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By Nitin Oke For Safe Hands

Flow of heat

• Net Heat flow is from body with more heat temperature to body at less heat temperature

**• Flow of heat can take place in three ways
**

– Conduction – Conviction – Radiation

**Facts about flowHeat flow
**

Conduction No Motion of particle Slowest Conviction Motion of particle Moderate Radiation Electro magnetic wave Fastest

Most efficient

Moderate efficient

Least efficient

**Cosmic rays Gamma rays UV rays Visible rays
**

No Motion of particle Slowest Conduction

**Facts about RadiationHeat flow
**

Conviction Motion of particle Moderate Radiation Electro magnetic wave Fastest

IR rays

**Micro waves Moderate Most Radio waves
**

efficient efficient

Least efficient

More about Electromagnetic spectrum

**Properties of heat radiation:
**

• Heat radiation have properties similar to light radiation. • Heat radiation travels in a straight line. • Heat radiation travel with the velocity of light equal to 3 x 108 m/s. • Heat radiation obeys inverse square law i.e. the intensity at a point is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the point and the point source of radiation.

**Properties of heat radiation:
**

• It exhibits the phenomena of reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction and polarization. • Heat radiations can travel through vacuum and other transparent media. • Heat radiations do not affect the medium through which they pass. • Heat radiation consists mostly of infrared rays, which are electromagnetic waves whose wavelength range from 8 x 10 –7m to 4 x 10 –4m.

• Heat radiation is with wave length ranging between 10-6m to 10-3m in reality the wavelength of heat radiation ranges from 8 x 10 –7 m to 4 x 10 –4 m where as the wave length of visible light ranges from 4 x 10 –7m to 8 x 10 –7m. • These waves are invisible to human • Frequency ranges from 1011Hz to 1014Hz

Facts about Radiation-

What means a, r, t

• If Q amount of hest is incident on surface. • QR is reflected • QA is absorbed • QT is transmitted • By law of conservation of energy Q = QR+ QA+ QT QR QA QT a= ,r = ,t = Q Q Q

Q

QA QR T

**Classification based on a, r and t
**

• If t = 1 then substances are called as • Examples of substances which are transparent to heat radiation are— – Quartz, glass, Rock salt, dry air, O2 , H2, NaCl, CCl4, CHCl3 • If t = 0 then substances are called as • Examples of substances which are transparent to heat radiation are— – Water, Wood, C6H6, R-OH, Cu, Iron

diathermanous.

athermanous.

**Classification based on a, r and t
**

• If r = 1 then substances are called as perfect • Bright polished surface may be called as perfect reflector. • If a = 1 then substances are called as perfect black • Examples of substances which absorbs heat radiation are— – Lamp black ( absorbs nearly 96%) – Platinum black ( absorbs nearly 98%) – Ferry's black body ( absorbs nearly 100%)

reflector.

bodies or perfect absorbers.

**Construction of Ferry's Black body
**

• A Copper sphere is taken. • It is covered by another non conducting concentric sphere of larger radius. • The outer sphere is evacuated. • An aperture is made to both spheres and slightly off the line a conical elevation is created. • Inner part of inner sphere is coated with lamp black, and conical elevation is polished surface.

• To detect these waves Crook’s radiometer or Boy’s radiometer are used. • Energy of radiation can be measured by “Bolometer” • Heat Radiations spectrum was studied graphically by “Langley” ( Not black body spectrum ) • Spectrum of Black body was studied at different temperatures by Lummer and Prigsheim • The black body used was constructed by Fery • Wien found relation between temperature and maximum corresponding wavelength. • Stefan and Boltzman related area under the curve means total heat and T4 • The graph was explained by Max Plank using Quantum theory.

Facts about Radiation-

Study of graph of radiation

T3 T2 T1

• When radiations of Black body were studied at different temperatures by Lummer and Prigsheim the observations were as follows—

Observations of graph

– The graph is different at different temperature – As temperature increases the graph shifts up – The graphs maxima shifts backward as temperature increases. – The area under the curve, means total energy per unit area per unit time means emissive power is proportional to T4 (Stefan’s law) – The Emax is proportional to T5 – The wavelength corresponding to Emax is inversely proportional to T. λmax.T = b The value of b is 0.2892 x 10-2mK ( Wien’s displacement law).

**Prevost theory of heat exchange
**

• Every body continuously radiates heat energy at all temperatures except absolute zero. • The amount of radiant energy emitted per unit time depends only on absolute temperature of body and NOT on surrounding temperature.

Heat exchange is as -More Hot Less Hot

Hot

Hot

**Kirchhoff’s Law of radiation
**

• The coefficient of absorption is same as coefficient of emission. • Theoretical proof of Kirchhoff’s law

**Theoretical proof of Kirchhoff’s law
**

• As thermal equilibrium is achieved the heat emitted per unit time per unit area of ordinary body equals heat gained per unit time per unit area by it. • E = a.Eb • e=a

Ritchie’s Experiment

aAEb 1xAE

aAEb = 1.A.E a =E/Eb = e

Ritchie’s Experiment

**Stefan’s Law and its applications
**

• The radiant energy emitted by perfectly black body per unit area per unit time is directly proportional to forth power of absolute temperature. • The constant of proportionality is called as Stefan’s constant and denoted by σ.

• The value of σ is 5.67 x 10-8 J/m2.s.K4 (W/m2K4)

Q 4 = σT A.t

Q = A.t.σ.T

4

Rate of heat radiation by black body dQ = A.σ.T 4 dt Rate of heat radiation by surounding

dQ 4 = A.σ.T0 dt Rate of loss of heat radiation by body dQ = A.σ. T 4 − T04 dt

(

)

**Generalization of Stefan’s Law
**

• Using Kirchhoff’s law Stefan’s Law can be generalized as— • Emissive power: The amount of heat radiation emitted by a body per unit time per unit area is called as emissive power of the body. • If above body is black body then it is left hand side of Stefan’s law. • Coefficient of emission or emissivity of a body is ratio of emissive power of a body and perfectly black body at same temperature. Denoted by e. e = E/Eb • As a = e Hence E = a. Eb = a .σ.T4 • For ordinary bodies Stefan’s Law will be • Q = a(A.t.σ.T4)

**Newton’s law of cooling Newton’s law of heat
**

• The rate of loss of heat by a body is directly proportional to the excess temperature of the body over the surrounding. • Please note that the law was stated quite earlier than Stefan’s law and Provost's theory.

dQ dQ α (θ − θ0 ) 0 ) = k.(θ − θ dt dt dθ m.s. = K(θ − θ0 ) k(θ dt

dQ dθ but = m.s. dt dt

**Newton’s law as approximation of Stefan’s Law
**

• Latter on when new theory was developed the Newton’s law was obtained as approximation of Stefan’s Boltzman Law. • Assuming T = T0 + x and using binomial expansion and the fact that T0 > > > x we get • Obviously we need to use T-T0 = θ - θ0

dQ = k.(θ − θ0 ) dt

Solar constant

• The solar constant is the amount of radiant energy received per second per unit area by a perfect black body placed on the Earth with its surface perpendicular to the direction of radiation from the Sun. • Solar constant is different for different planets as their distance is different from Sun. • Value of Solar constant is 1.388 x 103W/m2 • Instrument used to measure Solar constant is “Pyro heliometre” • Simplest of all is Angstrong’s Compensation pyro heliometre

• If R is distance between Sun and Earth and • r is radius of Sun then

Temperature of Sun Using Solar Constant

Q 2 S= hence Q = 4πR tS 2 4πR t 2 4 By Stefan's Law Q = 1.4πr .σt(T )

**hence 4πr σtT = 4πR tS
**

2 4 2

R S 14.848 x10 1390 T=( ) =( ) = 5730K −8 r σ 6.928 x10 5.67 x10

1 2

1 4

11 1 2 8

1 4

Temperature of Sun Using Wien’s Law • If λ is wavelength of radiation for which Solar radiation is maximum ( 4900 x 10-10m) then

**Using Wien's law λ max .T = 0.002892
**

0.002892 T= = 5902K −10 4900 x10

• If two bodies are of surface area A1 and A2 coefficient of absorption a1 and a2 at temperature T1 and T2 then rate of emission of heat radiation is –

dQ dt 1 a1A 1T1 = a 2 A 2 T2 dQ dt 2 A T = 1 1 A 2T2

Note the following—

If they are of same material then a1 = a2 If they are of same material then a1 = a2 and are at same temperature T1 = T2 If they are of same material then a1 = a2 and are at same temperature T1 = T2 and spherical in shape.

A 1 r12 = = 2 A 2 r2

• If two bodies of mass m1 & m2 ,surface area A1 & A2 coefficient of absorption a1 and a2 at temperature T1 & T2 specific heats s1 and s2 and densities ρ1& ρ2 then rate of cooling is –

a1A 1T1 dθ m s a A Tm s dt 1 1 1 If they are of same material = = 1 1 1 2 2 dθ a 2 A 2 T2 a 2 A 2T2m1s1 then a1 = a2 and s1 = s2 ms dt 2 2 2 In addition if are at same A 1T1m2 = temperature T1 = T2 and A 2T2m1 spherical 2 4 3 r1 ( πr2 )ρ2 A 1m2 r 3 = = = 2 A 2m1 r 2 ( 4 πr 3 )ρ r1 2 1 1 3

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