Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.

2'& 2'13

Foundation Level Economics Reflections on Teaching and Learning
Sangaralinga( )a(es* +r Sangaralinga( )a(es*& +epart(ent for ,ontinuing Education& )ewle- .ouse& /ellington S0uare& #1ford& #1fords*ire& '"1 2J2. E-(ail of t*e corresponding aut*or3 sangarar4*ot( Abstract 5*is paper s*ows *ow t*e e6olutionar- nature of t*e aut*ors learning *as facilitated t*e de6elop(ent of a teac*ing st-le w*ic* is adapta7le and fle1i7le enoug* to (eet t*e learning needs of international students w*o stud- Econo(ics at t*e 8oundation 9e6el. In t*is case& t*e aut*or ta:es into account not onl- t*e students a7ilitto write& spea: and listen in Englis* 7ut also facilitates a teac*ing practice w*ic* *elps international students to e(7race an educational tradition w*ic* is 7ased on t*e de6elop(ent of creati6e and critical t*in:ing. 5*e findings of t*is paper also suggest t*e i(portance of for(ati6e tests and assess(ent at an interdisciplinar- le6el and not onl- for Econo(ics as a (eans to facilitate student;s reflection on t*eir own learning and *ow t*is (a*elp students to de6elop t*eir learning s:ills. .owe6er& it is also i(portant t*at teac*ers use teac*ing (et*ods w*ic* sti(ulates t*e student;s *ig*er le6el cogniti6e powers and w*ic* facilitates a process 7- w*ic* students 7eco(e acti6e learners rat*er t*an re(aining as passi6e learners. Keywords: Education& Econo(ics& 9earning& +e6eloping ,ountries 1. ntroduction 5*e ai( of t*is paper will 7e to criticall- reflect on personal aspects of *ig*er education. #n t*e ot*er *and t*e o7<ecti6es of t*e paper will 7e to criticall- engage wit* ideas a7out *ig*er education fro( a personal perspecti6e& literature perspecti6e and a peer perspecti6e. =ot* of t*e o7<ecti6es of t*is paper will see: to engage wit* t*e four t*e(es associated wit* *ig*er education. 5*ese include di6ersit-& e0ualit- and educational 6alues& t*eori>ing learning& teac*ing and assess(ent& disciplinarit- and t*e relations*ip 7etween researc* and teac*ing. 5*e ai(s and t*e o7<ecti6es of t*is paper will 7e resol6ed 7- following a tiered strateg-. 5*e first tier will reflect on t*e aut*ors own learning e1perience. 5*e second tier will in6ol6e an assess(ent of t*e personal learning of students. 5*e t*ird tier will in6ol6e peer-peer assess(ent of t*e teac*ing practice of ot*ers. 5*e final tier will in6ol6e an assess(ent of assess(ent practice in anot*er su7<ect. 5*e conte1t of t*e paper is wit* regards to t*e teac*ing of pre-uni6ersit- 8oundation le6el Econo(ics to international students. 5*ese include students fro( Eastern Europe& )ussia& =ra>il& India& ,*ina& 5ur:e-& Sout* 2(erica& Nort* 2(erica and 2frica. 5-picall-& t*ese students 6ar- in t*eir a7ilit- to spea:& write and to read Englis*. It is t*e e1tent to w*ic* a student is a7le to spea:& write and read Englis* w*ic* will deter(ine *ow successful t*e student will 7e at stud-ing 8oundation le6el Econo(ics. Econo(ics can 7e a 6er- tec*nical and t*eoretical su7<ect to stud- at an- le6el. /*ile it is a difficult su7<ect for e6en for students w*o are articulate in spea:ing& writing and reading Englis* it is e6en (ore difficult for students w*o e6en *a6e an IE95S score of ! let alone for students w*o *a6e a score 7elow t*is. 5*e IE95S is an internationall- recogni>ed test of Englis* reading& writing and spea:ing proficienc-. ?i6en t*e language difficult- e1perienced 7- international students it is i(portant to esta7lis* a teac*ing (et*odolog- w*ic* will pro6e to 7e successful at teac*ing Econo(ics at 8oundation le6el. .owe6er& t*e language difficult- of international students is not t*e onl- factor w*ic* needs to 7e considered in assessing t*e teac*ing of Econo(ics at 8oundation 9e6el. 2not*er i(portant factor w*ic* needs to 7e considered is t*at students fro( different countries will *a6e 7een taug*t on t*e 7asis of different teac*ing traditions. 8or e1a(ple& students fro( ,*ina *a6e 7een taug*t to learn 7- rote learning and so lac: t*e a7ilit- to 7e creati6e t*in:ers or to t*in: criticall-& )a(es* (2'12 . 5*erefore& teac*ers will not onl- *a6e to adapt t*eir teac*ing practice to cater for differences in students Englis* proficienc- 7ut also to *elp students e(7race a teac*ing tradition w*ic* facilitates creati6e and critical t*in:ing. 5*is is particularl- i(portant 7ecause t*e nu(7ers of international students fro( e(erging econo(ies& suc* as =ra>il& ,*ina& India and 5ur:e-& stud-ing at =ritis*& European and 2(erican uni6ersities o6er t*e co(ing decades is li:el- to increase significantl-. 5*is will 7e due to an e1pansion in t*e si>e of t*e wealt*- (iddle classes w*o will *a6e t*e financial resources to send t*eir c*ildren a7road to stud-. 5*e de(and for an o6erseas education will 7e due eit*er 7ecause t*e c*ildren of t*e wealt*- cannot (eet t*e ad(issions re0uire(ents of t*e educational institutions of t*eir countries or t*ese educational institutions (a- not *a6e t*e capacit- to ad(it (ore students. !. Reflections on Learning =roo:field (1@@5 suggests t*at it is i(portant for teac*ers to 7e a7le to criticall- reflect on t*eir learning


Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.2'& 2'13

e1periences so t*at t*e practice of teac*ing can 7e ad<usted to account for t*e A7loc:ages and an1ieties; w*ic* are often e1perienced 7- students learning a new and potentiall- difficult su7<ect. 5*e i(position of a personal perspecti6e on one;s teac*ing perspecti6e is ta:en one step furt*er 7- S:elton (2''' . 5*e latter ta:es t*e 6iew t*at it is necessar- to Aencourage (en to reflect upon t*e relations*ip 7etween (asculine identit- and teac*ing practice.; /*ile S:elton (2''' draws on t*e lin: 7etween t*e (asculine identit- and teac*ing practice it is possi7le to 7roaden t*is relations*ip to suggest t*at teac*ing practice is strongl- correlated wit* t*e educational identit- of t*e teac*ing practioner. 5*e 6er- notion of educational identit- suggests t*at it is for(ed on t*e 7asis of t*e educational e1periences of t*e educational practioner. So t*e learning e1periences of t*e educational practioner will *a6e profound i(plications for *isB*er teac*ing practice. 5*erefore& it is i(portant to esta7lis* and understand t*e for(ation and t*e origins of t*e educational practioners educational e1perience. 2t a personal le6el learning *as ne6er 7een eas- for (e. 5*is *as 7een due to a nu(7er of factors. 8irstl-& I was 7orn in ,e-lon and ca(e to t*e CD at t*e age of 3. So I *ad to learn Englis* fro( t*e 7eginning. Secondl-& I did not enter t*e sc*ool s-ste( until I was 5 -ears old. I did not go to nurser- sc*ool and so (issed out on earleducational sti(ulation w*ic* (- peers at Infants sc*ool did e1perience. 5*irdl-& 7- nature I a( eas- going and li:e to *a6e fun. In c*ild*ood I would ne6er stud-. #n t*e ot*er *and (- elder 7rot*er was alwa-s studious and acade(icall- (inded e6en fro( a -oung age. Indeed& it was e6en t*e case t*at 7- t*e age of 1' I could not tell t*e ti(e& tie (- s*oelaces or e6en tell (- rig*t fro( (- left. .owe6er& I en<o-ed reading s*ort stories w*ic* were eit*er *istorical andBor fictional in conte1t. =ut t*is was 7etween doing sill- t*ings suc* as cli(7ing trees and planting (- dad;s to(ato plants upside down. 5*e contrast 7etween (- 7e*a6iour and (- 7rot*ers 7e*a6iour& t*erefore presented (- parents wit* a c*allenge. E- situation see(ed to 7e dire to 7ot* (- parents& 7ut per*aps e6en (ore to (- fat*er w*o was a teac*er 7- training. 5*e 7ig c*ange in (- learning too: place w*en I (o6ed to secondar- sc*ool to stud- at t*e age of 11. 2t t*at ti(e& I and anot*er 2F2 students entered /illia( 8orster Secondar- Sc*ool in Nort* 9ondon. /e were di6ided into ten classes. 5*e co(position of t*e c*ildren included i((igrant c*ildren 7orn in (an- parts of t*e world as well as c*ildren 7orn in t*e CD. Eoreo6er& we were t*e c*ildren of wor:ing class parents& teac*ers& sea(stresses& s*op wor:ers& cleaners& railwa- wor:ers and s*op :eepers. =ut t*e 7';s represented a ti(e in w*ic* *ig*er education was not seen as a natural destination for t*e c*ildren of t*e wor:ing class. .owe6er& go6ern(ent;s attitude towards widening participation in *ig*er education c*anged wit* t*e reco((endations of successi6e co((ittees w*ic* reported on opening up *ig*er education to t*e wider population. 5*e 2''% Sc*wart> )eport reco((ended *ig*er educational institutions to (ini(i>e t*e 7arriers to applicants. #n t*e ot*er *and ?reen7an: (2''F suggests t*at it was t*e groups in societ- w*o would gain (ost 7- widening participation in *ig*er education w*o *ad t*e least input into t*e for(ulation of polic-. 5*erefore& t*e 6arious polic- initiati6es w*ic* *a6e originated o6er t*e -ears suc* as )o77ins in 1@F3& +earing in 1@@7& t*e A8uture of .ig*er Education; in 2''3 and t*e .ig*er Education 2ct of 2''% (a- not necessaril- reflect t*e needs of t*ose at w*ic* educational refor( is intended to 7enefit& ?reen7an: (2''F . =- t*e end of t*e 1st -ear I ca(e top of (- class and was presented& along wit* ot*er perfor(ers& wit* a (erit award 7- Sir +ouglas =ader& a //2 )28 decorated 6eteran. Per*aps t*e c*ange in (- learning too: place due to (ore speciali>ed teac*ing and t*e a6aila7ilit- of different su7<ects. 8urt*er(ore& it was often t*e case t*at 7etween t*e ages of 11 and 1!& I would often stud- until 2a( in t*e (orning. It was 7etween t*e ages of 11 to 1! t*at I decided to follow (- 7rot*er into stud-ing Eedicine. .owe6er& t*is would turn out to 7e a (ista:e. 8or (- A2; le6els I studied =iolog-& ,*e(istr-& P*-sics and Pure and 2pplied Eat*e(atics. =ut I was turned down 7- t*e 5 (edical sc*ools I applied to. 2s a co(pro(ise I went to stud- =iological ,*e(istr- at t*e Cni6ersit- of Esse1. =ut after two -ears I found t*e course 7oring and dropped out. I t*en went to wor: for =arcla-s =an: w*ere I was allowed to stud- for t*e ,*artered Institute of =an:ers +iplo(a. 5*is was a one -ear con6ersion course onto t*e 2ssociated ,*artered Institute of =an:ers ,ertificate. #ne of t*e (odules on t*e +iplo(a was Econo(ics and t*is is *ow I 7eca(e interested in t*e su7<ect. 2fter 2 -ears wor:ing at =arcla-s& I decided to stud- Econo(ics on a full-ti(e 7asis as an undergraduate at Gueen Ear- and /estfield ,ollege followed 7- an ESc in Engineering in Infor(ation 5ec*nolog- at C,9. 5*e switc* fro( stud-ing Econo(ics to stud-ing I,5 too: place 7ecause of t*e growing i(portance of I,5 to t*e 7an:ing industr-. 2fter co(pleting t*e ESc at C,9 I continued to wor: for a few -ears. .owe6er& I 7eca(e (ore and (ore interested in t*e de6eloping countries of ,*ina and India. In t*is case& I studied for an ESc in t*e Econo(ics of Sout* 2sia. 5*is was followed 7- a P*+ in Econo(ics. 5*e focus of (- P*+ researc* was on t*e ,*inese econo(-. 2fter teac*ing 6arious undergraduate and a postgraduate course at S#2S& I <oined C,9 as a 5eac*ing 8ellow in Econo(ics to teac*ing on t*eir 8oundation progra(. ". #tudent Learning: #tudents $ers%ective 5*e purpose of t*is section of t*e paper was to engage wit* students in order to esta7lis* t*eir t*eories of learning so t*at t*ese could 7e contrasted wit* t*ose of t*e aut*or& t*eir teac*er. .aggis (2''3 suggests t*at t*e


Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.2'& 2'13

educational Aconstruction of t*e learner a6oids an- real engage(ent wit* t*e co(ple1ities of location and conte1t.; 8urt*er(ore& t*e 6er- fact t*at accessi7ilit- and widening participation in education are 0uestioned does not i(pl- a reduction in standards& .aggis (2''3 . #n t*e ot*er *and& Eann (2''1 suggests t*at t*ere needs to 7e a s*ift in t*e focus of anal-sis of education fro( surfaceBstrategicBdeep learning to alienated or engaged e1periences of learning. 5*is would allow for a 7etter understanding of t*e (ec*anis(s w*ic* *inder educational ac*ie6e(ent. .owe6er& Earton et al (1@@7 suggests t*at t*e 0ualitati6e differences in t*e learning outco(es of student;s results are due to students *a6ing pre-concei6ed ideas a7out t*e su7<ect t*e- are to stud-. So t*e i(plication of t*is is t*at students wit* a well-founded pre-concei6ed idea will e1perience a s(oot* transition to 7etter understanding and learning t*an students w*ose pre-concei6ed ideas a7out t*e su7<ect are not well founded. Eoreo6er& Co# suggests t*at students e1perience a c-cle of educational de6elop(ent w*ic* c*anges o6er ti(e fro( rig*tBwrong to contingent :nowledge. Eost of t*e students I teac* are around t*e age of 1! and fro( different countries. 5*eir indi6idual le6els of a7ilit- in using t*e Englis* 9anguage 6ar-. Indeed& toda-;s student 7od- is culturall- di6erse due to glo7ali>ation. 2s a result 7ot* t*e student and t*e international student and t*e *ost culture will need training to (eet eac* ot*er;s needs& #tten (2''3 . .owe6er& w*ile t*e latter recogni>es cultural di6ersit-& /al:er (2''3' loo:s at ac*ie6ing social <ustice 7- widening participation in education. Eoreo6er& /al:er (2''3 relies upon t*e capa7ilities approac* to ac*ie6ing social <ustice t*roug* education. 5*is i(plies t*at t*roug* widening participation in education& people can ac*ie6e social <ustice 7- de6eloping capa7ilities suc* as Apractice reason and affiliation;& /al:er (2''3 . #n t*e progra((e I used to teac*& t*e students were drawn fro( ,*ina& India& Europe& ,entral 2sia and 9atin 2(erica. 8urt*er(ore& t*e su7<ect I teac* t*e( is a *-7rid of 8oundation le6el and 1st -ear undergraduate le6el Econo(ics. So(e of t*e students *a6e encountered Econo(ics w*ile ot*ers *a6e not. 5*erefore& so(e students are a7le to learn (ore 0uic:l- t*an ot*er students are a7le to do so. )ecentl-& t*e students were gi6en a (oc: test. #n t*e 7asis of t*e results of t*is test& t*ree students w*o *ad scored at 6arious le6els were inter6iewed. 5*ese students will 7e referred to as Student 2& Student = and Student ,. Student 2 scored in t*e !'H range& Student = scored in t*e F'H range and Student , scored in t*e %'H range. /*en t*e students were inter6iewed t*e sa(e inter6iew for(at was used and t*e sa(e 0uestions as:ed. 5*is approac* introduced consistenc- wit*in t*e researc* agenda and ensured t*at t*e results could 7e co(pared. 5*e inter6iew 0uestions were as follows3 a .a6e -ou studied Econo(ics 7eforeI 7 .ow good is -our le6el of written& spo:en and reading of Englis*I c .ow (an- *ours do -ou stud- per *ourI d .ow do -ou stud-I J Just reading& writing or a (i1ture of 7ot*I e .ow do -ou re6ise t*e wor: -ou *a6e studiedI ".1 #tudent A Student 2 scored !%H in t*e (oc: test and ca(e <oint second wit* anot*er student *a6ing clai(ed t*e nu(7er 1 position wit* a (ar: of !FH. Student 23 a .ad not studied Econo(ics 7efore and was new to t*e su7<ect. 7 .ad scored *ig* (ar:s in t*e tests for deter(ining t*e a7ilit- in written& spo:en and reading of Englis*. c Studies a7out twel6e *ours a da- and co((ented t*at s*e would go to sleep at 3a( and t*en get up at 7a( in order to start stud-ing again. d Cses a stud- (et*odolog- w*ic* enco(passes acti6e reading t*roug* t*e use of note ta:ing. e Ensures t*at notes are ta:en for lectures and tutorials so t*at t*is would facilitate ease of re6ision. ".! #tudent & Student = scored F%H in t*e (oc: test and ca(e Ft* fro( t*e 7otto(. Student = *ad3 a Studied Econo(ics 7efore in a pri6ate capacit-& 7ut *ad not for(all- studied it. 7 Scored i(pro6ing (ar:s in Englis* language tests w*ic* *ad 7een ta:en o6er a period of ti(e. .owe6er& of t*e (ar:s for reading& spea:ing and writing t*e latter was t*e lowest. 5*e student perfor(ed 7etter wit* stud-ing Eat*e(atics t*an wit* stud-ing Englis*. c Spent up to eig*t *ours preparing for eac* tutorial 7ut did not sc*edule ti(e to prepare for lectures. d Just used reading as a stud- (et*odolog- rat*er t*an using note ta:ing as well. e )elies on tutorial pro7le(s as t*e 7asis for re6ision w*ile ignoring t*e need to (a:e notes in lectures and fro( personal reading. "." #tudent ' Student , scored %5H and was second fro( t*e 7otto( wit* regards to t*e o6erall results. Student , *ad3 a Not studied Econo(ics 7efore& 7 Scored low to a6erage (ar:s in t*e Englis* tests ta:en in order to assess le6els of a7ilit- in written& spo:en and reading of Englis*. c Spent onl- 3' (inutes a da- stud-ing Econo(ics 7ecause ot*er su7<ects suc* as ?eograp*- de(anded


Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.2'& 2'13

d e

a lot (ore ti(e for stud- due to t*e 0uantit- of wor: gi6en. #nl- co(pleted parts of t*e tutorial 0uestions and neit*er did an- furt*er reading or too: notes in lectures or tutorials. No re6ision strateg- or su7stance for re6ision.

(. $eer to $eer )bservation in a *ifferent Faculty Ee-er et al (2''3 discusses t*e notion of a t*res*old concept. 5*e latter refers to wa-s in w*ic* new a6enues can 7e opened up into for(erl- inaccessi7le areas of t*e su7<ect. In t*is case& inaccessi7le :nowledge can 7e categorised as t*at w*ic* is Acounterintuiti6e& alien or a7surd;& Ee-er et al (2''3 . 5*e notion of a t*res*old concept is rele6ant to Econo(ics and Eat*e(atics. 8or e1a(ple& in t*e case of t*e latter t*e concept of a li(it is a t*res*old concept. Ee-er et al (2''3 suggests t*at t*e understanding of a concept of a li(it in Eat*e(atics is necessar- to progress into ot*er areas of Eat*e(atics suc* as differential ,alculus. .owe6er& t*e wa- in w*ic* a 5*res*old ,oncept (a- 7e de6eloped in a teac*ing concept depends on t*e teac*er;s personal t*eor- of teac*ing. 2ccording to 8o1 (1@!3 a teac*er can *a6e four different t-pes of personal t*eories regarding teac*ing. 8irstl-& one t-pe of t*eor- treats :nowledge Aas a co((odit- w*ic* can 7e transferred fro( one 6essel to anot*er.; 5*e second t-pe of t*eor- classifies teac*ing as a process 7- w*ic* students can 7e (oulded into a Apre-deter(ined; for(. #n t*e ot*er *and t*e t*ird approac* 6iews t*e process 7- w*ic* students (o6e across t*e A6alle- and t*e fields Aw*ic* represents t*e terrain of :nowledge wit* t*e teac*er *as t*e guide. Ne6ert*eless& t*e final t*eordeals wit* t*e Aintellectual and t*e de6elop(ental; needs of t*e student. 2lt*oug* teac*ers (a- ad*ere to a personal t*eor- of teac*ing it is ine6ita7le t*at so(e real world pro7le(s need to 7e studied fro( an interdisciplinar- perspecti6e& ?olding (2''@ . 5*erefore& t*e latter suggests t*at it is necessar- to educate students fro( 7ot* a disciplinar- and an interdisciplinar- perspecti6e. Eoreo6er& according to =ec*er et al (2''1 it is Anecessar- to understand t*e Adi6ersit- of t*e acade(ic tri7es and territories; in order to 7e a7le to deal wit* t*e pro7le(s associated wit* teac*ing and learning. In ot*er words an interdisciplinar- teac*ing approac* to teac*ing and learning pro6ides an educational and teac*ing en6iron(ent to student and teac*er w*ic* are intellectuall- sti(ulating. Indeed& =elc*er et al (2''1 use t*e e1a(ple of a di6erse *orticultural garden and a corn field in order to contrast t*e disciplinar- to t*e interdisciplinar- approac* to learning and teac*ing. 5*e di6erse *orticultural garden approac* to learning and teac*ing would present an en6iron(ent in w*ic* t*e pro7le(s associated wit* learning and teac*ing can 7e resol6ed (ore 0uic:l- 7ecause (ore tools are a6aila7le. .owe6er& in t*e case of t*e cornfield analog- to t*e disciplinar- nature of learning and teac*ing& pro7le(s would 7e *arder to resol6e. 5*e stud- of Econo(ics rese(7les t*e culti6ation of a large *orticultural garden 7ecause of its interdisciplinar- nature w*ic* draws on disparate fields suc* as P*ilosop*- and (at*e(atics. (.1 The )bservation 5*e teac*ing o7ser6ation e(p*asi>ed t*e interdisciplinar- nature of Econo(ics 7ecause t*e teac*er o7ser6ed taug*t Eat*e(atics. /*ile I taug*t 1st Kear undergraduate B 8oundation le6el Econo(ics (- colleague taug*t Eat*e(atics on t*e sa(e progra((e. 5*e (ain distinction 7etween Eat*e(atics and Econo(ics is t*at an understanding of t*e latter de(ands a reasona7le co((and of t*e Englis* language. 2 reasona7le :nowledge of t*e for(er on t*e ot*er *and for(s an integral part of t*e stud- of Econo(ics. .owe6er& Eat*e(atics is itself a language. 5*e (ain feature of t*e 8oundation Progra((e was t*at it was di6erse wit* participants fro( all around t*e world wit* different a7ilities in written and spo:en Englis*. =ut t*e co((on feature is t*at @'H of t*e students w*o stud- Econo(ics also stud- Eat*e(atics. Prior to t*e teac*ing o7ser6ation I inter6iewed t*e colleague w*o was to 7e o7ser6ed and as:ed *i( if t*ere were an- areas of *is teac*ing on w*ic* *e re0uired feed7ac:. E- colleague specificall- re0uested t*at *e wanted feed7ac: on t*e wa-s in w*ic* *e could i(pro6e *is teac*ing practice. I was also told 7- (- colleague t*at *e 7elie6ed in a teac*ing practice w*ic* in6ol6ed audience participation. 5*is aspect of *is teac*ing& (- colleague suggested was passed onto *i( 7- practice fro( t*e institution at w*ic* *e co(pleted *is P*+. It is clear t*at (- colleague;s t*eor- of learning depended on 7eing a7le to guide *is students t*roug* t*eir learning. /*en I o7ser6ed (- colleague on Eonda- 2%t* Januar- 2'11 at @a( it was eas- to see t*at *e (ade e1tensi6e use of t*e w*ite7oard. 5*e w*ite7oard was used 7- (- colleague in order to write (at*e(atical e1a(ples w*ic* could ser6e as a (et*od 7- w*ic* A5*res*old ,oncepts; could 7e introduced. 5*e interacting learning process w*ic* (- colleague used in order to e(7race audience participation during *is lecture in6ol6ed as:ing t*e audience for guidance as to *ow to co(plete a (at*e(atical pro7le(. #n occasions t*e students ga6e incorrect suggestions as to *ow to sol6e t*e (at*e(atical pro7le( and on ot*er occasions (- colleague also (ade incorrect suggestions. 5*is *e suggested was deli7erate and (ade so t*at t*e students would 0uestion t*e appropriateness of t*e solution. =- (a:ing errors& (- colleague see(ed to assist in getting students to get in6ol6ed in t*e learning process t*roug* a process of reflection. 2ccording to Eraut (1@@% getting students to reflect on t*eir learning process was an i(portant part of t*e learning process. 8ollowing t*e o7ser6ation& I ga6e feed7ac: to (- colleague w*o stated t*at *e wrote too (uc* on t*e w*ite7oard and so would *a6e 7een 7etter


Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.2'& 2'13

off 7- <ust using a PowerPoint presentation. .owe6er& (- colleague ad6ised (e t*at in addressing t*e glo7al 0uestion in education of *ow 7est to i(part :nowledge to *is students wit* t*e glo7al di(ension of student national di6ersit- *e felt t*at using PowerPoint would not 7e t*e 7est wa- in w*ic* *e could deli6er reflecti6e learning. Eoreo6er& (- colleague;s students were also t*e ones w*o were engaged in t*e stud- of Econo(ics. In t*is conte1t so(e of t*e pro7le(s related to t*e students :nowledge of written and spo:en Englis*. In contrast in Eat*e(atics& :nowledge of t*e Englis* language is less of a re0uire(ent t*an it is in Econo(ics 7ecause t*e for(er in6ol6es t*e use of nu(7ers and signs& and can 7e learnt 7- e1a(ple. #n t*e ot*er *and t*e ac0uisition of :nowledge in Econo(ics is necessaril- t*roug* t*e reading of 7oo:s. 5*e disse(ination of :nowledge t*roug* lectures and tutorials is (ost effecti6e w*en t*e students *a6e are proficient in listening& reading and writing in t*e Englis* language. +. A 'ase #tudy of an Assessment in another *isci%line 5*e focus of t*is case stud- of an assess(ent in anot*er discipline will *a6e t*ree strands. #f t*ese t*ree strands t*e (ain focus will 7e on t*e assess(ent process and t*e criteria w*ic* are used wit* regards to assessing student perfor(ance in t*e ESc =iolog- of $ision at C,9;s +epart(ent of #p*t*al(olog- for t*e acade(ic -ear 2'1' to 2'11. .owe6er& t*e aut*or is also interested in e6aluating t*e (anage(ent of assess(ent and t*e wa- in w*ic* assess(ent is conducted wit* regards to online courses. 5*ese offs*oots of t*e current researc* are pertinent to t*e aut*or;s professional e1perience for two reasons. 8irstl-& t*e aut*or *as taug*t on a progra((e in w*ic* t*ere is lac: of co-ordination in t*e assess(ent 7etween su7<ects. 5*is resulted in students de6oting (ore stud- ti(e to one su7<ect t*an anot*er during t*e course of t*e progra(. 5*e conse0uence of t*is was t*at t*ere was a widening gap in t*e results ac*ie6ed in eac* su7<ect on t*e progra((e in t*e end of -ear e1a(s. Secondl-& t*e aut*or *as written online courses& and 7een an online tutor& for t*e Cni6ersit- of #1ford;s +epart(ent for ,ontinuing Education. Ne6ert*eless& t*e (ain focus will 7e on t*e assess(ent process and criteria used on t*e ESc =iolog- of $ision and w*et*er t*is Asits; co(forta7l- wit* t*e literature. +.1 &iggs ,1---. and the Literature =iggs (1@@@ suggests t*at t*e traditional uni6ersit- teac*ing (odel 7ased on lectures followed 7- tutorials is no longer an effecti6e one in t*e conte1t of toda-s di6ersified student 7od-. 5*e wor: of =iggs (1@@@ & in t*e conte1t of t*e literature& is particularl- pertinent 7ecause of t*e go6ern(ent en0uir- into *ig*er education in t*e late 1@@';s w*ic* resulted in t*e +earing )eport. #ne of t*e conclusions of t*is report is t*at t*e CD *ig*er educational s-ste( s*ould 7e de6eloped in order to facilitate lifelong learning& +earing (1@@7 . In t*is case& t*e selecti6e entrance of students to uni6ersit- ga6e wa- to t*e (ass appeal of uni6ersit- as well as glo7ali>ation and (ass (ar:eting of uni6ersit- education. 5*e wider appeal of uni6ersit- education and its glo7ali>ation (eant t*at t*e student 7od- 7eca(e (ore di6erse particularl- 7- culture& gender and class. =iggs (1@@@ attri7utes t*e di6ersit- of toda-;s student 7od- to t*e difficulties e1perienced 7- teac*ers in (aintaining acade(ic standards. 8urt*er(ore& according to =iggs (1@@@ & w*ile t*is relations*ip (a- not *old true if t*e results of learning are seen as a function of t*e c*aracteristics of students& it does *old true if t*e learning outco(es are seen as a function of t*e learning acti6ities w*ic* students underta:e. 5*erefore& 7ecause of t*e direct correlation 7etween t*e results ac*ie6ed 7- students and t*e learning acti6ities w*ic* *eBs*e underta:es it is i(portant t*at teac*ers are a7le to structure and coordinate students learning so t*at students t*in: a7out w*at t*e- are learning. =iggs (1@@@ refers to t*e facilitation of student learning and t*in:ing as At*e use of *ig*er order learning processes;. .owe6er& students can onl- engage wit* t*eir *ig*er order learning a7ilities w*en two criteria are fulfilled& =iggs (1@@@ . 8irstl-& it (ust 7e clearl- stated w*at t*e student is e1pected to :now at t*e end of t*e course. Secondl-& teac*ers (ust arrange and coordinate learning acti6ities so t*at students can ac*ie6e t*e desired le6els of learning outco(es. In t*is conte1t assess(ent is i(portant 7ecause it gi6es students feed7ac: on w*et*er *eBs*e *as ac*ie6ed t*e desired le6el of ac*ie6e(ent. 5*e i(plication is t*at assess(ent is i(portant 7ecause it gi6es students feed7ac: on w*et*er *eBs*e *as ac*ie6ed t*e desired le6el of learning as well as telling students w*at :ind of learning acti6ities t*e- need to underta:e. It see(s t*at t*ere is a need for t*e co-ordination of teac*ing& learning acti6ities and assess(ents t*roug* clearl- defined and stated learning o7<ecti6es w*ic* act to sti(ulate t*e *ig*er le6el cogniti6e a7ilities of students. 5*is will allow for t*e narrowing of t*e gap 7etween students of differing a7ilities. Eoreo6er& a student;s education s*ould 7e seen not as a stoc: 7ut as a flow& so(et*ing w*ic* is (easura7le 7etween two points of ti(e rat*er t*an at one point in ti(e. 5*is conception perfectl- encapsulates t*e notion of education as one of Aconceptual c*ange;& =iggs (1@@@ . .owe6er& t*e latter suggests t*at in order for t*is Aconceptual c*ange; to ta:e place it is necessar- to co((unicate t*e learning o7<ecti6es to 7ot* students and teac*ers& allow teac*ers to (oti6ate students t*roug* *isB*er teac*ing and create an at(osp*ere in w*ic* students can engage in discourse wit* peers and teac*ers ali:e. 5*e process 7- w*ic* student learning is facilitated is t*ree fold& =iggs (1@@@ . 8irstl-& t*e o7<ecti6es related to t*e nature of understanding (ust 7e clearl- defined and stated. #ne (odel w*ic* can 7e used for t*is purpose is t*e S#9# fra(ewor: w*ic* allows for t*e use of a *ierarc*- of 6er7s to 7e used in order to define t*e curriculu( o7<ecti6es. 5*e S#9# fra(ewor: enco(passes a 0uantitati6e p*ase and a 0ualitati6e p*ase. 5*e


Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.2'& 2'13

for(er represents lower le6els of cogniti6e engage(ent& using 6er7s suc* as identif- and descri7e& w*ile t*e latter allows for engage(ent wit* *ig*er le6els of cogniti6e a7ilit- using 6er7s suc* as co(pare& contrast and t*eorise. Secondl-& it is necessar- to select t*e learning and teac*ing acti6ities w*ic* can 7e controlled 7- t*e teac*er& controlled 7- t*e students or controlled 7- indi6idual students. 8inall-& t*ere is a need to select an assess(ent tas: w*ic* gi6es teac*ers feed7ac: on w*et*er students learning *a6e 7een effecti6e. Eoreo6er& t*ere is also a need to define t*e curriculu( so t*at students can 7e ad6ised of w*at *as to 7e learnt& =iggs (1@@@ . 5*e (ain pro7le( wit* assess(ent according to =iggs (1@@@ is t*at t*ere are institutional constraints i(posed on it w*ic* are 0uantitati6e in nature rat*er t*an <ust 7eing 0ualitati6e feed7ac:. 5*is is true e6en in t*e case w*ere institutions pro6ide criteria against w*ic* gradesB(ar:s can 7e awarded to students wor:. 5*e 0uantitati6e nature of t*e (ar: (eans t*at students are students will not get feed7ac: on *ow t*eir perfor(ance can 7e i(pro6ed. 5*e onl- feed7ac: students get fro( a grading s-ste( is t*at t*e- did not fulfill certain criteria to (a:e a specific grade. =iggs (1@@@ suggests t*at t*e poor align(ent of teac*ing o7<ecti6es& teac*ing and learning acti6ities and results fro( ad(inistrati6e con6enience and t*e use of (easure(ent (odels alongside ot*er standard (odels. 5*e for(er (odel reduces students; perfor(ance to nu(7ers w*ile t*e latter identifies an ideal distri7ution w*ic* t*e student;s results s*ould *a6e. .owe6er& 7ot* (odels and in particular t*e (easure(ent (odel ignore t*e fact t*at 0uantif-ing perfor(ance sa-s not*ing a7out t*e 0ualit- of perfor(ance& =iggs (1@@@ . 8urt*er(ore& t*e latter re<ects t*e (easure(ent (odel on t*e 7asis t*at education is a7out c*ange rat*er t*an sta7ilit-. 5*is i(plies t*at teac*ing can c*ange a student;s 7ad result on one occasion to a good result on anot*er location. 5*is also (eans t*at students (ust 7e gi6en t*e opportunit- to reflect on t*eir own learning and effecti6e assess(ent tas:s will facilitate t*is process. =lac: et al (1@@! focuses on t*e role of for(ati6e assess(ent as a tool w*ic* can 7e used 7- teac*ers in order to i(pro6e *isB*er classroo( instruction. =ut national and institutional policies tend to treat t*e classroo( as a A7lac: 7o1; in w*ic* t*e inputs are teac*ers& standards and students and t*e outputs are represented 7- acade(icall- co(petent students& =lac: et al (1@@! . 2ccording to t*e latter t*e role of assess(ent 7eco(es for(ati6e w*en teac*ers use results in order to adapt *isB*er teac*ing in order to 7etter suit t*e learning needs of t*e students. 5*e i(plication is t*at students will *a6e to (a:e t*e inside of t*e 7lac: 7o1 wor: 7etter in order to constantl- c*ange t*e inputs in order to produce 7etter outputs& =lac: et al (1@@! . 5*e results of a sur6e- according to =lac: et al (1@@! suggests t*at i(pro6ing t*e (et*ods and tec*ni0ues of for(ati6e assess(ents does i(pro6e t*e learning e1perience of students and t*e results w*ic* t*e students ulti(atel- ac*ie6e. Ne6ert*eless& t*e difficulties associated wit* assess(ent re6ol6e around t*ree issues. 8irstl-& t*ere is t*e issue of effecti6e learning w*ic* encourages inefficient learning as well as 0uestions 7eing uncriticall- re6iewed 7- teac*ers. Secondl-& t*ere is a negati6e aspect associated wit* assess(ent including t*e o6ere(p*asis of grading and t*e under e(p*asis on t*e pro6ision of tailored feed7ac: to indi6idual students. 5*irdl-& t*ere is t*e (anagerial role associated wit* assess(ent. 5*is is particularlrele6ant on a degree progra((e co(posed of a nu(7er of su7<ects taug*t 7- different people. If t*e nu(7er of assess(ents and t*e ti(ing of assess(ents are not co-ordinated 7etween t*e su7<ects& especiall- in cases w*ere t*e assess(ent counts towards t*e final grade ac*ie6ed 7- t*e students t*en t*is (a- lead to strategic stud- 7t*e students leading to 7etter results in su7<ects wit* (ore assess(ents t*an in su7<ects wit* fewer assess(ents. 5*e aut*or taug*t on a progra((e w*ere t*ere was no effecti6e (anage(ent or co-ordination of t*e assess(ents in t*e su7<ects w*ic* co(prised t*e w*ole progra((e. 5*is gi6es rise to two pro7le(s w*ic* are detri(ental to t*e learning en6iron(ent. 8irstl-& t*e o6erall results in so(e su7<ects will 7e far worse t*an in ot*er su7<ects. 5*is results fro( students engaging in strategic stud- in w*ic* students use t*eir stud- ti(e on a Aselecti6el- negligent; 7asis. 5*is i(plies t*at t*e students will ignore or gi6e least attention to t*ose su7<ects in w*ic* t*ere is 6er- little assess(ent co(pared to t*ose su7<ects wit* (ore assess(ent& ?i77s et al (2''7 . Secondl-& students will e1perience Alearning fatigue;. )ust (2''7 suggests t*at assess(ent is (ost effecti6e w*en student;s wor:load is effecti6e and w*en it is percei6ed 7- t*e students as 7eing t*reatening or distressing. 9earning fatigue results 7ecause students are e1pected to Acra(; :nowledge in a gi6en ti(e period wit* t*e effect t*at t*e- are not a7le to 7enefit fro( t*e learning e1perience eit*er at a cogniti6e or a personal le6el. 5*erefore& it see(s t*at t*e (anage(ent and assess(ent of co-ordination needs to ta:e precedence o6er t*e critical re6iew of assess(ents as well as t*e pro6ision of rele6ant and ade0uate feed7ac: to students. .owe6er& 7ot* of t*ese issues are i(portant. #nline progra((es do not in6ol6e face to face teac*ing and are pertinent to t*ose students w*o are in full ti(e e(plo-(ent and are una7le to eit*er stud- full ti(e or part ti(e on face to face courses. In t*e conte1t of online teac*ing& co((unication ta:es on a different role in co(parison to face to face teac*ing. In face to face teac*ing 7ot* t*e 7od- language of t*e teac*er and *isB*er tone pla-s an i(portant role in co((unicating :nowledge to students. .owe6er& wit* regards to online teac*ing w*at is (ost i(portant in teac*ing students and gi6ing t*e( feed7ac: is t*e written word. 5*e e(p*asis on learning fro( online courses is fir(l- in t*e *ands of t*e student t*roug* participation in t*e online foru(s. Ne6ert*eless& successful participation on online foru(s is contingent upon t*e students *a6ing co(pleted t*e re0uired reading for eac* foru(. 5*e online discussion foru(s pla- t*e


Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.2'& 2'13

role of Atutorials; in online courses. In t*ese online tutorials t*e teac*er poses a 0uestion w*ic* t*e students responds and discuss 7efore t*e teac*er responds wit* *isB*er feed7ac: on t*e student responses. =ut for(al for(ati6e assess(ent is gi6en on t*e 7asis of a %'' word essa- in wee: 5 of a 1' wee: online course. 5*is is followed 7- a final su((ati6e 1''' word assign(ent in wee: ! of t*e online course. 5*e online course it would see( incorporates a continuous feed7ac: to t*e student in its design. 8urt*er(ore& t*e range of teac*ing tec*ni0ues w*ic* are a6aila7le to online teac*ers suc* as online discussion foru(s& su((ati6e assign(ents and for(ati6e assign(ents allows t*e( to 7uild up students; self-estee( and to facilitate t*eir self-reflection in to t*eir studies. 5*is is 7ecause in online teac*ing t*e lin: 7etween student and teac*er is esta7lis*ed t*roug* written co((unication. =lac: et al (1@@! underline t*e i(portance of teac*ers pro6iding opportunities for students to 7uild up t*eir self-estee( and to personall- reflect on t*e wa- in w*ic* t*e- learn. 5*e for(er can 7e ac*ie6ed 7- teac*ers A7uilding; a learning en6iron(ent in w*ic* students acti6el- 7elie6e t*at t*e- can do 7etter& w*ile t*e latter can 7e ac*ie6ed 7- pro6iding assess(ent tools w*ic* allows students to 7e a7le to reflect on t*eir learning& =lac: et al (1@@! . It is eas- to see *ow t*e online learning en6iron(ent pro6ides an insig*t into *ow t*e A7lac: 7o1; of =lac: et al (1@@! actuall- functions or s*ould function. 2ssess(ents can ta:e (an- for(s including oral presentations& e1a(s and essa-s. ?i77s et al (2''7 suggests t*at students tend to score *ig*er on essa-s w*ic* are assessed rat*er t*an on tests and e1a(s. Eoreo6er& if t*e assessed co(ponent of a course were ta:en awa- to 7e replaced 7- e1a(s t*en students (a- not stud- as effecti6el- as if t*e assessed co(ponent *ad 7een left. =lo1*a( et al (2''7 suggests t*at t*ere are pro7le(s wit* using e1a(s as a (eans of assess(ent. 5*is is especiall- t*e case w*en scripts are (ar:ed. In t*e (a<oritof educational institutions& scripts are (ar:ed on t*e 7asis of a (ar:ing sc*e(e w*ic* is constructed on t*e 7asis of fulfilling criteria for eac* ac*ie6a7le grade. .owe6er& e6en t*oug* (ar:ing sc*e(es allows for (ar:ing consistenc- w*en t*ere are a nu(7er of (ar:ers t*is is constrained w*en t*e (ar:ing sc*e(e is constructed 7- a senior teac*er& wit*out consultation& w*ic* t*en as to 7e used 7- <unior colleagues& =lo1*a( et al (2''7 . Ne6ert*eless& t*e latter suggests t*at t*ese pro7le(s can 7e o6erco(e if t*e (ar:ing sc*e(e is constructed on t*e 7asis of consultation wit* a tea( of colleagues& if it is written on t*e 7asis of fle1i7ilit- in addressing student responses and pre-(oderation (eetings are *eld 7- t*e teac*ers w*o are to (ar: t*e scripts. )ust (2''7 suggests t*at t*e 7elief t*at dou7le (ar:ing will produce results w*ic* are consistent and ro7ust is si(pl- a (-t* 7ecause a co(pro(ise will 7e needed 7etween (ar:ers. 8urt*er(ore& degree classifications could 7e distorted 7ecause of t*e need to co(pl- wit* institutional rules regarding t*e weig*ts w*ic* s*ould 7e attac*ed to t*e specific co(ponents of a degree progra((e. 8or e1a(ple& w*ile t*e results of e1a(s and tests pro6ide 6er- little for(ati6e feed7ac: to students t*is for( of assess(ent tends to 7e weig*ted (ore *ea6il- in degree progra(s t*an are for(ati6e tests w*ic* pro6ides feed7ac: to students w*ic* (a- pro6e to 7e reflecti6e& )ust (2''7 . +.! /#c &iology of 0ision In order to 7etter understand and appreciate *ow an assess(ent is carried out in a field ot*er t*an (- own& I studied a course w*ic* was taug*t 7- a colleague& t*e ESc in t*e =iolog- of $ision. E- colleague was t*e +eput- Eodule #rganiser for =asic Eodule 3 w*ic* focuses on A?enetics and Epide(iolog- of #cular +isease; on t*e ESc in t*e =iolog- of $ision. 5*e (odule for w*ic* (- colleague is an organiser is one of se6en on t*e ESc. 5*e se6ent* (odule is a dissertation w*ic* is wort* 5'H of t*e final assess(ent towards t*e ESc. In t*is case& (- colleague;s (odule on t*e ESc and t*e ot*er fi6e (odules on t*e ESc onl- contri7ute a weig*ting of !.3H towards t*e final assess(ent of t*e ESc. 5*e (odule was taug*t 7- (- colleague fro( t*e !t* No6e(7er 2'1' to t*e 23rd No6e(7er 2'1' wit* teac*ing and assess(ent on a continuous 7asis facilitated 7- Atutorials& wor:s*ops& lectures& de(onstrations and <ournal clu7s& Io# (2'1' . =ut (- colleague taug*t courses on t*e #cular ,ell =iolog- Eodule. 5*e A?enetics and Epide(iolog- of #cular +isease; (odule co(prised t*ree different t-pes of assess(ent. 8irstl-& t*ere was an oral presentation w*ic* contri7uted 3'H of t*e (ar:s of t*e (odule to t*e final result. 5*e oral presentation *ad to 7e 7ased on a topic w*ic* was taug*t on t*e course. 5*e deadline for t*e su7(ission of t*e presentation was t*e 2Ft* No6e(7er 2'1'. 5*e second t-pe of assess(ent was a =io-Infor(atics (ini tas:& t*e deadline for w*ic* was t*e 2't* +ece(7er 2'1'& w*ic* co(prised %'H of t*e final (ar:s for t*e (odule. 5*e t*ird and final (ode of assess(ent for t*e (odule was a 3''' word essa- w*ic* contri7uted 3'H towards t*e final result of t*e (odule. 5*e deadline for t*e su7(ission of t*e essa- was t*e %t* 2pril 2'11. 5*e deadline is t*e sa(e for t*e essa- in t*e fi6e ot*er (odules. Eac* (odule on t*e ESc =iologof $ision *as up to four different t-pes of assess(ents. None of t*e (odules as a final e1a( as a (ode of assess(ent. 5*e assess(ent criteria for all t*e essa-s w*ic* are deli6era7le 7- all t*e students on t*e ESc in =iolog- of $ision indicates t*at eac* grade *as a certain criteria w*ic* *as to 7e addressed 7- t*e students writing t*e essa-s in order t*at t*e- can attain t*e appropriate grade. In order for students to pass t*e ESc in t*e =iolog- of $ision& a (ar: of 7etween 5' and 5@H (ust 7e attained in eac* (odule and eac* (odule (ust 7e passed. .owe6er& w*ile t*e ESc in t*e =iolog- of $ision *as its own ai(s and o7<ecti6es& it can also 7e said t*at eac* (odule also *as its owns uni0ue ai(s and o7<ecti6es. Eoreo6er& despite clearl- stated ai(s and o7<ecti6es (- colleague;s (odule stated clearl- w*at t*e students were e1pected to :now3


Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.2'& 2'13

‘Students will be able to understand the material provided in the lectures, tutorials and in the practical sessions. This includes the knowledge of materials in any references which are specified on the course.’ 1. 'onclusion E- learning e1perience *as 7een e6olutionar-& 7eco(ing (ore rapid after disco6ering Econo(ics. I a( passionate a7out Econo(ics 7ecause it is a social science w*ic* *as glo7al and *istorical i(plications for t*e da- to da- li6es of t*e w*ole of *u(anit-. .owe6er& I a( also interested in ot*er su7<ects suc* as 2strop*-sics& 2rc*aeolog- and 2nt*ropolog-. 5*is would suggest t*at (- learning is 7ot* e6olutionar- and de6elops o6er ti(e. 5*is e6olutionar- and continuous aspect of (- learning *as 7een noticed 7- (- peers. 8or e1a(ple& one suggested t*at it is i(portant for a teac*er to Ac*allenge intellectual processes t*roug* teac*ing;. 2not*er peer suggested t*at Aeffecti6e and deep learning occurs w*en t*e learner *as a personal interest and (oti6ation for stud-ing. 8ro( a student perspecti6e t*ere see(s to 7e a definite correlation 7etween t*e a7ilit- to spea:& read and to write Englis* and t*e perfor(ance in t*e (oc: test. In t*is case& it would see( t*at a *ig* a7ilit- to spea:& write and read written Englis* 7estows not onl- t*e a7ilit- to understand w*at is 7eing taug*t 7ut also t*e a7ilit- to organi>e ti(e and to plan (aterials. 5*is is e6ident fro( t*e fact t*at (o6ing fro( Student 2 to Student , t*e le6el of written& spo:en and reading of Englis* fell. 5*is *ad t*e conse0uence t*at t*e organi>ational and planning a7ilit- of students also fell. 5*e ti(e necessar- to ac0uire a proficient le6el of linguistic a7ilit- (a- 7e contingent upon t*e educational le6el of t*e student. In t*is case& postgraduates can ac0uire linguistic a7ilit- in a language w*ic* is different fro( t*eir own (uc* (ore 0uic:l- t*an can students w*o are at a lower le6el of education. 5*erefore& it can 7e said t*at t*e a7ilit- of students to succeed in t*e =ritis* educational s-ste( is contingent upon t*e student;s a7ilit- to (aster t*e Englis* language and it was t*is (aster- w*ic* influenced t*e le6el of t*e student;s organi>ational and planning a7ilit-. It was apparent fro( t*e session in w*ic* I o7ser6ed (- colleagues teac*ing t*at *e felt t*at *e was a guide to *is students learning and t*is for(ed t*e 7ac:7one of *is teac*ing p*ilosop*-. 5*e pro(otion of interdisciplinar- teac*ing in t*e literature is e6idenced in t*e teac*ing of Econo(ics and Eat*e(atics. 5*is close relations*ip 7etween Econo(ics and Eat*e(atics and (- teac*ing and (- colleagues teac*ing was *ig*lig*ted 7- t*e teac*ing in ,o(puter Science. In t*is case anot*er colleague of (ine w*o taug*t ,o(puter Science o7ser6ed anot*er colleague;s teac*ing in ,*e(istr-. /*ile t*ere was significant interaction 7etween t*e teac*er and t*e students in t*e teac*ing of (- Eat*s colleague& t*ere see(ed to 7e little interaction 7etween t*e teac*er and t*e student in t*e teac*ing of ,*e(istr-. 5*is is *ig*l- suggesti6e of t*e fact t*at if a teac*er *as a rele6ant t*eor- of teac*ing t*en t*e result is a *ig* le6el of interaction 7etween t*e teac*er and t*e students. Eoreo6er& if t*is was t*e case t*en it (ust 7e true t*at t*e le6el of interaction is not su7<ect specific. =ut it (ust 7e recogni>ed t*at (- colleague w*o taug*t Eat*s *ad onl- a teac*ing onl- post w*ile t*e 9ecturer w*o was o7ser6ed 7- (- colleague *ad a teac*ing and researc* post. ,ol7ec: (1@@! suggests t*at in teac*ing B researc* posts increased staff producti6it- can onl- 7e ac*ie6ed 7- wor:ing conditions w*ic* foster t*e integration of teac*ing and researc*. #n t*e ot*er *and =o-er (1@@% suggests t*at a di6erse networ: of *ig*er educational institutions is re0uired wit* eac* institution following its own agenda rat*er t*an duplicating t*e functions of ot*er institutions. .owe6er& t*e results of t*e o7ser6ation does suggest t*at t*e literature& specificall- =ec*er et al (2''1 & is correct to suggest t*at su7<ects cannot 7e taug*t in isolation and an interdisciplinar- approac* to teac*ing is necessar-. 2lt*oug* t*e ESc in t*e =iolog- of $ision is assessed entirel- on t*e 7asis of essa-s& tas:s and presentations it see(s to 7e de6oid of e1a(s 7ased assess(ent and t*e pro7le(s posed 7- t*e (ar:ing of scripts. .owe6er& t*e (ain pro7le( wit* regards to t*e assess(ent of t*e su7<ect (atter relating to eac* (odule on t*e progra((e see(s to& according to t*e literatureL focus on t*e lac: of for(ati6e assess(ents as well as t*e (anage(ent of assess(ents. It *as 7een (entioned t*at t*e literature does suggest t*at for(ati6e assess(ents not onl- pro6ides a (ec*anis( w*ic* pro6ides students wit* feed7ac: as to t*e effecti6eness of t*eir learningL and teac*ers wit* feed7ac: as to t*e effecti6eness of t*eir teac*ing practice. 5*is tends to allow teac*ers to c*ange t*eir teac*ing strateg- and practice and to 7e inno6ati6e wit* regards to t*e design of new learning acti6ities w*ic* t*e students t*e- teac* can underta:e. In t*is wa- t*e teac*er (a- 7e a7le to engage wit* t*e *ig*er le6el cogniti6e powers of a student. None of t*e (odules on t*e ESc in t*e =iolog- of $ision e1cept t*e #cular ,ell =iolog- Eodule see(ed to 7e a7le to offer a reflecti6e co(ponent. 5*e #cular ,ell =iolog- (odule co(pro(ises t*ree essa-s w*ic* includes a for(ati6e assign(ent as well as t*e deli6er- of an oral presentation. 5*e aut*or is assu(ing t*at regular office *ours are (ade a6aila7le so t*at t*e students can (eet t*e respecti6e (odule teac*ers in order to discuss pro7le(s t*e- (a- 7e *a6ing wit* regards to t*e coursewor:. .owe6er& t*is is not stated on t*e course progra((e. 5*is is in s*arp contrast to t*e online progra((e on w*ic* t*e aut*or is in6ol6ed in at t*e (o(ent. 5*e 6er- nature of t*e online progra((e (eans t*at students will 7e a7le to get regular feed7ac: on t*eir perfor(ance t*an per*aps would 7e t*e case on face to face progra(s. 5*e literature sur6e- suggests t*at t*ere


Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline $ol.%& No.2'& 2'13

(a- 7e ot*er pro7le(s w*ic* (a- e(erge due to pro7le(s associated wit* t*e (anage(ent of assess(ent. /it* se6en (odules on t*e ESc in =iolog- of $ision& eac* *a6ing four assess(ents (a- lead to t*e learning fatigue on t*e 7e*alf of t*e student. 5*is is 7ecause w*ile so(e assess(ents (a- *a6e si(ilar deadlines& t*e deadline for ot*er assess(ents (a- 7e spread out. Eoreo6er& students (a- engage in strategic stud- suc* t*at t*e- do 7etter in so(e su7<ects t*an t*e- (a- do so in ot*er parts. 5*e aut*or easil- identifies wit* t*e poor 6iew of t*e (anage(ent of assess(ent and its i(plications for student 7e*a6iour and conduct. 5*erefore& in order to ensure t*at student learning on eac* (odule is effecti6eL and at t*e sa(e ti(e negating learning fatigue (eans t*at t*e 7etter co-ordination and (anage(ent of assess(ents is critical. 5*is (ig*t (ean t*at t*e nu(7er of assess(ent is reduced and t*e final assess(ent is conducted 7- e1a(ination. So t*e i(plication is t*at t*e students will find it less necessar- to engage in strategic stud-L and will find stud- (ore rewarding and intellectuall- fruitful. Ecolleague tells (e t*at s*e and *er colleagues on t*e ESc in t*e =iolog- of $ision are loo:ing at wa-s w*ic* can reduce strategic stud- 7- students as well as t*e learning fatigue w*ic* students (a- e1perience. &ibliogra%hy 2dnett& N.& Ec,aig& ,.& Slac:& D.& and =owers-=rown& 5. (2'11 & A2c*ie6ing 5ransparenc-& ,onsistenc- and 8airness in Englis* .ig*er Education 2d(issions3 Progress since Sc*wart>I;& .ig*er Education Guarterl-& F5& 1. =ec*er& 5.& and 5rowler& P. ). (2'11 & A+i6ersit- and its ,onse0uences&; fro( =ec*er& 5.& and 5rowler& P. ). (2'11 & A2cade(ic 5ri7es and 5erritories&; pp.1@%-2''& 2'F-2'7. =iggs& J. (1@@@ & A/*at t*e Student +oes3 5eac*ing for En*anced 9earningI .ig*er Education )esearc* M +e6elop(ent& 1!& 1. =lac:& P.& and /illia(& +. (1@@! & AInside t*e =lac: =o13 )aising Standards t*roug* ,lassroo( 2ssess(ent&; 5*e P*i +elta Dappan& $ol. !'& 2. =lo1*a(& S.& and =o-d& P. (2''7 & A,*apter 73 Ear:ing;& fro( =lo1*a(& S.& and =o-d& P. (2''7 & A+e6eloping Effecti6e 2ssess(ent in .ig*er Education3 2 Practical ?uide&; #CP. =o-er& E. (1@@% & ASc*olars*ip )econsidered3 Priorities for a New ,entur-&; fro( National ,o((ission on Education (eds &; Cni6ersities in t*e 5went--8irst ,entur-&; pp.111-132& National ,o((ission on Education. =roo:field& S. +. (1@@5 & A9earning to :now #ursel6es&; fro( =roo:field& S. +. (1@@5 & A=eco(ing a ,riticall)eflecti6e 5eac*er&; pp.%@-7'& San 8rancisco& Josse--=oss. ,ol7ec:& ,.9 (1@@! & AEerging in a Sea(less =lend3 .ow 8acult- Integrate 5eac*ing and )esearc*&; 5*e Journal of .ig*er Education& F@& F. +earing& ). (1@@7 & A5*e National ,o((ittee of In0uirinto .ig*er Education&; *,I.E. Eraut& E. (1@@% & A5*e 2c0uisition and use of 5*eor- 7- =eginning 5eac*ers&; fro( Eraut& E. (1@@% & A+e6eloping Professional Dnowledge and ,o(petence&; pp. 5@-7%. )outledge 8al(er. 8o1& +. (1@!3 & APersonal 5*eories of 5eac*ing&; Studies in .ig*er Education& !& 2. ?olding& ,. (2''@ & AIntegrating t*e +isciplines3 Successful Interdisciplinar- Su7<ects&; ,entre for t*e Stud- of .ig*er Education& Cni6ersit- of Eel7ourne. ?reen7an:& P. (2''F & A5*e E6olution of ?o6ern(ent Polic- on /idening Participation&; .ig*er Education Guarterl-& F'& 2. .aggis& 5. (2''3 & A,onstructing I(ages of #ursel6esI 2 ,ritical In6estigation into 2pproac*es to 9earning&; )esearc* in .ig*er Education& =ritis* Educational )esearc* Journal& 2@. Io# (2'1' & AESc =iolog- of $ision&; C,9 Institute of #p*t*al(olog-. Eann& S. J. (2''1 & A2lternate Perspecti6es on t*e Student E1perience3 2lienation and Engage(ent&; Studies in .ig*er Education& 2F& 1. Earton& 8.& and Sal<o& ). (1@@7 & A2pproac*es to 9earning&; fro( Earton& 8.& .ounsell& +.& and Entwistle& N. (Eds & A5*e E1perience of 9earning&; pp. 3@-5!& Scottis* 2cade(ic Press. Ee-er& J.& and 9and& ). (2''3 & A5*res*old ,oncepts and 5rou7leso(e Dnowledge3 9in:ages to /a-s of 5*in:ing and Practicing wit*in +isciplines&; #ccasional )eport %& E59 Pro<ect. #tten& E. (2''3 & AIntercultural 9earning and +i6ersit- in .ig*er Education&; Journal of Studies in International Education& 7& 1. )a(es*& S. (2'12 & A,*ina;s 5ransition to a Dnowledge Econo(-&; Journal of t*e Dnowledge Econo(-& $olu(e 2& No.2. )ust& ,. (2''7 & A5owards a Sc*olars*ip of 2ssess(ent&; 2ssess(ent M E6aluation in .ig*er Education& 32& 2. S:elton& 2. (2''' & A,a(ping it up to Ea:e t*e( 9aug*I; ?a- Een 5eac*ing in .ig*er Education&; 5eac*ing in .ig*er Education& 5& 2. Co#& APaper %3 Intellectual and Et*ical +e6elop(ent in t*e ,ollege Kears&; pp. 1-1'. /al:er& E. (2''3 & A8ra(ing Social Justice in Education3 /*at does t*e A,apa7ilities; 2pproac* #fferI; =ritis* Journal of Educational


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