You are on page 1of 17

F ro g E m b r yo l o gy 2

Sirwan M. Mohammed

Learning objectives
By the end of this lecture students should be able to:

Understand the concept of blastulation in frog embryo Know Frogs early and late gastrulation. Describe neurilation & fate map of frog embryo

frog egg

Gamete Formation

frog sperm


Stages of Embryonic Development

The blastula leads to the gastrula through gastrulation which involves cell divisions, cell migrations and cell rearrangements


Blastulation Gastrulation

midsectional views Organ Formation

top view

side view

Growth, Tissue Specialization

Fertilized egg divides mitotically

fluid filled cavity - blastocoel- begins to form

Blastula - hollow ball of cells

- has between 25 and 27 cells


The Blastula - Polarity

Animal Pole Blastomeres


Vegetal Pole

Frog Blastula (section)

ectoderm blastocoel



vegetal pole

frog gastrulation mechanism

Gastrulation begins when a small indented crease, 1 the dorsal lip of the blastopore, appears on one side of the blastula. The crease is formed by cells changing shape and pushing inward from the surface (invagination). Additional cells then roll inward over the dorsal lip (involution) and move into the interior, where they will form endoderm and mesoderm. Meanwhile, cells of the animal pole, the future ectoderm, change shape and begin spreading over the outer surface. The blastopore lip grows on both sides of the 2 embryo, as more cells invaginate. When the sides of the lip meet, the blastopore forms a circle that becomes smaller as ectoderm spreads downward over the surface. Internally, continued involution expands the endoderm and mesoderm, and the archenteron begins to form; as a result, the blastocoel becomes smaller.
3 Late in gastrulation, the endoderm-lined archenteron

SURFACE VIEW Animal pole


Dorsal lip Vegetal pole of blastopore Blastula Blastocoel shrinking

Dorsal lip of blastopore


has completely replaced the blastocoel and the three germ layers are in place. The circular blastopore surrounds a plug of yolk-filled cells.
Future ectoderm Future mesoderm Future endoderm

Blastocoel remnant

Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm

Yolk plug

Yolk plug


Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The developmental fate of cells depends on their history and on inductive signals

Coupled with morphogenetic changes, development requires timely differentiation of cells at specific locations Two general principles cause differentiation:
early cleavage divisions, embryonic cells must become different from one another After cell asymmetries are set up, interactions among embryonic cells influence their fate, usually causing changes in gene expression

Organ stages of development occur after tissue stages

Newly formed mesoderm cells lie along main longitudinal axis of animal and combine to form a presumptive notochord Formation of the neural tube

Thickening of cells, neural plate, appears along the dorsal surface of the embryo Neural folds develop on either side of neural groove Coelom appears and neural tube is complete

At this point, the embryo is called a neurula

Anterior end of the neural tube develops into the brain, and the rest becomes the spinal cord

LE 47-14a
Neural folds

Early in vertebrate organogenesis, the notochord forms from mesoderm, and the neural plate forms from ectoderm

LM Neural fold

1 mm Neural plate

Notochord Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Archenteron Neural plate formation

Neural fold

Neural plate

The neural plate soon curves inward, forming the neural tube

Neural crest

Outer layer of ectoderm Neural crest

Neural tube Formation of the neural tube

Development of neural tube and coelom in a frog embryo



Tail bud

Mesoderm lateral to the notochord forms blocks called somites Lateral to the somites, the mesoderm splits to form the coelom


Neural tube

1 mm

Notochord Coelom

Neural crest

Archenteron (digestive cavity) Somites

Classic studies using frogs

Gave indications that the lineage of cells making up the three germ layers created by gastrulation is traceable to cells in the blastula

Epidermis Epidermis Central nervous system Notochord Mesoderm


Neural tube stage (transverse section) (a) Fate map of a frog embryo. The fates of groups of cells in a frog blastula (left) were determined in part by marking different regions of the blastula surface with nontoxic dyes of various colors. The embryos were sectioned at later stages of development, such as 47.23a the neural tube stage shown on the right, and the locations of the dyed cells determined. Blastula


Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Later studies developed techniques

That marked an individual blastomere during cleavage and then followed it through development

(b) Cell lineage analysis in a tunicate. In lineage analysis, an individual cell is injected with a dye during cleavage, as indicated in the drawings of 64-cell embryos of a tunicate, an invertebrate chordate. The dark regions in the light micrographs of larvae correspond to the cells that developed from the two different blastomeres indicated in the drawings.
Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Derivatives of 3 Germ layers in adult vertebrates

ECTODERM Epidermis of skin and its derivatives (including sweat glands, hair follicles) Epithelial lining of mouth and rectum Sense receptors in epidermis Cornea and lens of eye Nervous system Adrenal medulla Tooth enamel Epithelium or pineal and pituitary glands

MESODERM Notochord Skeletal system Muscular system Muscular layer of stomach, intestine, etc. Excretory system Circulatory and lymphatic systems Reproductive system (except germ cells) Dermis of skin Lining of body cavity Adrenal cortex

ENDODERM Epithelial lining of digestive tract Epithelial lining of respiratory system Lining of urethra, urinary bladder, and reproductive system Liver Pancreas Thymus Thyroid and parathyroid glands

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Campbell, N.A. and Reece,J.B.(2005)Biology.7th edition.Pearson Education,Inc.

Hickman C. P, L.S. Roberts, A.Larson ,H.I'Anson.(2004)Integrated principles of zoology,12th edition,McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Chapter7&8 Slack, J.M.W.(2006)Essential developmental biology.Blackwell Publishing Ltd,Second edition,Chap 7 Mader,S.S,(2009) . Concepts of Biology,McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,Chapter35