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Analysis of Laminated Composite Beams

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Masoud Tahani

*

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 91775-1111, Mashhad, Iran

Available online 30 March 2006

Abstract

Within the displacement eld of a layerwise theory, two laminated beam theories for beams with general lamination are developed. In

the rst theory, an existing layerwise laminated plate theory is adapted to laminated beams. The procedure used in the second theory is

simple and straightforward and similar to the one used in the development of plate and shell theories. These theories can also be used in

developing simpler theories such as classical, rst, and higher-order shear deformation laminated beam theories. Equations of motions

are obtained by using Hamiltons principle. For the assessment of the accuracy of these theories, analytical solutions for static bending

and free vibration are developed and compared with those of an existing three-dimensional elasticity solution of cross-ply laminates in

cylindrical bending and with the three-dimensional nite element analysis for angle-ply laminates.

2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Composite beam; Layerwise theory; Analytical solution

1. Introduction

The use of ber-reinforced composite laminates has gen-

erally increased in weight sensitive applications such as

aerospace and automotive structures because of their high

specic strength and high specic stiness. By comparison

with the analysis of laminated plates and shells, the work

done so far in the area of ber-reinforced composite beams

is limited. Beam like structural components made of com-

posite materials are being increasingly used in engineering

applications. Because of their complex behavior in the

analysis of such structures some technical aspects must be

taken into consideration. For example, ignoring the trans-

verse shear deformation in the classical lamination theories

(CLTs) results in an underestimate in deection and an

overestimate in natural frequencies. The rst and higher-

order shear deformation theories are improvements to

classical theories. In these theories transverse shear defor-

mation through the thickness of the structure is not

ignored. Another aspect in the analysis of composite struc-

tures is the existence of couplings among stretching, shear-

ing, bending, and twisting. These couplings can signicantly

change the response of composite structures and, thus, have

to be considered.

A survey of developments in the vibration analysis of

laminated beams and plates has been presented by Kapania

and Raciti [1,2]. Miller and Adams [3] have studied the

vibration of clamped-free unidirectional beams without

including shear deformation and rotary inertia. Teoh and

Huang [4] have presented a theoretical analysis for the free

vibrations of the same beams by including the transverse

shear and rotary inertia and compared their numerical

results with the experimental results presented by Abarcar

and Cunni [5].

As far as the development of a laminated beam theory is

concerned, two dierent approaches are adopted in the lit-

erature. In the rst approach the lateral (the y-direction)

displacement of the beam is simply neglected. This way,

the couplings between in-plane shearing and stretching

and between bending and twisting are ignored. Such a the-

ory is often used for isotropic beams [6] and cross-ply (0

and 90 layers) laminated beams, [714]. Abramovich

0263-8223/$ - see front matter 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2006.02.019

*

Tel.: +98 511 876 3304; fax: +98 511 882 9541.

E-mail address: mtahani@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir

www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruct

Composite Structures 79 (2007) 535547

[15], Chandrashekhara et al. [16], Bhimaraddi and Chandr-

ashekhara [17], and Sheinman [18] also have used this

approach for angle-ply (h and h layers) laminated beams.

In fact, the theory has been developed in these papers is for

the cylindrical bending of laminated plates and not for the

bending of laminated beams. In the second approach a

laminated beam theory is developed from an existing lam-

inated plate theory. To this end, the stress (force) and

moment resultants of the beam theory are obtained by

ignoring certain stress and moment resultants in the consti-

tutive law of the laminated plates. This way the character-

istic couplings, mentioned earlier, are not lost in the beam

theory. The process, however, demands the inversion of

certain matrices which can be an inconvenience as far as

developing more advanced laminated beam theories are

concerned. This approach has been used in [19] for

symmetric beams and in [2026] for generally laminated

beams.

It is well known that the equivalent single-layer (ESL)

theories provide a suciently accurate description of the

global laminate response (e.g. maximum transverse deec-

tion, fundamental vibration frequency, critical buckling

load, etc.). However, these theories are often inadequate

for determining the three-dimensional (3-D) stress eld at

the ply level. The most deciency of the ESL theories in

modeling composites is that the transverse strain compo-

nents in such theories are continuous across interface of

dissimilar materials and, thus, predicting discontinuous

transverse stress components at the layer interfaces. Unlike

the ESL theories, the layerwise theories (LWTs) assume

separate displacement eld expansions within each material

layer that exhibits only C

0

-continuity through the laminate

thickness. The resulting strain eld is kinematically correct

in that the in-plane strains are continuous through the

thickness while the transverse strains are discontinuous

through the thickness, thereby allowing for the possibility

of continuous transverse stresses as the number of numer-

ical layers is increased. Therefore, in this paper, to obtain

accurate 3-D stress eld in the beams a full layerwise theory

will be used.

It is the intention of the present work to develop a new

layerwise laminated beam theory to overcome the short-

comings present in the two approaches discussed above.

That is, the displacement eld will be modied so that

the constitutive law of a laminated beam can be obtained

in a straightforward manner as in most laminated plate

and shell theories. The resulting equations of motion will

be valid for generally laminated beams. Numerical results

will be developed for the bending and free vibration of

cross-ply and angle-ply laminated beams. These results will

be compared with the existing 3-D elasticity solutions for

cross-ply laminates in cylindrical bending [27] and with

another beam layerwise theory that will be developed from

an existing layerwise laminated plate theory. The approach

adopted in the present work will be demonstrated within

the framework of a layerwise theory. However, the idea

is straightforward and general and can readily be used in

developing simpler theories such as classical lamination

theory and shear deformation theories. In this study, in

order to utilize a layerwise theory for laminated beams that

possesses a full 3-D capability, a full layerwise theory will

be used.

2. Mathematical formulations

In what follows two layerwise laminated beam theories

and a layerwise formulation for the analysis of laminated

plates subjected to cylindrical bending will be derived.

First, a layerwise laminated plate theory is used to derive

beam layerwise theory 1 (BLWT1). Next, a new beam lay-

erwise theory (BLWT2) will be developed. Finally, a layer-

wise laminated plate theory will be presented to analyze

cylindrical bending (CB) of laminated plates.

2.1. Beam layerwise theory 1 (BLWT1)

Consider a rectangular (a b) laminated composite

plate of total thickness h. The geometry of the plate with

positive set of coordinate axes is shown in Fig. 1. In this

study, a full layerwise laminated plate theory is used in

x

y

a

1st Layer

y

z

2nd Layer

kth Layer

Nth Layer

1

2

3

k

k+1

N

N+1

1

h

2

h

k

h

h

N q(x,y,t)

z

b

h

Fig. 1. Laminate geometry and coordinate system.

536 M. Tahani / Composite Structures 79 (2007) 535547

deriving plate equations of motion. The displacement eld

can be represented as (e.g., see [2830]):

u

1

x; y; z; t U

k

x; y; tU

k

z

u

2

x; y; z; t V

k

x; y; tU

k

z; k 1; 2; . . . ; N 1

u

3

x; y; z; t W

k

x; y; tU

k

z

1

where, for the sake of brevity, the Einstein summation con-

vention has been introduced a repeated index indicates

summation over all values of that index. In Eqs. (1) u

1

,

u

2

, and u

3

are the displacement components in the x, y,

and z directions, respectively, of a material point initially

located at (x, y, z) in the undeformed laminate, U

k

(x, y),

V

k

(x, y), and W

k

(x, y) (k = 1, 2, . . . , N + 1) are the displace-

ment components of all points located on the kth plane in

the undeformed laminate, and U

k

(z) are continuous func-

tions of the thickness coordinate z (global interpolation

functions). Also N denotes the total number of numerical

(or mathematical) layers considered in a laminate.

It is noted that in the layerwise theory the accuracy of

the displacement eld in Eqs. (1) depends on the shape

functions U

k

(z) and the number of surfaces in the laminate.

Here, U

k

(z) are assumed to be linear interpolation func-

tions. On the other hand, the number of surfaces may be

increased by subdividing each physical layer into a number

of numerical layers. The local Lagrangian linear interpola-

tion functions within, say, the kth layer are dened as

follows:

/

1

k

z

k1

z

h

k

; /

2

k

z z

k

h

k

2

where h

k

is the thickness of the kth numerical layer (see

Fig. 1) and z

k

denotes the z-coordinate of the bottom of

the kth numerical layer. This way, the global interpolation

functions U

k

(z) may be presented as (see [2830]):

U

k

z

0; z 6 z

k1

;

/

2

k1

z; z

k1

6 z 6 z

k

;

/

1

k

z; z

k

6 z 6 z

k1

;

0; z Pz

k1

;

_

_

k 1; 2; . . . ; N 1.

3

Upon substitution of Eqs. (1) into the linear straindis-

placement relations [31] of elasticity, the following results

will be obtained:

e

x

oU

k

ox

U

k

; e

y

oV

k

oy

U

k

; e

z

W

k

U

0

k

;

c

yz

V

k

U

0

k

oW

k

oy

U

k

; c

xz

U

k

U

0

k

oW

k

ox

U

k

;

c

xy

oU

k

oy

oV

k

ox

_ _

U

k

4

with a prime indicating an ordinary derivative with respect

to the independent variable z.

Using the Hamilton principle [31], 3(N + 1) equations of

motion corresponding to 3(N + 1) unknowns U

k

, V

k

, and

W

k

can be shown to be:

dU

k

:

oM

k

x

ox

oM

k

xy

oy

Q

k

x

I

kj

U

j

dV

k

:

oM

k

xy

ox

oM

k

y

oy

Q

k

y

I

kj

V

j

dW

k

:

oR

k

x

ox

oR

k

y

oy

N

k

z

I

kj

W

j

qx; y; td

kN1

5

where d

k(N+1)

is the Kronecker delta and q(x, y, t) is the

transverse load (per unit area) that is applied on the top

surface of the laminate (see Fig. 1). In Eqs. (5) a dot over

displacement components indicates partial dierentiation

with respect to temporal variable t. Also the generalized

stress resultants in Eqs. (5) are dened as:

N

k

z

; Q

k

y

; Q

k

x

_

h=2

h=2

r

z

; r

yz

; r

xz

U

0

k

dz

M

k

x

; M

k

y

; M

k

xy

; R

k

y

; R

k

x

_

h=2

h=2

r

x

; r

y

; r

xy

; r

yz

; r

xz

U

k

dz

6

and the mass terms I

kj

are dened as:

I

kj

_

h=2

h=2

qU

k

U

j

dz 7

where q(x, y, z) denotes the mass density of the material

point located at (x, y, z). For a laminated plate with a rect-

angular platform, the boundary conditions in the layerwise

plate theory at an edge parallel to y axis involves the spec-

ication of U

k

or M

k

x

, V

k

or M

k

xy

, and W

k

or R

k

x

. Similarly, at

an edge parallel to x axis, we can specify the required

boundary conditions.

In the full layerwise theory, instead of the plane stress

assumption, the 3-D constitutive law [32] is used:

frg

k

C

k

feg

k

8

Here, the matrix C

k

is called the o-axis stiness matrix

of the kth layer. On substitution of Eqs. (4) into Eqs. (8)

and the subsequent results into Eqs. (6), the generalized

stress resultants are obtained which can be presented as

follows:

N

k

z

; M

k

x

; M

k

y

; M

k

xy

B

jk

13

; D

kj

11

; D

kj

12

; D

kj

16

oU

j

ox

B

jk

23

; D

kj

12

; D

kj

22

; D

kj

26

oV

j

oy

A

kj

33

; B

kj

13

; B

kj

23

; B

kj

36

W

j

B

jk

36

; D

kj

16

; D

kj

26

; D

kj

66

oU

j

oy

oV

j

ox

_ _

Q

k

y

; R

k

y

A

kj

45

; B

kj

45

U

j

A

kj

44

; B

kj

44

V

j

B

jk

45

; D

kj

45

oW

j

ox

B

jk

44

; D

kj

44

oW

j

oy

Q

k

x

; R

k

x

A

kj

55

; B

kj

55

U

j

A

kj

45

; B

kj

45

V

j

B

jk

55

; D

kj

55

oW

j

ox

B

jk

45

; D

kj

45

oW

j

oy

9

M. Tahani / Composite Structures 79 (2007) 535547 537

where the rigidity terms A

kj

pq

, B

kj

pq

, and D

kj

pq

are given by

A

kj

pq

N

i1

_

z

i1

zi

C

i

pq

U

0

k

U

0

j

dz;

B

kj

pq

N

i1

_

z

i1

zi

C

i

pq

U

k

U

0

j

dz;

D

kj

pq

N

i1

_

z

i1

zi

C

i

pq

U

k

U

j

dz

10

Using Eq. (3), by carrying out the integrations in Eqs. (10)

the rigidity terms will be found (see [29]).

Here, plate equations of motion are adapted to obtain

beam equations of motion. It is more reasonable for a

beam to let M

k

y

be equal to zero. It is noted that this

assumption is similar to the ones assumed in the ESL the-

ories for obtaining laminated beam theories from lami-

nated plate theories (see, e.g., [20,21,25]). First this

assumption is invoked, yielding:

M

k

y

D

kj

12

oU

j

ox

D

kj

22

oV

j

oy

B

kj

23

W

j

D

kj

26

oU

j

oy

oV

j

ox

_ _

0

11

Solving for oV

j

/oy and substituting the result into (9), with

o

oy

0, yields:

N

k

z

; M

k

x

; M

k

xy

B

jk

13

; D

kj

11

; D

kj

16

oU

j

ox

B

jk

36

; D

kj

16

; D

kj

66

oV

j

ox

A

kj

33

; B

kj

13

; B

kj

36

W

j

Q

k

y

; Q

k

x

; R

k

x

A

kj

45

; A

kj

55

; B

kj

45

U

j

A

kj

44

; A

kj

45

; B

kj

55

V

j

B

jk

45

; B

jk

55

; D

kj

55

oW

j

ox

12

where the reduced rigidity terms A

kj

pq

, B

kj

pq

, and D

kj

pq

(p, q = 1,

3, 6) are dened in Appendix A. It is also assumed that all

the stress resultants are functions of coordinate x and time

t only. Hence, Eqs. (5) are simplied as follows:

dU

k

:

oM

k

x

ox

Q

k

x

I

kj

U

j

dV

k

:

oM

k

xy

ox

Q

k

y

I

kj

V

j

dW

k

:

oR

k

x

ox

N

k

z

I

kj

W

j

qx; td

kN1

13

Upon substitution of Eqs. (12) into Eqs. (13) the following

governing equations of motion are obtained:

D

kj

11

o

2

U

j

ox

2

A

kj

55

U

j

D

kj

16

o

2

V

j

ox

2

A

kj

45

V

j

B

kj

13

B

jk

55

oW

j

ox

I

kj

U

j

D

kj

16

o

2

U

j

ox

2

A

kj

45

U

j

D

kj

66

o

2

V

j

ox

2

A

kj

44

V

j

B

kj

36

B

jk

45

oW

j

ox

I

kj

V

j

B

kj

55

B

jk

13

oU

j

ox

B

kj

45

B

jk

36

o

2

V

j

ox

2

D

kj

55

o

2

W

j

ox

2

A

kj

33

W

j

I

kj

W

j

qx; td

kN1

14

2.2. Beam layerwise theory 2 (BLWT2)

A generally laminated beam is considered here with a

total thickness h, width b in the lateral (y-) direction, and

length a in the longitudinal (x-) direction. A full layerwise

laminated beam theory is used to obtain accurate 3-D

stress eld in the beam. In this theory, it is assumed that

the displacement eld of the beam may be represented as:

u

1

x; y; z; t U

k

x; tU

k

z

u

2

x; y; z; t V

k

x; tU

k

z; k 1; 2; . . . ; N 1

u

3

x; y; z; t W

k

x; tU

k

z

15

Hence, the strain components are:

e

x

oU

k

ox

U

k

; e

y

0; e

z

W

k

U

0

k

; c

yz

V

k

U

0

k

;

c

xz

U

k

U

0

k

oW

k

ox

U

k

; c

xy

oV

k

ox

U

k

16

As far as the stress components are concerned, it is seen

from Eqs. (16) that only r

y

are needed to be assumed to

vanish. That is:

r

y

0 17

Here, the equations of motion are derived using Hamiltons

principle [31] as:

dU

k

:

oM

k

x

ox

Q

k

x

I

kj

U

j

dV

k

:

oM

k

xy

ox

Q

k

y

I

kj

V

j

dW

k

:

oR

k

x

ox

N

k

z

I

kj

W

j

qx; td

kN1

18

where q(x, t) is the applied transverse load at z = h/2. The

generalized stress resultants and the mass terms in Eqs.

(18) are dened as Eqs. (6) and (7), respectively. The

boundary conditions in this theory involve the specication

of U

k

or M

k

x

, V

k

or M

k

xy

, and W

k

or R

k

x

.

Next, in order to nd the governing equations of

motion, it is assumed that the beam is laminated of ortho-

tropic laminae with arbitrary ber direction in the xy

plane with respect to the x-axis. The constitutive law of

the kth lamina with respect to the global xyz coordinate

system is [32]:

e

x

e

y

e

z

c

yz

c

xz

c

xy

_

_

_

_

k

S

11

S

12

S

13

0 0 S

16

S

12

S

22

S

23

0 0 S

26

S

13

S

23

S

33

0 0 S

36

0 0 0 S

44

S

45

0

0 0 0 S

45

S

55

0

S

16

S

26

S

36

0 0 S

66

_

_

_

_

k

r

x

r

y

r

z

r

yz

r

xz

r

xy

_

_

_

_

k

19

where the matrix S

k

is called the o-axis compliance ma-

trix of the kth layer. Next, invoking the assumption (17) in

(19) results in:

538 M. Tahani / Composite Structures 79 (2007) 535547

e

x

e

y

c

xy

_

_

_

_

k

S

11

S

13

S

16

S

13

S

33

S

36

S

16

S

36

S

66

_

_

_

_

k

r

x

r

y

r

xy

_

_

_

_

k

;

c

yz

c

xz

_ _

k

S

44

S

45

S

45

S

55

_ _

k

r

yz

r

xz

_ _

k

20

Inverting the relations in (20) results in:

r

x

r

y

r

xy

_

_

_

_

k

C

11

C

13

C

16

C

13

C

33

C

36

C

16

C

36

C

66

_

_

_

_

k

e

x

e

y

c

xy

_

_

_

_

k

;

r

yz

r

xz

_ _

k

C

44

C

45

C

45

C

55

_ _

k

c

yz

c

xz

_ _

k

21

where C

ij

s (i, j = 4, 5) are the o-axis stiness coecients

[32] and C

ij

s (i, j = 1, 3, 6) are the o-axis reduced sti-

nesses given by

C

11

C

13

C

16

C

13

C

33

C

36

C

16

C

36

C

66

_

_

_

S

11

S

13

S

16

S

13

S

33

S

36

S

16

S

36

S

66

_

_

_

_

1

22

Now substituting Eqs. (16) into Eqs. (21) and the subse-

quent results into Eqs. (6), the generalized stress resultants

are obtained which can be presented as follows:

N

k

z

; M

k

x

; M

k

xy

B

jk

13

; D

kj

11

; D

kj

16

oU

j

ox

B

jk

36

; D

kj

16

; D

kj

66

oV

j

ox

A

kj

33

; B

kj

13

; B

kj

36

W

j

Q

k

y

; Q

k

x

; R

k

x

A

kj

45

; A

kj

55

; B

kj

45

U

j

A

kj

44

; A

kj

45

; B

kj

55

V

j

B

jk

45

; B

jk

55

; D

kj

55

oW

j

ox

23

where

A

kj

pq

N

i1

_

z

i1

zi

C

i

pq

U

0

k

U

0

j

dz;

B

kj

pq

N

i1

_

z

i1

zi

C

i

pq

U

k

U

0

j

dz; p; q 1; 3; 6

D

kj

pq

N

i1

_

z

i1

zi

C

i

pq

U

k

U

j

dz;

24

and A

kj

pq

, B

kj

pq

, and D

kj

pq

(p, q = 4, 5) are the same as those

appearing in BLWT1 (i.e., Eqs. (10)). Finally, the govern-

ing equations of motion are obtained by substituting (23)

into (18):

D

kj

11

o

2

U

j

ox

2

A

kj

55

U

j

D

kj

16

o

2

V

j

ox

2

A

kj

45

V

j

B

kj

13

B

jk

55

oW

j

ox

I

kj

U

j

D

kj

16

o

2

U

j

ox

2

A

kj

45

U

j

D

kj

66

o

2

V

j

ox

2

A

kj

44

V

j

B

kj

36

B

jk

45

oW

j

ox

I

kj

V

j

B

kj

55

B

jk

13

oU

j

ox

B

kj

45

B

jk

36

o

2

V

j

ox

2

D

kj

55

o

2

W

j

ox

2

A

kj

33

W

j

I

kj

W

j

qx; td

kN1

2.3. Cylindrical bending (CB)

Consider a plate of thickness h, length a in the x-direc-

tion, and innite extent in the y-direction. Assume further

that the plate is subjected to transverse loading q(x, t)

which acts normally and upwards on its top surface,

z = h/2. Since the laminate is long, it may safely be

assumed that a state of plane strain exists. Hence, in order

to obtain a layerwise formulation for the analysis of this

plate, the displacement eld in (15) are assumed. Therefore,

the equations of motion are similar to those presented in

Eqs. (18). Next, substituting strain components (16) into

the constitutive law in (8) and the subsequent results into

the denition of the generalized stress resultants yields:

N

k

z

; M

k

x

; M

k

xy

B

jk

13

; D

kj

11

; D

kj

16

oU

j

ox

A

kj

33

; B

kj

13

; B

kj

36

W

j

B

jk

36

; D

kj

16

; D

kj

66

oV

j

ox

Q

k

y

; Q

k

x

; R

k

x

A

kj

45

; A

kj

55

; B

kj

55

U

j

A

kj

44

; A

kj

45

; B

kj

45

V

j

B

jk

45

; B

jk

55

; D

kj

55

oW

j

ox

26

where the rigidity terms are dened as those appearing in

Eqs. (10). Upon substitution of Eqs. (26) into Eqs. (18)

the following governing equations of motion are obtained:

D

kj

11

o

2

U

j

ox

2

A

kj

55

U

j

D

kj

16

o

2

V

j

ox

2

A

kj

45

V

j

B

kj

13

B

jk

55

oW

j

ox

I

kj

U

j

D

kj

16

o

2

U

j

ox

2

A

kj

45

U

j

D

kj

66

o

2

V

j

ox

2

A

kj

44

V

j

B

kj

36

B

jk

45

oW

j

ox

I

kj

V

j

B

kj

55

B

jk

13

oU

j

ox

B

kj

45

B

jk

36

o

2

V

j

ox

2

D

kj

55

o

2

W

j

ox

2

A

kj

33

W

j

I

kj

W

j

qx; td

kN1

27

3. Analytical solutions

The objective of this section is to solve analytically Eqs.

(14), (25), and (27). As far as BLWT1, BLWT2, and CB are

concerned, any arbitrarily laminate admits analytical solu-

tion for any combinations of edge conditions at x = 0 and

x = a. Before the procedure adopted for solving these

equations is discussed, it is appropriate to indicate here

that in the beam layerwise theory two types of simple sup-

ports at the ends of the beam (i.e., x = 0, a) may be classi-

ed, namely:

S3: M

k

x

V

k

W

k

0 28a

S4: M

k

x

M

k

xy

W

k

0 28b

M. Tahani / Composite Structures 79 (2007) 535547 539

also two types of clamped supports may be classied,

namely:

C1: U

k

V

k

W

k

0 29a

C2: U

k

M

k

xy

W

k

0 29b

furthermore, the traction-free conditions are dened as:

F: M

k

x

M

k

xy

R

k

x

0 30

It is to be noted that these types of boundary conditions

(i.e. S3, S4, C1, and C2) are dened similar to the deni-

tions in the ESL theories. For simplicity, the boundary

conditions of a composite beam may be represented in a

concise rule. For example, a beam with the edge conditions

C1 at x = 0 and F at x = a may be called C1F.

In the following sections, analytical solutions of static

bending and free vibration of laminated beams will be

developed. Because the solution procedure for Eqs. (14),

(25), and (27) are completely analogous to each other, for

the sake of brevity, only solution for Eqs. (14) will be

discussed.

3.1. Static bending analysis

Here, the analytical solution for static version of Eqs.

(14) subjected to transverse load q(x) are discussed. In

order to obtain analytical solutions of Eqs. (14), with

o

ot

0, it must be noted that the numerical results indicate,

however, that there exist repeated zero roots (or eigen-

values) in the characteristic equation of the set of equations

in (14). To enhance the solution scheme of these equations,

some small articial terms will be added to these equations

so that the characteristic roots become all distinct (for

more complete descriptions of the present method see

[29,30]). Therefore, Eqs. (14) rewritten as follows:

D

kj

11

d

2

U

j

dx

2

A

kj

55

U

j

D

kj

16

d

2

V

j

dx

2

A

kj

45

V

j

B

kj

13

B

jk

55

dW

j

dx

a

kj

U

j

D

kj

16

d

2

U

j

dx

2

A

kj

45

U

j

D

kj

66

d

2

V

j

dx

2

A

kj

44

V

j

B

kj

36

B

jk

45

dW

j

dx

a

kj

V

j

B

kj

55

B

jk

13

dU

j

dx

B

kj

45

B

jk

36

d

2

V

j

dx

2

D

kj

55

d

2

W

j

dx

2

A

kj

33

W

j

qxd

kN1

a

kj

W

j

31

where

a

kj

a

_

h=2

h=2

U

k

U

j

dz 32

with a being a prescribed number such that a

kj

s in Eqs.

(31) are relatively small compared to the numerical values

of stinesses A

kj

55

, A

kj

44

, and A

kj

33

(see [29,30]). Next, in order

to solve Eqs. (31), the following state space variables are

introduced:

X

1

x f g Ux f g; X

2

x f g

dU

dx

_ _

dX

1

dx

_ _

X

3

x f g V x f g; X

4

x f g

dV

dx

_ _

dX

3

dx

_ _

X

5

x f g W x f g; X

6

x f g

dW

dx

_ _

dX

5

dx

_ _

33

where, for example, {X

1

}

T

= [U

1

, U

2

, . . . , U

N+1

]. Substitu-

tion of Eqs. (33) into Eqs. (31) results in a system of

6(N + 1) coupled rst-order ordinary dierential equations

which, on the other hand, may be presented as:

dX

dx

_ _

AfXg fF g 34

with {X}

T

= [{X

1

}

T

,{X

2

}

T

, . . . ,{X

6

}

T

]. In Eq. (34) the

coecient matrix [A] and vector {F} are presented in

Appendix A. The general solutions of Eq. (34) are given

by (e.g. see [33]):

X f g UQkxfKg UQkx

_

Qkx

1

U

1

fF gdx

35

with Qkx diage

k

1

x

; e

k

2

x

; . . . ; e

k

6N1

x

and {K} being

6(N + 1) arbitrary unknown constants of integration to

be found by imposing the boundary conditions. Here, [U]

and k

k

(k = 1, 2, . . . , 6(N + 1)) are, respectively, the matrix

of eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the coecient matrix

[A] which, in general, must be regarded to have complex

values.

The solution presented in (35) is completely general for

every loading function q(x). For a special case of cross-ply

beams subjected to transverse loading qx q

0

sin

px

a

,

where q

0

is magnitude of sinusoidal loading, with the

boundary conditions S3, the other form of solution can

be obtained. It is noted that the boundary conditions S3

in (28a) will identically be satised if the following expres-

sions for the displacement components are assumed:

U

j

U

1

j

cos

px

a

; V

j

0; W

j

W

1

j

sin

px

a

36

where U

1

j

and W

1

j

(j = 1, 2, . . . , N + 1) are coecients to be

determined. Upon substitution of Eqs. (36) into static ver-

sion of Eqs. (14) the following algebraic equations are

obtained:

D

kj

11

p

2

a

2

U

1

j

A

kj

55

U

1

j

B

kj

13

B

jk

55

p

a

W

1

j

0

B

kj

55

B

jk

13

p

a

U

1

j

D

kj

55

p

2

a

2

W

1

j

A

kj

33

W

1

j

q

0

d

kN1

37

Eqs. (37) can be solved for coecients U

1

j

and W

1

j

(j = 1, 2, . . . , N + 1).

3.2. Free vibration analysis

In order to obtain the natural frequencies of the beam

we consider a solution as:

540 M. Tahani / Composite Structures 79 (2007) 535547

U

j

x; t

V

j

x; t

W

j

x; t

_

_

_

U

n

j

x

V

n

j

x

W

n

j

x

_

_

_

_

T

n

t 38

where T

n

e

ixnt

with i

1

p

and x

n

is the natural fre-

quency of the beam. Substitution of (38) into Eqs. (14),

with q(x, t) = 0, yields:

D

kj

11

d

2

U

n

j

dx

2

A

kj

55

U

n

j

D

kj

16

d

2

V

n

j

dx

2

A

kj

45

V

n

j

B

kj

13

B

jk

55

dW

n

j

dx

x

2

n

I

kj

U

k

j

D

kj

16

d

2

U

n

j

dx

2

A

kj

45

U

n

j

D

kj

66

d

2

V

n

j

dx

2

A

kj

44

V

n

j

B

kj

36

B

jk

45

dW

n

j

dx

x

2

n

I

kj

V

n

j

B

kj

55

B

jk

13

dU

n

j

dx

B

kj

45

B

jk

36

d

2

V

n

j

dx

2

D

kj

55

d

2

W

n

j

dx

2

A

kj

33

W

n

j

x

2

n

I

kj

W

n

j

39

Solution of Eqs. (39), subjected to homogeneous boundary

conditions, results in the natural frequencies x

n

and

the eigenfunctions U

n

j

, V

n

j

, and W

n

j

. Next, for the sake of

convenience, the following state space variables are

introduced:

X

n

1

x

_ _

U

n

x f g; X

n

2

x

_ _

dU

n

dx

_ _

dX

n

1

dx

_ _

X

n

3

x

_ _

V

n

x f g; X

n

4

x

_ _

dV

n

dx

_ _

dX

n

3

dx

_ _

X

n

5

x

_ _

W

n

x f g; X

n

6

x

_ _

dW

n

dx

_ _

dX

n

5

dx

_ _

40

where, for example, fX

n

1

g

T

U

n

1

; U

n

2

; . . . ; U

n

N1

. Substitu-

tion of Eqs. (40) into Eqs. (39) results in:

dX

n

dx

_ _

A

n

fX

n

g 41

with fX

n

g

T

fX

n

1

g

T

; fX

n

2

g

T

; . . . ; fX

n

6

g

T

. In Eq. (41) the

coecient matrix [A

n

] is presented in Appendix A. It is

noted that the natural frequency x

n

is yet an unknown.

Actually x

n

is found in a trial and error procedure. To this

end, we assume a value for x

n

and solve Eq. (41). The gen-

eral solution of Eq. (41) is given by (e.g. see [33]):

X

n

f g U

n

Q

n

kxfK

n

g 42

By imposing 6(N + 1) boundary conditions at x = 0 and

x = a on the solution given by Eq. (42), a homogeneous

system of algebraic equations can be found:

M

n

fK

n

g f0g 43

For non-trivial solution jM

n

j = 0. If this condition is satis-

ed, then the value was guessed for x

n

is a correct value.

Otherwise, another value for x

n

must be guessed. However,

since k

i

s are in general complex numbers, j M

n

j will also be

a complex number. For this reason, the above procedure is

modied slightly. To this end, we note from Eq. (42) at

x = 0 that we have:

fX

n

0g U

n

fK

n

g 44

That is,

fK

n

g U

n

1

fX

n

0g 45

Substitution of Eq. (45) into Eq. (43) results in:

M

n

U

n

1

fX

n

0g f0g 46

Now, for non-trivial solution the following condition

should be satised which always be a real number:

jM

n

j=jU

n

j 0 47

4. Numerical results and discussion

The eectiveness of the present BLWT1 and BLWT2 are

demonstrated through examples of static bending and free

vibration. The assessment of the accuracy of the present

beam theories for the case of bending of cross-ply lami-

nates will be obtained by comparison with the exact 3-D

elasticity solution [27]. Also the results of BLWT1 and

BLWT2 for the case of bending of angle-ply beams and

free vibration will be compared with those obtained by uti-

lizing the commercial nite element package of ANSYS

[34]. In the latter method, the mesh is rened till no signif-

icant change in stress distributions and the natural frequen-

cies are obtained. In order to compare the results of nite

element with those of the beam theories, the laminated

plate is assumed to have free edges at y = 0 and y = b.

Therefore, by reducing the width of the plate in the y-direc-

tion (i.e., by decreasing b) the laminated plate reduces to a

laminated beam. This way the accuracy of BLWT1 and

BLWT2 may be evaluated by comparison with the nite

element results.

As previously mentioned, in the layerwise theory each

actual physical layer in a laminate can be treated as many

numerical (or mathematical) layers with the same ber

direction as the actual layer. Clearly, as the number of

numerical layers is increased, the accuracy of the results

is also increased. Tahani and Nosier [30] showed that in

a four-layer composite laminate, six numerical layers in

each physical lamina results in accurate local eects. Con-

sequently, for obtaining highly accurate results, 24 numer-

ical layers across the entire laminate thickness are

considered in all examples. For all results, the interlaminar

stresses are computed by integrating the local equations of

equilibrium.

In what follows, static bending and free vibration of

composite beams with general laminations will be consid-

ered. It is to be noted that the solution procedure outlined

in this paper is completely general and can be used for any

arbitrarily lamination and end conditions at x = 0 and

x = a.

M. Tahani / Composite Structures 79 (2007) 535547 541

4.1. Static bending problems

In this section, to test the validity and accuracy of the

present method, rst numerical examples are presented

for simply supported laminated cross-ply beams [0/90]

and [0/90/0] in bending under transverse sinusoidal

loading qx q

0

sin

px

a

on the top surfaces of the beams.

These problems have the exact 3-D elasticity [27] and the

CLT solutions. Each lamina is assumed to be of the same

thickness and is idealized as a homogeneous orthotropic

material with the following material properties in the prin-

cipal material coordinate system (see [27]):

E

L

25 10

6

psi 172:36 GPa; E

T

10

6

psi 6:894 GPa

G

LT

0:5 10

6

psi 3:447 GPa

G

TT

0:2 10

6

psi 1:379 GPa; m

LT

m

TT

0:25

48

where the subscripts L and T signify the direction parallel

to the bers and the transverse direction, respectively.

All numerical results shown in what follows are pre-

sented by means of the following normalized quantities

as used by Pagano [27]:

w

100E

T

h

3

w

q

0

a

4

; r

x

; r

z

; r

xz

r

x

; r

z

; r

xz

q

0

; S

a

h

49

Figs. 2 and 3 illustrate the distributions of normalized

in-plane stress r

x

at x = a/2 and normalized interlaminar

shear stress r

xz

at x = 0 through the thickness in a [0/

90] beam for length-to-thickness ratio of 4 (i.e., S = 4).

These values are an example of a very thick beam with high

stiness ratio E

L

/E

T

. Figs. 2 and 3 also show the validity of

the proposed methods for simply supported cross-ply

beams. All stress distributions predicted by the CLT show

considerable error for this thick beam whereas excellent

agreement between the layerwise solutions and the exact

3-D elasticity solutions [27] is found.

The variation of maximum normalized transverse dis-

placement with various S for a [0/90/0] beam is shown

in Fig. 4. It is seen that the layerwise theories and Paganos

solution [27] are in close agreement with each other for any

arbitrary S. Also as is expected, CLT underestimates max-

imum transverse deection and gives a poor estimate espe-

cially for relatively low values of S.

Figs. 5 and 6 illustrate the variations of normalized in-

plane stress r

x

at x = a/2 and normalized interlaminar

shear stress r

xz

at x = 0 through the thickness in a [0/

90/0] beam for S = 4. It is seen that the present solutions

are in excellent agreement with the 3-D elasticity solutions,

whereas the CLT solutions have signicant error.

The numerical results presented above indicate that for

homogeneous 0- and 90-layered beams in static bending

the results of BLWT1, BLWT2, and CB become, as analyt-

ically anticipated, identical.

Next, in order to test the correctness and accuracy of the

present layerwise methods for angle-ply beams, static bend-

ing of a [30/0/30] beam under uniform transverse load

(q

0

) is considered. The assessment of the accuracy of the

present beam theories is obtained by comparison with

those obtained by utilizing the nite element package of

x

h

/

z

-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30

-0.5

-0.25

0

0.25

0.5

3-D Elasticity [27]

BLWT1

BLWT2

CB

CLT

Fig. 2. Distribution of normalized in-plane stress r

x

through the thickness

at x = a/2 of a [0/90] laminate under sinusoidal transverse load.

h

/

z

0 1 2 3

-0.5

-0.25

0

0.25

0.5

3-D Elasticity [27]

BLWT1

BLWT2

CB

CLT

xz

Fig. 3. Distribution of normalized transverse shear stress r

xz

through the

thickness at x = 0 of a [0/90] laminate under sinusoidal transverse load.

S=a/h

w

0 10 20 30 40 50

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3-D Elasticity [27]

BLWT1

BLWT2

CB

CLT

Fig. 4. Variation of maximum normalized transverse deection w versus

length-to-thickness ratio S of a [0/90/0] laminate under sinusoidal

transverse load.

542 M. Tahani / Composite Structures 79 (2007) 535547

ANSYS [34]. A simply supported laminated plate has been

modeled in ANSYS by using 3-D 20-node layered struc-

tural solid elements which is proper to model thick lami-

nates. It is assumed that the laminated plate has free

edges at y = 0 and y = b. Therefore, by decreasing b the

laminated plate reduces to a laminated beam. It is further

assumed that S = 10 in all the theories and b/h = 3, b/

h = 2, and b/h = 1 in nite element method (FEM). For

the remaining of this paper the mechanical properties of

the layers are taken to be those of a typical high-modulus

graphite/epoxy lamina [32]:

E

L

132 GPa; E

T

10:8 GPa

G

LT

5:65 GPa; G

TT

3:38 GPa

m

LT

0:24; m

TT

0:59; q 1540 kg=m

3

50

The variation of normalized in-plane stress r

x

at x = a/2

in the [30/0/30] laminate is displayed in Fig. 7. Also

Figs. 8 and 9 illustrate distributions of normalized stress

components r

xz

and r

yz

, respectively, at x = a/4 in the

[30/0/30] laminate. The numerical results are gener-

ated through the thickness of the laminate. It is observed

from these gures that the results of BLWT2 agree well

with those obtained from nite element method with b/

h = 1. Also it is seen that the results of cylindrical bending

for r

x

and r

yz

disagree with those of the nite element

results. Therefore, the cylindrical bending of laminated

plates diers from the bending of laminated beams as far

as angle-ply laminations are concerned. It is to be noted

that the laminates of Figs. 29 are purposefully chosen in

order to obtain a better assessment of the inaccuracy of

BLWT2. Many numerical results are generated, but not

shown here, for laminates with various stacking sequences

and boundary conditions. In all cases, it is seen that the

new beam layerwise theory, BLWT2, is quite accurate for

both angle-ply and cross-ply laminates. From Figs. 79 it

is seen that in general the accuracy of BLWT1 is less than

BLWT2. Also BLWT1 demands the inversion of matrix

[D

22

] which can be an inconvenience as far as developing

advanced laminated beam theories are concerned.

4.2. Free vibration studies

In this section, the fundamental natural frequency of

various cross-ply and angle-ply beams and plates are

obtained according to the two beam theories (BLWT1

and BLWT2) as well as cylindrical bending and FEM.

The beam is assumed to have simple supports at x = 0

and x = a with the boundary conditions given in (28a).

The plate is also assumed to have the same support condi-

tions at x = 0 and x = a and free edges at y = 0 and y = b.

Numerical values of FEM are generated for various ratios

of width (b) of the plate to its thickness (h) (i.e., b/h = 3,

b/h = 2, and b/h = 1). Also the results are obtained for

a/h = 10, a/h = 15, and a/h = 20. It is to be noted that

the numerical results of the two beam theories and the

cylindrical bending problem will be compared with those

of FEM for the case b/h = 1. This is justied here by the

h

/

z

-100 -50 0 50 100

-0.5

-0.25

0

0.25

0.5 FEM (b/h=3)

FEM (b/h=2)

FEM (b/h=1)

BLWT1

BLWT2

CB

x

Fig. 7. Distribution of normalized in-plane stress r

x

through the thickness

at x = a/2 of a [30/0/30] laminated beam under uniform transverse

load.

h

/

z

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

-0.5

-0.25

0

0.25

0.5

3-D Elasticity [27]

BLWT1

BLWT2

CB

CLT

xz

Fig. 6. Variation of normalized transverse shear stress r

xz

through the

thickness at x = 0 of a [0/90/0] laminate under sinusoidal transverse

load.

h

/

z

-20 -10 0 10 20

-0.5

-0.25

0

0.25

0.5

3-D Elasticity [27]

BLWT1

BLWT2

CB

CLT

x

Fig. 5. Variation of normalized in-plane stress r

x

through the thickness at

x = a/2 of a [0/90/0] laminate under sinusoidal transverse load.

M. Tahani / Composite Structures 79 (2007) 535547 543

fact that no assumption made in FEM whereas BLWT1

assumes M

k

y

0 and BLWT2 assumes r

y

= 0.

The fundamental natural frequency of various cross-ply

beams and plates according to the two beam theories

(BLWT1 and BLWT2), cylindrical bending, and FEM

are presented in Table 1. It is seen that the results of

BLWT1, BLWT2, and CB are almost identical. In fact,

for cross-ply beams presented in Table 1 the dierence

between the results of BLWT1 and FEM is less than 5%,

between the new beam theory BLWT2 and FEM is less

than 1.6%, and between CB and FEM is less than 1.8%.

Also the averages of dierences for various cross-ply lami-

nates and length-to-thickness ratios are 2.15% for BLWT1,

0.37% for BLWT2, and 0.55% for CB. The results pre-

sented in Table 1 indicate that the cylindrical bending of

cross-ply laminates and bending of cross-ply beams are

actually identical. Also BLWT1 and BLWT2 are able to

accurately estimate the natural frequencies of cross-ply

beams.

The fundamental natural frequency of [h/h] laminated

beams for various values of h are presented in Table 2. It

is seen from Table 2 that BLWT1 and BLWT2 are, except

for the [15/15] and [30/30] laminates, accurate for

all values of h and a/h ratios. The maximum dierence

between BLWT1 and FEM and also between BLWT2

and FEM occur for the [15/15] laminated beam and

is about 13% and 14%, respectively. Also the maximum dif-

ference between CB and FEM occurs for the [45/45]

laminated beam and is about 46%. It should be noted that

although the dierence for BLWT2 is grater than BLWT1

with respect to FEM, but the averages of dierences are

7.3% for BLWT1, 4.8% for BLWT2, and 18.8% for CB.

Furthermore, the natural frequency of [h/0/h] lami-

nates are presented in Table 3. The maximum dierence

between BLWT1 and FEM is about 14%, between BLWT2

and FEM is about 15%, and between CB and FEM is

about 40%. Also the averages of dierences are 6.3% for

BLWT1, 5% for BLWT2, and 16.3% for CB.

It should be noted from Table 1 that for homogeneous

0- and 90-layered beams the results of BLWT1, BLWT2,

CB, and FEM are almost identical and the accuracy lost is

insignicant. Finally, the results presented in Tables 13

indicate that BLWT2 are more accurate than BLWT1

h

/

z

0 1 2 3 4 5

-0.5

-0.25

0

0.25

0.5

FEM (b/h=3)

FEM (b/h=2)

FEM (b/h=1)

BLWT1

BLWT2

CB

xz

Fig. 8. Distribution of normalized transverse shear stress r

xz

through the

thickness at x = a/4 of a [30/0/30] laminated beam under uniform

transverse load.

yz

h

/

z

-0.7 -0.35 0 0.35 0.7

-0.5

-0.25

0

0.25

0.5

FEM (b/h=3)

FEM (b/h=2)

FEM (b/h=1)

BLWT1

BLWT2

CB

Fig. 9. Distribution of normalized transverse shear stress r

yz

through the

thickness at x = a/4 of a [30/0/30] laminated beam under uniform

transverse load.

Table 1

Non-dimensional fundamental frequency of [0/90], [0/90/0], and [0/90/0/90] laminated beams according to nite elements, BLWT1, BLWT2, and

CB; x xa

2

q=E

L

h

2

_

a/h Laminate FEM BLWT1 BLWT2 CB

b/h = 3 b/h = 2 b/h = 1

10 [0/90] 1.36872 1.36872 1.36872 1.43226 1.36516 1.36832

[0/90/0] 2.41339 2.41312 2.41285 2.41996 2.45204 2.45689

[0/90/0/90] 1.78128 1.78098 1.78026 1.79781 1.79273 1.79671

15 [0/90] 1.39322 1.39361 1.39269 1.46493 1.39397 1.39724

[0/90/0] 2.61680 2.61825 2.61604 2.58735 2.62724 2.63292

[0/90/0/90] 1.87247 1.87216 1.87140 1.87741 1.87380 1.87810

20 [0/90] 1.40496 1.40483 1.40442 1.47699 1.40456 1.40787

[0/90/0] 2.69551 2.69524 2.69483 2.65526 2.69866 2.70471

[0/90/0/90] 1.90622 1.90595 1.90514 1.90810 1.90512 1.90954

544 M. Tahani / Composite Structures 79 (2007) 535547

and also CB is not accurate in estimating the natural

frequency of laminated composite beams with general

laminations. In fact, because BLWT2 is simple and

straightforward and its numerical results are accurate

enough, this theory can be used for modeling laminated

composite beams.

5. Conclusions

Within a layerwise laminate theory, a new laminated

beam theory with general lamination is developed. The

approach adopted in the derivation of the equations of

motion in the new beam theory is direct and straightfor-

Table 2

Non-dimensional fundamental frequency of [h/h] laminated beams according to nite elements, BLWT1, BLWT2, and CB; x xa

2

q=E

L

h

2

_

a/h h () FEM BLWT1 BLWT2 CB

b/h = 3 b/h = 2 b/h = 1

10 0 2.56809 2.56792 2.56225 2.52618 2.56259 2.56800

15 1.9518 1.95098 1.95071 2.20149 2.22380 2.31649

30 1.38189 1.37602 1.37378 1.51444 1.56625 1.88721

45 1.00947 1.00411 1.00221 0.96277 1.04770 1.43222

60 0.84724 0.84585 0.84537 0.83659 0.84849 1.03292

75 0.80191 0.80211 0.80163 0.87277 0.80361 0.82987

90 0.79627 0.79658 0.79624 0.89504 0.79769 0.79953

15 0 2.71338 2.71323 2.70964 2.66611 2.70986 2.71592

15 2.01562 2.01494 2.01463 2.27261 2.29988 2.43015

30 1.40155 1.39834 1.39719 1.55028 1.59184 1.95692

45 1.01590 1.01316 1.01224 0.97348 1.06163 1.46674

60 0.85320 0.85252 0.85229 0.84503 0.85723 1.04758

75 0.81228 0.81221 0.81220 0.88305 0.81170 0.83860

90 0.80533 0.80533 0.80533 0.90633 0.80579 0.80768

20 0 2.77030 2.77030 2.76799 2.72121 2.76808 2.77442

15 2.03924 2.03870 2.03856 2.30367 2.32802 2.47487

30 1.40836 1.40632 1.40564 1.56394 1.59925 1.98443

45 1.01799 1.01636 1.01583 0.97735 1.06668 1.47995

60 0.85213 0.85050 0.84766 0.84806 0.86038 1.05292

75 0.81385 0.81378 0.81367 0.88676 0.81460 0.84174

90 0.80833 0.80832 0.80833 0.91041 0.80870 0.81060

Table 3

Non-dimensional fundamental frequency of [h/0/h] laminated beams according to nite elements, BLWT1, BLWT2, and CB; x xa

2

q=E

L

h

2

_

a/h h () FEM BLWT1 BLWT2 CB

b/h = 3 b/h = 2 b/h = 1

10 0 2.56598 2.56581 2.56225 2.52618 2.56259 2.56800

15 1.97636 1.97575 1.97555 2.22231 2.25540 2.33341

30 1.39865 1.39444 1.39285 1.56688 1.58452 1.90724

45 1.10394 1.10038 1.09909 1.07792 1.15629 1.48925

60 0.98657 0.98555 0.98518 0.97297 0.98832 1.14246

75 0.95532 0.95522 0.95518 1.00349 0.95210 0.97416

90 0.94989 0.94985 0.94985 1.02245 0.94748 0.94972

15 0 2.71086 2.71079 2.70964 2.66611 2.70986 2.71592

15 2.04242 2.04181 2.04151 2.31988 2.33025 2.44691

30 1.41972 1.41735 1.41651 1.60390 1.62927 1.97312

45 1.11386 1.11203 1.11149 1.09192 1.17354 1.52325

60 0.99445 0.99399 0.99376 0.98436 1.00029 1.15947

75 0.96361 0.96361 0.96353 1.01614 0.96317 0.98578

90 0.95925 0.95925 0.95925 1.03581 0.95845 0.96073

20 0 2.77030 2.76758 2.76758 2.72121 2.76808 2.77442

15 2.06693 2.06653 2.06625 2.35756 2.36548 2.49115

30 1.42695 1.42546 1.42505 1.61770 1.64118 1.99830

45 1.11728 1.11618 1.11471 1.09699 1.17980 1.53595

60 0.99860 0.99830 0.99721 0.98847 1.00461 1.16567

75 0.96788 0.96785 0.96687 1.02070 0.96715 0.98997

90 0.96358 0.96358 0.96263 1.04064 0.96240 0.96469

M. Tahani / Composite Structures 79 (2007) 535547 545

ward similar to the ones used in developing laminated plate

and shell theories. The ideas developed in the present work

may readily be used in developing simpler theories such as

CLT and shear deformation beam theories for generally

laminated composite beams. Based on analytical solutions

numerical results are generated for natural frequencies and

in-plane and interlaminar stresses of a variety of laminated

beams. The results are obtained according to the new lam-

inated beam theory (BLWT2) developed in the present

work as well as a laminated beam theory developed from

an existing laminated plate theory (BLWT1). The numeri-

cal results clearly indicate the accuracy of BLWT2. The

BLWT1 is also shown to be accurate enough. However,

because of the existing complexities in its derivation, it is

believed that the ideas presented here could be used in

developing accurate beam theories. Finally, from the new

beam theory it is analytically shown that the displacement

eld often used for cross-ply beams in the literature is a

proper displacement eld.

Appendix A

The coecients appearing in Eqs. (12) are dened as:

A

33

A

33

B

23

T

D

22

1

B

23

B

13

B

13

D

12

D

22

1

B

23

B

36

B

36

D

26

D

22

1

B

23

D

11

D

11

D

12

D

22

1

D

12

D

16

D

16

D

12

D

22

1

D

26

D

66

D

66

D

26

D

22

1

D

26

The coecient matrix [A] and vector {F} in Eq. (34) are

dened as:

A

0 I 0 0 0 0

a

1

0 a

2

0 0 a

3

0 0 0 I 0 0

b

1

0 b

2

0 0 b

3

0 0 0 0 0 I

0 c

1

0 c

2

c

3

0

_

_

_

_

; fF g

f0g

f0g

f0g

f0g

f0g

fc

4

g

_

_

_

_

where [0] and [I] are (N + 1) (N + 1) square zero and

identity matrices, respectively, and {0} is a zero vector with

N + 1 rows. The remaining matrices and vectors in the

above equations are as follows:

a

1

d

1

1

d

2

;

a

2

d

1

1

d

3

;

a

3

d

1

1

d

4

b

1

D

66

1

A

45

D

16

a

1

b

2

D

66

1

A

44

D

16

a

2

a

b

3

D

66

1

B

45

T

B

36

D

16

a

3

c

1

D

55

1

B

13

T

B

55

c

2

D

55

1

B

36

T

B

45

c

3

D

55

1

A

33

a

fc

4

g D

55

1

fqxd

kN1

g

with

d

1

D

11

1

D

16

D

66

1

D

16

d

2

A

55

D

16

D

66

1

A

45

a

d

3

A

45

D

16

D

66

1

A

44

a

d

4

B

55

T

B

13

D

16

D

66

1

B

36

B

45

n

] appearing in Eq. (41) is

dened as:

A

n

0 I 0 0 0 0

a

n

1

0 a

n

2

0 0 a

3

0 0 0 I 0 0

b

1

0 b

n

2

0 0 b

3

0 0 0 0 0 I

0 c

1

0 c

2

c

n

3

0

_

_

_

_

where

a

n

1

d

1

1

d

n

2

;

a

n

2

d

1

1

d

n

3

b

n

2

D

66

1

A

44

D

16

a

2

x

2

n

I

c

n

3

D

55

1

A

33

x

2

n

I

with

d

n

2

A

55

D

16

D

66

1

A

45

x

2

n

I

d

n

3

A

45

D

16

D

66

1

A

44

x

2

n

I

I in the above equations is the matrix of mass moments of

inertia dened in Eq. (7).

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