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A Generator is a device which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. WORKING PRINCIPLE A.C Generator works on the principle of electromagnetic induction (motional emf). In generator an induced emf is produced by rotating a coil in a magnetic field. The flux linking the coil changes continuously hence a continuous fluctuating emf is obtained. CONSTRUCTION A.C Generator consists of the following parts. Powerful field magnet with concave poles. Armature: It is a rectangular coil of large number of turns of wire wound on laminated softiron core of high permeability and low hysteresis loss. Slip rings: The ends of the coil are joined to two separate copper rings fixed on the axle (S1 & S2).

1

2 .Carbon brushes: Two carbon brushes remain pressed against each of the rings which form the terminals of the external circuit.

the speed at which the coil or magnetic field rotates.PRINCIPLE OF A. The value of the voltage generated depends onthe number of turns in the coil. Alternating voltage may be generated by rotating a coil in the magnetic field or by rotating a magnetic field within a stationary coil.C. GENERATOR A.C.C. strength of the field. generators or alternators (as they are usually called) operate on the same fundamental principles of electromagnetic inductionas D. generators. 3 .

hence emf is zero. let us consider the different positions of the coil which has ‘N’ turns of wire. As the coil moves from this position. 1st quarter is completed. when 4 .WORKING OF AC GENERATOR In order to determine the magnitude and direction of induced e.f. It has rotated 90o. the length arms AC and BD are moving parallel to the lines of force maximum number of lines link the coil. until at the end of 2 nd quarter. When initially coil is vertical.m. but rate of change of flux is zero. Further rotation decreases the value of emf. sides AC and BD begin to cut the lines of force and induced emf is setup till it is maximum when the coil is horizontal. In one revolution following positions can be considered.

coil is vertical. the emf again decreases and becomes zero when the coil returns back to its original position after rotating 360o. Let the length of the coil is ‘l’ and its breadth is ‘b’. because AC and BD are cutting the magnetic lines in opposite direction. The coil is horizontal and angle of rotation is 270o. it has rotated 180o. On further rotation. GENERATOR Consider a coil ABCDA of ‘N’ turns rotating in a uniform magnetic field B with a constant angular speed ‘w’. but in reverse direction. This shows that the coil of generator produces induced emf which reverse its direction 2*f times in one cycle. an emf is again induced. The reverse emf reaches to –ve peak value at the end of 3rd quarter.C. As the coil rotates further from position 3 to position 4. EXPRESSION FOR EMF IN A. To calculate emf in sides AC and BD we proceed as follows: 5 . Where f = frequency of rotation of coil. the emf is again zero.

(1) x = 2B (b/2w)lNsin(wt) x = wB(b*l)sin(wt) 6 .Motional emf = BvlSinq Emf in side AC = BvlSinq = x1 Emf in side BD = BvlSinq = x2 Emf induced in the coil = x1 + x2 = BvlSinq + BvlSinq x = 2 BvlSinq If coil has ‘N’ turns. emf will increase N times x = 2 BvlNSinq ----(1) If angular velocity of coil is ‘w’ and it takes time ‘t’ to cover angle q then q = wt also V = rw and r = b/2 V = b/2w Putting the value of q and V in eq.

free computer courses and high impact notes visit : www.x = NBw(b. If f = no.l)sinwt x = NBwAsinwt –(2) For latest information .citycollegiate.C generator at any instant.= shows direction of induced current Relation b/w x and xo x = NBwAsin(2pft) x = xosin(2pft) 7 .com this is the expression for the induced emf in the coil of an A. of rotation per sec. Then we have w=2pf x = V = NBwAsin(2pft) – (3) for maximum emf q = 90o or 270o or 2pft = p/2 or 3p/2 and sin90o = sin p/2 = +1 sin270o = sin3p/2 = -1 xo = Vo = NBwA(1) xo = Vo = +.NBwA +.

A generator has many turns of wire wound into the slots of the rotor. The armature is contained within the windings of the stator and is connected to the output. Figure 3 Simple AC Generator 8 . The field coil in the rotor receives excitation through the use of slip rings and brushes. Two brushes are spring-held in contact with the slip rings to provide the continuous connection between the field coil and the external excitation circuit.THEORY OF OPERATION A simple AC generator consists of: (a) a strong magnetic field. The strong magnetic field is produced by a current flow through the field coil of the rotor. one complete cycle of AC is developed. Each time the rotor makes one complete revolution. and (c) a means by which a continuous connection is provided to the conductors as they are rotating (Figure 3). (b) conductors that rotate through that magnetic field.

the armature has some amount of resistance and inductive reactance. the units of frequency (hertz or cycles/sec. as indicated in Equation (10-1). the generated voltage depends on field excitation.The magnitude of AC voltage generated by an AC generator is dependent on the field strength and speed of the rotor. where In this manner. Most generators are operated at a constant speed. When the load current flows. a voltage drop is 9 . therefore. The combination of these make up what is known as the internal resistance. or strength. which causes a loss in an AC generator.) are derived. Like any coil. Losses in an AC Generator The load current flows through the armature in all AC generators. The frequency of the generated voltage is dependent on the number of field poles and the speed at which the generator is operated.

therefore. The voltage drop in an AC generator can be found using Equation (10-2).developed across the internal resistance. represents generated voltage and power that is lost and not available to the load. This voltage drop subtracts from the output voltage and. where 10 .

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