overview history of the four temperaments - or four humours From various sources and references, including Keirsey and

Montgomery, here is a history of the Four Temperaments and other models and concepts related to the Four Temperaments or Four Humours. The words in this framework (from Hippocrates onwards) can be seen as possible describing words for each of the temperaments concerned, although do not attach precise significance to any of the words - they are guide only and not definitive or scientifically reliable. The correlations prior to Hippocrates are far less reliable and included here more for interest than for scientific relevance. N.B. the colours in these charts do not signify anything - they merely assist (hopefully) with continuity between the different tables. The initials K and M denote interpretations according to Keirsey and Montgomery. Ancient dates are approximate. Some cautionary notes relating to the inclusion of some of these theorists and interpretations is shown below the grid. For believers in astrology and star-signs please resist the temptation to categorise yourself according to where your star-sign sits in the grid these associations are not scientific and not reliable, and are included merely for historical context and information. Keirsey/MBTI® reference Ezekiel 590BC Empedocles 450BC The Seasons Signs of Zodiac Hippocrates 370BC Hippocrates 370BC 'Four Qualities' Plato 340BC (M) Aristotle 325BC 'contribution to social order' (K) Aristotle 325BC Four Sources of Happiness (K) Galen 190AD Four Temperaments or Four Humours Paracelsus 1550 'Four Totem Spirits' (K) Eric Adickes 1905 Four World Views (K) artisan/SP sensing- guardian/SJ perceiving sensing-judging lion Goea (air) Spring Libra, Aquarius, Gemini blood hot and moist artistic ox Hera (earth) Autumn Capricorn, Taurus, Virgo black bile cold and dry sensible idealist/NF intuitive-feeling man Zeus (fire) Summer Aries, Leo, Sagittarius yellow bile hot and dry intuitive 'noetic' - intuitive sensibility and morality 'ethikos' - moral virtue rationalist/NT intuitive-thinking eagle Poseidon (water) Winter Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces phlegm cold and moist reasoning 'dianoetic' reasoning and logical investigator 'dialogike' logical investigation phlegmatic

'pistic' - common'iconic'- artistic and sense and careart-making taking 'hedone' - sensual pleasure 'propraieteri' acquiring assets

sanguine Salamanders impulsive and changeable innovative

melancholic Gnomes industrious and guarded traditional


Nymph - inspiring and passionate doctrinaire

Sylphs - curious and calm sceptical

Eduard Spranger 1914 Four Value Attitudes (K) Ernst Kretschmer 1920 (M) Eric Fromm 1947 (K)

artistic manic exploitative

economic depressive hoarding sober, reserved, quiet, rigid judging scheduling SJ - sensible and judicious says what is, does what's right

religious oversensitive receptive restless, excitable, optimistic, impulsive feeling friendly NF - intuitive and fervent says what's possible, does what's right

theoretic insensitive marketing careful, controlled, thoughtful, reliable thinking tough-minded NT - ingenious and theoretical says what's possible, does what works

Hans Eysenck 1950s (trait lively, talkative, examples from his carefree, outgoing inventory) Myers 1958 (M) Myers 1958 (K) Montgomery 2002 on Jung/Myers Montgomery 2002 on Keirsey's Four Temperaments perceiving probing SP - spontaneous and playful says what is, does what works

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