CHAPTER

Construction Planning, Equipment, and Methods

Sixth Edition

BLASTING ROCK
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

13

By Dr. Ibrahim Assakkaf ENCE 420 – Construction Equipment and Methods Spring 2003 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Maryland, College Park

CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK

Slide No. 1
ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf

CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK

Slide No. 2
ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf

CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK

Slide No. 3
ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf

INTRODUCTION
BLAST DESIGN is not an exact
science, but by considering the rock formation it is possible to produce the desired result.

This is a step-by-step procedure for
designing the blast hole layout and calculating the amount of explosives for blasting rock.

CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK

Slide No. 4
ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf

INTRODUCTION

”Blasting" is performed to break rock so that it may be quarried for processing in an aggregate production operation, or to excavate a right-of-way. Blasting is accomplished by discharging an explosive that has either been placed in an unconfined manner, such as mud capping boulders, or is confined as in a borehole.

CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK

Slide No. 5
ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf

INTRODUCTION

There are two forms of energy released when high explosives are detonated, shock and gas. An unconfined charge works by shock energy, whereas a confined charge has a high gas energy output. There are many types of explosives and methods for using them.

7 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf GLOSSARY OF TERMS Face Bench height Burden distance Spacing Blasthole depth Stemming Subdrilling . 6 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf TOPICS Blast design Powder factor Vibration Trench rock Presplitting Production CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.CHAPTER 13.

CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. 9 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf OVERVIEW pressure in the blasthole. Radial cracking Individual wedges Flexural rupture Stiffness ratio bench height burden distance Rock breakage results from gas . 8 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.

Slurries. . 11 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf COMMERCIAL EXPLOSIVES There are four main categories of commercial high explosives: 1.CHAPTER 13. Two-component explosives. CHAPTER 13. and 4. ANFO. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. 2. 10 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BURDEN Burden distance is the most critical dimension in blast design. It is the distance to the free face of the excavation. 3. Dynamite.

and ANFO. Two-component or binary explosives are normally not classified as an explosive until mixed. are the principal explosives used for borehole charges. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. . 13 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf DYNAMITE Dynamite is nitroglycerin-based product. It is the most sensitive of all the generic classes of explosives in use nowadays.CHAPTER 13. It is available in many grades and sizes to meet the requirements of a particular job. slurries. 12 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf COMMERCIAL EXPLOSIVES The first three categories. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. dynamite. CHAPTER 13.

Cartridges vary in size from approximately 1 to 8 in. long. 14 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf DYNAMITE The approximate strength of a dynamite is specified as a percentage (weight of nitroglycerin to the total weight of a cartridge. in diameter and 8 to 24 in. Dynamite is used extensively for charging boreholes. CHAPTER 13.CHAPTER 13. especially for the smaller sizes. 15 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Dynamite Cartridge . BLASTING ROCK Slide No. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.

CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. 16 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Dynamite Cartridge CHAPTER 13. 17 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf SLURRIES Slurries is generic term used for both water gels and emulsion They are water-resistant explosive mixtures of ammonium nitrate and a fuel sensitizer The primary sensitizing methods are: introduction of air throughout the mixture the addition of aluminum particles or the addition of nitrocellulose .

CHAPTER 13. 18 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf SLURRIES In comparison to different explosives (such as ANFO). BLASTING ROCK Slide No. slurries have a higher cost per pound and have less energy However. their higher cost can be justified if used in wet condition They are not water-sensitive An advantage of slurries over dynamite is that the separate ingredients can be hauled to the project in bulk and mixed immediately before loading the blastholes CHAPTER 13. 19 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf ANFO ANFO is blasting agent that is produced by mixing prilled ammonium nitrate and fuel oil This explosive is used extensively on construction project and represents about 80% of all explosives used in the United States ANFO is the cheapest and safest among others . BLASTING ROCK Slide No.

. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.5 quarts of fuel oil with 100 lb of ammonium nitrate blasting prills This the optimum ratio. CHAPTER 13.CHAPTER 13. it can be blown or augered from the bulk trucks directly into the blasholes. 21 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf ANFO The ANFO is made by blending 3. 16 April 1947 ANFO is an explosive used extensively on construction projects. 20 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf ANFO Texas City. The detonation efficiency is controlled by this ratio. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. Because the mixture is free-flowing.

Fragmentation. vibration. When selecting the proper system.CHAPTER 13. 23 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf INITIATING AND DELAY DEVICES The order and timing of the detonation of the individual holes is regulated by the initiation system. one should consider both blast design and safety. . Electric and non-electric initiation systems are available. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. backbreake. 22 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf INITIATING AND DELAY DEVICES It is common practice to fire several holes or rows of holes at one time. and violence of a blast are all controlled by the firing sequence of the individual blastholes. CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.

24 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf ELECTRIC BLASTING CAPS With an electric cap an explosion is caused by passing an electric current through a wire bridge. 25 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf DELAY BLASTING SYSTEMS Delay blasting caps are used to obtain a specified firing sequence. it is desirable to fire the charges in the holes nearest the face a short time ahead of those in the second row. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.5 amps heats the bridge to ignite a heat. A current of approximately 1. . similar to an electric light bulb filament. When explosives charges in two or more rows of holes parallel to the face are fired in one shot. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.sensitive flash compound.CHAPTER 13. The ignition sets off a primer which in turn fires a base charge in the cap. CHAPTER 13. These caps are available for delay intervals varying from a small fraction of second to about 7 seconds.

CHAPTER 13. this same delayed firing sequence will be followed for each successive row. and hence. will permit the explosives in the second row to break more effectively. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. .CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. 27 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf DETONATING CORD The detonating cord is a nonelectric initiation system consisting of a flexible cord having a center core of high explosive. In the case of more than two rows of explosives. 26 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf DELAY BLASTING SYSTEMS This procedure will reduce the burden in the second row. It is used to detonate dynamite and other cap-sensitive explosives.

Failure. First. 29 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf ROCK BREAKAGE A borehole is analogous to the frozen pipe in that it is a cylindrical pressure vessel. CHAPTER 13. But there is a difference in the rate of loading. . Such cracking is similar to what happens in the case of frozen water pipes-a longitudinal split occurs parallel to the axis of the pipe.CHAPTER 13. 28 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf ROCK BREAKAGE The major mechanisms of rock breakage result from the sustained gas pressure buildup in the borehole by the explosion. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. instead of being at the one weakest seam. therefore. this pressure will cause radial cracking. is in many seams parallel to the borehole. A blasthole is pressurized instantaneously.

. and to produce the desired final result. Wave propagation is faster in hard rock than in soft rock. There are fracture planes.CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. seams. and changes in burden to be considered. There is no single solution to this problem. 31 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BLAST DESIGN Rock is not a homogeneous material. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. CHAPTER 13. 30 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BLAST DESIGN Every blast must be designed to meet the existing conditions of the rock formation and overburden.

BLASTING ROCK Slide No. The engineer does this realizing that discontinuities will be encountered in the field. 33 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BLAST DESIGN A trial blast should always be performed. It will either validate the initial assumptions or provide the information needed for final blast design.CHAPTER 13. Because of these facts. it must always be understood that the theoretical blast design is only the starting point for blasting operations in the field. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. CHAPTER 13. 32 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BLAST DESIGN Initial blast designs use idealized assumptions. .

Blasthole Dimensional Terminology . whether a quarry situation or a highway cut. Text) Burden distance is the shortest distance to stress relief at the time a blasthole detonates. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. It is normally the distance to the free face in an excavation. CHAPTER 13. 34 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BURDEN The most critical dimension in blast design is the burden distance as shown in Figure 1 (Fig 13-1. 35 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BURDEN Figure 1.CHAPTER 13.

. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. 36 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf CHAPTER 13. and air blast levels will be high. rock will be thrown for excessive distances from the face. 37 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BURDEN Internal faces can be created by blastholes fired on an earlier delay within a shot. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.CHAPTER 13. When the burden distance is insufficient. fragmentation may be excessively fine.

38 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BURDEN An empirical formula for approximating a burden distance to be used on a first trial shot is where B = burden.  2 SGe   + 1 . the exact information should be used Rock density is an indicator of strength. which in turn governs the amount of energy required to cause breakage The approximate specific gravities of rocks are given in Table 1 (T13-1. 5 B=  SG  De r   (1) CHAPTER 13. 39 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BURDEN The actual diameter will depend on the manufacturer’s packaging container thickness If the specific product is known. in.CHAPTER 13. ft SGe = specific gravity of the explosive SGr = specific gravity of the rock De = diameter of the explosive. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.Text) . BLASTING ROCK Slide No.

8 2.79 – 4. 1 because of the proportional relationship between explosive density and strength.0 2. Text) Specific Gravity 1.44 2.1 – 2.28 2.5 – 2.4 – 2.0 Density Broken (ton/cu yd) 2.3 – 2.0 2.02 – 2. An equation based on relative bulk strength instead of density can be used in such situations. .19 – 2.38 – 2.19 – 2.8 2.28 1.26 3.4 – 2.36 – 2.9 2.85 – 2.02 – 2.6 – 3.19 – 2. however. In such a case Eq. 40 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BURDEN Rock Classification Basalt Dibase Diorite Dolomite Gneiss Granite Gypsum Hematite Limestone Marble Quartzite Sandstone Shale Slate Trap Rock Table 1.9 2. some explosive emulsions which exhibit differing strengths at equal densities.28 2.8 2.8 2.53 CHAPTER 13.47 1.6 – 3.94 – 2.0 – 2.28 – 2.0 – 2.94 – 2.3 2.CHAPTER 13.36 1. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. There are.8 – 3.5 – 5.8 – 3.6 – 2.9 2.9 2. 41 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BURDEN Explosive density is used in Eq.8 4.36 2.36 – 2.8 – 2.36 – 2.44 2.36 2. Density by Nominal Rock Classifications (Table 13-1.53 2. 1 will not be valid.6 – 2.36 2.9 2.19 – 2.0 2.53 2.53 2.

3 to open an excavation in granite rock.5 (2.CHAPTER 13. blasthole. 43 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BULK STRENGTH Relative bulk strength is the strength ratio for a constant volume compared to a standard explosive such as ANFO ANFO.9 = 2.8 2  2 SGe    2(1. Dynamite comes packaged in 2 3/43/4-in diameter sticks. 42 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Example 1 A contractor plans to use dynamite that has specific gravity of 1.7 ft   r   CHAPTER 13.3) B=  SG + 1.75) = 6.5   De =  2. ammonium nitrate and fuel oil. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. is the standard explosive with an energylevel rating of 100 The relative bulk strength rating should be based on test data under specified conditions . What is the recommended burden distance for the first trial shot? From Table 1 (Table 1414-1 Text): Specific Gravity of Granite = 2.6 + 2.8 + 1. The drilling equipment available will drill a 33-in blasthole. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.

BLASTING ROCK Slide No.CHAPTER 13. ANFO . BLASTING ROCK Slide No. CHAPTER 13. 44 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf ANFO Texas City. 16 April 1947 ANFO is an explosive used extensively on construction projects. 45 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Explosive diameter and blasthole size are the same.

based on relative bulk energy is given by B = 0.CHAPTER 13. B.67 De 3 Stv SGr (2) SGr = specific gravity of the rock De = diameter of the explosive. 46 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BULK STRENGTH The burden distance. either the burden distance of the rear holes must be adjusted or delay devices must be used to allow the face rock from the front rows to move. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. the burden distance between rows will usually be equal. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. 47 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BURDEN DISTANCE When one or two rows of blastholes are used. . If more than two rows are to be fired in a single shot. Stv = relative bulk strength compared to ANFO CHAPTER 13. in.

Rock is not homogeneous material as assumed by all formulas Therefore. CHAPTER 13. 48 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BURDEN DISTANCE The burden distance should also be adjusted because of the geological variations.CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. it is always necessary to use correction factors for specific geological conditions. 49 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BURDEN corrected Kd = ? . BLASTING ROCK Slide No.

BLASTING ROCK Slide No. 51 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BURDEN DISTANCE CORRECTION FACTORS Bedding steeply dipping into cut Bedding steeply dipping into face Other cases of depostion 1.18 0.00 Table 2.10 0. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. Density by Nominal Rock Classifications (Table 13-2. weakly cemented layers Thin. well-cemented layers with tight joints Massive intact rock Ks 1.CHAPTER 13.95 . 50 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BURDEN DISTANCE The corrected burden distance can be computed from the following equation: Bcorrected = B × K d × K s (3) Where Kd = correction factor for rock deposition Ks = correction factor for rock structure Table 2 gives burden distance correction factors for rock deposition and rock structure CHAPTER 13.95 1.30 1. frequent weak joints. Text) Rock Depostion Kd Rock Structure Heavily cracked.

4 and 2. The 6.4 + 2. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.3 (numerous weakly cemented layers. From a borehole test drilling program it is believed that the limestone is highly laminated with many weakly cemented layers. 53 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Example 2 (continued) From Table 1 (Table 1313-1.CHAPTER 13.67(5)3 = 12. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. the specific gravity is between 2.6 SGr Kd = 1 (horizontal bedding.9 Average Specific Gravity = 2 = 2 . a cartridged slurry (relative bulk density of 140) will be used as explosive. Table 2) Bcorrected = B × Kd × Ks = 12. Text): For limestone. What is the burden distance? CHAPTER 13.67 De 3 140 Stv = 0.3) = 16. 52 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Example 2 A new quarry is being opened in a limestone formation having horizontal bedding with numerous weak joints. see Table 2) Ks = 1.9 B = 0.65 ft 2. Because of possible wet conditions.9 2.4 ft .5-in blastholes will be loaded with 5-in diameter cartridges.65(1)(1.

Density by Nominal Rock Classifications (Table 13-1.53 2.0 2.8 2.4 – 2.38 – 2.28 – 2.36 2.6 – 2.44 2.19 – 2.5 – 2.36 – 2.85 – 2. .9 2.36 2.02 – 2.26 3.8 – 2.0 2.19 – 2.28 1.8 4.94 – 2.0 – 2.28 2.0 – 2.36 1.9 2.4 – 2.79 – 4.36 2.9 2. such as drill cuttings.6 – 3.0 2.1 – 2.36 – 2.CHAPTER 13.8 – 3.28 2.6 – 2.8 2.8 2.0 Density Broken (ton/cu yd) 2.9 2.3 – 2. on top of the explosive in a blasthole for the purpose of confining the energy of the explosive To function property the material used for stemming must lock into the borehole.53 CHAPTER 13. 55 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf STEMMING Definition: Stemming is the adding of an inert material.47 1.53 2.9 2.8 – 3.6 – 3.5 – 5. 54 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Example 2 (continued) Rock Classification Basalt Dibase Diorite Dolomite Gneiss Granite Gypsum Hematite Limestone Marble Quartzite Sandstone Shale Slate Trap Rock Table 1.36 – 2.3 2.19 – 2. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.94 – 2.19 – 2.02 – 2. Text) Specific Gravity 1.53 2.44 2.8 2.

56 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf CHAPTER 13. To function properly. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. 57 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf STEMMING It is common practice to use drill cuttings as the stemming material.05 times the diameter of the hole and should be angular. the stemming material should have an average diameter 0. there will be poor top breakage from the explosion and backbreak will increase. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. . If the stemming distance is too great.CHAPTER 13.

This portion of the blasthole below the desired final grade is termed "subdrilling. will be satisfactory. a stemming distance. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. T.7 x B CHAPTER 13. the explosion will escape prematurely from the hole. properly designed burden and explosive. Under normal conditions. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. B. This can be understood by remembering that the second mechanism of breakage is flexural rupture. and good stemming material." .7 times the burden distance. (4) T = 0. To achieve a specified grade. 59 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf SUBDRILLING A shot will normally not break to the very bottom of the blasthole. one will need to drill below the desired floor elevation. 58 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf STEMMING When the stemming distance is inadequate.CHAPTER 13. of 0.

required can be approximated by the following formula: (5) J = 0. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. Therefore. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. for practical reasons drilling should be to a depth slightly greater than that calculated.CHAPTER 13. 60 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf SUBDRILLING The subdrilling distance.3 x B Subdrilling represents the depth required for explosive placement. holes will slough. . and material will accidentally fall into some holes. J. not a field drilling depth CHAPTER 13. 61 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf SUBDRILLING During the drilling operation there will be random drilling depth errors.

63 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BLASTHOLE SIZE Once again. The economics of drilling is the second consideration in determining blasthole size. the second mechanism of rupture and the stiffness ratio (SR) need to be considered.CHAPTER 13. SR = L B (6) . The stiffness ratio (SR) for blasting purposes is the bench height (L) divided by the burden distance (B). flyrock. Larger holes are usually more economical to drill but they introduce possible blast problems. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. air blast. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. and ground vibration. CHAPTER 13. 62 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BLASTHOLE SIZE The size (diameter) of the blasthole will affect blast considerations concerning fragmentation.

64 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf STIFFNESS RATIO  Stiffness ratio   burden distance   bench height  affects several critical blasting considerations.CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. the existing ground elevation and plan grade. 65 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf STIFFNESS RATIO The bench height is usually set by physical constrains. • Fragmentation • Air blast • Flyrock • Ground vibration CHAPTER 13. .

66 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf STIFFNESS RATIO In the case of deep cuts it may be possible to adjust the bench height with stepped cuts. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. 67 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf STIFFNESS RATIO The bench height should be matched to the reach of the excavation equipment (optimum height of cut). . CHAPTER 13.

69 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BLASTHOLE SIZE Table 3. but on a road project the existing ground and the specified final roadway grades set limits on any bench height modification. 68 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BLASTHOLE SIZE In some situations. Text) gives the relationship between the stiffness ratio and the critical blasting factors. Table 13-3. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. Text) 1 2 Poor Fair Air Blast Severe Fair Flyrock Severe Fair Ground Vibration Severe Fair * Stiffness Ratios above 4 yield no increase in benefit Stiffness Ratio (RS) Fragmentation 3 Good Good Good Good > 4* Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent . as in a quarry.CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. CHAPTER 13. the blaster can adapt the bench height to optimize the blast. The following table (Table 3. Stiffness Ratio’s Effect on Blasting Factors (Table 13-3.

The diameter of the explosive is limited by the diameter of the blasthole  2 SGe  B=  SG + 1. 71 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BLASTHOLE SIZE Explosive diameter and bore hole diameter may not be the same. 1 and 2 was the diameter of the explosive. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. 70 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BLASTHOLE SIZE One of the parameters in both Eqs.5   De r   B = 0. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. De. the burden distance will be affected CHAPTER 13.67 De 3 Stv SGr If it is desirable to drill larger blastholes for economic reasons (usually cheaper).CHAPTER 13. LINER or FILLER EXPLOSIVE BORE HOLE .

5   De =  2.5 (4.5    r   100 No. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. 72 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Example 3 A contractor plans to use dynamite that has specific gravity of 1.9 = 2.54.CHAPTER 13.8 2  2SGe   2(1.8 + 1. dia.7 For the 4.75-in dia.5-diameter sticks. 73 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Example 3 (cont’d) For the 2.8 + 1.93 ≈ 16 rows 6.5 ( 2. Dynamite comes packaged in 2.9 .5-diameter packages? Which package of dynamite will result in lesser blasting problems? CHAPTER 13.3)  B1 =   SG + 1. dia.9 ft  SG + 1.5-in. package: Specific Gravity of Granite = 2.752. of rows required = + 1 = 10.75 and 4.3)  B2 =   De =  2.6 + 2. The drilling equipment available will drill a 5-in blastones.5 = 10.17 ≈ 10 rows 10. If the specifications call for a 13-ft bench height and the extent of the excavation perpendicular to the face is 100 ft.75 = 6.3 to open an excavation in granite rock.75-in and 4. package:   2 SGe  2(1.7 ft   r   100 No. of rows required = + 1 = 15.how many rows of blastholes will be required for both the 2. dia. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.

75 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Example 3 (cont’d) Table 3. explosive package: SR1 = L 13 = = 1. dia. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.5-in. Stiffness Ratio’s Effect on Blasting Factors (Table 13-3.9 Comparing the results of the stiffness ratios using Table 3 (Table 1313-3. dia. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. Text) 1 2 Poor Fair Air Blast Severe Fair Flyrock Severe Fair Ground Vibration Severe Fair * Stiffness Ratios above 4 yield no increase in benefit Stiffness Ratio (RS) Fragmentation 3 Good Good Good Good > 4* Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent . 74 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Example 3 (cont’d) For the 2. dia. explosive package: SR2 = L 13 = = 1. Text). the 2. diameter explosive package has lesser blasting problem CHAPTER 13.75-in.7 For the 4.5-in. dia.19 B2 10.54.94 B1 6.CHAPTER 13.752.52.

CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK

Slide No. 76
ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf

Example 4

Suppose that the rock blasting in Example 3 should be accomplished with a minimum stiffness ratio of 3, what will be the ideal explosive diameter?
SR = L B ⇒ B= L 13 = = 4.33 SR 3

 2 SGe   2(1.3)  B=  SG + 1.5   De =  2.8 + 1.5  De = 4.33 ft   r   ∴ De = 1.783 in ∴ ideal explosive diameter = 1.75 or 1 3/4 - diameter CKECK : 13 L   2(1.3) = 3.06 > 3 OK B= + 1.5 (1.75) = 4.25 ⇒ SR = = B 4.25   2 .8

CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK

Slide No. 77
ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf

SPACING

Proper spacing of blastholes is controlled by the initiation timing and the stiffness ratio. When holes are spaced too close and fired instantaneously, venting of the energy will occur with resulting air blast and flyrock. When the spacing is extended, there is a limit beyond which fragmentation will become harsh.

CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK

Slide No. 78
ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf

SPACING

Before beginning a spacing analysis, two questions must be answered concerning the shot:
1. Will the charges be fired instantaneously or will delays be used? 2. Is the stiffness ratio greater than 4?

CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK

Slide No. 79
ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf

SPACING
Spacing is controlled by initiation timing and stiffness ratio. Instantaneous initiation: SR greater than 1 but less than 4 Instantaneous initiation: SR equal to or greater than 4
Text p. 388, equations (13-6 and 13-7)

CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK

Slide No. 80
ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf

SPACING
Spacing is controlled by initiation timing and stiffness ratio.

Delayed initiation: SR greater

than 1 but less than 4 Delayed initiation: SR equal to or greater than 4
Text p. 388, equations (13-8 and 13-9)

CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK

Slide No. 81
ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf

SPACING

An SR of less than 4 is considered a low bench and a high bench is a SR value of 4 or greater. This means that there are four cases to be considered: 1. Instantaneous initiation. with the SR greater than I but less than 4.
where S = spacing L = bench height

S=

L + 2B 3

(7)

Instantaneous initiation. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. 83 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf SPACING 4. with the SR equal to or greater than 4. . with the SR equal to or greater than 4.4 B (9) Note: The actual spacing utilized in the field should be within 15% plus or minus the calculated value. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. S = 1. S= L + 7B 8 (9) CHAPTER 13. with the SR greater than I but less than 4.CHAPTER 13. Delayed initiation. Delayed initiation. S = 2B (8) 3. 82 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf SPACING 2.

BLASTING ROCK Slide No. will the 8-ft spacing be acceptable? The bench height is 35 ft and each hole is to be fired on separate delay. 85 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Example 5 It is proposed to load 4-in diameter blasholes with bulk ANFO. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. . Calculated spacing -15% +15% CHAPTER 13. 84 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf SPACING Spacing in the field should be within plus or minus 15% of the calculated value.CHAPTER 13. Assuming the burden distance is correct. The contractor would like to use an 8 X 8 drill pattern.

93 ft  SG + 1. The contractor’s equipment can easily drill 33-in diameter holes. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.75 + 1. As a minimum.2)  B=  De =  2.5) = 5. use Eq. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. 86 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Example 5 (cont’d) B = 8 ft and L = 35 ft Check the stiffness ratio.CHAPTER 13. Assume the packaged diameter of the explosives will be 2.5 to 12.5 in.5 ( 2.75 2   2 SGe  2(1. Eq.15(11.9 = 2.2 ft Range = 11. L/B for high or low bench: L 35 = = 4. the pattern should be: 8 X 9.9 ft The spacing is not OK. Delay blasting techniques will be used.5 CHAPTER 13. An explosive having a specific gravity of 1. From Table 1 (Table 13-1 Text): Specific Gravity of Granite = 2. 87 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Example 6 A project in granite rock will have an average bench height of 20 ft.2) : S = 9.5    r   .2 has been proposed.4(8) = 11.4 ft B 8 Delay timing. Develop a blast design for the project. 9: S = 1.2 ± 0. therefore.6 + 2.

4 – 2.75 ft 8 8 S = 6.9 2.36 2.6 to 8.28 – 2.4 – 2. use 6 in for the burden distance B.19 – 2.53 CHAPTER 13.0 – 2.6 – 2.36 – 2.28 2.9 2.0 – 2.75) : L + 7 B 20 + (7)(6) = = 7.6 – 3. J 1 < SR < 4 and delayed initiation ⇒ S = Range = 7. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.9 2.36 2.7(6) = 4.53 2. 89 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Example 6 (cont’d) Hence. The subdrilling ( J ) = 0.1 – 2.8 2.8 2.53 2.19 – 2.3 × B = 0.0 2.5 – 5.8 2.36 1.6 – 3.36 – 2.02 – 2.8 4.26 3.19 – 2. use a 6-ft burden X 8-ft spacing pattern .94 – 2.44 2. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.2 ft Use 4 ft for the stemming depth.94 – 2.02 – 2.79 – 4.53 2.8 – 3.3(6) = 1.15(7.75 ± 0. 88 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Example 6 (cont’d) Rock Classification Basalt Dibase Diorite Dolomite Gneiss Granite Gypsum Hematite Limestone Marble Quartzite Sandstone Shale Slate Trap Rock Table 1.0 Density Broken (ton/cu yd) 2.9 2.19 – 2.38 – 2.85 – 2.8 2.3 – 2.CHAPTER 13.8 – 3.44 2. Text) Specific Gravity 1.36 – 2.6 – 2.28 1.9 ft As a first trial. T.9 2.3 ⇒ good (according to Table 3) SF = = B 6 The stemming depth (T ) = 0. L 20 = 3.8 – 2.0 2.47 1.7 × B = 0.0 2. Density by Nominal Rock Classifications (Table 13-1.36 2.5 – 2.8 ft Use 2 ft for subdrilling depth.28 2.3 2.

Text) 1 2 Poor Fair Air Blast Severe Fair Flyrock Severe Fair Ground Vibration Severe Fair * Stiffness Ratios above 4 yield no increase in benefit Stiffness Ratio (RS) Fragmentation 3 Good Good Good Good > 4* Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent CHAPTER 13. Table 5 (Table 13-4. . 91 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf POWDER COLUMN AND POWDER FACTOR The amount of explosive required to fracture a cubic yard of rock is a measure of economy of blast design. Text) is a loading density chart which allows the engineer to easily calculate the weight of explosive required for a blasthole. Stiffness Ratio’s Effect on Blasting Factors (Table 13-3. 90 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Example 6 (cont’d) Table 3.CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.

BLASTING ROCK Slide No. 93 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf POWDER COLUMN Powder column length is the blasthole depth minus the stemming depth.stemming .CHAPTER 13. Explosive Loading Density Chart in lb per ft of Column for a a Given Explosive Specific Gravity (Table 13-4. 92 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf POWDER COLUMN AND POWDER FACTOR Table 4. Blasthole depth = bench height + subdrilling Powder column = blasthole depth . Text) CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.

CHAPTER 13. 94 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf POWDER COLUMN AND POWDER FACTOR Definition: “The powder column length is the total hole length less stemming” that is Powder Length = L + J − T (10) CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. 95 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf POWDER COLUMN AND POWDER FACTOR Definition: “The powder factor is the ratio of the total weight (lb)of explosive in powder column length to the total volume (cu yd) of rock fractured by one blasthole under the pattern area to a depth of bench depth equal L” that is Powder Factor = Total Weight (lb) of Powder Column Length Total Volume under Pattern Area (cu yd) (11) . BLASTING ROCK Slide No.

the total weight of explosive used per blasthole.5 From Table 4 (Table 14-4 Text): Loading Density = 2. 96 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Example 7 For Example 6. in the case of a powder column that is 18 ft. a primer will have to be placed at the bottom of the hole. calculate the powder column length.8). BLASTING ROCK Slide No. .55 = 45. it has been assumed that only one explosive was used in a blasthole. For example. From Example 6.29 lb/cu yd 27 CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. 97 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf POWDER COLUMN AND POWDER FACTOR In all the examples presented so far. Pattern = 6 X 8 Specific Gravity of Explosive = 1. and the powder factor.2 Explosive diameter = 2. and that will be loaded with ANFO (Gs=0. J = 4 ft.9 ÷ = 1. it will require a primer to initiate the explosion.CHAPTER 13. L = 20 ft. and T = 4 ft.9 lb Total Weight of Explosive per Hole Powder Factor = = Volume of Rock Fractured under Pattern Area 6(8)20 = 45.55 lb per ft Powder Column Length = ( L + J ) − T = 20 + 2 − 4 = 18 ft The Total Weight of Explosive per Column = 18 × 2. If a hole is loaded with ANFO. blasthole.

99 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf MATERIAL HANDLING CONSIDERATIONS The economics of handling the fractured rock is a factor which should be considered in blast design. there will be 208 in (17. 98 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf POWDER COLUMN AND POWDER FACTOR A stick dynamite (Gs = 1. the blast pattern will affect such considerations as the type of equipment and the bucket fill factor. The appropriate piling of the blasted rock by the shot is dependent on the blast design.33 ft = 29.31 lb for 18 ft of powder column CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.3) will require a minimum of 8 in (0.67 ft = 1.667 ft).77 lb/ft X 0.5-in explosive diameter will be: 1.70 lb/ft X 17.46 lb 2.33 ft) of ANFO and 8 in (0.85 lb 31. Therefore. Although it is critical to achieve good breakage. .67 ft) of dynamite The weight of explosives based on a 2.31 lb The total per hole is 31.CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.

CHAPTER 13.Instantaneous initiation along a row causes more displacement than delayed initiation.row scatter the rock more than shots fired in a V pattern.CHAPTER 13. 2.Shots delayed row . one should apply the following principles: 1. 3. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.p attern firing sequence give maximum piling close to the face.Rock movement will be parallel to the burden dimension. 4. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.b y . 100 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf MATERIAL HANDLING CONSIDERATIONS To utilize the blast to accomplish good breakage and appropriate piling.Shots designed in a V . 101 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf MATERIAL HANDLING CONSIDERATIONS .

103 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Presplitting breaks rock along a relatively smooth surface. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. The holes usually are 2. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. PRESPLITTING CHAPTER 13. .CHAPTER 13. 102 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf PRESPLITTING ROCK Presplitting Rock is a technique of drilling and blasting which breaks rock along a relatively smooth surface (see next figure).5 to 3 in. in diameter and are drilled along the desired surface at spacings varying from 18 to 36 in depending on the characteristic of the rock.

104 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf PRESPLITTING ROCK The holes are loaded with one or two sticks of dynamite at the bottoms. with smaller charges. sticks spaced at 12-in intervals to the top of the portion of the holes to be loaded.in. CHAPTER 13. 105 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf PRESPLITTING ROCK It is important that the charges be less than half the blasthole diameter and they should not touch the walls of the holes The appropriate load of explosive per foot of presplit blasthole is given by 2 Dh dec = 28 (12) where dec = explosive load.CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. lb per ft Dh = diameter of blasthole. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. in . such as 1.25 x 4.

the spacing between blastholes can be determined by the following equation: S p = 10 Dh (13) where Sp = presplit blasthole spacing.CHAPTER 13. The contractor will be using drilling equipment capable of drilling a 3-in hole. in Presplit blastholes are not extended below grade. In the bottom of the hole a concentrated charge of 2 to 3 times dec should be placed instead of subdrilling CHAPTER 13.32 = 0. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. 107 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Example 8 By contract specification the walls of a highway excavation through rock must be presplit. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. What explosive load and hole spacing should he try for the first presplit shot on the project? 2 (3) 2 lb Dh d ec = = = 0.32 28 28 ft S p = 10 Dh = 10(3) = 30 in The bottom load should be 3 × 0. 106 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf PRESPLITTING ROCK When the formula given by Eq. 12 is used to arrive at an explosive loading.96 lb .

There are federal and state regulations concerning the transportation and handling of explosives. In addition to regulations and product information. . there are recommended practices. CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. such as the evacuation of the blast area during the approach of an electrical storm whether electric or nonelectric initiation systems are used.CHAPTER 13. 108 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS An accident involving explosives may easily kill or cause serious injury. 109 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS Safety information on specific products is provided by the manufacturer. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. The prevention of such accidents depends on careful planning and faithful observation of proper blasting practices.

BLASTING ROCK Slide No. Number of Rows 15. 110 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS A good source for material on recommended blasting safety practices is the Institute of Makers of Explosives in New York City. Stemming Depth 5. Burden 2.CHAPTER 13. 111 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf FACTORS AFFECTING VIBRATION 1. Rock Type 11.” It is necessary to dispose of this explosive before excavating the loosened rock The most satisfactory method is to shoot it if possible. Misfire: In shooting charges of explosives. Type of Stemming 6. Row-to-Row Delays 16. CHAPTER 13. Initiator Precision 17. Face Angle to Structure 18. Charge Geometry 9. This is referred to as a “misfire. Powder Column Length Some of the critical factors that should be considered are: 10. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. one or more charges may fail to explode. Number of Decks 8. Geological Features 13. Number of Holes in a Row 14. Bench Height 7. Subdrilling 4. Explosive Energy . Rock Physical Properties 12. Spacing 3.

S. ft W = maximum charge weight per delay. 112 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf SPACING don’t forget -SAFETY Throw rock CHAPTER 13. lb A scale value of 50 or greater indicates that a shot is safe with respect to vibration Some regulatory agencies require a value of 60 or greater . BLASTING ROCK Slide No.CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. 113 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf FACTORS AFFECTING VIBRATION d W The U. Bureau of Mines has proposed a formula to evaluate vibration and as a way to control blasting operation as follows: Ds = where (14) Ds = scaled distance (nondimensional (nondimensional factor) d = distance from shot to structure.

BLASTING ROCK Slide No. 114 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf VIBRATION Check vibration by formula 13-12 and adjust amount of explosive per delay if necessary. 397 W Slide No. 115 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf CHAPTER 13. . BLASTING ROCK VIBRATION How many holes at one time.CHAPTER 13. d Ds = Text p.

116 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf FIRE IN THE HOLE CHAPTER 13.CHAPTER 13. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. 117 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf FIRE IN THE HOLE . BLASTING ROCK Slide No.

118 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf CHAPTER 13.CHAPTER 13. 119 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Time to load and haul. . BLASTING ROCK Slide No. BLASTING ROCK Slide No.

du Pont de Nemours & Co. Washington. E. BLASTING ROCK Slide No. I.. DE Rock Blasting and Overbreak Control. DC .CHAPTER 13. National Highway Institute. Wilmington. 120 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Where to get more information Blasters’ Handbook.

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