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KS3/4 KS5

Sam Gladstone is assistant director of music at Sevenoaks School.

Gamelan
by Sam Gladstone

INTRODUCTiON
These lesson materials can be used to introduce gamelan through listening, composing and performing to KS3 students, and is relevant for GCSE and iGCSE listening papers. Analysis of the musical processes in gamelan also provides effective preparation for the IB unprepared listening paper and musical links investigation.

Indonesias national motto, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (unity in diversity), is reected in the music of the gamelan. Every part is vital yet distinct in its contribution to the whole ensemble, from the simplest that can be mastered easily by any student, to complicated parts that will challenge the most advanced musicians. In gamelan, the whole really is greater than the parts. Mutual cooperation is vital, listening to others is key, and the aim of a gamelan player is to blend seamlessly into the complex texture. These lesson materials enable you and your students to explore the role of the gamelan in Indonesian culture, grasp the key characteristics of gamelan music through performance and composition, and experience the excitement of the famous Balinese interlocking kotekan patterns.

RESOUrCES While the processes and textures of gamelan can be recreated, explored and understood using classroom instruments, there is no substitute for the full physical experience of the gamelan. Fortunately there are now many gamelans around the UK, some of which, such as the gamelan in the South Bank Centre, London, are used for educational workshops. A detailed list of over 75 gamelan throughout the UK, including contact details, can be found at www.
gamelan.org.uk/uklist.htm. Many of these offer public, school and community workshops.

Recordings: The best resource for recordings and videos of gamelan is YouTube, from where most examples in the article are taken. Other useful websites, CDs and MP3s are listed during the course of this article.

THE SEVENOAKS SCHOOL GAMELAN: KYI NOGO ALIt The Sevenoaks School gamelan was purchased using money granted by the DfES as part of the Independent/ State School Link scheme in 2001. It was commissioned from a company in Solo, Java, and arrived in Sevenoaks in spring 2002. A team of students and staff run weekly workshops, and several thousand local primary school children have learnt to play the gamelan and explored Indonesian dance. This has led to performances both at the school and in the Royal Festival Hall, London. Kyi Nogo Alit (The Honourable Little Dragon) consists of the slendro section of an Indonesian court gamelan, made to a particularly small scale for use by young children. This, and the carved dragons heard on the gong pole, has given the Gamelan its name.

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GAMELAN iN CONTEXT
Indonesia, an archipelago of over 17,500 islands, is the worlds fourth most populous country, with a population of around 238 million people. The product of a sometimes turbulent history and climate, Indonesia has hundreds of ethnic groups and subgroups, but has developed a shared identity with a national language, Indonesian, which is used in schools, government ofces and massed media, although it is spoken mostly as a second language to one of hundreds of regional languages. Gamelan refers to both an instrumental ensemble and the music it plays. Bronze percussion ensembles like the gamelan are thought to have played an important role in the cultures of Indonesias most populous islands, Java and Bali, for thousands of years. Similar types of music and ensembles to gamelan can be found all around south-east Asia. Gamelan has attained signicance as a symbol of history, a marker of royal legitimacy (and perhaps divine right to rule) and a statement of continuity with the past. It is a central feature in rituals, dance and theatre, processions (the smaller Balinese Gamelan Beleganjur), in court for formal occasions or in more relaxed settings. Perhaps most famous is gamelans role in accompanying the Wayang Kulit performances (shadow puppet theatre) and dance. Sections of dances are named after their tempos and each section of a specic dance is associated with a special piece of music This has a special foundation (gong pattern) and a variety of associated movements for the dancer, with drum patterns that by convention match the dancers specic movements. The gamelan is treated with respect: a musician would never step over an instrument, and shoes are customarily removed. Each gamelan is named, and addressed as Kyi (the honourable, the venerable, or sir). The extremely large, awe-inspiring and sonorous gong ageng is considered by the Javanese to be the repository of spiritual power, while the music itself is said to mirror and maintain cosmic order.
For an entertaining example of Balinese dancing, watch and listen here. From around 2:30, the music is increasingly closely related to the dancing. Notice the role of the kendhang (drum) player in particular. For a great aural and visual introduction to the variety and contexts of Javanese and Balinese gamelan, see this YouTube page.

Gamelan in the west The performance by a central Javanese slendro gamelan in the 1889 Paris Exposition was the rst time composers in the west, including Debussy, Ravel and Satie, were exposed to gamelan music. Since then, many composers have acknowledged the inuence of gamelan upon their compositions. Consider how the inuence of gamelan can be heard in music by the following composers (suggested works in brackets): Debussy (Pagodes from Estampes) Satie (Gnossienne) Messiaen (Turangalila Symphony) Cage (Works for Prepared Piano) Britten (Prince of the Pagodas) Reich (Music for 18 Musicians) Ligeti (Etudes pour piano). Listen particularly for use of gamelan-like sonorities, pentatonic scales, heterophonic textures and repetitive cycles.

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GAMELAN ON CD The Explorer series on the Nonesuch label has a wide range of excellent recordings of both Javanese and Balinese gamelan in different styles The Gamelan of Central Java series on the Felmay label is also a comprehensive survey of Javanese gamelan Ligeti: Galamb Borong?, performed by gamelan orchestra Gong Kebyar and pianist Jan Michelis on the Megadisc Classics label, places Balinese gamelan performances alongside Ligetis Etudes pour piano World Sound Matters (Schott) includes two Indonesian pieces, with transcriptions.

KEY MUsiCAL CHARACTERisTiCs


DISCUSSION Before studying the key musical characteristics of gamelan, discuss which elements of gamelan music are most important. Which are less easy (or even inappropriate) to describe? Should gamelan be analysed in a different way to a piece of western classical music? Are there links that could be drawn with other styles of music African drumming, dance music, jazz? In Indonesian regional languages gamel variously means: To handle (managing or presenting something) gamelan music is the handling and elaboration of a central musical idea To strike or to hammer gamelan is primarily formed from instruments that are played with a hammer or mallet; bronze gamelan instruments are hot-forged and hammered when they are made.

There is huge variety in gamelan music, but there are signicant underlying shared musical characteristics: The most prestigious instruments in the ensemble are made from bronze Music is organised into distinct musical layers that have four main functions and are closely related to each other The texture can be described as heterophonic Musicians memorise condensed versions of the piece; this framework is then eshed out in performance, elaborated through conventional formulae The music is cyclic (recurring) and end-directed, with the strong gong falling on the last beat of the cycle.

Heterophonic texture: a layered texture where each layer plays a version of the same melody. Spiller (2008) gives the analogy of a man walking a dog: both walk in the same direction and at roughly the same time, but the ground covered by the dog is a far more elaborate version.
A full court gamelan will contain both slendro and pelog (4060 instruments). Some central Javanese pieces can be played in slendro or pelog they have the same melodic contours but the pitches change because of differences between the tuning systems.

Tuning Gamelans are tuned to one of two scales: Slendro: ve pitches, dividing the octave into roughly equal divisions Pelog: seven pitches, dividing the octave in intervals that vary in size. Each gamelan is tuned with itself in a deliberately unique individual tuning: it is therefore usually impossible for an instrument from one gamelan to be used in another. However, they all tend to follow general outlines of one of two main tuning systems.

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INsTRUMENTs
Instruments in the gamelan can roughly be divided into metallophones, gongs, cymbals and drums. In addition, vocalists, woodwind and string instruments may be included. There are huge similarities between the instruments in Javanese and Balinese gamelan, and much variety within each, but the terminology is sufciently distinct to merit separate treatment.
Instruments from the Sevenoaks School gamelan (Javanese; slendro tuning) Many instruments in the gamelan have onomatopoeic names gong (low, rings, not damped), ketuk (tuk is like a damping sound), kenong (nong rings and is quite high; not damped).

Javanese gamelan instruments PENcON (mEtAllOpHONEs) Sarons: Seven-keyed metallophones Demung (lowest pitch) Barung (octave higher than demung) Peking (octave higher than barung). Gender thinner keys, suspended on chords above resonating tubes: Slenthem the largest gender: seven keys, plays with the sarons but at a lower octave Other gender 14 keys, played with two mallets, provides embellishment. WIlAHAN (gONgs) Suspended gongs: Kempul Suwakan Ageng (the largest gong). Cradled gongs: Kenongs small gongs supported horizontally on a crossed cord, struck with mallets with padding of coiled string Kethuk and kempyang smaller than kenong; important beat-keepers Bonang two rows of six gongs, smaller than the kethuk and kempyang and supported in a frame; played with two long sticks bound with cord; they have an embellishing role. OtHEr INstrUmENts Singers: an unaccompanied male vocalist might sing long virtuosic intro (a bawa); more typically, a group of men (gerong) sing a chorus in unison. There are also often female vocalists (pesindhen) who sing rhythmically free, melodic lines (usually as soloists). Other possible instruments are the rebab (bowed string instrument), suling (bamboo ute), gambang (xylophone with wooden keys that plays fast melodic patterns) and celempung (a plucked zither with metal strings). DrUmmINg Bedug: large barrel-shaped drum with a deep, booming sound Kendhang: several two-headed, barrel-shaped drums together known as kendhang; one head is always larger (lower-pitched) than the other; usually played with different hand strokes, although a stick may be used.
Kendhang gendhing (large), ketipung (small), kendhang kalih (two drums).

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Balinese instruments MEtAllOpHONEs Ugal, pemade, kantil ten-keyed metallophones (in size order, largest to smallest) Jublag, jegog larger, ve-keyed metallophones. GONgs Reyong set of 12 small gongs suspended horizontally on a frame (melodic decorations played by four players) Trompong similar to the reyong but with ten gongs (played by one player) Kempur, kelentong and gong ageng suspended gongs Kadjar small gong, used to keep the pulse. OtHEr INstrUmENts Rebab (bowed string instrument), suling (bamboo ute), kendang (double-headed drums), ceng-ceng (small cymbals).

In Balinese gamelan, keyed instruments come in matched pairs with one instrument tuned slightly lower than the other. This creates an oscillation or shimmer (known as beating) when a single note is played.

TrANSLAtING ONtO CLASSrOOM INStrUMENtS Aim for a variety of timbres so that it is possible to hear independent lines (for example, use different types of beaters). Play parts in different octaves to widen the range of pitch and sense of large ensemble. It is most effective to use percussion instruments (metallophones, glockenspiels, xylophones, vibraphones, gongs if possible), both for the physical experience of playing and also the characteristic attack and decay of the sound. Where gongs are not available, use different-sized cymbals (played with a large, soft beater). A large, resonant drum may even suffice as the gong ageng. A cowbell or agogo bell can play a similar role to the kethuk. For the kendhang part, double-headed drums are best, but congas, bongos or even different sized djembes work well, as long as different sounds can be achieved.
Performance: damping When performing gamelan, damping can add an element of technical authenticity: the left hand acts as a damper by grasping the key with thumb and forenger; damping of the key must be done at the same time as the right hand strikes the next key. This requires some coordination and practice, but can add an extra layer of challenge and becomes important when playing more resonant instruments.

A NOtE ON NOtAtION While forms of notation are used in these materials, it is important that, where possible, students also have the opportunity to learn and play the gamelan aurally. Gamelan is the product of an oral tradition and listening, observing and imitating are the best ways to make sense of the relationship between different parts. Notation has been used for about a century to preserve pieces in the court records, and most transcriptions you will find (online and elsewhere) will use Kepatihan notation, a cipher system where numbers correspond to notes, developed around 1900.

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Slendro on classroom instruments: 1 C 2 D 3 E 5 G 6 A

PERFORMiNg A JAVANEsE gAMELAN piECE: RiCik RiCik


The best way to quickly understand the musical texture is to build up a performance in layers. This can be completed through the Javanese gamelan piece Ricik Ricik, which is often used for Indonesian students starting to learn the principle of lancaran (traditional gamelan). This can be completed as a class, aurally or with notation.

Notation for this is printed at the end of the article, and is also downloadable as a Sibelius le from the supporting materials tab on the Classroom Music website.

The balungan The process of learning a gamelan piece starts with the balungan. This is the simple, abstract melodic thread that carries the main musical material of the piece and from which other parts can be determined. It is usually rhythmically regular with a single note for each beat, and is played in octaves on sarons (metallophones). It is often effective to sing the balungan rst, to the numbers: 3 5 6 5 6 5 1 6
Balungan is a Javanese term literally meaning skeleton; the equivalent in Bali is the pokok). Some Indonesian musicians refer to an even more abstract melodic shape that is not played by any instrument but implied through the performance.

The kenong, kempul and gong parts The gongs provide a colotomic template. Each of these templates has a name, lasts a dened number of beats and is recognised by its distinct interlocking pattern of gong, kenong and kempul parts. These parts are designed so that there is a sound on every beat and a continuous musical line is heard. This section: Provides a solid foundation and cohesion for the piece Provides a sense of direction all parts propel towards the gong beat (always on the last beat) Emphasises particular pitches (related to the shape of the balungan) Lays out the timeline, marking off units of time.

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Kempul Kenong Balungan 3 5 5

6 5 6 5

6 6 6 5

2 6

Kempul Kenong Balungan 3 5 5

6 5 6 5

6 6 6 5

2 6

Kempul Kenong Balungan 3 2 2

3 2 3 2

3 6 3 2

2 6

Kempul Kenong Balungan 3 2 2

3 2 3 2

3 6 3 2

Gong! 6

Kethuk and kendhang The kethuk marks off smaller time segments: it has a sharp attack and is quickly dampened to have a sharp decay. In Ricik Ricik it anticipates the balungan beat, coming on the off-beat. Kethuk Balungan K 3 K 5 K 6 K 5 K 6 K 5 K 1 etc. etc.

The drums (kendhang) have been likened to the conductor of the ensemble. Their role is to: Control the tempo, including speeding up and slowing down Begin and end the piece Control the transition into other pieces or sections Respond to and enhance the dancing or puppets movements Coordinate the ensemble with unobtrusive aural signals. Drum strikes are given different, onomatopoeic names and there are different styles of drum playing. Here are some basic strokes used in Ricik Ricik: Dhah a bounced strike on the edge of the large head, using ngers and palm Tok a short, bounced strike on the small head with the ngers only Thung low-pitched, booming sound bounced strike in the centre of the large head Tak sharp, crisp sound a at strike of the small head of either drum with ngers and palm.
Gong sounds on beat 8.

DrUm INtrOdUctION 1 tak 2 tak 3 thung 4 dah 5 tok 6 thung 7 tok 8 dah

BAsIc drUm rHytHm tHrOUgHOUt 1 dah 2 tak 3 tak 4 tak

Adding elaboration The other instruments play simultaneous variations of the pieces melody; more complicated instruments will

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land on the same notes as the melody at regular time intervals. Some are quite closely related to the balungan: they maintain the melodic contour but are faster and/or more rhythmically varied. The most straightforward elaboration to add is the peking part (one octave higher than the saron), which may play each note twice. Peking Balungan 3 3 3 5 5 5 6 6 6 5 5 5 6 6 6 5 5 5 1 1 1 6 6 6

Or, the peking may anticipate the balungan, playing with the kethuk: Peking Balungan 3 3 3 5 5 5 6 6 6 5 5 5 6 6 6 5 5 5 1 1 1 6 6 6 3

In Javanese gamelan, the bonang provides the most elaborate decoration. This may take several forms and can be very complicated to play, but most common in the lancaran form (which this piece is played in) is an ostinato on one note. This is often a syncopated or off-beat pattern, played in octaves, and provides an abstract version of the balungan: Bonang Balungan 5 3 5 5 5 6 5 5 6 6 6 5 6 1 6 6

Bonang Balungan

5 3

5 5

5 6

5 5

6 6

6 5

6 1

6 6

Bonang Balungan

2 3

2 2

2 3

2 2

6 3

6 2

6 1

6 6

Bonang Balungan

2 3

2 2

2 3

2 2

6 3

6 2

6 1

6 6

The full piece A chart of the whole piece is printed at the end of the article. When the performance is secure, try experimenting with changing the tempo (led by the kendhang player). The kendhang part can also be elaborated, with more interesting interlocking parts, as can the bonang.

See the end of the article for a guided composition worksheet based on Ricik Ricik.

BALi: gAMELAN gONg kEbYAR


The following ideas can be added to the performance of Ricik Ricik, or learnt independently. The most common form of gamelan in Bali is gamelan gong kebyar kebyar means aring or dazzling (like reworks). It is a relatively modern form, arising in the early 20th century. As its name suggests, it is exciting and impressive, with a large dynamic range and sudden changes. Its most distinctive feature is the kotekan, a fast, interlocking pattern including two or more instruments in the ensemble played at breakneck speed. It sounds like a single melodic line but, with notes shared between

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two players, it is faster than a single player could perform. Watch this YouTube clip to see a clear example of Kotekan Njog Cak, where performers play alternate notes. Notice how the performers damp each note after they have played it so that the notes never overlap. For kotekan played as part of a gamelan gong kebyar performance, watch this incredible YouTube clip (it is worth watching all the way through). A note is played by at least one player on every beat, and the kotekan is an elaboration on the main melody (pokok), meeting up with it at signicant moments and following its general contour. The aim is for a fast, smooth and even performance that sounds like a constant stream of notes.

Performing kotekan
In this and following tables, dots represent empty beats so there are four beats per box.

Students could start by learning the following interlocking rhythmic pattern (this could also be used on the kendhang in the performance of Ricik Ricik above). Perform in pairs or in two large groups. Pulse Player 1 Player 2 1 x.x. .x.x 2 .x.x x.x. 3 .x.x x.x. 4 x.x. .x.x 5 x.x. .x.x 6 .x.x x.x. 7 .x.x x.x. 8 x.x. .x.x

In Balinese gamelan, the interlocking embellishment is played by the pemade, kantil and reyong; in some Javanese pieces, the bonangs play a similar role (called imbal-imbalan). This embellishment is an elaboration of the balungan (or pokok, to use Balinese terminology). There are different conventions for embellishment read more here. Kotekan Njog Cak involves performers playing on alternate beats. This is very difcult to perform in time.
Polos is the higherpitched instrument, sangsih the lower.

The following example uses notes 1, 2, 3, 5, 6. Build up a performance slowly, in pairs or groups. A performer keeping the pulse might help! Balungan Polos Sangsih 3 5.1. .3.3 5 5.2. .6.6 6 5.3. .1.6 5 5.2. .6.1 6 3.5. .2.6 5 3.2. .6.5 1 3.5. .1.2. 6 6.1. .3.3

A more complicated but easier-to-perform kotekan pattern is the kotekan empat. The following version uses 3, 5, 6, 1 Balungan Polos Sangsih 3 .35. 61.6 5 35.3 1.61 6 5.35 .61. 5 .3.5 6.6. 6 3.53 16.1 5 .53. 6.16 1 53.5 .16. 6 3.53 16.1

or an alternative pattern 6, 1, 2, 3: Balungan Polos Sangsih 3 3.23 61.6 2 .32. 16.1 3 3.23 61.6 2 .32. 16.1 3 32.3 6.16 2 2.32 .16. 1 .32. 16.1 6 32.2 6.1.

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AND FiNALLYkECAk
The Balinese dance drama kecak, a reasonably recent invention, enacts the Ramayana story. One section features a large group of men, in concentric circles, acting as the monkey army. Watch YouTube clips here and here. Notice the sound of the men vocally imitating the sounds of the gamelan underneath the chanting and the sudden changes reminiscent of Balinese gong kebyar. The performers chant the syllable chak very short and staccato in an interlocking rhythm not dissimilar to the kotekan (see above).

Kecak performance Using the grid below, create a score for a kecak performance. There should be a sound on every beat, and there may occasionally be more than one sound on some beats. The rst eight beats have been completed: Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 x..x x.x. .x.. x... x.xx ..x. xx.. .x.x

This can then be performed as a class, with each group taking a separate line. It may be useful to have somebody keeping the pulse. See how fast the class can perform it without falling to pieces! Try creating sudden dynamic changes, without changing the pulse or energy Try inserting a short unison phrase part-way through the performance Try scrambling the performers, so they are holding their own part while surrounded by performers chanting other parts.

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FUrtHEr rESOUrCES Books: Many books go into a huge amount of technical depth very quickly. However, the following two books are more approachable:
The most recommended is Henry Spillers Gamelan Music of Indonesia from the Focus on World Music series
For further reading recommendations (books, websites and CDs), see here.

(Routledge). This is accompanied by a CD of selected tracks. A shorter but quite dense alternative is Neil Sorrells A Guide to the Gamelan (Faber). The resource pack Music of Indonesia by Gordon Jones (published by Heinemann Educational) contains a wealth of practical activities, but is now difficult to find.

Websites: There is an enormous quantity of information on the internet about gamelan, much of which is well-written and interesting. Some highlights are:
www.gamelan-bali.eu contains a considerable amount of information, including musical scores and audio examples in a clear and well-presented format www.balibeyond.com has a wealth of audio examples http://smarsam.web.wesleyan.edu/Intro.gamelan.pdf provides a detailed introduction to gamelan music, with plenty of examples http://remus.shidler.hawaii.edu/gamelan www.imusic.org.uk/modulegamelan.asp Wells Cathedral School Virtual Gamelan.

ACKNOwLEdGEMENt With thanks to Jackie Hendry, who was instrumental in setting up the gamelan project at Sevenoaks School and continually promotes gamelan in the Sevenoaks area.

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RiCik RiCik: THE WHOLE piECE


(Including the introduction (buka) for lancaran form) Beat 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 +

Bonang Peking Balungan Kempul Kenong Kethuk Kendhang

6 3

Gong!

K tak tak thung dah tok thung tok dah

Bonang Peking Balungan Kempul Kenong Kethuk Kendhang dah 3 3

5 5 5 5

5 6 6 6 6 5

5 5 5 5

6 6 6 6 6 5

6 5 5 5

6 1 1 1 1 6

6 6 6 6 2 6

5 3

K tak

K tak

K tak

K dah

K tak

K tak

K tak

Bonang Peking Balungan Kempul Kenong Kethuk Kendhang dah 3 3

5 5 5 5

5 6 6 6 6 5

5 5 5 5

6 6 6 6 6 5

6 5 5 5

6 1 1 1 1 6

6 6 6 6 2 6

2 3

K tak

K tak

K tak

K dah

K tak

K tak

K tak

Bonang Peking Balungan Kempul Kenong Kethuk Kendhang dah 3 3

2 2 2 2

2 3 3 3 3 2

2 2 2 2

6 3 3 3 3 2

6 2 2 2

6 1 1 1 1 6

6 6 6 6 2 6

2 3

K tak

K tak

K tak

K dah

K tak

K tak

K tak

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Bonang Peking Balungan Kempul Kenong Kethuk Kendhang dah 3 3

2 2 2 2

2 3 3 3 3 2

2 2 2 2

6 3 3 3 3 2

6 2 2 2

6 1 1 1 1 6

6 6 6 6 Gong! 6

K tak

K tak

K tak

K dah

K tak

K tak

K tak

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RiCik RiCik FOR CLAssROOM iNsTRUMENTs


(Including the introduction (buka) for lancaran form) Beat 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 +

Bonang Peking Balungan Kempul Kenong Kethuk Kendhang

G E

Gong!

K tak tak thung dah tok thung tok Dah

Bonang Peking Balungan Kempul Kenong Kethuk Kendhang dah E E

G G G G

G A A A A G

G G G G

A A A A A G

A G G G

A C C C C A

A A A A D A

G E

K tak

K tak

K tak

K dah

K tak

K tak

K tak

Bonang Peking Balungan Kempul Kenong Kethuk Kendhang dah E E

G G G G

G A A A A G

G G G G

A A A A A G

A G G G

A C C C C A

A A A A D A

D E

K tak

K tak

K tak

K dah

K tak

K tak

K tak

Bonang Peking Balungan Kempul Kenong Kethuk Kendhang dah E E

D D D D

D E E E E D

D D D D

A E E E E D

A D D D

A C C C C A

A A A A D A

D E

K tak

K tak

K tak

K dah

K tak

K tak

K tak

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Bonang Peking Balungan Kempul Kenong Kethuk Kendhang dah E E

D D D D

D E E E E D

D D D D

A E E E E D

A D D D

A C C C C A

A A A A Gong! A

K tak

K tak

K tak

K dah

K tak

K tak

K tak

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RiCik RiCik bALUNgAN FOR CLAssROOM iNsTRUMENTs


E G A G A G C A

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RiCik RiCik gONg pARTs FOR CLAssROOM iNsTRUMENTs


Beat 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 +

Kempul Kenong Kethuk

Gong!

Kempul Kenong Kethuk K G K

A G K K

A A K K

D A K K

Kempul Kenong Kethuk Kempul Kenong Kethuk K D K K G K

A G K E D K K K

A A K E A K K K

D A K K D A K K

Kempul Kenong Kethuk K D K

E D K K

E A K K

Gong! A K

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RiCik RiCik ELAbORATiNg pARTs FOR CLAssROOM iNsTRUMENTs


Beat 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 +

Bonang Peking Balungan

G E

Bonang Peking Balungan E E

G G G G

G A A A

G G G G

A A A A

A G G G

A C C C

A A A A

G E

Bonang Peking Balungan E E

G G G G

G A A A

G G G G

A A A A

A G G G

A C C C

A A A A

D E

Bonang Peking Balungan E E

D D D D

D E E E

D D D D

A E E E

A D D D

A C C C

A A A A

D E

Bonang Peking Balungan E E

D D D D

D E E E

D D D D

A E E E

A D D D

A C C C

A A A A

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Composition based on Ricik ricik


Step 1: write a balungan using notes from the slendro: C, D, E, G, A

Same as line 1

Same as line 3

Step 2: add in the peking ornamentation (ll in the shaded boxes only) Beat 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 +

Peking Balungan

Peking Balungan

Peking Balungan

Peking Balungan Step 3: add in the gong parts (ll in the shaded boxes only): The kempul should play on beats 3, 5, 7 and 8; use the same notes as in the balungan The kenong should play on: Beats 2 and 4 (using the balungan note from beat 4) Beats 6 and 8 (using the balungan note from beat 8).

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Classroom Music I spring term 1 I 2010/11

Beat

Balungan Kempul Kenong Kethuk K Gong!

Balungan Kempul Kenong Kethuk K K K K K K K K

Balungan Kempul Kenong Kethuk K K K K K K K K

Balungan Kempul Kenong Kethuk K K K K K K K K

Balungan Kempul Kenong Kethuk K K K K K K K Gong!

Step 4: write the bonang parts: They should be at the same time as the kethuk (half a beat before each balungan note) The rst four bonang notes are the same as balungan note 4, the next four bonang notes are the same as balungan note 8 and so on Try adding a bonang introduction in the rst line Fill in the shaded boxes. Beat Intro Bonang Peking Balungan 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 +

Classroom Music I spring term 1 I 2010/11

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Bonang Peking Balungan

Bonang Peking Balungan

Bonang Peking Balungan

Bonang Peking Balungan

Step 5: perform your completed composition Beat Intro Bonang Peking Balungan Kempul Kenong Kethuk Kendhang tak tak thung dah tok thung tok dah K Gong! 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 +

Bonang Peking Balungan Kempul Kenong Kethuk Kendhang dah K tak K tak K tak K dah K tak K tak K tak K

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Classroom Music I spring term 1 I 2010/11

Bonang Peking Balungan Kempul Kenong Kethuk Kendhang dah K tak K tak K tak K dah K tak K tak K tak K

Bonang Peking Balungan Kempul Kenong Kethuk Kendhang dah K tak K tak K tak K dah K tak K tak K tak K

Bonang Peking Balungan Kempul Kenong Kethuk Kendhang dah K tak K tak K tak K dah K tak K tak K tak Gong!

Classroom Music I spring term 1 I 2010/11

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