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# Final Exam/CHM177 Arceo, Chrissie A.

## Slope=0.0001=B M2=10,000 g/mol from intercept =1/M2.

The threshold for an osmotic effect to occur is at concentration above 0.038g/mL because at this concentration, the solution has a higher pressure than the solvent. There will be complete membrane permeation if there is no pressure difference between the solute and solvent. Pressure is dependent on concentration, but concentration on the other hand is independent. The reason as to why the molecular mass is larger than the computed molecular weight because polymerization occurs along the addition of solute.

The molecular mass of ether is 10,000 and the computed mass of the ether is about

by

the

## molecules that gave rise to the osmotic more concentrated solution.

Molar volume:

The molecular weight computed is quite far from the actual value, so it does not seem reasonable. As for the volume and radius of the molecule, I think it is reasonable because the radius of the octadecanoic molecule is estimated to be 1.75.

Film pressure involved at the end point of the experiment is the Langmuir-Blodgett film pressure. This causes the monolayer to become unstable and destroy the monolayer. The sigma value should be larger. When surfactants are absorbed onto a hydrophobic surface, the polar head groups face into the solution with the tail pointing outward. In more hydrophobic surfaces, surfactants may form a bilayer on the solid, causing it to become more hydrophilic. The dynamic drop radius can be characterized as the drop begins to spread. The change in pressure across a given surface is proportional to the gravitational pull on the drop.

A drop of stearic acid (SA) solution is equal to 0.005 ml and the concentration of SA is 0.200g/L of benzene. The watch glass diameter is 14cm. To determine the number of drops needed to form a monolayer, the following data were gathered on the internet: MW of SA = 284.48 g/mol and cross sectional area of SA= 2.1 x 10-15 cm2.

## Substituting the radius and area will give:

To determine the avogadros number, the surface area of water, 49 and cross sectional area of SA= 2.1 x 10-15 cm2 was used. The no. of molecules was equal to the ratio of surface area to CSA. Avogadros number was computed by dividing the no. of molecules to moles of stearic acid.

The graph shows a Langmuir isotherm, type II-Sigmoid isotherm aka BET isotherm. That is, the Langmuir is adsorption of the monolayer. The BET isotherm on the other hand is for the multi-layer. The pressure showing at the range of 0.07-0.09 is for BET and the one in the Langmuir is at the range of 0.03-0.4, the left and right, respectively.

The quantity that can be evaluated from the temperature variation of this discontinuity is directly proportional to the values of the pressure. The graph shows the value for the pressure, surface area, and temperature.

Since temperature and pressure are directly proportional, then, we see the plot to have a rise in the temperature of 10 to temperature from 0.079-0.099, about 1. The ratio is about 10%.

## The Langmuir isotherm plot of the given data is @ T= -63.7

@T = 0

@T = 5.24

@ T= 20.5

Letting xo represent the total concentration of available sites on a given amount of fresh solid substrate, we can define a fractional coverage () as

(1) where x is the concentration of occupied sites. The rate of adsorption va will be proportional to the concentration of gas or liquid (c) above the surface and the fraction

of

the

surface

that

is

not

covered (2)

(1-),

yielding

rate

equation

where ka is the rate constant for adsorption. The rate of desorption is simply proportional to the fraction of the surface that is already occupied, so the rate equation is (3) and kd is the rate constant for desorption. Setting equations (2) and (3) equal yields an equilibrium statement that can be written as

(4) The ratio of rate constants in equation (4) is equal to an equilibrium constant (K = ka/kd). Upon substitution and further rearrangement, the fractional coverage is given by

(5)

Equation (5) is plotted in figure (1) for an arbitrary value of K, illustrating how the surface sites become saturated as the concentration rises.

(figure 1) The magnitude of K quantifies the relative affinity that a given solute has for surface adsorption. Like all equilibrium constants, K is temperature dependent.