Economy Transdisciplinarity Cognition www.ugb.


Vol. XV, Issue 1/2012

2 !"2##

Rural Tourism and Ecotourism – the Main Priorities in Sustainable Development Orientations of Rural Local Communities in Romania
Maria Roxana DORO !"T#$ Puiu "%STORE!"#
!cadem& of Economic Studies$ ucharest$ ROM!"%!
!bstract' At this moment, both in our country and in the European Union, rural tourism and ecotourism are among the most dynamic forms of tourism, a result of the advantages which it offers bouth tourists and host communities. Rural areas are rich in ecological and rural diversity. For a long time in their existence, rural communities have relied on the abundance of natural resources. But in the !th century, ma"or changes in technology, political or economic reasons have brought a profound transformation in agriculture, as well as other industrial resources were renewerable, which has led rural communities to be dependent on their face. For rural areas, the fast pace of change has brought with it not only opportunities but also favourable challenges. #ustainable development of Romanian local communities through ecotourism and rural tourism represents a re$uirement and at the same time a tendency of contemporary evolution. %his process includes a suite of particularities of nature followed from tourist activity, specify in its complexity and interacting with the environment and other sectors of the economy, the magnitude and variety of social relations which they generate, on the one hand, and the characteristics of sustainable development, in general, on the other hand. %he purpose of this paper is to analy&e the existing relationship between rural tourism and ecotourism, between the need for sustainable development and the need to preserve the local traditions, and to observe if such e$uilibrium is feasible between these two terms. (e&)ords' ecotourism, communities, rural tourism, sustainable development

Introduction Tourism is an important economic acti$ity in t%e European &nion. It comprises a wide $ariety o' product and destinations and many di''erent sta(e%olders are in$ol$ed. Tourism %as great potential as regards its contribution to ac%ie$ement o' se$eral ma)or E& ob)ecti$es, suc% as sustainable de$elopment, economic growt%, enployment and economic and social co%esion. T%e strategic approac% process is to create t%e conditions and pro$ide t%e basis 'or sustainable, %ig%"*uality tourism and competiti$e +omanian tourism ,!-. .ustainable tourism de$elopment meets t%e needs o' tourists and %ost regions, protecting and e/panding t%e possibilities 'or t%e 'uture. Tourism can bring bot% ad$antages and disad$antages in t%e area. It can stimulate t%e de$elopment o' ot%er economic acti$ities suc% as agriculture, local production o' 'ood and cra'ts, and %elp increase re$enue. +ural tourism and ecotourism %a$e a signi'icant role in t%e economic de$elopment o' t%ose areas or regions as touristic attractions. T%e most important positi$e contributions re'er to t%e state re$enue generated by tourist spending and e/port / import o' goods complementary 'or recei$ing countries, and t%e boost o' in$estment in $arious sectors, so t%e multiplier e''ect o' tourism by contribute to t%e economic prosperity o' t%e country. +ural tourism started 'rom t%e o' idea gat%ering toget%er t%e traditional acti$ities related to %ospitality and rest and 'rom t%e 'ollowing basic premise0 agriculture ta(es place a natural and unpolluted en$ironment, 'ramed in natural resources nutrition organic, trend t%at %as so s%arply di$ided t%e European 'ood mar(ets in recent years and, 'inally, in an area potentially ric% in traditions and ancestral customs, w%ic%, at least 'or 'oreign tourists, pro$iding t%at t%e necessary dose t%e e/otic and un(nown to attract and con$ince t%e decision o' leisure. 3

. T%e tourism industry %as been $ery dynamic and 'ast growing o$er t%e past t%ree decades. promoting ecotourism as a tool 'or nature conser$ation. Tourism is one o' t%e industries t%at must be in$ol$ed in sustainable de$elopment as an industry o' resources. and it is an important $ector in t%e de$elopment o' local communities. . respect 'or nature " awareness o' tourists and local communities1 o minimum negati$e impact on t%e natural en$ironment and socio"cultural2establis%ed de'inition o' t%e 3orld Tourism 4rgani5ation6.1!-. Tourism %as become one o' t%e p%enomena in t%e contemporary era. regional and national. T%e main priorities 'or %a$ing a sustainable de$elopment regarding t%e ecotourism concept means0 promoting t%e concept and de$elopment o' ecotourism 'or t%e support o' nature conser$ation.ome e/perts o' tourism pre'er to spea( about sustainable tourism de$elopment rat%er t%an about sustainable tourism.27-. 4' a great importance is also t%e 'act t%at national policies 'or sustainable tourism de$elopment and t%e initiati$es o' local and regional aut%orities nowadays %a$e a support 'rom t%e part o' t%e public and may be rein'orced by t%e action o' eac% tourist. %a$e recogni5ed t%at t%eir acti$ity a''ects t%e en$ironment and t%e necessary in'rastructure 'rom multiple points o' $iew and is t%ere'ore in t%eir interest increase sustainable tourism de$elopment . tourism pro'essionals. national and tourist industry.ustainable de$elopment and its deri$ati$e.17-. Needs for a Sustainable Tourism T%e place o' sustainable tourism is gi$en by t%e role o' t%is acti$ity. widely adopted by international organi5ations and many go$ernments. and ens%rined in legislation. e$en wit% t%e use o' best practices. dependent on t%e natural and %uman potential. cultural %eritage o' a society. T%e need to conser$e natural resources. cultural %eritage and social e*uilibrium o' t%e tourism destinations was understood by e$eryone. T%is sector %as so 'ar created opportunities in areas c%aracteri5ed by natural attractions. encouraging tour operators to use local resources. are concepts t%at %a$e been muc% critici5ed because o' t%eir lac( o' precision and because o' t%e di''iculties t%at %a$e been e/perienced wit% t%eir implementation . eit%er in %otels or transport industry. especially on t%e natural.o. 1. promoting t%e ecotourism as a tool to generate income 'or local communities.10-.1-. as tourism attract and in$ol$es local communities in ecotourism ser$ices and in'rastructure de$elopment. tourism %as become t%e largest industry worldwide in terms o' employment and s%are o' global gross domestic products. in t%is meaning. gi$en t%e negati$e aspects. 4$er t%e past decades. and t%e second in some aspects and components o' tourism " suc% as long distance air transport t%at can easily simply is not sustainable under current tec%nologies. s%owing its impact on many le$els. 4 . In addition. alt%oug% intuiti$ely appealing. promoting t%e ecotourism concept and principles at t%e local. e/erting positi$e in'luence on many socio"economic en$ironment. bot% internationally and nationally. International organi5ations and European institutions %a$e addressed t%e issue and support t%e e''orts made in t%is regard by t%e regional and local aut%orities. wildli'e and wilderness %abitats . socio"cultural and meeting t%e demands o' tourists and local population in %ost communities . de$eloping and maintaining a *uality ser$ice system in ecotourism . promoting t%e natural and traditional $alues t%at respect nature.Ecotourism is a 'orm o' tourism w%ere t%e main moti$ation o' t%e tourists is t%e obser$ation and appreciation o' nature and local traditions related to t%e nature and must meet t%e 'ollowing conditions0 o preser$ing and protecting nature1 o use local %uman resources1 o educational c%aracter. t%e 'irst re'erring to all aspects o' de$elopment. It is essential 'or tourism to be acti$e in sustainable de$elopment issues and to cooperate wit% ot%er industries in pro$iding *uality resources 'or all tourism acti$ities. it must be ensured t%e sustainable de$elopment o' tourism t%at %a$e role balance preser$ation o' natural %eritage. .

5 . T%is aim cannot be ac%ie$ed only by up%olding procedures 'or transport :'riendly: wit% t%e en$ironment and by trans'orming t%e e/isting means o' transport w%ic% a''ects t%e en$ironment as little as possible. social. especially great 'or tra$el. " s%owing interest and respect 'or local traditions and in general 'or t%e way o' li'e o' t%e locals. " t%e tourist industry. " t%e relations%ip between en$ironment and tourism can be de$eloped so t%at t%e en$ironment can support t%e tourist acti$ity and long"term de$elopment o' tourism. 2- 4ne o' t%e most important ob)ecti$es o' sustainable tourism de$elopment s%ould be to minimi5e t%e negati$e e''ects. w%ereas (nowledge o' a culture and o' a stranger en$ironment ta(es time. T%ere'ore. its destination recei$ed w%ic% means t%at e/isting resources are used only. t%e 9o$ernment.22 p. cultural. preser$ation and impro$ement o' it. to t%e protection. arc%itectural.8-0 " t%e en$ironment %as intrinsic $alue. " agreeing to use public transport because transport wit% own car is one o' t%e ma)or sources o' negati$e implications it %as on tourism en$ironment. but on t%e contrary. tourists. business and tra$el agents must respect based upon some guidelines principles . 1 Sustainable development model . " t%e de$elopment o' tourism must always balance t%e needs o' tourists and t%ose o' t%eir %osts and destinations. it must not lead to en$ironmental degradation.1!-0 " s%owing goodwill towards some degree o' com'ort. " tourism must be seen as a positi$e. Figure no.. To truly protect t%e en$ironment. w%ic% s%ould bene'it t%e en$ironment. communities.ustainable de$elopment o' tourism impro$es itsel' li(e a necessity t%at t%e aut%orities. Tourists must be aware o' t%e problems and constraints o' tourist destination and concerned. tourists s%ould meet t%e 'ollowing re*uirements . t%e aut%orities responsible 'or en$ironmental protection and international agencies must comply wit% t%ese principles and wor( toget%er to implement t%em in practice. economic. indigenous cultures and economies are supported and natural resources are protected. t%ey must re*uest t%e in'ormation tour operators to adopt appropriate be%a$iour and to minimise any possible impact o' t%eir acti$ities on t%e en$ironment during your stay. o' course. local communities and. comple/ tas(.ource0 . " proceeding to rela/ation and a''ord your own 'ree time. " de$elopment o' tourism acti$ity must comply wit% t%e c%aracteristics o' t%e place w%ere it is ta(ing place0 ecological. in turn.

t%e regional o''ices. sustainable de$elopment and analyses o' t%e economic appraisal o' t%e mondo process o' sustainable de$elopment on a time %ori5on as long. pro$iding t%e conditions necessary 'or processing tra$el tourism circuit in subsistence. built in. sources adapted 'rom =egan =. +ural areas. contribute to its support.000 tourism %a$e under 10. Tourism in rural areas. s%opping6. local aut%orities. +ural areas s%ould be so organi5ed and directed as to allow impro$ement o' t%e le$el o' de$elopment o' t%e national economy. being in a direct relations%ip wit% ot%er 'orms o' tourism . alt%oug% lots o' e''orts are targeted to impro$e rural tourism internationali5ation . Tabel no. aiming to participate especially in ot%er t%an urban acti$ities 2e.e. t%e socio" economic li'e and its en$ironment. . t%us enabling t%e de$elopment o' rural tourism.ll o' w%om %a$e responsibilities in t%e reali5ation o' sustainable tourism and implicitly in t%e protection o' t%e en$ironment. at least. !ural Tourism and "co#Tourism # Theirs $laces in Sustainable %evelopment of Tourism T%e term rural de$elopment %as appeared 'or t%e 'irst time in t%e latter part o' t%e 20t% century. T%e clientele 'or rural tourism is o'ten mostly domestic. tour operators and tourists. w%ic% can result in %ig%er income 'or indi$iduals. wit% a great 'uture. In t%e ne/t table we present t%e main di''erences between classic/standard tourism and rural tourism. sustainable community and institutional.1 %ifferences bet&een clasic'standard tourism and rural tourism (lassification criteria (lassic'standard tourism !ural tourism @ain acti$ities c%aracteristics .cti$ities de$eloped at national or Aamily acti$ities de$eloped locally international le$el Bocation o' space built Cig% density commercial space Bow density in commercial space. w%ic% means t%at t%e purc%ase o' local products bene'it t%e local economy and reduce tra''ic generated by transport. +ural areas still retain unspoiled traditional and spiritual $alues. In se$eral European countries rural tourism is a relati$ely important sector o' t%e tourism industry. t%e %otel industry and transport. i. to minimi5e t%e negati$e e''ects o' recreational acti$ities. " reduceing t%e 're*uency o' )ourneys. w%ic% incidentally 'ound in ot%er countries. " promoting local products t%at gi$e $alue to t%e region concerned. by increasing t%e lengt% o' stay o' eac% %oliday.220106." demonstrating ent%usiasm 'or acti$ely protecting t%e en$ironment. +ural tourism is a 'orm o' tourism t%at ta(es place in rural areas and in$ol$e e/ploitation o' natural and ant%ropogenic tourist resources o' t%e rural area.20-. " being sensiti$e to t%e e/isting problems.g. especially t%e et%nograp%ic. mountain or seaside6 in$ol$es close cooperation between all t%e parties in$ol$ed0 9o$ernments.18-. +ural de$elopment aims to increase indi$idual producti$ity. and t%e conduct o' social and economic acti$ities t%at generate bene'its 'or local communities . one o$ernig%t leisure trip to a place situated in a rural setting or in a setting outside cities and tourist centres.000 in%abitants in%abitants In'rastructure In'rastructure well s%aped T%e least de$eloped in'rastructure 6 . 220116 and >istoreanu ?. in addition to ot%er 'orms o' tourism. 'aced wit% an acute %as built itsel' into an open space s%ortage o' space +esident population &rban settlements in$ol$ed in +ural settlements in practice rural tourism acti$ity %a$e o$er 10. +ural tourism can be de'ined as. but also t%e ot%er modern re*uirements0 t%at o' leisure in nature.1<-. . by e/ploiting its potential and well"being o' residents o' rural areas. a process based on t%e 'ollowing principles0 t%e need to ensure consistency between economic globali5ation and en$ironment. t%us t%e number o' tra$el and tra''ic caused by transport. respond not only to t%e cultural tourism moti$ation and (nowledge. Trying to conclude we can say t%at t%e ac%ie$ement o' sustainable tourism at any tourist area 2rural.

%arp. and t%eir de$elopment in +omania %as )ust started .tructure o' tourist acti$ities T%e distance to t%e place o' wor( Tourist mo$ement . 2International Eco"tourism . eager 'or return to t%e wild li'e in t%e rural communities. 'orm o' materialisation and deli$ering sustainable tourism. T%e number o' t%ose see(ing %olidays in nature.1#-. rural tourism is in'luenced by departures and agricultural wor(s Indi$iduali5ed.ociety60F a responsible tra$el in natural areas. . Tourism to t%e country. . 3%ile t%e details $ary.8-. 3e can say t%at t%e en$ironment in'luences t%e local color and atmosp%ere .1 . 7 . but also to t%e alarm signals coming 'rom t%e most distant corners o' t%e world. being less a''ected by it Aormal.(lassification criteria .2 -. t%e eco"tourism is de'ined by t%e most prestigious organi5ation t%at deals wit% ecotourism . t%roug% a rational use o' tourist resources .I.1 -. p.ll t%ese 'orms o' tourism are called eco"tourism. preser$ing t%e en$ironment and sustain t%e well"being o' t%e local populationF .ppro/imation o' t%e place o' residence and acti$ities o' daily li$ing Bow tourist mo$ement by attracting certain segments o' tourists . and in general new Towns people acti$ity is in its own rig%t 2t%e employment is 'ull"time6 Considerable distances residence and wor( between Intense mo$ement by attracting tourism by $arious segments o' tourists Classic tourism. w%ile tourism %as classic. it %as gradually outlined a new et%ics o' t%e )ourney called eco"tourism .11-.17-. is e$er desired a many money.E. In response to increased interest 'or t%e (nowledge o' nature. " T. its action gradually e/panded and on ot%er 'orms o' tourism. culti$ate respect 'or nature G awareness o' tourists and local communities1 %a$e minimum negati$e impact on t%e natural and socio"cultural en$ironment . rural tourism. . as well as to arrange. eco"tourism di''ers 'rom ot%er 'orms o' tourism by t%e pro/imity to nature. *uiet.2#-. Eco"tourism is a 'orm o' tourism in w%ic% t%e main moti$ation o' t%e tourist and obser$ation o' nature and local traditions connected wit% nature and t%at must satis'y t%e 'ollowing conditions0 contribute to t%e conser$ation and protection o' nature1 use local %uman resources1 to %a$e educational c%aracter. or in 'ull nature. most de'initions o' eco"tourism boil down to a special 'orm o' tourism t%at meets t%ree criteria0 a6 it pro$ides 'or en$ironmental conser$ation1 b6 it includes meaning'ul community participation1 c6 it is pro'itable and can be sel'"sustained . in rural areas.easonality +elations%ip between %ost and tourists Tourist acti$ities management (lassic'standard tourism Duilding wit% modern arc%itecture.ince its inception.. impersonal relations%ips wit% tourists pro'essional management !ural tourism Constructions wit% local arc%itecture. eco"tourism %as been applied only in protected natural areas. is on t%e rise across t%e globe. being generally old Complementary tourist acti$ity o' 'arming acti$ities 2)obs are mostly part"time6 . but stressed. T%e concept o' eco'tourism permits man to still com'ort on t%e many bene'its o' nature.E-.r%itecture . Dy its c%aracteristics and propagated.ource0 . 0Dy simply interposing carried out 'or us to state t%at.. and re$i$e w%at %ad been destroyed in t%e past . personal relations%ips wit% tourists +ig @anagement . decreasing trends o' industrialisation and %olding tig%t warmt% %ospitality and stress city. reconstitute. t%e en$ironment pro$ides a rela/ing.1 -.

ee( to a$oid t%e Klo$ed to deat%L syndrome. ). " agro tourism integration in t%e planning and de$elopment strategy 'or national. " +espect local culture and tradition. 8 .2 p. energy consumption. nowadays increasingly larger and more demanding touristH needs or re*uirements . does no %armF. are .. to protect t%e en$ironment and cultural assets. " t%e in$ol$ement o' local communities in tourism sector by sustaining t%e initiati$e groups 'or t%e de$elopment and promotion o' local tourism o''er. " . and e/cessi$e nig%ttime lig%ting. Visitors learn about and obser$e local eti*uette. =o not abuse t%e product J t%e destination. @aintaining t%e *uality o' t%e en$ironment is a prere*uisite 'or t%e 5one to be attracti$e . %eritage sites. 80. . +esidents learn %ow to deal wit% $isitor e/pectations t%at may di''er 'rom t%eir own.ource0 . " researc% and monitoring t%e wor( o' tourism acti$ities and actions to protect and conser$e t%e natural en$ironment. water usage. not *uantity. " mar(eting promotion among wit% agro tourism. regional and local.nonymous relations%ip between $isitors and ?ersonali5ed relations%ips between $isitors and local community local community 9eneral de$elopment goals Bocal de$elopment ob)ecti$es De%a$ior"oriented leisure acti$ities / Boyalty in t%e process o' training and education entertainment. @ain reason 'or c%oosing rural tourist destinations is t%at t%e tourists want to en)oy t%e *uality o' t%e natural countryside. waste.d$anced control options Bimited possibilities o' control @anagement based on macroeconomic principles @anagement based on local economic principles . continuously %ig%"per'ormance. but by lengt% o' stay. !ural Tourism and "co#Tourism * +uidelines for a Sustainable %evelopment T%e principles w%ic% underlie t%e de$elopment o' a sustainable rural tourism are0 " sustainable use o' touristic resources. in order to satis'y.21-. Impact on natural en$ironment. T%e guidelines o' eco"tourism as t%ey were laid down by t%e Tourism Baboratory w%o %osted a . @easure tourism success not by s%eer numbers o' $isitors. Bittle impact on t%e natural en$ironment .mall groups o' $isitors &rban +ural Touristic general mar(eting acti$ities Eco"mar(eting acti$ities. landscaping c%emicals.ustainable Tourism . but also man"made. @inimise pollution. as well as rural tourism resources. training o' trainers 'rom among t%e locals. " sustaining t%e local councils in socio"economic de$elopment o' t%e community.ustainable de$elopment o' ecotourism can be ac%ie$ed t%roug% e''ecti$e management. cultural and social de$elopment o' t%e countryside.Table no. . . It is basic to good destination stewards%ip.7-0 #IAirst. distribution o' money spent. %istinct characteristics bet&een mass tourism and ecotourism (haracteristics of mass tourism (haracteristics of ecotourism Barge groups o' $isitors.ummit in +%ode Island G &. " . and local culture. " Conser$e resources..nticipate de$elopment pressures and apply limits and management tec%ni*ues t%at sustain natural %abitats. opponents to education and 'or appropriate conduct 'or t%e natural training actions en$ironment Intensi$e de$elopment o' tourism 'acilities +educed de$elopment o' tourism 'acilities . but also in t%e protection o' nature and cultural $ 'or *uality. T%ese principles s%ould be en$isaged bot% 'or lo$ers o' t%is 'orm o' tourism and ser$ice pro$iders o' suc% eco"touristic products. " maintaining t%e di$ersity o' natural.$erage prices 'or purposes o' mar(et Cig% price wit% purpose o' 'iltering t%e mar(et. " sustainable de$elopment o' agro tourism must be supported by pro'essional training. and *uality o' e/perience. penetration.12-. scenic appeal.

. Ecotourism in the Rodnei .cta &ni$ersitatis =anubius. 3%o are t%e eco tourists and w%at do t%ey e/pectM • t%ey are between 70 and ! years old • t%ey are %ig%ly educated people wit% a good social position • t%ey %a$e abo$e a$erage incomes Eco tourists usually e/pect0 %ig% *uality ser$ices1 pro'essional local guides1 small group tours 21 people ma/imum61 educational programs1 good and %ig% *uality 'ood. <88"<<1. no. t%e emp%asis in tourism industry especially in terms o' sea and mountain tourism in our country re$eals an o$ere/ploitation o' t%e natural resources. Vol 8. Carter >.Dran A. 220116 Duc%arest. Cornelia Tureac. pp. .. -.lin Ailip " Ecotourism ' the . =... Rural environment 4 a promoter of sustainable tourism within local communities in RomaniaF. Aieldsend . 'ar away 'rom tra''ic1 *uality lodging.>astase C. Conse*uently.!. Ecoturism. Ecotourism in -iatra *raiului +ational -ar. no. . pp. Oconomica.@ureRianu1 @. E8" 2. 2E"2!.. could cause serious damages in ecotourism and ot%er alternati$e tourism 'orms. 7 >o. . issue E. %he practical application of sustainable tourism development principles( A case study of creating innovative place'ma. &n'ortunately.2012 . Payamba B. p. . Duc%arest.(pan DSca1 I. European and global perspecti$eF.ountains +ational -ar.8. .ain Form of %ourism ' Exploitation of -rotected +atural Areas.imon T. 4bang C. . EE. Dogdan .78GE7. tourism ecology naturally %elps de$elop t%e tourism o' rural areas based on local natural.eria TtiinUele VieUii Vol. . (onclusions Tourism is a social acti$ity w%ic% in$ol$es an indi$idual or group aiming tra$el to stay outside t%eir usual en$ironment wit%in not too long period.. 2200<6. -. T%e Commerce Nournal. not necessarily delu/e. 'or t%e last decade...<. T%e latter is rele$ant to a large e/tent to ecotourism. 10. <01. pp. pp. In suc% conditions an essential part o' +omanian biodi$ersity is t%reatened 'or tourism strategies. It brings in large amounts o' income in payment 'or goods and ser$ices and creates opportunities 'or employment in t%e ser$ice industries associated wit% tourism 2&>3T4. 2a6. >e$ert%eless. i..8-9lQ$an Vasile. Duc%arest. o' spending more time in nature. 2b6.0 * )3-4 online and on t%e web site %ttp0//)ournals. .ibiu. 21!!<6. . $rint ISSN. 12E"12!.T%ose presented are accompanied by a more and more accentuated tendency o' t%e ci$ilised world o' li$ing in good terms wit% t%e en$ironment. business or ot%er needs.I. T%is..#.1.E.cience.. 1E0. prepared wit% local ingredients1 *uiet areas. it is also an e/pectation t%at actors o' t%e system. . Economica ?ublis%ing Couse.0E. .nca Turtureanu. 2Nuly 200#6.ndronic. %ourism( A #trategy for #ustainable Economic )evelopment in *ross River #tate +igeria. 'or t%e purpose o' satis'ying leisure. Tourism and Cospitality +esearc% Vol.c%uster1 E..10. International Nournal o' Dusiness and .p%p/oeconomica/article/$iew/<<8/882 accesat la data de 27. .=orobantu @. 20106. 2 220116. . 2Nuly 200#6. . p. !eferences . social and cultural resources. %urism durabil. but clean and proper1 en$ironment conser$ation 2t%ey li(e to (now t%at a part o' t%e money t%ey spent goes bac( into en$ironment protection6 . Agroturism. Darta1 .#-.. 9 .e. 2@arc% 20126. Economica ?ublis%ing Couse. >o. .2E-. 56th 7nternational Economic *onference 4 7E*# !55 ICrises a'ter t%e crisis.>astase C. pp. . T%e Commerce Nournal. Vol.=egan =. 220076. 1!"20 may 2011. tourists must continue an acti$e and responsibly sustainable practice . 4 between aspiration and reality. =inu @. "8. pp./#-10/1 2nline ISSN. p. I...D>0 !8<"#0#"12"017!"#. Tourism %as become a popular global acti$ity. in turn.2. #trategia calit12ii serviciilor agroturistice din Rom3nia 2doctoral t%ese6.uni$"danubius. #ustainable development and sustainable tourism. publis%ed in ?roceedings. 21. In*uiries 'rom a national.ocial .1#-.Dillington +. .... o' being closer to all w%ic% is clean.. ali$e and *uiet . pg.+. Economia turismului /i mediului 0ncon"ur1tor. ..8 .le/andra I$an.tudia &ni$ersitatis IVasile 9oldiRF..7.. #!"88. %urism rural. 220116.E.ustainable and responsible rural tourism de$elopment is unac%ie$able wit%out t%e application o' ecological t%in(ing.

V#trategic directions in sustainable tourism development through rural tourism activities:. Aorum 3are International.18. 2.ucea$a. pp.cience and Tec%nology and t%e . Victoria..1E.cience and Tec%nology in cooperation wit% t%e 9erman . pp.1!. 2a6.2E. Dec(..117 . Tuclea E.%ttp0//www.c%olt5 Dela. . Duc%arest.>istoreanu ?.2 . 72 G E!. 20116... )e&voltarea turismului rural din perspectiva form1rii /i perfec2ion1rii profesionale a resurselor umane. Tuclea E. 1<. C. !0"!<1 doi010. #ustainable tourism +ussia. sustainable alternati$e. 2200<6. <<.101#/).. 220106..pecial Issue 1/2011 G E/cellence in Dusiness.<1"<E .2011 10 .ecotourism.> 1<10"802<. ?eters @. 82 . >o.cience and Tec%nology I.orB]PX?CBmA/b.E<7 707/(. 2coordinators6. Duc%arest..tourman. >o. III International Con'erence " IEcological tourism0 an instrument o' territories sustainable de$elopment and protection o' en$ironmentF. pp. %he %rilateral Relationship Ecotourism 4 #ustainable %ourism 4 #low %ravel Among +ature 7n %he 8ine 9ith Authentic %ourism 8overs . %ratat. :.te'an cel @are: &ni$ersity o' .2coordinator6. pp.aint ?etersburg. =orobanUu @.%tmMissn[18 " E218\$olume[7\issue[7\articleid[1!71211\s%ow[abstract .+.2#-%ttp0//www.20. %urismul rural. Commodity .. 2200 6.. 220116.. p. . ## Issue0 7.. Tourism +e$iew. 220076. 2coordinator6.. Agroturismul 4 afacere de succes.wu"wien.07.dministration.. %ttp0//'orumware. %ourism as a sustainable livelihood strategy. 2b6. pp.?esonen N. T.emeraldinsig%t..tate Aorest Tec%nical . . 220116.200<.>istoreanu ?. ?ublis%ing Couse.. p. C. =orobanUu @. Vol. 2200!6. Duc%arest.urugiu C. @arinela 9. %he ambiguity of ecotourism and slow travel relationship among nature and authenticity tourism lovers.17. t%e Tribuna Economica Nournal. issued by International .>istoreanu ?.aint ?etersburg .. $ol.E!.cademy. Aaculty o' Economics and ?ublic . =orobanUu @.DED!/3%at^is^Ecotourism^^T%e^Internati onal^Ecotourism^.12.planeta. C.. no.>istoreanu ?.$el/tour/de'initions.. C.ociety o' Commodity . Emerald 9roup ?ublis%ing Bimited. Economy and Tourism =epartment.Tourism ecology0 towards t%e responsible.pril 21 G 27.m'iteatru Economic Nournal. . 3all 9.21. 2200<6. I.1<. .27.. Pronenberg C.pplied Energy. @arWa 9Zme5 y ?atiXo 220116.E ?ublis%ing Couse.+. %old by .anagustWn Aons @.1#.ociety o' Commodity .. +ural tourism0 . . $ol.C.cience and Tourism.11. .. . 7E"78 .ociety.ociety o' Commodity . . Pomppula +. &ni$ersitara ?ublis%ing Couse.>istoreanu ?. %he Ecotourism ' Element of the #ustainable )evelopment of the 8ocal Rural *ommunities in Romania.anagementul durabil al comunit12ilor rurale /i turismul. $ol. second edition... Ecoturism /i turism rural.00! ..E2"E< 2I. pp. Tuclea E.. 2!"72. 1 0.. Duc%arest. sustainable tourism 'uture %ttp0//www. . 220116. pp. pp. @oseXe Aierro NosY . Else$ier Btd.>istoreanu ?. Understanding the relationship between push and pull motivations in rural 11#" 127.22. 0<. #E"##.>istoreanu ?. 220116. 1 G 8 ..<. Nournal o' tourism..%tm.+. pp. 220086.E ?ublis%ing Couse. 11.07. Tourism @anagement..ustrian . 70.. . Else$ier Btd..1 .> 1##0" 787 . T%e . 2c6.%tml .?opa Dran5a.I Nournal6 . T%e Tribuna Economica Nournal. pp.

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