High Academic Level. •British School at Athens. Research Award to complete research on Hellenistic Wall Paintings at Delos, Greece.

Examination of Coptic wall paintings using hyperspectral imaging systems. Red Monastery, Upper Egypt.

Photomicrograph of Hellenistic Egyptian blue pigment from Delos, Greece.

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Cecilia Klein
Professor of Art History
Cecelia Klein is currently on leave after stepping down as chair of the Art History Department. She has completed an article, to be published in a festschrift honoring the historian Richard Trexler, on the ambiguous gender of the Aztec youth annually selected to impersonate - and then be sacrificed to - the god Tezcatlipoca during the month of Toxcatl. She will give two talks on the subject in November, one at the University of Arizona and the other at a conference on Tezcatlipoca in London. A book of collected writings - some of which are new - on the symbolism of body parts in Aztec art is in preparation.

Richard Lesure
Associate Professor of Anthropology and Chair of the Archaeology Program

W

E ARE NOW IN ANALYSIS

MODE, DEALING WITH TONS OF ARTIFACTS RECOVERED IN EXCAVATIONS AT FOUR FORMATIVE VILLAGES WITH OCCUPATIONS SPANNING A MILLENNIUM FROM

900 BC THROUGH AD 100.

The NSF-funded Apizaco Formative Project, directed by Lesure, completed its fourth season of fieldwork in the summer of 2004. We are now in analysis mode, dealing with tons of artifacts recovered in excavations at four Formative villages with occupations spanning a millennium from 900 BC through AD 100. Analyses of ceramics, stone tools, animal bones, carbonized plant remains, incense burners, figurines, and masks have been designed to explore changes in social organization in our area during that time. The inhabitants of the Apizaco region were just outside the main centers of political innovation in Central Mexico – innovation that led to a dramatic urban synthesis at the site of Teotihuacan near Mexico City – and yet in close contact with those centers. In our work, we ask whether there is any evidence in Apizaco of socioeconomic changes of a sort that anticipated state formation. Did kin-ordered social and economic structures characteristic of pre-state systems in the area continue fundamentally unchanged until the overt effects of Teotihuacan hegemony after AD 100, or, instead, were the inhabitants of Apizaco already making a transition towards a rural peasantry in the last few centuries of the Formative period?

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Sarah P. Morris
Steinmetz Professor of Classical Archaeology and Material Culture
Sarah P. Morris spent the academic year of 2004-2005 as an NEH Fellow at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens in Greece. Her primary research project was preparing for final publication a study of the prehistoric (Bronze Age) pottery from Torone, Greece, excavated between 1986 and 1990 by the Australian Archaeological Institute at Athens. This assemblage spans two millennia (from 3000 to 1000 BCE) and shows the site to have been a major emporion (trading post) throughout the Bronze Age, linked to a network of sites involved in the exploitation and distribution of mineral sources. For example, early Mycenaean pottery from southern Greece Early Mycenaean pottery from Torone points to interest in northern Greek silver sources during Sarah Morris on a tower of city wall at Troizen, Greece. the period of the Shaft Graves at Mycenae. Research conducted in 2004-2005 involved inspecting many new sites and museums in Greece, and spending several weeks at the museum base in northern Greece to prepare additional illustrations. The final publication of this study will appear as a monograph on the history of prehistoric settlement on the Lekythos promontory at Torone. Early Mycenaean pottery. In addition, Morris revised for publication an important study of ancient Greek towers co-authored with John K. Papadopoulos, Professor of Classics, which has now appeared in the April issue of the American Journal of Archaeology (www.ajaonline.org). This project required re-visiting many Greek towers. Finally, as co-director of the new UCLA field project at Lofkend in Albania (see Backdirt Fall 2004 and Field Notes for Backdirt Fall 2005), Sarah Morris spent two field seasons north of Greece excavating this important Early Iron Age burial mound. Her own special interest in this site involves local bitumen (asphalt) sources, and the role they may played in early relations between Greek colonists from Corinth and indigenous Illyrians. The UCLA team looks forward to a third season of excavation in Summer 2006.

M

ODERN

BITUMEN PRODUCTION AT SELENICA, ALBANIA.
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Ellen Pearlstein
Faculty of UCLA/Getty Program in Archaeological and Ethnographic Conservation
In collaboration with Jim Druzik at the Getty Conservation Institute, and with a provision of samples from the Department of Orinthology at the Los Angeles Museum of Natural History, Pearlstein is beginning a study of the fading behavior of feathers with biological and structural colorvvants. The group of tropical birds selected for study includes iridescent and brightly colored feathers. It is restricted to birds recorded by a sixteeth chronicler in Mexico as being used by the amanteca, feather-workers responsible for fabulous feather mosaics. The project is designed to explain observed alterations visible on the mosaics, and to lead to an understanding of appropriate lighting restrictions for the display of these and other objects. The Fowler Museum has more than a hundred eighteenth to nineteenth century lidded vessels made from sheet-brass from coastal Ghana known as forowa. These vessels exhibit a great variety of forms and some variation in construction, some have pigment decoration on the exterior, and many are receptacles for fat which remains on the interior. Most but not all have corrosion of varying appearance. Current research includes Collection of parrot feathers. an investigation into the composition of the fats found in the vessels, and an investigation of the corrosion that results from a reaction between the metal and the fat. This research is in collaboration with Vanessa Muros, Sebastian Warmland, and David Scott, with support from Kym Faull and Alek Dooley in the Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry.

V

ANESSA MUROS SAMPLES

CORROSION AND ACCRETIONS FROM FOROWA VESSELS IN THE CONSERVATION LAB AT THE FOWLER MUSEUM OF CULTURAL HISTORY.

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Merrick Posnansky
Emeritus Professor of History and Anthropology
Archaeology, Postage Stamps and Public Policy
Posnansky is an historical archaeologist who deals with material culture in Africa and the implications and interpretations of that material culture. According to Posnansky, postage stamps inform us about public policy, prevailing ideologies, and what is important to the authorities issuing those stamps. In recent years, he has been analyzing the stamps of the world to discover insights into which societies consciously value archaeology and their own more distant past. Stamps inform us about particular monuments that have a high national prestige and deserve to be showcased to outside societies such as the ruins of Zimbabwe, the Pyramids or Sanchi stupa. Many African countries, including Tanzania, Ethiopia, Kenya, Zambia and South Africa have exhibited their pride in the past by featuring hominid ancestors. Other countries have showcased rock paintings and engravings, particularly those in southern Africa and around the Sahara. Yet other countries have issued special sets featuring the diversity of their prehistoric past like Tchad, Nigeria, South Africa, and the East African countries with artifacts ranging from stone tools, barbed bone points, burial pottery, terra cotta figurines, cire-perdue cast bronze and brass figures. Europe, particularly Scandinavia, has been proud of its Viking voyagers and its rock engravings, France its cave art and leading prehistorian, the Abbe Breuil. In contrast, the record of the United States is abysmal. There are no stamps of our wonderful rock art, no celebration of Mississippian mounds and of the impressive and large Cahokia mounds in Illinois, no series on Colonial Williamsburg and nothing on the distinctive stone tools like the Folsom of our first settlers. Instead, we celebrate media stars, celebrities, fictional and cartoon characters, sports figures, space achievements, wild life, dinosaurs, Washington monuments, dead politicians and clouds.

Paleontologist Robert Broom with his discovery of Mrs. Ples, Australopithecus africanus, South Africa 1991. (Scott 812).

Lascaux Rock Art, France 1968 (Scott 1204).

David A. Scott
Professor of Conservation and Art History
Scott has been working on a review book, dealing with iron and steel: conservation, corrosion and colourants. The book manuscript is almost finished and will be sent to the publishers in London in December 2005. Research has been on-going with the University of Southern California Department of Religion on the examination of a number of ancient Egyptian artifacts, including work on ancient cartonnage and a Hathor figurine in gilded bronze. Work is also being conducted in collaboration with the Petrie Museum in London, and Professor Scott received a COR grant from UCLA to help defray the travel expenses for this research. Papers were published in Studies in Conservation and in Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry, a multi-authored compilation, during the year.

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Monica L. Smith
Associate Professor of Anthropology and Director of South Asia Laboratory
Smith’s current research project consists of archaeological excavations at the ancient city of Sisupalgarh, co-directed with Dr. R.K. Mohanty of Deccan College. Sisupalgarh is on the eastern coast of the subcontinent and dates to the early centuries BC/AD, a time when India had long-distance contacts with the Roman world as well as with Southeast Asia. The urban core of Sisupalgarh is over 1 km2, and surrounded by earthen ramparts that are still preserved up to 9 m high. Their research is examining why ordinary people want to live in cities, given that they have both advantages such as social networks and disadvantages such as crowding. By looking at households and public space we can see how people chose to spend their labor and display goods with a shared social message of belonging. Smith is interested in urbanism, economic networks, consumption and material culture, comparative historical archaeology; South Asia, Mediterranean, and Southwestern U.S.

Pre-excavation ceremony in Sisupalgarh.

I

N BOTH ANCIENT AND MODERN CITIES, THE VAST MAJORITY OF URBAN DWELLERS ARE NOT ELITES, BUT MEMBERS OF ORDINARY HOUSEHOLDS. THEIR PRODUCTION

AND CONSUMPTION PATTERNS FORM THE BASIS OF THE CITY’S ECONOMY; THEIR PARTICIPATION IN CEREMONIES AFFIRMS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AN ORGANIZING AUTHORITY; THEIR LABOR PERMITS THE MANIFESTATION OF AN URBAN ETHOS AS CONSTRUCTED THROUGH BOTH FANCIFUL MONUMENTS AND PRACTICAL INFRASTRUCTURE...RATHER THAN SEEING CITIES AS FUNDAMENTALLY CHANGED BY THE ADVENT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND THE GLOBAL CONNECTIONS OF THE MODERN WORLD, NEW RESEARCH SUGGESTS THAT BOTH ANCIENT AND MODERN CITIES ARE THE RESULT OF A LIMITED RANGE OF CONFIGURATIONS THAT STRUCTURE HUMAN ACTION.

-MONICA L. SMITH
From The Social Construction of Ancient Cities, Smithsonian Institution Press, 2003. 52
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Charles Stanish
Director of Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, Lloyd E. Cotsen Chair in Archaeology, and Professor of Anthropology
Research in the northern Titicaca Basin
At over 50,000 km2, the Titicaca basin is one of the largest and most diverse areas in the world where early states developed. Over the last 25 years, my colleagues and I have surveyed and excavated throughout the region. Since 1999, we have been working in the northern Titicaca Basin in the river valleys of Putina, Huancané, and Ramis. The map shows the area of the northern lake region that we have surveyed. Our total coverage is almost 1,000 km2, with an additional 200 km2 of less intensive coverage. We purposely placed the survey limits to cover as many different ecological and cultural zones as possible. As a result, we have a north-south trending river that leads out of the Lake Titicaca. We have lake shore area, land around a major river, and the perimeter of the very important Lake Arapa. Over the last six years, this research effort discovered over 1,200 new sites, some as far back as the Early Archaic circa 8000 BCE. Working in this beautiful area is both a privilege and a challenge. The photo shows one of the many hills in the survey area. On top of this hill, called Trallate, we found a sunken court complex that dates to at least 300 BCE. We also found old burial towers, known as chulpas that date 1000 years later. At the base of the hill near the buildings were a number of sites that dated from 500 BCE up to the Inca period. Traces of the site can be seen as terraces on the hill slope. Today, these terraces are used for agriculture, as they were in the past. But, over the generations, the terraces also served as platforms for villages. The young girl in the foreground of the photograph is standing on a causeway that runs through this periodically inundated area. It is also likely that this was originally a low canal since it winds its way up to the quebrada or gully where springs break. This causeway was probably built long ago in antiquity; we would have to excavate in order to determine the date at which it was built and whether it was also used as a canal. Our work continues and will continue for years to come. With a new generation of young scholars that we are training here at UCLA, I anticipate that the best is yet to come in Titicaca Basin archaeology.

O

NE OF THE MANY

HILLS IN TARACO, PERU, WHERE THE RESEARCH IS BASED.

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LABORATORY PROFILES

Andean and Moche Laboratories
Christopher B. Donnan: Moche Archive Director and Professor of Anthropology Charles Stanish: Andean Lab Director and Professor of Anthropology
The two Andean labs work in different areas of the vast Andean area: Donnan is a world-renowned Moche specialist and Stanish directs research in the highlands of Lake Titicaca in Peru and Bolivia. The Moche Archive hosted a number of scholars from around the world who came to study the collections. The Highland Andean Lab hosted several researchers on high-altitude and low photography, ancient hydrology, and ancient agricultural systems. Last year, three graduate students from other universities came to use the Moche Archive in conjunction with their dissertation research. The labs will continue publishing on Moche iconography, and the results of their field excavations in Peru.

Market day in Taraco, Peru, where Stanish’s research is based.

The Lambayeque temple exposed at Donnan’s site at Dos Cabezos. 54

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Ceramics Research Group
Marilyn Beaudry-Corbett: Lab Director and Research Associate
The triple mission agreed on for the Ceramics Research Group (CRG) is to provide an information center on ceramics and ceramic analysis, offer practical experience to students and researchers, and maintain a dialogue among a large community of ceramic specialists at UCLA and in its community. To fulfill that mission we try to hold at least one event per academic quarter that students, members of the Cotsen Institute (faculty, Pit firing at Dockweiler State Beach. staff, research associates, Friends of Archaeology members and volunteers), and interested parties from other colleges and universities are invited to attend. The CRG main-tains several type collections as well as a library of books, sets of slides, and videos purchased with funds from the biennially offered ceramic analysis class. There also is an inventory of equipment needed for ceramic analysis and used in the class or checked out for field use by Institute-affiliated investigators (Munsell color charts, Mohs hardness kits, rim diameter measurement templates, calipers, etc.) We maintain a mailing list of over 100 individuals that is kept updated and used to announce our events as well as to advise people of museum exhibits that are of interest to archaeological ceramicists.

California Channel Islands Laboratory
Jeanne E. Arnold: Lab Director and Professor of Anthropology
The California Channel Islands laboratory hosted the research activities of Jeanne Arnold, Professor of Anthropology, and six in-residence graduate students (Julie Bernard, Ray Corbett, John Dietler, Anthony Graesch, Michael Lenert, and Anna Noah). Most of the lab’s projects are centered on the Channel Islands, other parts of southern California, British Columbia, and coastal Florida. The lab’s research centers on the economic and political organization of complex huntergatherer populations, including the Chumash (CA), the Sto:lo (B.C.), and the Calusa (Florida), and the changing nature of household and community organization during the last millennium. Fieldwork by lab members has been conducted in all four regions: the northern Channel Islands, California’s Central Valley, southwest British Columbia, and southwestern Florida. Substantial collections from these investigations Jeanne Arnold and crew (Left to right, Marillyn Holmes, Kay Hullet, Ann Munns, J. (including three distinct projects from B.C.) are being Arnold, Karin Goetter, Mike Lenert, Anthony Graesch;Tim Peters, Sr., not pictured) actively processed and analyzed in the lab. Three at the conclusion of 2005 excavations at Ts’qo:ls village, on the Fraser River, Hope, members of the lab (plus two volunteer staff/Friends of British Columbia. Archaeology (FOA) members, Kay Hullett and Marillyn Holmes) participated in field projects in the Fraser River Valley of British Columbia during Spring/Summer 2005. There were many research and teaching-related uses of the lab’s resources by faculty, graduate students, and undergraduates from other UC campuses and CSU campuses. Lab resources were also used in teaching a lab class. Arnold serves as a
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frequent consultant to Channel Islands National Park. Several FOA members and large numbers of UCLA undergraduate students (more than 25) volunteered in the lab during 2004-2005, assisting graduate projects directed by Noah (Santa Cruz Island collections) and Graesch (Fraser Valley collections). The lab is open for visits from school groups, and it welcomed many members of the public during the CIOA Open House in May. Also four undergraduate students were enrolled in Archaeology C159 field courses (Summer 2005) with project leaders from the lab in California and British Columbia. Arnold’s Projects: (1) The Channel Islands Household Archaeology Project (lab and analysis phases). Supported by NSF grants, the fieldwork took place on Santa Cruz Island during the late 1990s, and analyses are ongoing in the lab. Anna Noah has just completed Excavations at House #2 at Ts’qo:ls village, a Sto:lo (Coast Salish) early Historic commuher dissertation on the faunal assemblages from nity. (Photo: J. Arnold). the households. Arnold and Bernard used project data for a 2005 World Archaeology article on plank canoes. (2) Southern British Columbia: The Fraser River Valley Project. The fourth year of a collaborative field project in southwestern British Columbia with Canadian colleagues and students was carried out in 2005. Financial support includes the UCLA Academic Senate, CIOA Ahmanson Field Research funds, and FOA support for some of the grad students. A team of several researchers from UCLA was joined by Sto:lo Nation representatives and two field schools and other investigators from B.C. universities. Graesch is testing a Historic village site near Hope for his doctoral project, and Lenert coordinated with SFU on testing the Katz site along the upper Fraser River for his dissertation fieldwork. (3) Center on Everyday Lives of Families (CELF), Sloan Foundation. Arnold is a faculty co-founder of the project, directing the ethnoarchaeology component. Fieldwork began in 2002 and continued through January 2005. The study focuses on 32 Los Angeles home-owning middle-class families, and modern material culture research is based on thorough mapping of homes, detailed digital photo series of houses and objects, and timed tracking of family members’ uses of space within the homes.

UCLA/Getty Program in Archaeological and Ethnographic Conservation
David Scott: Chair of Program and Professor of Conservation and Art History
The Conservation Program has begun to accept students for their three-year Master’s program, starting Fall 2005. The program plans to move some staff and equipment in January 2006 to their new laboratories at the Getty Villa site in Malibu, CA. The program has six graduate students who will be advised by the following faculty members: Scott, Ioanna Kakoulli (Assistant Professor of Conservation and Material Science), and Ellen Pearlstein (Faculty). The program plans on future collaborations with other universities and institutions.

Scott in Cotsen Institute laboratory space. 56
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Lithic Analysis Research Group (LARG)
Jeanne E. Arnold: Chair of LARG and Professor of Anthropology
LARG shares a space with the Ceramic Analysis Research Group and several graduate students. Comparative collections of lithic materials are housed in storage units, and modest topical libraries and article files are maintained. The main goal of LARG is to assemble and maintain resources to assist with teaching the UCLA community about stone materials and stone tools. When resources allow, LARG organizes programs for students, associates, and FOA members, including field trips to quarry sites, workshops, or presentations. This year, stone tool casts (a projectile point series from California and the American midwest), replicated tools (obsidian handaxe specimens and debitage), and various flake types were used in teaching a lithics lab class. There is now also a large set of replicated stone tool specimens from a UC Riverside knapper (commissioned by Jeffrey Brantingham, Assistant Professor of Anthropology). These are used for teaching.

S

LATE PROJECTILE POINT FROM

THE FRASER RIVER VALLEY, SOUTHERN BRITISH COLUMBIA. PHOTO: A. NOAH.

Mediterranean Laboratory
Ernestine Elster: Lab Director and Research Associate
Elster plans to continue to study the prehistory of southeast Europe with her two-volume Sitagroi excavation monographs as a springboard. She also plans on conducting an evaluation of the Scaloria Cave data (an excavation carried out by UCLA, directed by the late Marija Gimbutas, in southern Italy); only the first season was published and she has been gathering materials over the last few years from excavation participants. She will conduct research on the history of the depression-era WPA (Works Progress Administration) and the development of American archaeology (this research is inspired by a SAA session which Elster organized years ago on this same topic and from which she has a typescript of participants).
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Elster with work-study student, Linda Vera, in lab.

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Paleoethnobotany Laboratory
Virginia Popper: Lab Director and Research Associate
During 2004-2005, the Paleoethnobotany Laboratory analyzed assemblages of plant remains from a variety of archaeological sites. Most of our contracts involved sites in California. We also analyzed remains from sites in Canada, Togo, Iceland, and Mexico. The lab hired two undergraduate Anthropology students to float soil samples. The projects were contracted to us by cultural resource management firms, and faculty members from Palomar College (Dr. Phillip DeBarros), Stanford University (Dr. Barbara Voss), and UCLA. Our staff included the director, a work-study student from the Department of Near Eastern Languages, and two Anthropology Department undergraduates. The laboratory also used the volunteer services of three members of the Friends of Archaeology, and an Italian archaeologist. I conducted a training internship for an Anthropology graduate student from Cal State, Fullerton, and a reading course for a graduate student from UC Riverside. Faculty and graduate students from UCLA and Popper with Yelena Kravtsova, an undergraduate volunteer. other universities consulted the laboratory, including Monica Smith, Tom Wake, Ellen Pearlstein, John Steinberg, Sam Connell, John “Mac” Marston, Julie Bernard and Anthony Graesch.

South Asian Archaeology Laboratory
Monica L. Smith: Lab Director and Associate Professor of Anthropology
The principal accomplishments of the South Asian Archaeology Laboratory in 2004-2005 included the initiation of a new excavation project at the site of Sisupalgarh, India, and continued acquisition of reference materials for UCLA students, faculty and visitors. Smith initiated a joint excavation project with Dr. R.K. Mohanty of Deccan College, Pune (India; Dr. Mohanty was a visitor to the Institute in 2004). The excavations included a team of Indian graduate students and professionals from Deccan College (Pune, India), BJB College (Mumbai), Utkal University (Bhubaneswar), the Centre for Archaeological Studies and Training in East India (Kolkata), Bareilly University (Bareilly), and an American graduate student from the University of Pennsylvania. A total of 35 new books were purchased in India to be housed in the lab; in addition we were able to acquire a nearly complete run of Pakistan Archaeology and a complete set of South Asian Studies, a journal devoted to the archaeology of the subcontinent. Elizabeth Baker, a second-year Anthropology graduate student, joined the lab in the Fall 2004. Her research focus is on Central Excavating at the site of Sisupalgarh, India. Asia, and in Summer 2005 she participated in two field projects: one with Smith at the site of LA 359 (Burnt Corn Pueblo) in New Mexico, and one with Dr. Alison Betts (University of Sydney) in Uzbekistan. Baker also participated in the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology’s annual Open House by preparing a poster of Central Asia for display in the lab.
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Recent faculty publications
Arkush, Elizabeth and Charles Stanish 2005 Interpreting conflict in the ancient Andes: Implications for the archaeology of warfare. Current Anthropology 46(1):3-28. Arnold, Jeanne E. 2004 A Transcontinental Perspective on the Evolution of HunterGatherer Lifeways on the Plateau: Discussion and Reflection. In Complex Hunter-Gatherers: Evolution and Organization of Prehistoric Communities on the Plateau of Northwestern North America edited by W. C. Prentiss and I. Kuijt, pp. 171-181. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City. Arnold, Jeanne E. (editor) 2004 Foundations of Chumash Complexity. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, Los Angeles. Arnold, Jeanne E., and Julienne Bernard 2005 Negotiating the Coasts: Status and the Evolution of Boat Technology in California. World Archaeology 37(1):109-131. Arnold, Jeanne E. and Anthony P. Graesch 2004 The Later Evolution of the Island Chumash. In Foundations of Chumash Complexity, edited by J.E. Arnold, pp. 1-19. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, Los Angeles. Arnold, Jeanne E., M. R. Walsh, and S. E. Hollimon. 2004 Archaeology of California. Journal of Archaeological Research 12: 1-73. Burke, Aaron A. and Stephen Batiuk 2005 The Tell Atchana Mapping and GIS Project. In The Amuq Valley Regional Project: Volume I, edited by K. A. Yener. Oriental Institute Press, Chicago. Chiari, G. and D.A. Scott. 2004 Pigment Analysis: Potentialities and Problems. Periodico di Mineralogie 73: 227-237. Coben, Lawrence and Charles Stanish 2005 Archaeological Reconnaissance in the Carabaya region, Peru. In Advances in Titicaca Basin Archaeology I, edited by C. Stanish, A. Cohen, and M. Aldenderfer, Chapter 15. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press, Los Angeles. De Angelis, R., J. Cassar, I. Kakoulli 2005 Degrado e problematiche conservative di un dipinto ad olio su pietra a Malta. Proceedings of the Bressanone Conference 20-22 June, 2005. De Angelis, R., J. Cassar, I. Kakoulli, M. P. Colombini 2004 Oil Painting on Stone: a case study on original technique and deterioration of an early 20th century painting by Giuseppe Cali in Malta. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, pp. 793-800. Stockholm. Donnan, Christopher B. 2004 Moche Portraits from Ancient Peru. University of Texas Press, Austin. 2005 Coming of Age in Moche Portraits. Minerva: The International Review of Ancient Art and Archaeology 16(4). 2005 Moche Portraits: Masterpieces from Ancient Peru. In Retratos: 2000 Years of Latin American Portraits, edited by Dru Dowdy, Yale University Press. Comment on “The Nature of Moche Human Sacrifice” by Richard C. Sutter and Rosa J. Cortez. Current Anthropology 46(4). 2005

Downey, Susan 2003 Zeus the Greatest in Syria. Parthica 6: 117-128. 2005 A Statuette of Heracles from Tall Seh Hamad. In Harmut Kuehne, Magdala/Magdala: Tall Seh Hamad von postassyrischen Zeit bis zue roemischen Kaiserzeit, pp. 187-192. Berlin.

Fischer C. and I. Kakoulli N.D. Multispectral Imaging: A review. In Preparation for the Journal, Reviews in Conservation IIC, London. Kakoulli I. 2001 Scientific Investigations of three Graeco-Roman painted stone slabs. In Nécropolis 1, Édutes Alexandrines 5, pp. 215-224. Institute Français D’Archéologie Orientale, Cairo. Late Classical and Hellenistic Painting Techniques and Materials: A Review of the Technical Literature. In Reviews in Conservation 3. Materials and Techniques of Ancient Greek Paintings: C4-C1 BC, Archetype and A. G. Leventis Foundation.

2002

N.D.

Kakoulli I., A. Kottaridou, and N. Minos 2001 Materials and technologies of Ancient Monumental Paintings: methodology and analysis of the painted throne from the ‘Tomb of Eurydice’, Vergina. Proceedings from the III Archaeometry Symposium, Athens 6-9 November 1996. Athens.

Kakoulli I and F. Pique N.D. Quenching of fluorescence emission of organic binding media in wall paintings. In Preparation for the Journal Studies in Conservation, IIC, London. Kakoulli I., M. Schilling, and J. Keeney N.D. Techniques and Materials of Byzantine Paintings in the church of Asinou, Cyprus. In The church of Asinou, edited by Annemarie Carr and Andreas Nicolaides, Dumbarton Oaks, in press. Techniques and Materials of Byzantine Paintings in the church of Asinou, Cyprus. In the monograph on the church of Asinou, Dumbarton Oaks, in press.

N.D.

Kaplan, E., E. Pearlstein, E. Howe, and J. Levinson 1999 Analisis tecnico de qeros pintado de los Periodos Inca y Colonial. Iconos 2. Klein, Cecelia. 2005 Identidad feminine, Ethnicidad y trabajo en Nuevo México. Diario de Campo 78: 90-92. Review of Identidad femenina, etnicidad y trabajo en Nuevo México, by María J. Rodríguez-Shadow. Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Mexico.
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2005

Una nueva interpretación de la escultura de Coatlicue. In Las mujeres en Mesoamérica, edited by María Rodríguez-Shadow, pp. 189-201. Toluca: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México.

desalination. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 43(2): 75-89. Papadopoulos, J.K. 2005 Antiquity and Photography: Early Views of Mediterranean Sites. The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles (with Claire Lyons, Lindsay Steward and Andrew Szegedy-Maszak). 2005 Inventing the Minoans: Archaeology, Modernity and the Quest for European Identity. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 18(1):87-149.

Klein, Cecelia, Eulogio Guzman and Maya Stanfield-Mazzi N.D. Reply to Pieter Jolly. Current Anthropology. Klein, Cecelia and Maya Stanfield-Mazzi 2004 Reply to David Lewis-Williams. Current Anthropology 45(3): 404406. Lesure, Richard G. 2004 Shared Art Styles and Long-Distance Contact in Early Mesoamerica. In Mesoamerican Archaeology, edited by Julia A. Hendon and Rosemary A. Joyce, pp. 73-96. Blackwell, Oxford. 2004 Figurines and Femaleness in Old and New Worlds: Some Implications for Interpretation of Maltese Imagery. Exploring the Maltese Prehistoric Temple Culture: Presentations from the 2003 Conference. Published on CD-ROM by the OTS Foundation, Sarasota, Florida. Linking Theory and Evidence in an Archaeology of Human Agency: Iconography, Style, and Theories of Embodiment. Journal of Archaeological Method in Theory 12:237-255.

Papadopoulos, J.K. and M.L. Liston 2004 The ‘Rich Athenian Lady’ was Pregnant: The Anthropology of a Geometric Tomb Reconsidered. Hesperia 73:7-38. Pearlstein, E. 1999 Conservation of Three New Kingdom Statues in the Colonnade Hall in Luxor Temple, Egypt. In Festschrift in Honor of Lawrence J. Majewski’s 80th Birthday. N.D. The Role of the Environment in Collections Care, James and James Ltd. Science Publishers, in press.

2005

Lesure, Richard G., Aleksander Borejsza, Jennifer Carballo, Charles Frederick, Virginia Popper, and Thomas A. Wake N.D. Chronology, Subsistence, and the Transition to the Formative in Central Tlaxcala, Mexico. Submitted to Latin American Archaeology. Ma, Q. and D.A. Scott 2004 Gold and Silver Gilding Techniques in the Western Han Dynasty of China. Wen Wu Bao Hu Yu KaoGu Ke Xue 18: 2126. Mohanty, R.K. and M.L. Smith 2005 Sisupalgarh Excavations Field Report. 39 pp. On file, Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi, and Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles. Morris, Sarah 2002 Towers and Farms of Classical Leukas: Agrarian Control in Classical Greece. Proceedings of the 11th Panionion Conference, Leukas, Greece, pp. 79-91. Etaireia Leukadikon Meleton, Athens 200. [in Greek] 2005 The Architecture of Inequality in Ancient Greece: Results of recent research on ancient towers. In Cultural Differentiation – Social Inequality in the Ancient World: Written sources and iconography for Slavery and other forms of Social Dependence. Proceedings of GIREA 2003, pp.147-155.

Pearlstein, E., E. Kaplan, E. Howe, and J. Levinson 1999 Technical Analyses of Painted Inka and Colonial Qeros, Objects Specialty Group Postprints. Presented at the American Institute for Conservation Annual Meeting. Popper, Virginia S., and Lisa Klug N.D. Macrobotanical Analysis of Soil Samples from CA-LAN-2630, Los Angeles County, California. Submitted to Pacific Coast Archaeological Society Quarterly. Posnansky, Merrick 2004 Review of Archaeology in Africa and in Museums, by David W.Phillipson. Cambridge 2003. Journal of African Archaeology 2: 247-248. 2004 Processes of change - a longitudinal ethno-archaeological study of a Ghanaian village: Hani 1970-98. African Archaeological review 21: 31-47. The 10th meeting of the west African archaeological association (WAAA/OAAA) Porto Novo, Benin and archaeological publication in west Africa. Nyame Akuma 63:33-5. The Madi, Displacement and Resurrection of an African Population: The Dufile Research Project, Uganda 2005-2006 The African Diaspora Archaeology Network Newsletter.

2004

2005

Posnansky, Merrick, Agbenyega Adedze and Jessica Levin 2004 Postal Images of Africa: A New Frontier. African Arts 37(2): 5273. Posnansky, Merrick with Roy Bridges 2004 African History at Makerere in the 1960s: a Further Perspective. History in Africa 31: 479-482. Posnansky, Merrick, Andrew Reid and Ceri Ashley 2005 Archaeology on Lolui Island, Uganda 1964-5. Azania 40: 27. Read, D. 2004 Mathematical Modeling Issues in Analytical Representations of Human Societies. Cybernetics and Systems (Special Issue). 2004 Comments. Cross Cultural Research 38:178-195.

Morris, Sarah and John K. Papadopoulos 2004 Of Granaries and Games: An Egyptian Stowaway in an Athenian Chest. In Charis: Essays in Honor of Sara A. Immerwahr (Hesperia Supplement 33), edited by A. Chapin, pp. 225-242. Princeton. 2005 Greek Towers and Slaves: An Archaeology of Exploitation. American Journal of Archaeology 109:155-205.

Muros, V. and J. Hirx 2004 A study in the use of cyclododecane as a temporary barrier for water-sensitive ink on archaeological ceramics during 60
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2004

The Emergence of Order from Disorder as a Form of Self Organization. Computational & Mathematical Organization Theory 9: 195-225. Some Observations on Resilience and Robustness in Human Systems. In Cybernetics and Systems 2004, Vol. 1, edited by R. Trappl, pp. 300-305. Austrian Society for Cybernetic Studies, Vienna. The Logic of Older/Younger Sibling Terms in Classificatory Terminologies, Letter to MACT. URL: http://www. mathematicalanthropology.org/?PG=letters. Review of African Fractals by R. Eglash. Visual Anthropology 17: 199-203. Review of Biblical games: Game theory and the Hebrew Bible by S. Brams. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 10: 466-467. Quantitative Analysis in Anthropology. In Encyclopedia of Social Measurement, Vol. 3, edited by Kimberly Kempf-Leonard, pp. 237-246. Elsevier Press. Change in the Form of Evolution: Transition from Primate to Hominid Forms of Social Organization. Journal of Mathematical Sociology 29: 91-114.

2005

New excavations at the ancient city of Sisupalgarh, India. Presented at the UCLA Friends of Archaeology Annual Symposium.

2004

Smith, Monica L., Jaharul Hoque and Nilka Dabare 2004 Excavations at the Buddhist monastic site of Bhasu Vihara, Bangladesh. Project Gallery section of the journal Antiquity 78(300), http://antiquity.ac.uk/ProjGall/smith.html. Smith, Monica L. and R.K. Mohanty 2005 New Excavations at the Ancient City of Sisupalgarh, India. European Association of South Asian Archaeologists, London. Stanish, Charles 2004 The evolution of chiefdoms. An economic anthropological model. In Archaeological Perspectives on Political Economies, edited by G. Feinman and L. Nichols, pp. 7-24. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City. 2005 Discussion. In Us and Them: Archaeology and Ethnicity in the Andes, edited by Richard Reycraft, pp. 226-232. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press, Los Angeles.

2004

2004 2004 2005

2005

Read, D. and Kris Lehman (F. K. L. Chit Hlaing) 2005 The Read-Lehman Letters on Kinship Mathematics Letter to MACT. URL: http://www.mathematicalanthropology.org/ ?PG=letters. Scott, David A. 2004 Gold and Platinum Metallurgy of La Tolita: A Metalworking Center of the Pacific Lowlands of Ecuador. In Tecnología del Oro Antiguo: Europa y América. Anejos de AEspA XXXII, edited by A. Perea, I. Montero, and Ó. García-Vuelta, pp. 63-82. Madrid. 2004 The Study of Copper Patinas: Some Case Studies. In NonDestructive Microanalysis of Cultural Heritage Materials, edited by K. Janssens and R. Van Grieken. Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry XLII: 229-258. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Stanish, Charles and Brian S. Bauer 2004 History, culture, and geography of the islands. In Archaeological Research on the Islands of the Sun and Moon, Lake Titicaca Bolivia: Final Results from the Proyecto Tiksi Kjarka, edited by C. Stanish and B. Bauer, pp. 1-22. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press, Los Angeles. 2004 The settlement history of the Island of the Sun. History, culture, and geography of the islands. In Archaeological Research on the Islands of the Sun and Moon, Lake Titicaca Bolivia: Final Results from the Proyecto Tiksi Kjarka, edited by C. Stanish and B. Bauer. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press, Los Angeles.

Stanish, Charles and Amanda Cohen 2005 Introduction to Advances in Titicaca Basin Archaeology I. In, Advances in Titicaca Basin Archaeology I, edited by C. Stanish, A. Cohen, and M. Aldenderfer, Chapter 1. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press, Los Angeles. Stanish, Charles, Kirk Frye, Edmundo de la Vega, and Matthew Seddon 2005 Tiwanaku expansion into the western Titicaca Basin. In Advances in Titicaca Basin Archaeology I, edited by C. Stanish, A. Cohen, and M. Aldenderfer, pp. 103-114. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press, Los Angeles. Stanish, Charles and Kevin Haley 2005 Power, fairness, and architecture: Modeling early chiefdom development in the Central Andes. In Power in the Prehispanic Andes, edited by Christine Conlee, Denis Ogburn, and Kevin Vaughn, pp. 53-70. American Anthropological Association Monographs in Archaeology, Washington, DC. Taniguchi, Y., Y. Shimadzu, I. Kakoulli, and S. Giovannoni

Scott, D.A., L.S. Dodd, J. Furihata, S. Tanimoto, J. Keeney, M.R. Schilling, and E. Cowan. 2004 An Ancient Egyptian Cartonnage Broad Collar: Technical Examination of Pigments and Binding Media. Studies in Conservation 49: 177-192. Smith, Monica L. 2004 Bhasu Vihara Excavation Field Report. 38 pp. On file, Directorate of Archaeology, Dhaka (Bangladesh), and Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles. 2005 Measuring Consensus in Ancient Cities: Evidence from Sisupalgarh, India. Poster presented at the Society for American Archaeology Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City. Archaeological research at Sisupalgarh, an Early Historic city in eastern India. In South Asian Archaeology 2003, edited by B. Vogt. European Association of South Asian Archaeologists, pp. 291-300. KAVA, Bonn. Excavations at Sisupalgarh, India. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology lunchtime lecture, UCLA.

2003

2005

Conservation of Globigerina limestone monument in Malta (II): surface protective treatment with ammonium oxalate. Paper presented at the 25th annual conference of Japan Society of Conservation for Cultural Property, Kyoto Zokei University.

Van Tilburg, J. 2005 Prospección Arqueológica, el interior de la cantera de Rano Raraku. Archaeologial Report, Rano Raraku Gobierno de Chile, Corporación Nacional Forestal Oficina Provincial Isla de Pascua, Consejo de Monumentos Rapa Nui. Backdirt: Annual Review 61

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2005

Remote Possibilities: Hoa Hakananai’a and HMS Topaze on Easter Island. Research Paper 158. London: The British Museum, in press.

Van Tilburg, J. and A.L. Kaeppler N.D. Rapa Nui Art. In preparation. Whyte, A, V. Muros, and S. Barack N.D. Brick by Brick: Piecing together an 8th Century BC Facade from Iraq. Object Specialty Group Postprints 11. Washington DC: AIC, in press.

Van Tilburg, J., C. Arévalo P., P. Boniface and A. Hom 2005 Rano Raraku Interior Quarry, GPS Mapping and the Conservation of the Moai. VI Congreso Internacional, Viña del Mar, Chile.

Faculty and Student Grants & Awards 2004-2005
Andean Lab
UCLA Committee on Research. $3,610 Elbridge and Evelyn Stuart Foundation. $5,000

Rock Art Lab
Two work-study students on our staff participated in fieldwork in Peru with funding provided by the project.

Other Grants
UCLA Senate Research Committee, the James Coleman African Studies Center and the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology (Merrick Posnansky). Grant BCS-0533443. National Science Foundation Dissertation Improvement Grant with Ilana Johnson. “Urbanism and Social Organization at the Late Moche Period Site of Pampa Grande, Peru” (Charles Stanish). Grant BCS-454615. National Science Foundation Dissertation Improvement Grant with Zannie Sandoval. “Inca Administration of the Peruvian North Coast. A View from Cerro Colorado.” (Charles Stanish). Academic Senate Research Grant (Lothar von Falkenhausen). $3,500 Ahmanson Research Grant (Lothar von Falkenhausen). $3,500

Channel Islands Lab
UCLA Academic Senate Committee on Research award. (Jeanne Arnold). Ahmanson Field Research grant. (Jeanne Arnold). SSHRC grant (Canada), for the Fraser River Valley Project (Lepofsky, Blake, Arnold, et al.) NSF Dissertation Improvement proposal (submitted: Lenert and Graesch) FOA and/or Dept of Anthropology Field Research Awards (Bernard, Dietler, Graesch, and Lenert)

Conservation Lab
Endowment Grant from the Getty Trust. $2,000,000 UCLA’s Office of Instructional Development Grant (for teaching materials). $3,000 Faculty Research Grant to David Scott from UCLA. $2,800

Mesoamerican Lab
2003-2005 National Science Foundation. Grant for archaeological field work in Mexico. Project title: “Pre-State Social Transformations in Central Mexico: Formative Archaeology in Apizaco, Tlaxcala.” Budget period 7/1/03 to 6/30/05. $64,337. (Richard Lesure). 2003-2005 Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research. Grant for project, “Land Use and Land Tenure in Prehispanic Tlaxcala,” involving archaeological field work in Mexico. Budget period 7/16/03 to 3/31/05. $7,721. (Richard Lesure and Aleksander Borejsza). 2003-2005 National Science Foundation Dissertation Improvement Grant. Grant for project, “Land Use and Land Tenure in Prehispanic Tlaxcala,” involving archaeological field work in Mexico. Budget period 5/1/03 to 4/30/04. $11,953. (Richard Lesure and Aleksander Borejsza). 62
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Cotsen Institute donors 2004-2005
Over $10,000 Cotsen 1985 Trust Lloyd Cotsen DAZ Systems, Inc. Samuel H. Kress Foundation Steinmetz Foundation Charles Steinmetz David & Marvalee Wake Director’s Council ($1,000-$9,999) American Academy in Rome Amoco Egypt Arthur Hughes Muir Jr. Trust Cintronics Hal & Ann Adelson Deborah Arnold & Walt Zipperman Wesley Arnold Jeanne M Bailey Harris & Margaret Bass David & Kathleen Boochever Michael F. Branigan Christina Campbell David Cintron Roger & Patty Civalleri Carol Crouse Far Horizons Archaeological & Cultural Trips Nigel Fitzpatrick Armand J. Fulco & Doris Goodman Bernard Frischer Bruce P. Hector Tracy E. Johnson Gail K. Lieberfarb Yvonne Lenart Elizabeth R. Macaulay James L. Mitchell William & Susan Orrange Sandra L. Orellana Merrick Posnansky Lynda & Stewart Resnick Allison R. Schleicher, III Arthur & Fran Sherwood Charles B. Smith Jerry Snyder Charles Stanish Charles & Ellen Steinmetz Steinmetz Family Trust The J. Paul Getty Trust Johannes & Jo Anne Van Tilburg Thomas Wake Leroy & Lisa Watson Yvonne Lenart 1984 Trust Patron ($500-$999) Arthur Hughes Muir Jr. Trust Frank B. & Edith Bleitz William F. Cahill Robert & Joyce Daniels Christopher & Patricia Ehret Terence Graves Arlene Harris Gordon E. Hull Hugh H. McCulloh Sarah Morris & John Papadopoulos Joan Travis Fellow ($300-$499) Margaret Campbell Arvey Ruth Baus Julius & Millie Bendat Nancy Bernard John Bretney Beverly Childers Courtney B. Conte Donald L. Corbett & Marilyn Beaudry Richard M. Coulston Philip De Barros Sally Donohue Sydney Douglas James & Mercedes Duque Kay Ferrari & Alexander Golstab Helle Girey Sonia & Mike Gottesman Richard C. Hall Ellen Hardy Lady R. Harrington Patrick Healy Marillyn Holmes John F. Holz Katherine Hullett Nancy C. Ledding William T. MacCary Margarete Mehrabian John & Suzanne Peck Peggy & George Polinger Paul & Judy Porcasi Kathleen Prado Rose Emily Rothenberg Eunice Saver Paula & Lou Savett Charlotte H. & Sid Self Jill Silton George Spangler Irma Switzer Ann T. Tollefson David Zuccaro Sustaining ($150-$299) Emmanuel Annor Marie Ammerman Richard Binggeli Henry P. Borenstein John C. Bretney Harrington Survivors Trust Deanna Hemphill Lawrence Jacobson Karlene Jones-Bley Elizabeth Kahn Jean Steinmetz Kay Kara Knack Mary Jane Leland Richard M. Leventhal Douglas Nason, Inc. Patricia Oliansky Stephanie Serlin Ronald Steensland Patricia Swearinger Helene Tournaire-Cooper Peter Tuite David & Sue Verity James Walker Rita Winston Basic ($50-$149) Josefina Aaronson Phyllis Absalom Mitchell Allen Edward Alpers AMGEM Foundation Christiane Anctil Meggon Anderson Anonymous Andrew Apter Lois M. Atwill Douglas A. Baker J. A. Bambush Pamela Bartley Ruby A. Bell-Gam Lesley Benson Reese & Rosemary Benson Murray & Natalie Berman Dana Bleitz James Bonnar Ran Boytner Melvin Brody Elizabeth Brooks Beverly Brown Jessie Marie Buckingham Charlotte Buell Randall Butler William F. Cahill Elizabeth Carter Domick Cary Edward G. Casar Peter J. Cheoros Kathy Stephens Ciervo Tim & Linda Clougherty Roger Colten Frank E. Comparato Grayson D. Cook Helene Cooper Thomas Cootz Lyn Corum Cathy Costin Marie Cottrell Marjorie Cowley Richard H. Cox Linda Crisman Bernice K. Crooks
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Frederick P. Crowell Megan Cunningham Dodie & Roy Danchick Herman & Elinor David Nan Deal Jean De Angelis Patrick Dempsey Richard Dempsey Lauren Derby & Andrew Apter Helen Desser Jackie Diamant Dejon Dillon David D. Dingwall Jocelyn Donald Susan Downey Sandra Dunlap Guanda Dusette Willie Dye Sam Edwards Elster Family Survivors Trust Debra Eve Kristjana Eyjolfsson Janet Fahey Donna Falcon Ruth M. Ferguson F.H.I.S., Inc. Virginia M. Fields Kaliopee M. Fisk Myron Forst John & Miriam Frankel Renee Camille Fraser William Frost Michael Garland Pat Geffner Daniel Gelfan Beverly Godwin Sherman Grancell Melyssa Guerry-Brody Paula Gottwald Guzman Neil & Rowena M. Haas Ralph & Judy L. Haberski Ellen Hardy Robert & Gwen Harwood David Hayen Bruce Hector Dick Heiser Theodore C Henderson William Herrman Janet Hersholt Viola Herzberg Loretta Rooney Hess Michael R. Hilton Richard Hilton Ellen Hiura Chris Holabird Rose-Lee Holman David D. Horner Akemi Ichiho Richard James James Johannesmeyer Johnson & Johnson Contribution Fund Stan Kamin & Patricia Hackel Jeanie Kay Elliot S. Kaye Myron Kayton J.A. Kendle 64
Backdirt: Annual Review

Karimah Kennedy Harvey & Isabel Kibel Audrey M. Kopp Eva Larson Ruth Lavine Beverly Lawson Leatrice L. Lees Elaine Lessman Al & Loretta Levin Jack Lissack John Lissack Michael Lofchie Irene Lozano David Lubman Judi Mauck-Klien Nadra McClain Kathleen McCormick Joseph L. McGillicuddy Charles & Mary McKinnon Fred H. McNorton Cynthia Mercer Henry J. Merkle Howard H. Metcalfe Ismini Miliaresis Morton Miller Jordan & Felice Miller Maggie Mae Montgomery Marsha E. Moore Sam & Heidi Moore Jean K. Moore Robert Moore Gail Morales Martha Jo Morehouse David R. Morin Annette Munsell Ingeburg E. Nagel Douglas Nason Barbara Nielsen Marcia Ann Nordquist Janet O’Donnell Sally Olson Olson Family Trust Robert E. Oppliger Charles & Celia Owens Patricia E. Oliansky Revocable Trust John K. Papadopoulos Carolyn Perry Phina R. McBride Trust Norman Pickell Marlese Pisegna Anne Poe Nancy K. Porter Margery Posner Barbara Pritzkat Carol Quagliotti Kenneth Ragland Haley Rice Michael F. Rohde Joseph E. Ruderman Ray & Melanie Rutter James & Mary Sackett Julia Sanchez Elsie Sandefur Barbara Schenck Ed Schoch Barry Schoenfeld

Phoebe Sebunnya Robert R. Sherins Adia Shy Charlene S. Singleton Richard & Eva Sklar Robert Sloves Richard B. Solomon Rose E. Solomon Norma Sporn Monica L. Smith Julie Steckel John M. Steinberg Eugene Stelzer Elga Stepans Barbara B. Stone Priscilla Story Baerbel Struthers Noel Lynne Sweitzer Wendy Giddens Teeter Robert Thibodeau Harold Thom, Jr. Laura A. Thompson Issy K. Tindimwebwa Toyota Motor Sales U.S.A, Inc. Ivy Trent Rita S. Valley Noel E. Van Slyke Clare A. Van Vorst Edith Arlen Wachtel Michael Walsh Jamie Ruth Watson Stuart Watson Patricia Webb Lillian Weitzner Helen Fairman Wells Roslyn M. Wilkins Barbara Wood Tony Yanko

calendar
Public programs progr in review
October 21, 2004 Robert Brown UCLA “Heaven on Earth: The Temple of Angkor Wat” November 13, 2004 “Olmec, Maya, Aztec” Papers honoring Dr. H.B. “Nick” Nicholson Sponsored by Friends of Archaeology at UCLA January 20, 2005 Sarah Morris, Classics Department, UCLA John Papadopoulos, Classics Department, UCLA “Excavations in Albania” January 27, 2005 Frederick T. Hiebert National Geographic Fellow “Bactrian Gold Rediscovered” February 12, 2005 Virginia Miller, Univeristy of Illinois at Chicago Norman Hammond, Boston University “Tale of Two Cities: Chichen Itza and La Milpa” February 26, 2005 Lothar von Falkenhausen, UCLA Professor Jianxin Wang Dean of Archaeology, NW University Dr. Zhang Zhongli, Deputy of the Museum of Qin Shihuang’s Terracotta Army “Mausoleums in Xian: First Emperor Mausoleum (Terra cottas) and the Yangling Mausoleum (smaller Terracottas)” March 17, 2005 Patrick Kirch UC Berkeley “From Chiefdom to Archaic State: The Case of Ancient Hawaii” April 7, 2005 Lindley Vann Co-sponsored with AIA “Roman Architecture” May 26, 2005 Julia L.J. Sanchez Cotsen Institute of Archaeology “Sounds from the Ancient World: Archaeology of Music” October 28, 2005 Allen Christenson Brigham Young University “You Are What You Speak: Maya Creation Ceremonies and the Language of Maize” November 3 , 2005 S. Thomas Parker North Carolina State University “Aila: A Roman Port on the Red Sea” Co-sponsored by Archaeological Institute of America December 1, 2005 Jared Diamond UCLA Pulitzer Prize Winning Author of “Guns, Germs and Steel” and “Collapse” “What Does Archaeology Teach us About the Past?” Dr. Jo Anne Van Tilburg Annual Endowed Lecture Cosponsored by Archaeological Institute of America February 7, 2006 Eugene Borza Independent Scholar “Discovered: The Royal possessions of Alexander the Great?” Cosponsored with Archaeological Institute of America February 10, 2006 Ragnheiður Traustadóttir University College Holar and the National Museum of Iceland “A Viking Age Port and a Medieval Bishopric in Iceland: A North Atlantic Community in Transition”

UPCOMING EVENTS
April 18, 2006 Ioanna Kakoulli UCLA/ Getty Program in Archaeological and Ethnographic Conservation “Intercultural Links and Trade of Painting Materials in the GraecoRoman Period” May 6, 2006, 1-4 PM Cotsen Institute of Archaeology OPEN HOUSE A Level, Fowler Building See archaeology in action: What happens after the last shovel of dirt has been lifted, the last artifact cleaned, the collection of seeds and bones bagged? Archaeologists begin to work in the laboratories and archives, to analyze and interpret the findings, and to present the results to the public in the form of books, lectures, or pictures.

new books
This volume assesses the practices and strategies of premodern agriculture from an archaeological perspective. $25 (paper), $50 (cloth)
ISBN: 1-931745-22-6 (p), 1-931745-24-2 (c) Available April 2006

Topics addressed include early urbanism, household and gender, agricultural and craft production, migration, ethnogenesis, the evolution of early chiefdoms, and the emergence of pre-modern worldsystems. $25 (paper), $50 (cloth)
ISBN: 1-931745-20-X (p), 1-931745-23-4 (c)

This book presents the results of the archaeobotanical research of the Roman deposits. $35 (paper), $50 (cloth)
ISBN: 1-931745-28-5 (p), 1-931745-27-7 (c) Available May 2006

This study presents the results of new fieldwork, archival studies, and historical and anthropological research undertaken about the site in the last decade by an international team of scholars. $150 (cloth, two-volume set) ISBN: 1-931745-21-8 (c) Available June 2006

To place an order contact our distributor, David Brown Book Company, at (800) 791-9354 or www.oxbowbooks.com. Or call the Cotsen Institute Publications Unit for more information at (866) 628-2895.
Cotsen Institute of Archaeology University of California, Los Angeles A210 Fowler Building/Box 951510 Los Angeles, CA 90095-1510 AL-31
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Backdirt: Annual Review is published by The Cotsen Institute of Archaeology at UCLA A210 Fowler Building/ Box 951510 Los Angeles, CA 90095-1510 Web site: www.ioa.ucla.edu Publications e-mail address: ioapubs@ucla.edu

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