Research on Humanities and Social Sciences ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!"# ($nline %ol.#& No.

1'& 2(1#

Forms of Gender Inequalities in Fish Farming in Kwnza Division, Trans Nzoia County, Kenya.
1. 2. #. Samuel )ium*u+u1,& -ane .utinda (Ph/ 2& -eanne 0ernard# .inistr1 o2 3griculture& 4i5estoc+ and 6isheries7 P.$ 0o8 21"9-#(2((& )itale& )en1a. School o2 9n5ironmental Studies& )en1atta :ni5ersit1& P.$ 0o8 ;#!;;-((1((& Nairo*i& )en1a. School o2 0usiness& )en1atta :ni5ersit1& P.$ 0o8 ;#7-9(1((& .acha+os& )en1a , s++ium*u+u<

!stra"t 6ish 2arming *eing a su*-sector in agriculture has a ma=or contri*ution to the )en1an econom1 and there2ore should *e 2ull1 promoted to enhance its producti5it1. >o achie5e this& women who 2orm a large proportion o2 the rural population should *e 2ull1 empowered in order 2or them to participate in 2ish 2arming. >he in2ormation o*tained 2rom >rans N?oia @ount1 6isheries $22ice& indicated that women were not eAuall1 in5ol5ed in 2ish 2arming as their male counterparts did. >he o*=ecti5e o2 the stud1 was to determine the 2orms o2 gender ineAualities in 2ish 2armingB >he target population o2 the stud1 consisted o2 ;(( 2ish 2armers in the district with a sample o2 1(( *eing selected. >he target population was di5ided into two strata according to household headship. >he samples comprised o2 '( male 2armers and '( 2emale 2armers (male-headed households and 2emale headed households were selected 2rom the two strata. >he data was collected using inter5iew schedules and o*ser5ation chec+lists. Cualitati5e data& in te8tual 2orm was inde8ed and rearranged according to the appropriate part o2 thematic 2ramewor+ which the1 related. Statistical Pac+age 2or Social sciences (SPSS @omputer so2tware was used to anal1se the Auantitati5e data. >he results showed that lac+ o2 2ormal education& land ownership& source o2 2unding and 2arm inputs were the main constraints 2acing women 2armers. Howe5er& the stud1 also esta*lished that there wasnDt gender disparit1 in the 2ollowing area7 reasons 2or engaging in 2ish 2arming& access to e8tension ser5ices& and a5aila*ilit1 o2 la*or. 3ccess to e8tension ser5ices was a constraint 2or *oth men and women with 2".2E male 2armers and 1;.9E 2emale 2armers reporting that the1 ne5er recei5ed an1 ser5ices. Fomen were 2urther constrained *1 limited time to per2orm their roles as caregi5ers to their 2amilies as well as limited access to technologies. It was there2ore concluded that women did not participate 2ull1 in 2ish 2arming acti5ities in )wan?a /i5ision as their male counterparts. >he 2indings pro5ide use2ul in2ormation to polic1 ma+ers on how to address the comple8 issues related to gender& 2ood securit1 and rural po5ert1. Key words# Gender& gender ineAualit1& 2ish 2arming& aAuaculture& )en1a $.% Introdu"tion 4iterature reports gender disparities in 5alue-2or-la*our income& access to and control o5er resources in man1 communities (63$ 1999 . >his is an impediment to socio-economic de5elopment& 2ood securit1 and the impro5ement o2 li5elihoods& since it denies women& who are hal2 o2 the population essential means o2 production. >raditional ineAuities among communities relating to gender relations need to *e 2ull1 understood& so that technolog1 can target the right people without *eing *iased towards a certain group o2 people. 6ood insecurit1 has *een a glo*al concern and measures ha5e *een put in place to address the concern. >he threat to 2ood securit1 has *een posed *1 di22erent 2actors such as climate change& en5ironmental and land degradation& po5ert1& poor 2arming methods and switch *1 2armers 2rom growing 2ood crops to non-2ood crops with the aim o2 ma+ing more income. 0esides these 2actors gender im*alances within di22erent communities ha5e as well *een a threat to 2ood production. :neAual access to land and other resources& uneAual dissemination o2 in2ormation& lac+ o2 credit and other ser5ices to a certain gender and di22erentiated gender roles are all *e gender issues that can lead to inadeAuate 2ood production in rural areas. Fhere women are the ma=orit1 o2 smallholder 2armers& 2ailure to release their 2ull potential in agriculture is a contri*uting 2actor to low growth and 2ood insecurit1 (Forld 0an+& 2((7 . Normall1 the signi2icant role women pla1 in agriculture and speci2icall1 aAuaculture is o5erloo+ed. Fomen are there2ore su22ering 2rom greater po5ert1 than men in 5irtuall1 e5er1 societ1 due to e8clusion in most o2 the rural economic acti5ities. Fomen are not recogni?ed 2or the 5ital role the1 pla1 particularl1 in post har5est& processing and mar+eting o2 2arm produce. >he1 are 2reAuentl1 a ma=or percentage o2 the la*our 2orce in the processing and mar+eting sectors& wor+ing under conditions o2 great ineAualit1 and 2reAuentl1 recei5ing little direct remuneration 2or their wor+. >he pro*lem o2 declining 2ish stoc+ is compounded within 2amilies. $2ten 2ish pro5ides a li5elihood 2or the whole 2amil1& a lower catch means less to process and mar+et& and none is le2t o5er 2or the 2amil1 to eat. >his has called 2or the urgent need to de5elop aAuaculture more 5igorousl1 and women empowered 2or acti5e participation. It is well ac+nowledged that women are +e1 pla1ers in 32ricaDs agricultural sector and that their participation is critical to achie5ing 2ood securit1 and economic well*eing (.oehl 2((# . It has also *een


Research on Humanities and Social Sciences ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!"# ($nline %ol.#& No.1'& 2(1#

o*ser5ed that where women participate in 2ish 2arming it is limited largel1 to women-headed households. >o ensure that women utili?e their 2ull potential in aAuaculture and hence contri*ute to 2ood securit1& it is necessar1 to pro5ide capacit1 *uilding& support and proper training to rural women& which will e5entuall1 lead to their empowerment. 0oth men and women are supposed to deri5e +nowledge o2 2ish 2arming 2rom the departmentH.inistr1 o2 6isheries de5elopment& other 5arious departments or whoe5er promotes 2ish 2arming. How these *odies con5e1 their in2ormation is 5ital. >he purpose o2 this stud1 was to esta*lish the 5arious gender ineAualities that hinder 2ull participation o2 women in aAuaculture. >he 2actors that were considered include in2ormation dissemination& gender relations& and control o2 income& cultural attri*utes and a5aila*ilit1 o2 resources. >he 2actors should support participation in sustaina*le 2ish 2arming and attainment o2 2ood securit1. &.% 'aterials and methods &.$ (tudy area )wan?a /i5ision is situated at the e8treme Fest o2 )en1a at the *order o2 :ganda. It has an area o2 11('.'+mI and it *orders :ganda to the North Fest& .t. 9lgon to the Fest& Fest Po+ot to the North& >rans N?oia 9ast to the 9ast and >rans N?oia Fest to the South. >he di5ision has highland eAuatorial t1pe o2 climate with 2airl1 distri*uted rain throughout the 1ear and an annual precipitation o2 12;2mm. the rain2all pattern in the di5ision is *imodal in nature with long rains 2alling 2rom the month o2 .arch to -ul1 while the short rains 2all *etween Septem*er and No5em*er. >he mean temperature o2 the di5ision stands at 2!."Jc *ut 5aries *etween 1(Jc and #(Jc. >he predominant acti5ities in the di5ision are mai?e and wheat 2arming& which is done mainl1 as cash crop. >he population and housing census o2 2((9 enumerated a total o2 2#"& 21! persons in the di5ision 2rom whom 11!& (#! were males and 11!& 1!( were 2emales ()N0S& 2(1( . )wan?a /i5ision has high potential 2or agriculture& li5estoc+ production and aAuaculture. >he a5erage 2arm si?es range 2rom (.' acres to o5er 1(( acres 2or large scale 2armers ()//P& 2((9 . >he main li5estoc+ *reeds include dair1 and *ee2 cattle& sheep and goats. .ai?e& wheat and *eans are the main crops grown in the district *oth on large and small scale. >he /i5ision has got 5er1 high potential 2or 2ish 2arming. >his is due to presence o2 good soils suita*le 2or pond water retention& presence o2 ri5ers and underground water that is 5er1 close to the sur2ace in most areas. &.& Target )o)ulation >he target population 2or the stud1 was the ;(( 2ish 2armers in the /i5ision. 3ccording to the data 2rom the /istrict 6isheries o22ice there are a*out ;(( 2ish 2armers households in the di5ision comprising #(( male-headed and 1(( 2emale-headed households. >he 2armers were the +e1 respondents 2rom whom primar1 data was collected. &.* (am)ling )ro"edure Households were strati2ied according to household headships i.e. male headed and 2emale headed households. Samples were selected 2rom male-headed households and 2emale-headed households to ensure that the sample consists o2 eAual respondents 2rom *oth genders (@astillo& 2((9 . >here2ore the sample consisted o2 '( men and '( women. 3 sample o2 1(( Kusing the 2ormula nLNH1MN (e I (Fhere n L sample si?e& N L population si?e and e L le5el o2 precision N 2armers was inter5iewed and used to ma+e the in2erences a*out the entire population(Oamane& 19"7 . &.+ Data "olle"tion and analysis Semi-structured inter5iews and o*ser5ation chec+list were used to o*tain *oth Aualitati5e and Auantitati5e data. Cualitati5e data& in te8tual 2orm was inde8ed and rearranged according to the appropriate part o2 thematic 2ramewor+ which the1 related. >his was done to generate or de5elop anal1tical categories and theoretical e8planations. Percentages& 2raction de2ecti5e (p and chi-sAuare (P2 were used to compare the proportions o2 respondents in each categor1 and case o2 stud1 as well as deri5ing 5arious statistical signi2icances o2 5arious 5aria*les. >a*les& graphs and charts were used to present the results.


Research on Humanities and Social Sciences ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!"# ($nline %ol.#& No.1'& 2(1#

*.% ,esults *.$ Demogra)hi" Information Ta!le $# Demogra)hi" data of res)ondents @haracteristic 6reAuenc1 (Q Percentage (E Gender .ale ;2 ;".7 6emale ;! '#.# 3ge 4ess than #' Oears #1 #;.; #" to '( Oears #" ;(.( 3*o5e '( Oears 2# 2'." 9ducation 4e5el Primar1 9ducation ;1 ;'." Secondar1 9ducation #( ##.# @ollegeH:ni5ersit1 1( 11.1 None 9 1(.1 3ccording to >a*le (1 a*o5e& '#.#E o2 the respondents inter5iewed were 2emales while ;".7E were males. 6urther& #;.;E o2 the respondents were aged *elow #' 1ears& while ;(.('E were *etween #" and '( 1ears and 2'."E o2 the respondents were aged a*o5e '( 1ears. 6inall1& ;'."E o2 the respondents were primar1 school lea5ers& ##.#E were secondar1 school certi2icate holders& 11.1E had either college or uni5ersit1 education while 1(.1E had no 2ormal education. *.& Forms of gender inequalities *.&.$ -du"ation, e.tension servi"es and training >here was gender discrepanc1 in education. Fhile the ma=orit1 o2 women had secondarr1 le5el education (#7.'E & more men had *asic primar1 education ('9.'E & while a slightl1 higher proportion o2 women wore 2ound to ha5e college college le5el and uni5ersit1 education (12.'E as compared to men (9.'E . 3 higher percentage o2 women o2 women did not ha5e 2ormal education (1".7E while onl1 2.(E o2 men lac+ed an1 2ormal education. >here was a signi2icant relationship *etween gender and education at (.(' le5el o2 signi2icance (PIL!.";9& pL(.(#; .

Figure $# -du"ation Distri!utions !y Gender >he results showed that onl1 7#.!E o2 male-headed household and !'.1 2emale headed households were 5isited *1 an 98tension $22icer. Howe5er& 2".2E and 1;.9E o2 the male and 2emale 2armers said that the 98tension $22icer did not 5isit their 2ish 2arms. Ne5erthless& the relationship *etween 5isitation *1 3griculral $22icers and gender was 2ound to *e insigni2icant at (.(' le5el o2 signi2icance (PIL1.7';& pL(.1!' . Howe5er 5isitation to 6armer >raining @entres showed gender 5ariation with ';.!E and ;'.!E o2 the male 2armers and 2emale 2armers respecti5el1 ha5ing attended 2ish 2arming related training. *.&.& (our"es of funds and a""ess to "redit 3ccording to the stud1& #!.1E and 29.2E o2 the male 2armers and 2emale 2armers respecti5el1 were a*le to 2und themsel5es either through their income or loans 2rom *an+s while initiating 2ish 2arming. .en were li+el1 to


Research on Humanities and Social Sciences ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!"# ($nline %ol.#& No.1'& 2(1#

2und their acti5ities since the1 had access and ownership to land and other assets which the1 used as collateral to secure loans 2rom 2inancial institutions. :nli+e men& women& although the1 had access to land& could not claim ownership& hence no documents to present as collateral. 6urther& "1.9E and 7(.!E o2 the males and 2emales respecti5el1& said that the1 o*tained 2unds 2rom the go5ernment& NG$s and donation 2rom 2riends and relati5es. Fomen also o*tained some 2unding 2or 2ish 2arming 2rom their small wel2are groups (chamas .oreo5er& this relationship *etween source o2 2unding and gender was 2ound to *e signi2icant at (.(' le5el o2 signi2icance (PIL;1.2& pL(.((( . Fomen were 2ound to depend more li+el1 on donation and wel2are groups 2or 2ish 2arming acti5ities unli+e men who could raise 2unds on their own. *.&.* (ize of land under fish farming >he stud1 re5ealed that& ';.!E and "".7E o2 the males and 2emales respecti5el1 utili?ed less than (.12' acre o2 land in 2ish 2arming& 1;.#E and 2(.!E o2 males and 2emales respecti5el1 utili?ed (.12' to (.2' acre& and #1E and 12.'E o2 males and 2emales respecti5el1 utili?ed more than (.2' acres o2 land in 2ish 2arming. >he relationship *etween the si?e o2 land that 2armers in )wan?a /i5ision utili?ed in 2ish 2arming was signi2icantl1 dependent on gender (PIL1;.12& pL(.((1 . Fomen were there2ore practicing 2ish 2arming on a smaller scale as compared to men.
Siz e of land under fish farming
80 Men 70 60 F re q u e n c y(% ) 50 40 30 20 10 0 B elow 0.125 0.125-0.25 S iz e above 0.25 W om en

Figure &# /and utilized for Fish farming *.&.+ im of engaging in fish farming >he results showed that 7!."E and !#.#E o2 male 2armers and 2emale 2armers respecti5el1 engaged in 2ish 2arming to *oost their income while 19E and 1;.9E o2 the male 2armers and 2emale 2armers engaged in 2ish 2arming 2or su*sistence. Howe5er& at (.(' le5el o2 signi2icance& this relationship *etween the aim o2 2ish 2arming and gender was 2ound to *e insigni2icant (PIL(.##2& pL(.'"' . *.&.0 vaila!ility of fish farming in)uts 3ccording to Ta!le && 7.1E and !.#E o2 male 2armers and 2emale 2armers respecti5el1 lac+ed enough la*our& 2#.!E and (E o2 male and 2emale 2armers reAuired 2arm implements& ##.#E and '!.#E o2 the male and 2emale 2armers respecti5el1 reAuired more capital and #'.7E and ##.#E o2 the male and 2emale 2armers reAuired 2eeds. 6urther& the stud1 esta*lished the 2arm input reAuirements and gender were signi2icantl1 related at (.(' le5el o2 signi2icance (PIL1;.'("& pL(.((2 .


Research on Humanities and Social Sciences ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!"# ($nline %ol.#& No.1'& 2(1#

Ta!le &# Fish Farming In)uts ,equirements !y gender 1hi"h is the farm in)ut that you G,- T/2 require Gender 'ale Q E within gender Female Q E within gender Total RQ E /a!our # 7.1E ; !.#E 7 7.!E Farm Im)lements 1( 2#.!E ( .(E 1( 11.1E Ca)ital 1; ##.#E 2! '!.#E ;2 ;".7E Feeds 1' Total ;2 Chi3 (quare 4PI5 1;.'(" 63 7alue (.((2

#'.7E 1((.(E 1" ;!

##.#E 1((.(E #1 9(

#;.;E 1((.(E

*.&.8 (our"e of la!our in fish farming >he results showed that !!.1E and !7.'E o2 the males and 2emales 2armers respecti5el1 utili?ed domestic la*our while 11.9E and 12.'E o2 males and 2emales respecti5el1 utili?ed hired la*our. Howe5er& the relationship *etween the source o2 la*our and gender was 2ound to *e insigni2icant at (.(' le5el o2 signi2icance (PIL(.((7& pL(.9#1 . *.&.9 vaila!ility of fish mar:et and "ontrol of in"ome 3ccording to the stud1 results 2.;E o2 the male 2armers and 1(.;E o2 the 2emale 2armers said that the mar+et 2or 2ish was readil1 a5aila*le& 71.;E and "".7E o2 the males and 2emale 2armers respecti5el1 said that the 2ish mar+et was a5aila*le& while 2".2E and 22.9E o2 the males and 2emale 2armers respecti5el1 said that 2ish mar+et was not a5aila*le. $5erall& ".7E o2 the 2armers said that the 2ish mar+et was readil1 a5aila*le& "!.9E said that the 2ish mar+et was a5aila*le while 2;.;E said that the mar+et was not a5aila*le. >he income 2rom sale o2 2ish during har5est was controlled *1 men in the men headed households& with women in the 2emale headed household controlling their incomes. Howe5er& some women& especiall1 those who were widowed and still li5ing with their in-laws reported inter2erence 2rom their in-laws on the sharing o2 income. +.% Dis"ussion In )wan?a /i5ision& 2ish 2arming was ta+en as a supplementar1 acti5it1 and hence gi5en less priorit1 than crop 2arming. $5er the last three 1ears (2(1(& 2(11 and 2(12 support 2rom the go5ernment under the 9conomic Stimulus Programme (9SP greatl1 increased 2ish 2arming acti5ities in the area *1 o5er 7'E. Some NonGo5ernmental $rganisations (NG$s and the 4a+e %ictoria 0asin /e5elopment 3uthorit1 (4%0/3 were also mentioned to support 2ish 2arming& though their input was minimal. Ha5ing 2ormal education is a +e1 pillar in the adoption o2 an1 technolog1. In )wan?a /i5ision women were 2ound to *e relati5el1 educated *ut not as much as compared to their male counterparts. >his has *een contri*uted *1 the 2act that education o2 *o1-child is prioriti?ed to that o2 girl-child in most o2 the 32rican societies. Girl and women are commonl1 associated with household chores and marriage duties including ta+ing care o2 the 2amil1 unli+e men who are associated to pro5iding 2or the 2amilies. 3ccording to )atherine& et al (2(1( priorit1 is placed on *o1Ds education rather than girls especiall1 in 32rica and girls are thus li+el1 to *e the 2irst ones to *e pulled out o2 school when resources are not enough. @onsidering the roles and duties associated with each gender& women duties are 5iewed as not to reAuire 2ormal education *ut 2or men& the1 should acAuire 2ormal education so as to *e a*le to secure gain2ul emplo1ment. >his notion has limited the education o2 girls in the /i5ision contri*uting to a large proportion o2 women ha5ing no 2ormal education. .ost o2 the .en on the other hand tend stop learning at primar1 le5el. 3ccording to >he millennium /e5elopment Goals Report (2(1# girls are less li+el1 to start school than *o1s& *ut once enrolled& the1 are more li+el1 to reach the last grade o2 primar1 school& e8cept in Festern 3sia and 9astern 3sia. 0o1s tend to repeat grades more o2ten than girls& which can increase the ris+ o2 lea5ing school earl1. >he literac1 rate among 1oung women is growing at a 2aster pace than that o2 1oung men7 In Northern 32rica& the 2emale literac1 rate rose 2! percentage points 2rom 199( to 2(11& compared to 1" percentage points 2or 1oung men o5er the same period. In Southern 3sia& the literac1 rate 2or 1oung women and 1oung men grew *1 2" and 17 percentage points& respecti5el1& o5er the same period. 3ll regions are mo5ing closer to the point at which male and 2emale literac1 rates are eAual. Since 199(& the literac1 rate among adult women has risen *1 1( percentage points 5ersus 7 percentage points 2or men. 95en so& women still represent two thirds o2 illiterate adults worldwide. .en drop out o2 school to engage in menial =o*s 2or mone1 and some end up marr1ing at this earl1 stage there2ore completel1 *loc+ing their chances o2 e5er going on with their education since the1 ha5e acAuired new responsi*ilities o2 pro5iding 2or


Research on Humanities and Social Sciences ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!"# ($nline %ol.#& No.1'& 2(1#

the new 2amil1. Girls on the other hand i2 luc+1 to graduate 2rom primar1 school& since the1 donDt ha5e man1 opportunities 2or menial =o*s opt to proceed with education instead o2 =ust sta1ing at home and assist in household chores. 322irmati5e action on girl-child education has also contri*uted to attainment o2 higher education *1 girls and women. >his e8plains wh1 more women had *oth secondar1 and tertiar1 education as compared to male 2armers. 3ccording to the .illennium /e5elopment Goals Report (2(1# disparities are much greater at the tertiar1 le5el compared to lower le5els o2 education. .ore women than men are enrolled in tertiar1 education in 4atin 3merica and the @ari**ean& the @aucasus and @entral 3sia& 9astern 3sia& Northern 32rica and South-9astern 3sia. In contrast& 1oung women are less li+el1 than 1oung men to pursue tertiar1 education in Festern 3sia and Southern 3sia& with Gender Parit1 Inde8es (GPIs o2 (.!9 and (.77& respecti5el1. >he situation is most e8treme in su*- Saharan 32rica& where the gender gap has actuall1 widened& with the GPI 2alling 2rom (."" to (."1 *etween 2((( and 2(11. In nearl1 two thirds o2 countries ("2 percent & enrolment o2 women at the highest le5els o2 education e8ceeds that o2 men. 98tension ser5ices were well gi5en to *oth male 2armers and 2emale 2armers although there is need to increase co5erage in order to reach the percentage o2 2armers who reported to ha5e ne5er *een 5isited. It was reported that trainings and seminars in 2ish 2arming were irregular and the 5enues in which the seminars were organi?ed were 5er1 2ar 2rom home. >his mostl1 a22ected women who could not attend the seminars due to other domestic duties. >his is due to roles women pla1 in their 2amilies especiall1 in the 2emale headed households where the1 ser5ed the role o2 the 2ather and the mother. >his increased their responsi*ilities lea5ing them with little or no time at all to attend trainings especiall1 those which were conducted awa1 2rom their homesteads. @ulturall1 women are supposed to sta1 at home to carr1 out household chores whereas men are the ones to participate in outdoor acti5ities including meetings and other gatherings. >his was also an impediment to women participation in 2ish 2arming since the1 are hindered 2rom o*tain in2ormation and technologies that are usuall1 passed on during such gatherings. 4ac+ o2 2emale 2riendl1 means o2 transport was also mentioned as a 2actor 2or lac+ o2 participation. Fhere training was done 2ar awa1 2rom home men were com2orta*le using *ic1cles to get to the 5enue *ut women are not com2orta*le to use then on cultural grounds. 3ccording to the results& men were more li+el1 to 2und their 2ish 2arming while 2emales were more li+el1 to *e 2unded *1 e8ternal 2unders such as the go5ernment. Fomen normall1 claim minimal ownership o2 land and other assets which the1 can use as collateral to secure loans 2rom 2inancial institutions. In cases where women own land& it is either through inheritance 2rom their deceased hus*ands or 2rom their parents. >his is similar situation in 32rica as was also reported *1 3ggarwal (2((# & womenDs access to land is gained either through the state or 2amil1& while in 3sia women access land through the mar+et.& >he situation is worse 2or women when it comes to mone1-related decisions& which are disproportionatel1 concentrated in the hands o2 men. In the ma=orit1 o2 countries no more than '( per cent o2 women report that the1 are gi5en the opportunit1 to participate in the decision on large household purchases. >hese disparities are the direct result o2 di22erences *etween women and men in terms o2 their control o5er resources& including income and asset ownership. >hese& in turn& are determined *1 institutional 2actors such as laws and norms related to inheritance and propert1 ownership& which& in man1 countries& tend to discriminate against women (.illennium /e5elopment Goals Report& 2(1# . In such situations women donDt possess ownership document and in most cases the land is considered as 2amil1 land and there2ore the1 canDt access loan 2acilities using such land as securit1. .en on the other hand ha5e *oth access and control o5er land. >he1 either acAuire land through *u1ing or inheritance 2rom their parents *ut e5en in such cases the1 are allowed to ha5e 2ull control o2 the land. Fomen there2ore are limited in their 2ish 2arming acti5ities due to lac+ o2 su22icient 2unds ha5ing *een le2t with the option o2 either depending on donations& wel2are groups (chamas or depending on their meager dail1 earnings 2rom other 2arming acti5ities. Fomen also owned 2ish ponds as groups in order to pool resources together. 6urthermore& where women too+ part 2ull1 in 2ish 2arming& it was onl1 restricted to women-headed household. It was onl1 in these households that women assumed ownership o2 land due to patriarchal s1stem in the countr1. In male-headed households Fomen and children were in5ol5ed in acti5ities& such as 2eeding and application o2 2ertili?ers. .en on the other hand did har5esting& slashing and mar+eting o2 2ish. Howe5er& when 2ish 2arming in5ol5ed large in5estments hired la*our was emplo1ed although this was minimal. 6ish 2arming in )wan?a di5ision is still *eing done as a secondar1 acti5it1 and in small scale and there2ore 2amil1 la*our is su22icient 2or man1 2armers. 3ll the 2armers reported that the1 5isited their 2ish ponds 2or 2eeding twice per da1 i.e. earl1 in the morning (*etween !am and 1(am and late in the da1 (*etween ;pm and "pm . In cases where 2ish 2arming was a 2amil1 enterprise& men had the sole responsi*ilit1 o2 mar+eting& and deciding how the proceeds were shared& while in =oint 2ish 2armingS mar+et related decisions were made *1 the group. Fomen onl1 controlled mar+eting in the case where the1 were heads o2 the 2amilies. .ost o2 the group 5entures constituted o2 onl1 women *ut in situations where the groups contained *oth men and women& decisions were done =ointl1 *1 *oth genders. Gender ideolog1 was 2ound to ha5e led to uneAual distri*ution o2 *ene2its *etween se8es in )wan?a /i5ision. .en loo+ed at *ene2its 2rom the 2inancial aspects and women respondents 5iewed


Research on Humanities and Social Sciences ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!"# ($nline %ol.#& No.1'& 2(1#

*ene2its 2rom social aspects& such as nutritional impro5ements and social interaction especiall1 where 2ish 2arming was a group acti5it1. .ost o2 the 2armers were engaged in 2ish 2arming to raise income *ut the income has remained generall1 low. Non cash *ene2its were e8perienced such as marsh1 land utili?ation& +nowledge and e8perience acAuisition and increased social interaction. 0.% Con"lusion 6rom the stud1 it is clear that 2ish 2arming producti5it1 is *eing hindered *1 gender ineAualit1 since women who ha5e great potential are not 2ull1 in5ol5ed. >his is due to lac+ o2 enough resources such as land& capital and income. >his is an impediment to attainment o2 2ood securit1 and gender eAuit1. Howe5er& the stud1 has highlighted an emerging trend o2 eAual access to e8tension ser5ices *etween men and women indicating impro5ed polic1. >here was a larger proportion o2 households that were 5isited *1 e8tension o22icers which is an indication o2 impro5ed ser5ices. >he predominance o2 in2ormal credit 2acilities among women also reAuires inter5ention in order to strengthen such wel2are associations and also to remo5e o*stacles that hinder women 2rom accessing credit 2rom 2ormal organi?ations. >here is also need to impro5e polic1 2ormulation in order to enhance gender mainstreaming in 5arious go5ernment inter5entions. ,eferen"es 3garwal& 0. (2((# . Gender and 4and Rights Re5isited7 98ploring New Prospects 5ia the State& 6amil1 and .ar+et&Journal of Agrarian Change. #& 1!;-22; 3G:I443R et& al.(2((2 . In Search of Lost Gender. @osta Rica7 I:@N. 3)944$& G.& and S3RR. 6 (1999 . The economic role of women in agricultural and rural developments, the promotion of income generating activates. @>3 3nnual Report& Special paper #. 3OIN43& $ (1999 . Trends in Aquaculture evelopment in !igeria" #edium Large$Scale s%stem. 4agos7 63$ '$PP. 00S. (199( . Statistical &ear 'oo( of 'angladesh. /ha+a7 0angladesh 0ureau o2 Statistics. 094>$N& 0.& and 4I>>49& /. (2((! . >he /e5elopment o2 3Auaculture in @entral >hailand" /omestic %ersus 98port-led Production7 Journal of Agrarian Change, !(1 & 12#-1;#. 09NN9>& 9. (2((' . Gender, )isheries and evelopment" 29(' & ;'1-;'9. 09RN3R/& -.(19!1 . The )emale *orld. New Oor+7 6ree Press. 09G:N& 6 and P:449O& >. (2((# . #a(ing Infrastructure *or( for *omen in 'angladesh. .anila7 3sian /e5elopment 0an+. 0$S9R:P& 9. (197( . +nhancing *omen,s -articipation in +conomic evelopment. New Oor+7 St .artin Press. 0R:G9R9& @. et al. (2((1 . oes Cage Aquaculture Address Gender Goals in evelpment A Case Stud% in 'angladesh. 3Auaculture 9conomics and .anagement7 '(#H; & 179-1!9. @3S>I44$& -. @. (2((9 . Stratified Sampling #ethods. .online/ Retrie5ed .arch& 7 2(11 2rom7 http7HHwww.e8perimentresources.comHstrati2iedsampling.html. @9@94S)I& 9. (19!' . The 0ural +nerg% Crisis, *omens *or( and 'asic !eeds1 -erspectives and Approaches to Action. Gene5a7 I4$. @H3.09RS& R. (199# . 0ural evelopment1 -utting the Last )irst. 4ondon7 4ongman. /3)94.3N& I. (19!! . *omen and +nvironment in the Third *orld1 Alliance for the )uture. 4ondon7 9arthscan Pu*lishers /3S& S. ). (1997 . The 2hashi *omen 3and Their 0ole in )ish #ar(eting. -ournal o2 3Auaculture 3siaS 2(' & #9-;( 63$. (19!# . 0ural *omen, )orest 4utputs and )orestr% -ro5ects. Rome7 63$. 63$. (1999 . 6ganda soil fertilit% initiatives7 /ra2t concept paper. Rome7 In5estment @entre /i5ision 63$. Forld 0an+. 63$. (2((( . Small -onds #a(e a 'ig ifference. Rome7 63$. 63$. (2((1 . Aquaculture in 47$8ow La(es with +mphasis on *omen,s -articipation" A case of 'angladesh. 2"(# 7 12-1;& 6e*ruar1& 2". 63$. (2((# . Capture 8ased Aquaculture" The fattening of eels, Groupers, Tunas and &ellowtails. Rome7 63$. 63$. (2(1(a . 0oles of *omen in Agriculture. Rome7 63$. 6$R>.3NN& 4. (19!" . Fomen and Su*sistence 6orestr1. Cultural #%ths )orm a Stum8ling 'loc(, !;(797 #9;2. G49NN& /. I. (2((9 . etermining the Sample Si:e. 6lorida7 :ni5ersit1 o2 6lorida KonlineN retrie5ed .arch& ! 2(11 2rom7 http7HHedis.i2asu2l.eduHpd((". GH:43.& ). (2((7 . Gender 0oles in Aquaculture" Some )inding from Aquaculture evelopment in the !orthern 6plands of ;ietnam. K$nlineN retrie5ed .arch& ! 2(112rom7 http7HHwww.2ao.orgHdocrepH(1#H1'!7!e(".pd2.


Research on Humanities and Social Sciences ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!"# ($nline %ol.#& No.1'& 2(1#

GR99N9& .. (199' . 'oo( 0eview1 *omen, )eminism and evelopment. Fashington. I@RF. H$S)INS& ..F. (1979 . *omen in )orestr% for Local Communit% evelopment" A -rogramme Guide. Fashington. /.@.7 :S3I/. -3N9>& H... (199' . ifferent -laces, ifferent ;oices" Gender and evelopment in Africa, Asia and Latin America. 4ondon7 Routledge Pu*lishers. -$S9>>9& 4. (1992 . Gender issues in *orld 'an( Lending. Fashington. /.@7 $9/ Pu*lications. )atherine& %.& Fan=iru& 4.& 3u*r1& 3.& .ershon& 3&. N1andiga& @.& @ull& >.& T )& 0anda. (2(1( . Gender, Climate Change and Communit%$8ased Adaptation. New Oor+7 :N/P )9NO3. .inistr1 o2 State 2or Planning& National /e5elopment and %ision 2(#(. (2((9 . 2wan:a istrict evelopment -lan for <==>$<=?<. Nairo*i7 Go5ernment Printer. )9NO3. )en1a National 0ureau o2 Statistics. (2(1( . <==@ 2en%a -opulation and 3ousing Census. Nairo*i. Go5ernment Printers. 4ONN& 0. (199# . *omen in the Third *orld1 Gender issues in the 0ural and 6r8an Areas. 3ldershot7 9dward 9lgar Pu*lishing 4imited. .3H0$:0I& .. (2((' . )actors Affecting the Adoption 'ehaviour 0egarding Soil Conservation Technologies in Aarrin Gol, *atershed in Golestan -rovince1 Iranian -. Nat. Res& '7(; 7 '9'-"(". .343FI. .inistr1 o2 Gender& Oouth and @ommunit1 Ser5ices. (2((( . !ational Gender -olic% <===$<==B. 4ilongwe7 Go5ernment Printers. .343FI. Go5ernment o2 .alawi. (2((2 . !ational Gender -olic%. Uom*a7 Go5ernment Printers. .I@HNI)& /. (197! . The 0ole of *omen in 0ural Aaire and 6pper ;olta" Improving #ethods of S(ill Acquisition. $82ord7 $82am. .$9H4& -. (2((# 7 Gender and Aquaculture evelopment in the African 0egion& 63$. 3Auaculture Newsletter. No& 29 pgs #'#". .osse& -. @. (199# . 3alf the world" 3alf a chance. Introduction to gender and development. $82ord7 $82am. .$F43& R and G. )I0RI3. 2((". An Integrated Approach on Gender Issues in Coastal 0egion. Penan17 Forld 6ish @entre. .urph1& ). . and 6. 4awrence. (1992 . Changes in 0elative *ages, ?@CD$?@>E Suppl% and emand )actors. -ournal o2 9conomicsS 1(7(1 7#'-7!. S3)& -. et al. (2((' . Adoption of Improved 0ice ;arieties Among Small$holder )armers in South$*estern !igeria. Forld -. 3gri. SciS 1(1 7;2-;9. S3S)I3& 9. (199! . Gender and Technolog% +mpowering *omen, +ngendering Technolog%. 3msterdam7 >ool @onsult. SH3499SH3& 3 and %. S>3N49O.(2((( . Involvement of 0ural *omen in Aquaculture" An Innovative Approach. )uala 4umpur7 In2o2ish. SHI.F9NOI& .. (eds & (19!' . 0ural evelopment and *omen Lessons from the )ield. Gene5a7 I4$. 6:NG9.S. (2((( . Small Scale 0ural Aquaculture in LA4 - 0 <D(2 7 2(-21 >H9 H:NG9R SI>9. (2(1( . Aquaculture" )ish )arming -otential and Glo8al )ood Securit% .online/ Retrie5ed .arch !& 2(11 2rom http7HHwww.thehungersite.comHclic+togi5eHthsHarticleHaAuaculture-2ish2arming-potential-2or-glo*al-2oodsecurit1;9" :NI>9/ N3>I$NS. (2(1# . #illennium evelopment Goals 0eport <=?D. New Oor+7 :nited Nations. :N F$.9N. (2(11 . Commission on the Status of *omen <=?< .online/ Retrie5ed $cto*er !& 2(12 2rom http7HHwww.unwomen.orgHhow-we-wor+Hcsw-'"H %I@>$RI3& .. (199# . Agricultural -roduction and *omen,s Time 'udget in 6ganda" In -anet& H and )innaird& % (eds & Gender and evelopment in Africa, Asia and Latin America. 4ondon7 Routledge. F3.0:I& P.). (1991 . *omen,s Land 4wnership 0ights in 2en%a ?=FC9 .online/ Retrie5ed No5em*er 1(&2(12 2rom http7HHwww.scholar.5alpo.eduHtwlsH5ol1(HissiH" F9>9NG9R9& ). (2((9 . Socio$+conomic )actors Critical for Adoption of )ish )arming Technolog%" The Case of Selected ;illages in +astern Tan:ania. Int.-. 3AuaS 1(# 7(2!-(#7. F$R4/ 03N). (2((" . Gender and +conomic Growth in 6ganda" 6nleashing the -ower of *omen. Fashington /. @7 Forld 0an+. F$R4/ 03N). (199; . 3uman evelopment 0eport ?@@G. New Oor+7 :N/P. F$R4/ 6$$/ @9N>9R (2((# 6ish7 3n issue 2or e5er1 one a concept paper 2or 2ish 2or all I $pp. ;" F$R4/ F3>@H. (2((2 . Correcting Gender #%opia" Gender 9Auit1& FomenDs Fel2are and the 9n5ironment. Fashington /. @7 Forld Fatch Institute. O3.3N9& >. (19"7 . Statistics, An Introductor% Anal%sis, <nd ed. New Oor+7 Harper and Row.


Research on Humanities and Social Sciences ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!"# ($nline %ol.#& No.1'& 2(1#

Kium!u:u (amuel1, was *orn in Na+uru @ount1& )en1a in 197!. He graduated with a .asterDs /egree in 9n5ironmental Studies and @ommunit1 /e5elopment 2rom )en1atta :ni5ersit1& Nairo*i @ount1& )en1a in 2(12 and 0achelor o2 Science /egree in 6isheries and 3Auatic Sciences 2rom .oi :ni5ersit1& :asin Gishu @ount1 )en1a in 2((;. He also holds a /iploma in In2ormation >echnolog1 and @erti2icate in Geographical In2ormation S1stems (GIS . He is currentl1 a Senior 6isheries $22icer in the /epartment o2 6isheries )en1a and a consultant on 9n5ironmental Impact 3ssessment and 3udit Dr. ;ane 'utinda2 was *orn in 19'9 in )en1a. She graduated with a Ph/ in en5ironmental Studies and @ommunit1 /e5elopment 2rom )en1atta :ni5ersit1& Nairo*i @ount1& )en1a in 2(1(& a .asterDs /egree in 9ducation 2rom )en1atta :ni5ersit1& Nairo*i @ount1& )en1a in 1992 and 0achelor in 9ducation 2rom :ni5ersit1 o2 Nairo*i& Nairo*i @ount1& )en1a in 19!#. She is a lecturer and the current chairperson in the /epartment o2 9n5ironmental Studies and @ommunit1 /e5elopment in the School o2 9n5ironmental Studies o2 )en1atta :ni5ersit1 in )en1a. ;eanne <ernard# was *orn in .a+ueni @ount1& )en1a. She graduated with a .asterDs /egree in 0usiness 3dministration 2rom )en1atta :ni5ersit1& Nairo*i @ount1& )en1a in 2(11 and 0achelor o2 9ducation /egree 2rom :ni5ersit1 o2 Nairo*i& Nairo*i @ount1 )en1a in 2((1. She also holds a Higher /iploma Human Resource .anagement and a certi2icate in computer studies. She is a part time lecturer at >he :ni5ersit1 o2 Nairo*i.


This academic article was published by The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE). The IISTE is a pioneer in the Open Access Publishing service based in the U.S. and Europe. The aim of the institute is Accelerating Global Knowledge Sharing. More information about the publisher can be found in the IISTE’s homepage: CALL FOR JOURNAL PAPERS The IISTE is currently hosting more than 30 peer-reviewed academic journals and collaborating with academic institutions around the world. There’s no deadline for submission. Prospective authors of IISTE journals can find the submission instruction on the following page: The IISTE editorial team promises to the review and publish all the qualified submissions in a fast manner. All the journals articles are available online to the readers all over the world without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Printed version of the journals is also available upon request of readers and authors. MORE RESOURCES Book publication information: Recent conferences: IISTE Knowledge Sharing Partners EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, JournalTOCS, PKP Open Archives Harvester, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek EZB, Open J-Gate, OCLC WorldCat, Universe Digtial Library , NewJour, Google Scholar

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful