INTRODUCTION

Jack Welch once said that while he always valued inventions and big ideas, he put a far greater value on people who could take those ideas and spread them, share them, move them through the company in ways that would make the customer happier and more engaged. This gives us a clear idea as to how important the employees of the organization are for its progress. It also tells us that ‘human resources’ is one of the most important departments of an organization as after all it is ‘The Employees’ who make up the organization. And the way an organization treats its employees, is the way the employees are towards the customers. Managing employee performance is an integral part of every organization’s functions. It is as important as managing financial resources and program outcomes because employee performance or the lack thereof, has a profound effect on both the financial and program components of any organization. Measuring the employee’s performance is termed as ‘Performance Appraisal’. To be precise, Performance appraisal is the process of obtaining, analyzing and recording information about the relative worth of an employee.

PURPOSE OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
Performance appraisals are important and necessary to an organization for various reasons. A few of them are mentioned below:
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 To review the performance of the employees over a given period of time.

To determine development and training needs.

 To aid in compensation management.  To provide assistance to the Human Resources Department for processes like promotions, transfers etc.  To let the employees know what exactly is expected from them and where they are falling short.  To compare the expected and actual performance.  To judge the validity of the other human resource functions of the organization such as recruitment and selection.

Helps to strengthen the relationship and communication between subordinates and management.

 Deciding future course of action about a particular employee.

METHODS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

STEPS INVOLVED IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
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There are 6 steps involved in the process of evaluating an employee’s performance. These steps can be changed and modified according to an organization’s needs; these just serve as a guideline according to which a firm can set its performance appraisal system. ➢ Establishing performance standards. ➢ Communicating these standards to the employees ➢ Measuring the actual performance ➢ Comparing the actual performance with the desired performance ➢ Communicating the result and discussing ➢ Decision making

FACTORS HAMPERING FAIR APPRAISALS
Every human being has his own set of beliefs and notions. These beliefs and notions stem from the kind of upbringing that the person has had, his friend circle and family and his own sense of right and wrong. A very common problem faced by appraisers is to avoid the effect of their notions and perceptions while appraising a person. Mentioned below are few of such factors which hamper proper and fair appraisals. ➢ Halo effect ➢ Stereotyping ➢ Recency effect ➢ Primacy effect ➢ Leniency effect ➢ Stringency effect ➢ Perceptual set ➢ Culture ➢ Fundamental attribution error

EMERGENCE OF MODERN APPRAISAL METHODS

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A lot of the traditional methods of performance appraisal were troubled by the above mentioned pitfalls. This problem created the need for new and advance methods of appraisal which ensured fairness and accuracy of the appraisal. Also with certain methods like BARS, not just the output factor of the employee but his behavior and personality could also be taken under consideration. This added on to the accuracy of the appraisal because the performance of a person doesn’t depend on his output alone.

ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PROCESS AT ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL, HYDERABAD
Faculty feedback collected from the students is a part of the performance appraisal system at IBS, Hyderabad. The appraisal form given to students is based on the Graphic Rating method. However the performance standards currently in place lack certain parameters which may be of prime importance in how effective a professor is when he/she teaches. Some of the parameters taken into consideration at present are faculty’s core subject knowledge, control over the class, biased-ness, syllabus coverage etc.

EXISTING FORMAT OF FACULTY FEEDBACK (BY STUDENTS):
The existing format of the feedback forms given to the students is given in the annexure. It is based on 10 fundamental parameters.

DRAWBACKS IN THE EXISTING SYSTEM:
Following are the drawbacks of the existing system of evaluation:
➢ The semester end faculty evaluation sheet is unnecessarily lengthy, so most of the

students are inclined to giving neutral or indiscriminate marks to the individual faculties.
➢ It ignored some of the critical attributes for the purpose of evaluation which are important

from the point of view of having a complete feedback.
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➢ The result of the feedback should have been made available to the students, but this does

not happen.
➢ Proposed actions and steps to be taken by the administration on the basis of the feedback

obtained were not communicated in any way.
➢ Such a system of evaluation should have been done more than once in a semester (first

one could be midway of semester and the second one at the end of semester) which would ensure that consistency and comparison of data collected.
➢ The system of individual faculty carrying their individual feedback form to the class and

students filling them up should be done away with because the students more often give inaccurate feedback due to the presence of teacher.

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL CRITERIA TO ENHANCE THE APPRAISAL PROCESS:
➢ Industry interaction (SIP, project initiatives) - The college should have proper

measures to ascertain and judge the faculty’s liaisons with the corporate for easy allocation of industry projects. This should be initiated by the academics department on a regular basis in consonance with the top management
➢ Research papers- Relevant weightage should be given towards the faculty’s field of

research so that we can allocate proper domains of knowledge impartment for the lecturers.
➢ Accessibility to students- Professor’s should be weighted on this basis of whether the

concerned staff is ready to share his contact details and stay open to students queries
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➢ Problem solving skills- Various situations may arise during the course of the teaching

and the faculty should have adequate management skills to take care of the problems as and when they arise.
➢ Communication skills (sociability) - Often it so happens that in spite of having sound

core knowledge about the subjects the staff miss out on interpersonal skills which affect students understanding of the concepts.
➢ Flexibility and adaptability in teaching methods- The professor should deliver lectures

in a way that is desired by students so that its easy for understanding.
➢ Acquaintance with corporate trends- The lecturer has to be up-to-date with the

prevailing industry practices and accordingly let the students aware of those.
➢ Open to feedback and criticism- The concerned faculties need to have eagerness

towards self improvement and continuous learning which would consequently enable him to make the most out of the existing feedback process.

SUGGESTED MODERN APPRAISAL METHOD:
Among all the different appraisal methods, Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) would be the most appropriate method for the performance appraisal of the faculty members. Smith and Kendall developed it to provide a better method of rating employees. Here the students (appraisers) are asked to select the description that best matches the actual behavior of faculties and their performances during a particular semester in the class. Once those behaviors are identified for a particular job, or employee, the items can be used to base a numerical or performance label.

RATIONALE FOR USING THIS METHOD:
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This method is given preference over and above other methods because: ➢ It focuses on behaviors that are determined to be important for completing a job task or doing the job properly, rather than looking at more general employee characteristics (e.g. personality, vague work habits).

It examines behaviors displayed by the faculties by comparing them with a range of predetermined behaviors which helps to see the gap.

Questionnaire developed based on BARS:
➢ Communication skillsAnchors Is able to communicate with the students clearly and affectively and ensures correct flow of information and understanding. Is able to deliver himself well in class and shows his concern about whether the class is able to follow him or not. Is fairly effective in communicating information properly and tries to ensure that the class is with him. Is seldom concerned about whether he is able to 2 ( ) Below Average
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Rating

5 ( ) Excellent 4 ( ) Good

3 ( ) Average

communicate properly or not and is usually not concerned about the understanding of the students. Is hardly ever bothered about his ability to communicate. 1 ( ) Poor

➢ Clarity and ability to explain conceptsAnchors Is extremely efficient at explaining concepts and is able to put forth complex concepts in a lucid manner exhibiting commendable understanding of the concept himself. Has clear understanding of the concepts he discusses in class and is able to explain them properly to the students. Is able to explain the concepts more or less satisfactorily and seems to be well aware of the concept that he teaches in class. Is seldom able to explain the concepts properly and shows that his understanding of the subject is patchy. Cannot explain the concepts he teaches in class
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Rating 5 ( ) Excellent

4(

) Good

3 ( ) Average

2(

) Below average

and his personal understanding of the subject matter is flawed.

1 ( ) Unacceptable

➢ Subject knowledgeAnchors Has excellent overall knowledge of the subject he teaches and is able to address doubts that may not be directly related to the topic of discussion in more than satisfactory manner. Has commendable subject knowledge and is able to handle subject related doubts satisfactorily. His knowledge of the subject is enough to suffice the course content and usually is able to answer questions pertaining to the subject he teaches. His understanding of the subject is not enough to teach a graduate course and his ability to handle questions outside the scope in hardly satisfactory. His subject knowledge is poor and and he avoids/ discourages asking of questions that are 1 ( ) Unacceptable
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Rating 5 ( ) Excellent

4 ( ) Good

3 ( ) Average

2 ( ) Below Average

not directly related to the topic of discussion.

➢ Ability to handle questions –

Anchors Handles questions extremely efficiently and his answers always clear the doubts of th questioner. He also encourages people to ask questions to stimulate learning. Is careful to answer questions to the best of his ability and invites questions in his sessions. Usually he tries to clear the doubts and succeeds too. People are allowed to ask questions in his sessions. He is seldom able to give satisfactory answers to the questions asked and generally avoids having to answer questions. He is never able to come up with satisfactory answers for the questions directed to him and ignores questions asked to him.

Rating 5 ( ) Excellent

4 ( )Good 3 ( ) Average

2 ( ) Below average

1 ( ) Unacceptable

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➢ Controlling the classAnchors His sessions have undivided attention of the students who are always alert and attentive. Impeccable disciplinarian. His lectures are able to grab the attention of the students and he is able to conduct the classes without any major disturbances. Most of the students find his lectures informative and pay attention. A few may be inattentive but that normally does not affect the general discipline of the class. He is seldom able to generate interest among the students who are usually found doing other tasks in his class and his ability to maintain discipline needs improvement. Students find his lectures boring and dozing is a common act in his class. His classes are normally a scene of chaos even when he is present in the class. 1 ( ) Unacceptable 2 ( ) Below average 3 ( ) Average Rating 5 ( ) Excellent 4 ( ) Good

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➢ Approachability-

Anchors Invites people to come to him if ever they have any problem and is always open and eager for discussions, consultation at any hour. Gives suggestions for the betterment of the students voluntarily. Has asked people to come to him if they have any problem and he is open for consultation at specified times. Has specified hours for consultation and usually tries to accommodate queries. Usually gives suggestions but only when asked. He is seldom approachable and he contributes in form of suggestions only when he feels like it. He does not entertain any queries nor does he give any suggestions even when asked for it. His attitude usually gives negative vibes to the students.

Rating 5 ( ) Excellent

4 ( ) Good

3 ( ) Average

2(

) Below average

1 ( ) Unacceptable

➢ Helpfulness12 | P a g e

Anchors He is extremely helpful and is always willing to help the people who are weak and arranges extra coaching sessions for people who miss classes and accommodates people who have problems and cannot attend his classes. He helps people with lessons especially who are weak and helps people who need help if requested to do so. He tries to help people but it depends if he has time to do so or not. He does not normally encourage people coming to him for extra help. Turns people away if they ever come for help.

Rating 5 ( ) Excellent

4 ( ) Good

3 ( ) Average 2( ) Below average

1 ( ) Unacceptable

➢ Fairness and unbiasednessAnchors Rating Is fair and just and has no favorites and does
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not favor anybody when evaluating. His 5 ( ) Excellent process of evaluation is transparent and open for inspection if any discrepencies occur. He is just and unbiased and takes care that his 4 ( ) Good judgements are not influenced by peoples’ behavior towards him. He is usually unbiased and tries to be 3 ( ) Average transparent in his evaluations. He gets influenced by people and their 2 ( behavior and can be biased when it comes to evaluations. He is extremely biased and hardly ever 1 ( ) Unacceptable evaluates fairly. Favors his own group of favorites blatantly. Even accepts gifts in kind as well. Can be bribed. ) Below average

➢ Handling of class discussionsAnchors Rating He ensures full class participation, invites diverse points of view and stimulates debates 5 ( ) Excellent in the class to heighten the learning activity all the while keeping a strict watch over the fact
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that the discussion does not divert from the main topic. He is always careful towards involving the 4 ( ) Good entire class in the discussion and keeps a watch on the fact that the discussion does not go out of the purview of the topic. He mostly talks in discussions and allows 3 ( ) Average occasional inputs from the students. May digress from the topic some times. His class discussions do not allow the students 2 ( to participate to the fullest extent and most of the times he ends up talking about irrelevant things, His class discussions are chaotic and people 1 ( ) Unacceptable hardly ever make pertinent points. ) Below average

➢ Stimulating people to have open mindsAnchors Rating Encourages people to be aware about the happenings in the world and is in favor of 5 ( ) Excellent alternative learning practices. Is appreciative of people who are involved in 4 ( ) Good something other than academics. Does not have a problem if people are involved 3 ( ) Average ion extra curriculars. Is usually skeptical about people who get 2 (
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) Below average

involved in activities other than activities as he is of the view that it hampers academic performance. Is against doing something that is not related to 1 ( ) Unacceptable the course content and discourages participation in such events.

➢ Syllabus coverageAnchors Rating He completes all the topics in the syllabus and gives equal weightage to all topics and even 5 ( ) Excellent keeps time for revising topics that are critical. He completes the syllabus in time and tries to 4 ( ) Good make time for revision of old topics. He completes the important topics in the 3 ( ) Average syllabus and for those not covered provides notes to make learning easier. He does not complete the syllabus due to poor 2 ( ) Below average

time management. He does not complete the syllabus and wastes 1 ( ) Unacceptable time doing irrelevant topics that has no link
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whatsoever with the syllabus.

➢ Punctuality and regularityAnchors Rating Never misses a session and is always right on time. 5 ( ) Excellent Regular to class and is fairly punctual-may be a 4 ( ) Good minute or two late at the most. Misses a session or two once in a while and tries 3 ( ) Average to be on time. Misses sessions at regular intervals and is late 2 ( ) Below average

most of the times. Misses sessions without any apparent reason 1 ( ) Unacceptable and is always late for the class.

ANNEXURE
Faculty Performance Appraisal Form - IBS Hyderabad

S .No . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 17 | P a g e

Attributes Subject Knowledge Delivery Able to engage class in discussion Teaches with practical examples and case studies Method of evaluation Quality of assignments Able to create Interest in the subject Punctual Full Syllabus covered (Yes/ No) Fundamental concepts cleared

Facult y Name

Points to be given on the scale of 110 1 - unsatisfactory 10 - Excellent Note: Do not write your name or enrollment anywhere on this form

REFERENCES
1. Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management,10th Edition.

2. Human Resource Management, ICMR Text Book, November 2003 edition.
3. J.S. Pounder, Towards a Behaviorally Based Performance Appraisal System for

Academic Staff
4. Nicole T. LaGuerre, Using BARS to Assess Motivational Behaviour,

http://www.vicissitudeconsulting.net/Using-BARS%20to%20assess%20motivation.pdf
5. Thomas F. Patterson , Refining Performance Appraisal, Journal of Extension,

http://www.joe.org/joe/1987winter/a5.html

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