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Gender, Popularity, Social Competence and Academic Achievement of In-School Adolescents in Nigeria
(. 2. Ig)o& * net. N.(+ Nw , & -ut.. N.2 Dep rt/ent #0 1du2 tion l 3ound tions& 3 2ulty #0 1du2 tion 4niversity #0 Nigeri & Nsu,, & 1nugu St te& Nigeri Dep rt/ent #0 1du2 tion l 3ound tions& 3 2ulty #0 1du2 tion 4niversity #0 Nigeri & Nsu,, 1nugu St te& Nigeri + 1-/ il o0 t.e 2orresponding ut.or5 6 netig)o7y .oo.2o/

Abstract 8.e purpose o0 t.e study is to investig te t.e rel tions.ip t. t e9ists /ong popul rity& so2i l 2o/peten2e nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent o0 in-s2.ool doles2ents ) sed on gender. 8wo rese r2. :uestions nd two null .ypot.eses guided t.e study& nd t.e study used 2orrel tion l rese r2. design. ; tot l S /ple o0 400 (SS ((! students were sele2ted 0ro/ 4/u .i 1du2 tion <one in Nigeri 0or t.e study. =e n& St nd rd devi tion nd Si/ple >ine r -egression were used in nswering t.e rese r2. :uestions w.ile ;n lysis o0 $ ri n2e (;N#$;! w s used in testing t.e .ypot.eses st ted t 0.0" level o0 signi0i2 n2e. -esults o0 t.e study s.owed t. t rel tions.ip )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? popul rity nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender is low nd t.ere is low rel tions.ip )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? so2i l 2o/peten2e nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender. 8.ere is no signi0i2 nt rel tions.ip )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? so2i l 2o/peten2e nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender. ;g in t.ere is t.e indi2 tion t. t signi0i2 nt rel tions.ip does not e9ist )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? popul rity nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender. Key ords! popul rity& so2i l 2o/peten2e& doles2en2e& gender& 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent "# Introduction Senior se2ond ry s2.ool students re t t.eir doles2en2e st ge w.i2. is n intense ti/e o0 e/otion l nd p.ysi2 l 2. nge in young person?s li0e. It is ti/e w.en r pid develop/ent l 2. nges nd tr nsitions o22ur& nd doles2ents )egin to 0or/ nd s. pe into young dults. P.ysi2 l& psy2.ologi2 l& intelle2tu l nd so2i l 2. nges 2 n ll )e stress0ul nd di00i2ult to / n ge during t.is ti/e. Se2ond ry s2.ool students e9perien2e dr / ti2 2. nges& t t.is st ge t.e p.ysi2 l 2. nges re t.e /ost o)vious s t.e )ody goes t.roug. pu)erty. ;doles2en2e is tr nsition l st ge o0 p.ysi2 l nd psy2.ologi2 l .u/ n develop/ent gener lly o22urring )etween pu)erty nd leg l dult.ood (@ li A 3errer& 2007!. 8.ese develop/ent l 2. nges 00e2t t.e r pport o0 doles2ents wit. t.eir te 2.ers nd peers& nd re o0ten 22o/p nied )y de2re se in 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent (B r)er A #lsen& 2004! nd in2re se in so2i l inter 2tions (122les& 2004!. 8.e period o0 doles2en2e is /ost 2losely sso2i ted wit. t.e teen ge ye rsC lt.oug. it?s p.ysi2 l& so2i l& psy2.ologi2 l nd 2ultur l e9pression 2 n )egin e rlier nd end l ter (Dorn A Biro& 20((!. ; t.oroug. underst nding o0 doles2ents w.i2. one 2 n e sily 0ind in t.e se2ond ry s2.ool in every so2iety depends on in0or/ tion 0ro/ v rious perspe2tives& /ost i/port ntly 0ro/ t.e re o0 psy2.ology& )iology& .istory& so2iology& edu2 tion nd nt.ropology (>erner A Stein)erg& 2004!. Dit.in ll o0 t.ese perspe2tives& doles2en2e is viewed s tr nsition l period )etween 2.ild.ood nd dult.ood w.ose 2ultur l purpose is t.e prep r tion o0 2.ildren 0or dult roles (> rson A Dilson& 2004!. ;doles2en2e is o0ten re0erred to s ti/e o0 stor/ nd stress )roug.t on l rgely )y r ging .or/ones (>e0ton A Br nnon& 200%! nd 0or so/e doles2entsC it )rings lot o0 psy2.ologi2 l di00i2ulty. Stor/ nd stress do not give t.e w.ole pi2ture o0 doles2en2eC .owever& /ost doles2ents (/ le nd 0e/ le! go t.roug. t.is period o0 /ultiple 2. nges wit.out signi0i2 nt psy2.ologi2 l di00i2ulty (S ntro2,& 2004!. ;lt.oug. spurts o0 .or/ones do 00e2t doles2ents? re 2tion )e2 use .or/on l 2. nges o22ur t di00erent point in ti/e 0or doles2ent )oys nd girls& )ut non )iologi2 l 0 2tors see/ to )e espe2i lly i/port nt in /oder ting t.e e00e2t o0 .or/ones on doles2ents? /ood. 8.is se2ond ry s2.ool students w.i2. . ppens to )e t t.e pe , o0 doles2en2e st ge . s to do wit. r pid in2re se in individu l?s .eig.t nd weig.t during pu)erty nd teen ge ge& resulting 0ro/ t.e si/ult neous rele se o0 growt. .or/ones nd t.is is ,nown s doles2ent growt. spurt (Stein)erg& 200E!. = le students e9perien2e t.eir growt. spurt )out two ye rs l ter on t.e ver ge t. n 0e/ les. ;22ording to Stein)erg (200E!& t.e 22eler ted growt. in di00erent )ody p rts . ppens t di00erent ti/es& )ut 0or ll doles2ents it . s 0 irly regul r se:uen2e. 8.e 0irst pl 2es to grow re t.e e9tre/ities - . nds nd 0eet F 0ollowed )y t.e r/s nd legs& t.en t.e torso nd s.oulders. In .is view& 8 nner (('72! opined t. t t.is non-uni0or/ growt. is one re son w.y n doles2ent?s )ody / y see/ to )e out o0 proportion. 8.is 2. nge on its own )ring 2on0usion s t.e doles2ent

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Developing Country Studies ISSN 2224-607X (P per! ISSN 222"-0"6" (#nline! $ol.%& No.'& 20(%

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see,s to identi0y wit. .i/sel0G.ersel0 0irst nd t.en wit. .isG.er peers. (.( Students? Popul rity nd Hender Popul rity /e ns . ving well-est )lis.ed so2i l pl 2e /ong peers w.o w nt to )e wit. one& wit. w.o/ one . s so2i l st nding& wit. w.o/ one 2 n . ng out& nd w.o 2 n provide t.e 22ept )le 2o/p nions.ip one needs (S2.w rt<& Hor/ n& N , /oto A =2@ y& 2006!. Being popul r is pri/ ry go l o0 / ny teen gers nd doles2ents pursue popul rity 0or so2i l se2urity. Popul rity is o0 two types& so2io-/etri2 popul rity nd per2eived popul rity (Cillessen A -ose& 200"!. So2io/etri2 popul rity is t.e 2t o0 )eing well-li,ed nd 22epted )y ot.ers& nd so2io-/etri2 lly popul r doles2ents displ y .ig. level o0 pro-so2i l nd 2ooper tive )e. viours wit. low level o0 ggression. Per2eived popul rity indi2 tes so2i l do/in n2e& in0luen2e nd prestige in t.e peer group. >e se& @ennedy nd ;9elrod (2002! 0ound per2eived popul r doles2ents to de/onstr te )ot. positive nd neg tive :u lities. 8.ey re 2. r 2teri<ed s 2ool& power0ul& in0luenti l& rrog nt& / nipul tive& 2ontrolling nd ggressive& o0ten eng ged in .ig.ly visi)le nd prestigious 2tivities& . ve e9pensive 2lot.es nd re p.ysi2 lly ttr 2tive. Per2eived popul r )oys 2.ieve .ig. st tus on t.e ) sis o0 t.leti2 )ility& toug.ness nd so2i l s,ills nd per2eived popul r girls )e2 use o0 t.eir ppe r n2e& so2i l 2o/peten2e nd 2 de/i2 su22ess (-od,in& 3 r/er& Pe rl A $ n ;2,er& 2000!. 8.e degree o0 2on2ern 0or popul rity is now 2. nging nd w. t is e9pe2ted in order to )e popul r . s 2. nged 2onsider )ly over ti/e (Cillessen A -ose& 200"!. ;lt.oug. 2on0or/ity to group st nd rd is o0 pri/e i/port n2e 0or in-s2.ool doles2ents? popul rity& gender di00eren2es 2 n )e noted. Hirls pl 2ed gre ter i/port n2e t. n )oys on 2on0or/ing& . ving good person lity& s.owing pro-so2i l )e. viours nd . ving good ppe r n2e in order to )e popul r. Boys g ve gre ter i/port n2e t. n girls to )eing I2oolJ& trustwort.y& t.leti2& toug. nd . ving /oney in order to g in 22ept n2e 0ro/ ot.ers (> 3ont n A Cillessen& 2002!. Popul rity would lso ppe r li,ely to )e lin,ed to 2on2urrent )e. viour l / r,ers o0 develop/ent& su2. s so2i l develop/ent& .ig.er level o0 ego develop/ent nd s,ill in 0or/ing nd / int ining rel tions.ip (De Bruyn A Cillessen& 2006!. Popul rity re0ers to t.e e9tent to w.i2. doles2ents re visi)le& do/in nt in t.eir peer group nd 2onsidered s ttr 2tive 0or 00ili tion. Di6,str & >inden)erg& $er.ulst& #/el nd $eenstr & (200'! / int ined t. t popul r doles2ents do not . ve to )e well-li,ed due to t.eir 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent nd so2i l 2o/peten2e& )ut t.ese :u lities 2 n / ,e n doles2ent to )e popul r. 8.ere re lso di00eren2es nd si/il rities in gender in doles2ents? popul rity. In t.eir opinion& De Bruyn nd Cillessen (2006! / int ined t. t popul r girls do not s.ow .ig. 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent nd were .ig.ly wor, void nt& nd @ie0er nd -y n (200E! 0ound t. t )oys o0 /inority groups no/in ted low 2 de/i2 2.ievers s t.eir /ost d/ired nd respe2ted peers. Popul r )oys s2ore ver ge on 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent nd popul r girls /ore t. n )oys 2.ieve popul rity )y so2i l su22ess (-od,in& 3 r/er& Pe rl A $ n ;2,er& 2000C Kop/eyer Hor/ n& @i/ A S2.i//el)us2.& 2002!. ;dler nd ;dler ((''E! opined t. t per2eived popul r doles2ents re0le2t so2i l 2o/peten2e& in t. t t.ey see/ to . ve so/e ,ind o0 so2i l 2ontrol& nd 0or )ot. )oys nd girls& per2eived popul rity is 22o/p nied )y d/ir tion& le ders.ip& nd t.e )ility to / nipul te nd 2ontrol t.e so2i l order o0 t.e peer group. Boys tends to ,now .ow to use t.eir so2i l s,ills e00e2tively resulting in inter 2tion t. t en. n2es t.eir per2eived popul rity w.ile girls w.o re per2eived s popul r re viewed s pro-so2i l& so2i lly visi)le nd using so2i l- ggressive str tegies to est )lis. nd / int in popul rity. Cillessen nd = yeu9 (2004! st ted 2le rly t. t doles2ents? peer popul rity . s gre t in0luen2e on t.eir so2i l& e/otion l nd 2 de/i2 develop/ent. 8.ese rese r2.ers (Cillessen nd = yeu9! / int ined t. t t.ere is 2. nging ppre2i tion )y peers 0or 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent in t.e period 0ro/ )eing 2.ild to )eing doles2ent. (.2 Students? So2i l Co/peten2e nd Hender Co/peten2e des2ri)es students? s,ill or )ility in spe2i0i2 0ieldGsu)6e2t& or )eing )le to do so/et.ing wellC li,e . ving su00i2ient s,ill in rel ting nd inter 2ting wit. people. - ven nd Step.enson (200(! st ted 2le rly t. t 2o/peten2y grows t.roug. e9perien2e nd t.e e9tent o0 n individu l to le rn nd d pt. 8.is is evident in interperson l rel tions.ip /ong doles2ents nd di00eren2es in gender. So2i l 2o/peten2e is t.e 0ound tion upon w.i2. e9pe2t tion 0or 0uture inter 2tion wit. ot.ers is )uilt& nd upon w.i2. individu ls develop per2eptions o0 t.eir own )e. viour. So2i l 2o/peten2e lso re0le2ts . ving n )ility to t ,e not.er?s perspe2tive 2on2erning situ tion (Se/rud-Cli,e/ n& 2007!& le rning 0ro/ p st e9perien2es nd pplying t. t le rning to t.e 2. nges in so2i l inter 2tions. So2i l 2o/peten2e is set o0 s,ills ne2ess ry to get long wit. ot.ers nd )e well-li,ed. 8.ese s,ills rely on per2eptiveness o0 ot.ers 0eelings& ,nowledge )out so2i l rules nd so2i l li0e nd insig.t in so2i l situ tions. So2i l 2o/peten2e develops overti/e nd t.e / stery o0 so2i l s,ills nd interperson l so2i l inter 2tions e/erges t v rious ti/e points on t.e develop/ent l st ges o0 2.ild (in0 n2y F doles2en2e!. So2i l 2o/peten2e is )uilt on previously le rned s,ills nd ,nowledge (Spen2e& 200%!. Kowever& s develop/ent l 2. nges o22ur in t.e stru2ture nd :u lity o0 inter 2tion s well s in 2ognitive )ilities& t.ese 2. nges 00e2t t.e 2o/ple9ity o0 s,ills nd )e. viours 2ontri)uting to so2i lly 2o/petent response.

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;doles2ents? so2i l 2o/peten2e depends upon nu/)er o0 0 2tors in2luding t.e individu ls? so2i l s,ills& so2i l w reness nd sel0-2on0iden2e (Spen2e& 200%!. So2i l s,ill des2ri)es t.e 2.ild?s ,nowledge o0 nd )ility to use v riety o0 so2i l )e. viours t. t re ppropri te to given interperson l situ tions t. t re ple sing to ot.ers in e 2. situ tion. 8.e 2 p 2ity to in.i)it neg tive so2i l )e. viours is lso re0le2tion o0 so2i l s,ill. >e se& @ennedy nd ;9elrod (2002! / int ined t. t so2i l w reness 0o2us on .ow doles2ents sele2t so2i l go lsC de2ide on t.e )est response to situ tion nd en 2ting t.e 2.osen response w.ile sel0-2on0iden2e /ounts to in2re sing eviden2e de/onstr ted in so2i l inter 2tion in ot.er to / ,e t.e/ so2i lly 2o/petent nd 2 de/i2 lly su22ess0ul. ;doles2ents? try di00erent so2i l roles s t.ey inter 2t wit. peers nd peers serve s so2i l stepping stone s doles2ents /ove w y 0ro/ t.eir e/otion l dependen2e upon t.eir p rents nd tow rds utono/ous 0un2tioning s n dult. Hender is seen s set o0 2. r 2teristi2 :u lities t. t distinguis.es )etween / s2ulinity nd 0e/ininity& nd in2ludes person l ttri)utes& so2i l roles& so2i l 2usto/s& 2tivities nd )e. viour. ;22ording to - << , (20(%!& senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? underst nding o0 gender is :uite rigid nd stereotyped due to )ody 2. nges during pu)erty& interest in d ting nd 0or/ing rel tions.ip nd t.e 2ultur l e9pe2t tion in t.e so2iety. Boys re / r,ed )y 2o//on 2tivities w.ere s girls re / r,ed )y inti/ 2y. ;doles2ent )oys re /ore ggressive t. n doles2ent girls& )ut girls tend to use ggression t. t is /ore so2i l (e9 /ple& e92luding so/eone 0ro/ group nd non-ver) l 2o//uni2 tion! t. n p.ysi2 l in n ture (Pellegrini& 2002!. ;ggression is /ore 2o//on in )oys espe2i lly p.ysi2 l& )ut t.e s /e 2ognition t. t /otiv te ggressive )e. viour ppe r to oper te 0or )ot. gender nd )e. ving ggressively o0ten le ds to peer re6e2tion 0or )ot. )oys nd girls (Spen2e& 200%!. So2i lly 2o/petent doles2ents re )le to 2onsider t.e perspe2tive o0 ot.ers& 2 n sust in t.eir ttention to t.e t s, t . nd& nd re )le to re/ in sel0-2ontrolled in situ tions involving 2on0li2t. (.% Students? ;2 de/i2 ;2.ieve/ent nd Hender ;2.ieve/ent is 22o/plis.ing w. tever go ls you . ve set 0or yoursel0& w.i2. is doing w. t you w nt to do wit.in t.e )ounds o0 t.e l w& over2o/e o)st 2les nd tt in .ig. st nd rd (Nw 2.u,wu& 2004!. ;2.ieve/ent re:uires drive nd single /indedness nd it?s )out 2o/pleting go ls one . s set 0or .i/sel0 or .ersel0. ;2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent o0 students . s )een o0 2on2ern to p rents& gu rdi n& students nd even t.e wider so2iety. 8.is desire 0or .ig. level o0 2.ieve/ent puts lot o0 pressure on students& te 2.ers& s2.ools& nd in gener l t.e edu2 tion syste/ itsel0. In 0 2t& it ppe rs s i0 t.e w.ole syste/ o0 edu2 tion revolves round t.e 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent o0 students& t.oug. v rious ot.er out2o/es re lso e9pe2ted 0ro/ t.e syste/. ;2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent is t.e out2o/e o0 edu2 tion& t.e e9tent to w.i2. student& te 2.er or institution . s 2.ieved t.eir edu2 tion l go ls nd it is 2o//only /e sured )y e9 /in tion or 2ontinuous ssess/ent (Boss ert& Dou/en& Buyse A $ers2.ueren& 20((!& )ut t.ere is no gener l gree/ent on .ow it is )est tested or w.i2. spe2ts re /ost i/port nt. ; le rner 2 n )ene0it 0ro/ n 2 de/i2 pro2ess ) sed on w. t t.e le rner e9.i)it 0ter t.e le rning pro2ess. Crow nd Crow (('6'! de0ined 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent s t.e e9tent to w.i2. le rner is pro0iting 0ro/ instru2tions in given re o0 le rning& t. t is& 2.ieve/ent is re0le2ted )y t.e e9tent to w.i2. s,ill or ,nowledge . s )een i/p rted to .i/. 8.is in turn re0le2ts in students? )e. viour s .e or s.e inter 2ts wit. /e/)ers o0 t.e peer group le ding to t.eir )eing so2i lly 2o/petent or in2o/petent. No two individu l re e9 2tly li,e or t.e s /e in over ll person lity nd 2. r 2teristi2s& (8o/porows,i& D vis& =iller A N glieri& 200E!& nd wit. t.is ssertion& no two individu l . s e:u l potenti ls s 0 r s le rning is 2on2erned nd t.is / ,es t.e le rners to e9ist in di00erent 2l sses o0 2.ieve/ent level. In view o0 t.ese levels o0 2.ieve/ent& it is e9pe2ted t. t t.e le rners? )ility 2orrespond wit. t.e level in ter/s o0 per0or/ n2e nd su)se:uent 2.ieve/ent. = re2e,& Cr w0ord A Popp (2004! / int ined t. t t.e so2i l 2onstru2tion o0 gender in senior se2ond ry s2.ools . s s. ped t.e w y in w.i2. / le nd 0e/ le students re )elieved to per0or/ in v rious su)6e2ts. In study 2ondu2ted in Net.erl nd& Nort.western 1urope )y =ei6s& Cillessen& S2.olte& Segers A Spi6,er/ n (20(0!& using "(2& (4 ye rs old nd (" ye rs old doles2ents in vo2 tion l s2.ool nd 2ollege prep r tory s2.ool& on gender spe2t& / int ined t. t girls s2ored signi0i2 ntly .ig.er t. n )oys on so2i l intelligen2e& w.ere s )oys s2ored signi0i2 ntly .ig.er t. n girls on per2eived popul rity. 8.ere w s no signi0i2 nt gender di00eren2e 0or 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent or so2io-/etri2 popul rity. So2i l intelligen2e 2orrel ted positively wit. per2eived popul rity 0or )ot. gender& 0or girls& so2i l intelligen2e lso 2orrel ted wit. so2io-/etri2 popul rity& )ut not 0or )oys. ;2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent did not 2orrel te signi0i2 ntly wit. so2i l intelligen2e or t.e two /e sures o0 popul rity 0or eit.er o0 t.e gender& nd t.e rese r2.ers used two s2.ool 2onte9ts )ut t.e 2urrent study will use one s2.ool 2onte9t (pu)li2 s2.ools! to 0ind out gender nd its? rel tions.ip /ong in-s2.ool doles2ents popul rity& so2i l 2o/peten2e nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent. In not.er study on peer group pressure s deter/in nt o0 doles2ents? so2i l d6ust/ent in Nigeri n s2.ools& #ni (20(0! ssessed doles2ents? so2i l d6ust/ent in s2.ools using (20 students w.o were ged )etween (% nd (' ye rs. 8.e instru/ent 0or d t 2olle2tion w s sel0-designed :uestionn ire wit. li,ert /odel used to ddress t.e purpose w.i2. is t.e in0luen2e o0 peer group pressure on t.e so2i l d6ust/ent o0 doles2ents. D t

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g t.ered were n ly<ed using n independent t-test nd Pe rson produ2t /o/ent 2orrel tion 2oe00i2ient. 8.e rese r2.er 0ound /ong ot.er t.ings t. t peer group pressure /ong doles2ents is rel ted to t.eir so2i l d6ust/ent nd t. t t.e gender o0 t.e doles2ent 2.ild 00e2ts t.eir so2i l d6ust/ent s well. #nyilo nd #nyilo (20(0! 2ondu2ted study on 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent nd sel0-2on2ept o0 se2ond ry s2.ool students using 400 respondents (200 / les nd 200 0e/ les! r ndo/ly sele2ted 0ro/ Hw gw l d re 2oun2il o0 ;)u6 & to void gender )i s. 8.e study i/s t 0inding t.e rel tions.ip )etween t.e 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent nd sel0-2on2ept /ong / le nd 0e/ le students in se2ond ry s2.ools using ;doles2ent Person l D t Inventory (;PDI! to /e sure sel0-2on2ept nd students? *unior Se2ond ry S2.ool Certi0i2 te 19 /in tion (*SSC1! s2ores in integr ted s2ien2e nd so2i l studies to /e sure t.eir 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent. 8.e 0indings s.owed t. t 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent nd sel0-2on2ept were gender sensitive& resulting 0ro/ t.e 0 2t t. t / le students . d gre ter ti/e to pl y outside s2.ool& w.ile 0e/ le students were lw ys eng ged in do/esti2 wor,. It is ) sed on t.e )ove ) 2,ground t. t t.e rese r2.ers intend to investig te t.e rel tions.ip t. t e9ists /ong popul rity& so2i l 2o/peten2e nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender. Spe2i0i2 lly& t.e study see,s to5 deter/ine t.e rel tions.ip )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? popul rity nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent o0 students ) sed on gender& nd s2ert in t.e rel tions.ip )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? so2i l 2o/peten2e nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender. So2i l 2onstru2tivist t.eory s propounded )y $ygots,y (('7E! st tes t. t inter 2tion pl ys 0und /ent l role in t.e develop/ent o0 2ognition. 8.e t.eorist st ted t. t every 0un2tion in t.e 2.ild?s 2ultur l develop/ent ppe rs twi2e5 0irst& on t.e so2i l level nd l ter on t.e individu l level& t. t is& )etween people nd t.en inside t.e 2.ild. ; se2ond 2on2ept is t. t t.e potenti l 0or 2ognitive develop/ent depends upon t.e ILone o0 Pro9i/ l Develop/entJ level o0 develop/ent tt ined w.en 2.ildren eng ge in so2i l )e. viour. Its ) si2 prin2iples re t. t 2ognitive develop/ent is li/ited to 2ert in r nge t ny given ge& nd t. t 0ull 2ognition develop/ent re:uires so2i l inter 2tion. 3or $ygots,y (('7E!& t.e 2ulture gives t.e 2.ild t.e 2ognitive tools needed 0or develop/ent& nd so2i l 2onstru2tivis/ is essenti lly t.eory )out .ow people so2i lly 2onstru2t ,nowledge. B rnes (2002! proposed psy2.ologi2 l t.eory o0 2.ieve/ent /otiv tion w.i2. st tes t. t one re 2.es so2i lly per2eived de0inition o0 su22ess t.roug. . rd wor, nd edu2 tion. In t.e 2onte/por ry view& 0 2tors su2. s gender& so2i l networ, nd geogr p.i2 l lo2 tion pl y 2ru2i l roles in one?s level o0 2.ieve/ent. B rnes pointed out t. t su22ess p rti2ul rly in 2 de/i2s is )est re 2.ed w.en one is 2.ieve/ent oriented to 22o/plis. one?s go l espe2i lly /ong peers. ;22ording to t.is t.eory& t.ere is rel tions.ip )etween person l 2. r 2teristi2s& so2i l ) 2,ground nd 2.ieve/ent. 8.ese person l 2. r 2teristi2s re dire2tly lin,ed wit. one?s .o/e ) 2,ground nd people wit. w.o/ one inter 2ts& t. t is& t.e nu/erous environ/ent l 0 2tors in rel tion to so2i l group. ; person wit. strong need 0or 2.ieve/ent tends to e9.i)it su2. 2. r 2teristi2s s 2ooper tion& ltruis/ nd pro-so2i l )e. viour. Se2ond ry s2.ool students spend /ost o0 t.eir ti/e in s2.ool& 2l sses nd e9tr -2urri2ul r 2tivities& nd t.ey 2re te s/ ll world wit.in t.is environ/ent in w.i2. t.ey see, nswers to / ny o0 t.e 2on0li2ts t. t / r, t.is period. 8.ese students re 0 2ed wit. t.e 2. llenges o0 .ow to develop nd use t.eir so2i l s,ills e00e2tively nd t t.e s /e ti/e 0 2e t.eir le rning 2tivities in s2.ool nd per0or/ well. 8.e v rious peer groups to w.i2. senior se2ond ry s2.ool students )elong re 0or/ed nd 0un2tion in nd round t.e s2.ool setting. Senior se2ond ry s2.ool students /ostly& do not view le rning (t.e tr dition l 0un2tion o0 t.e s2.ool! s t.e s2.ool pri/ ry 0un2tionC r t.er t.ey tend to view t.e so2i l spe2ts o0 t.e s2.ool s )ot. /ore desir )le nd /ore i/port nt. 8.is lso pro/pted t.e rese r2.ers to 0ind out .ow t.ese v ri )les& gender& popul rity& so2i l 2o/peten2e nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent rel te /ong t.e/selves wit.in t.e se2ond ry s2.ool environ/ent. (." -ese r2. Muestions nd Kypot.eses 8.e 0ollowing rese r2. :uestions nd .ypot.eses guided t.e study (. D. t is t.e rel tions.ip )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? popul rity nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on genderN 2. D. t is t.e rel tions.ip )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? so2i l 2o/peten2e nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on genderN 8.e null .ypot.eses re tested t 0.0" level o0 signi0i2 n2e. Ko( B sed on gender no signi0i2 nt rel tions.ip e9ist )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? popul rity nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent. Ko2 8.e rel tions.ip )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? so2i l 2o/peten2e nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender is not signi0i2 nt. $# %esearch &ethod 8.e study used 2orrel tion l rese r2. design. ; 2orrel tion l study investig tes /utu l rel tions.ips s it e9ists )etween two or /ore v ri )les nd t.e degree o0 t.e rel tions.ip t. t e9ists )etween t.e v ri )les (Nworgu& 2006!. 8.e use o0 t.is rese r2. design is 2onsidered ppropri te )e2 use it will .elp to est )lis. t.e rel tions.ip

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)etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? popul rity nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender& s well s t.e rel tions.ip )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? so2i l 2o/peten2e nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender. 2.( ;re o0 t.e Study 8.is study w s 2 rried out in ;)i st te& w.i2. is lo2 ted in t.e sout.e st o0 Nigeri . 8.e 1du2 tion Lone is / de up o0 0our lo2 l govern/ent re s wit. 0i0ty t.ree ("%! pu)li2 senior se2ond ry s2.ools nd t.e 2.oi2e o0 4/u .i 1du2 tion Lone in Nigeri 0or t.is study is ne2ess ry )e2 use doles2ent )oys nd girls view so2i l spe2t o0 t.e s2.ool s /ost i/port nt nd desir )le t. n t.e pri/ ry go l o0 going to s2.ool w.i2. is le rning. 2#2 Popul tion o0 t.e Study 8.e popul tion 0or t.e study 2onsists o0 ll t.e SS (( students in pu)li2 senior se2ond ry s2.ools in 4/u .i edu2 tion <one o0 ;)i St te. 8.e tot l popul tion is 4&0%2 0ro/ t.e 0our lo2 l govern/ent re s in t.e <one. 8.e 2.oi2e o0 t.is popul tion is to get doles2ents t. t . ve spent su)st nti l p rt o0 t.eir ti/e in t.e s2.ool nd re e9posed to st )le peer group. 2.% S /ple nd S /pling 8e2.ni:ues 8.e s /ple 0or t.e study 2o/prised o0 400 SS2 students 0ro/ t.e senior se2ond ry s2.ools in 4/u .i edu2 tion <one& nd t.is /ounts to (0O o0 t.e entire popul tion. Str ti0ied proportion te s /pling te2.ni:ue w s used to dr w (0O 0ro/ e 2. o0 t.e lo2 l govern/ent re s t. t / ,e up t.e <one. Dit. t.is str ti0ied te2.ni:ue& 402 s /ples re dr wn )ut were ppro9i/ ted to 400 s /ples. 2.4 Instru/ent 0or D t Colle2tion 8.e instru/ent is in t.ree p rtsC p rt ; 2ont ins t.e person l d t o0 t.e respondents in2luding ge& gender nd 2l ss in s2.ool. P rt B is t.e SC;M w.i2. w s d pted 0ro/ 8ro/sP so2i l intelligen2e s2 le (Silver & = rtinussen& A D .l& 200(! nd /odi0ied to So2i l Co/peten2e ;ssess/ent Muestionn ire (SC;M!. 8.e 20ite/ :uestionn ire w s s2ored on 0our point r ting s2 leC r nging 0ro/ strongly gree (4! to strongly dis gree ((! nd w s used to eli2it in0or/ tion )out t.e students? so2i l 2o/peten2e. P rt C is ;doles2ents? Popul rity - ting S2 le (;P-S! developed )y t.e rese r2.ers w s lso s2ored on 0our point r ting s2 le. 8.e instru/ent . s two 2lusters nd t.ese in2ludeC Cluster ;5 so2io-/etri2 popul rity 2onsisting o0 (0 ite/ st te/ents nd Cluster B5 per2eived popul rity 2onsisting o0 (0 ite/ st te/ents. 8.e result o)t ined )y t.e respondents t t.e end o0 t.e session w s used s /e sure o0 t.eir 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent& )e2 use t.ere is usu lly uni0ied e9 / 0or SS (( students in 4/u .i 1du2 tion <one. 2." =et.od o0 D t Colle2tion 8.e rese r2.ers d/inistered t.e instru/ents wit. t.e id o0 two rese r2. ssist nts so s to ensure t. t t.e entire :uestionn ire d/inistered nd 2o/pleted were 2olle2ted on t.e spot. 8.e respondents were given instru2tion on .ow to nswer t.e :uestions on t.e :uestionn ire i//edi tely 0ter its distri)ution. ;lso t.e rese r2.er soli2ited 0or t.e ssist n2e o0 t.e prin2ip ls in ensuring t. t t.e end o0 session result o0 t.e s /pled students w s rele sed in ll t.e s /pled s2.ools. 2.6 =et.od o0 D t ;n lysis =e n& St nd rd devi tion nd Si/ple >ine r -egression ;n lysis were used to nswer rese r2. :uestions w.ile ;n lysis o0 $ ri n2e (;N#$;! w s used to test t.e rese r2. .ypot.eses t 0.0" level o0 signi0i2 n2e. '# %(S)*+S AN, ,ISC)SSI-N 8 )le (5 -egression ;n lysis 8 )le s.owing rel tions.ip )etween nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender $ ri )les Hender X SD So2io-/etri2 3e/ le 2.67 .%6 popul rity = le 2."' .2' Per2eived 3e/ le 2.7E .%" popul rity = le 2.E2 .%6 ;2 de/i2 3e/ le "6.'0 (%.E7 2.ieve/ent = le "4.0% (4.%%

senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? popul rity N 22E (72 22E (72 22E (72 r -2

.204

.042

8.e result in 8 )le ( )ove s.ows /e n nd st nd rd devi tion s2ore o0 2.67 nd 0.%6 0or 0e/ le so2io-/etri2 popul rity& nd /e n nd st nd rd devi tion s2ore o0 2."' nd 0.2' 0or / le so2io-/etri2 popul rity. 8.e t )le lso s.ows /e n nd st nd rd devi tion s2ore o0 2.7E nd 0.%" 0or 0e/ le per2eived popul rity& nd /e n nd st nd rd devi tion s2ore o0 2.E2 nd 0.%" 0or / le per2eived popul rity. 8.e t )le lso reve led /e n nd st nd rd devi tion s2ore o0 "6.'0 nd (%.E4 0or 0e/ le 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent& nd /e n nd st nd rd devi tion s2ore o0 "4.0% nd (4.%% 0or / le 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent respe2tively. 3ro/ t )le (& it s.ows t. t t.e rel tions.ip )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? popul rity nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender is low& wit. regression v lue o0 .204. ;lso t.e 2oe00i2ient o0 deter/in tion -2 0ro/ t.e )ove t )le is .042& nd '"

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t.is reve led t. t 4.2O o0 rel tions.ip )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? popul rity 22ounts 0or 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender. 8 )le 25 -egression ;n lysis 8 )le s.owing rel tions.ip )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? So2i l Co/peten2e nd ;2 de/i2 ;2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender $ ri )les Hender X SD N r -2 So2i l 3e/ le 2.76 .24 22E 2o/peten2e = le 2.E0 .27 (72 .0%0 .00( ;2 de/i2 3e/ le "6.'0 (4.E7 22E 2.ieve/ent = le "4.0% (4.%% (72 8.e result in 8 )le 2 )ove s.ows /e n nd st nd rd devi tion s2ore o0 2.76 nd 0.24 0or 0e/ le so2i l 2o/peten2e& nd /e n nd st nd rd devi tion o0 2.E0 nd 0.27 0or / le so2i l 2o/peten2e respe2tively. 8.e t )le s.ows /e n nd st nd rd devi tion s2ore o0 "6.'0 nd (4.E7 0or 0e/ le 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent& nd /e n nd st nd rd devi tion s2ore o0 "4.0% nd (4.%% 0or / le 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent respe2tively. 8.e )ove t )le lso reve led t. t t.e rel tions.ip )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? so2i l 2o/peten2e nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender is low& wit. regression v lue o0 .0%0. 8.e 2oe00i2ient o0 deter/in tion -2 0ro/ t.e )ove t )le is 0.00(& nd t.is reve led t. t 0.(O o0 senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? so2i l 2o/peten2e in rel tion to gender 22ounts 0or 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent. 8 )le %5 ;n lysis o0 $ ri n2e (;N#$;! 8 )le s.owing rel tions.ip )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? Popul rity nd ;2 de/i2 ;2.ieve/ent ) sed on Hender =odel -egression -esidu l 8ot l Su/ o0 S:u res (%E4.7"2 %%7(E.407 %"(0%.("' d0 2 %'6 %'E =e n S:u re %46.(EE 20(.'07 (.7(" .(4' 0.0" N. S 3 Sig.(2t iled! Pro) )ility level

De2ision

(

8.e result in 8 )le % )ove s.ows t. t t.e signi0i2 nt levels 0or two-t iled test .(4' is gre ter t. n t.e pro) )ility level (0.0"!& .en2e t.e null .ypot.esis is )eing up.eld. 8.is goes to s.ow t. t t.e rel tions.ip )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? popul rity nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender is not signi0i2 nt. 8 )le 45 ;n lysis o0 $ ri n2e (;N#$;! 8 )le s.owing rel tions.ip )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? So2i l Co/peten2e nd ;2 de/i2 ;2.ieve/ent ) sed on Hender =odel -egression -esidu l ( 8ot l %"(0%.("' %'E Su/ o0 S:u res %2."'E %"070."6( d0 2 %'6 =e n S:u re (6.2'' 207."(E 3 Sig.(2t iled! Pro) )ility level De2ision

.07'

.'24

0.0"

NS

8.e result in 8 )le 4 )ove indi2 tes t. t t.e signi0i2 nt level 0or two-t iled test .'24 is gre ter t. n t.e pro) )ility level (0.0"!& .en2e t.e st ted null .ypot.esis is 22epted. 8.is /e ns t. t t.ere is no signi0i2 nt rel tions.ip )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? so2i l 2o/peten2e nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender. 8.e result o0 t.is study s.owed t. t t.e rel tions.ip )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? popul rity nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender is low. Bot. )oys nd girls . ve low regression v lue o0 0.204 0ro/ t.e n lysis. 8.is is in line wit. De Bruyn nd Cillessen (2006! 0indings t. t popul r girls nd )oys do not s.ow .ig. 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent. 8.is 0inding is lso in line wit. #nyilo nd #nyilo (20(0! ssertion t. t 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent nd sel0-2on2ept were gender sensitive& resulting 0ro/ t.e 0 2t t. t / le students . d gre ter ti/e to pl y outside s2.ool nd 0e/ le students lw ys eng ge in do/esti2 wor,.

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;n lysis o0 v ri n2e s.ows t. t gender . s no signi0i2 nt rel tions.ip wit. se2ond ry s2.ool students? popul rity in rel tion to 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent. 8.is result is in gree/ent wit. =e6is& Cillessen& S2.olte& Segers nd Spi6,er/ n (20(0! 0indings t. t t.ere w s no signi0i2 nt gender di00eren2e 0or 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent or popul rity& nd t.eir study reve led t. t 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent did not 2orrel te signi0i2 ntly wit. t.e two /e sures o0 popul rity 0or eit.er o0 t.e gender. 8.e out2o/e o0 t.is study indi2 ted t. t t.e rel tions.ip )etween se2ond ry s2.ool students? so2i l 2o/peten2e nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender is low& nd t.is is 0or )ot. / le nd 0e/ le doles2ents. 8.is is t v ri n2e wit. C.en& -u)in nd >i ((''7! 0indings t. t 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent predi2 ted 2.ildren?s so2i l 2o/peten2e 0or )oys nd girls. -esult 0ro/ t.e n lysis o0 v ri n2e s.ows t. t t.ere is no signi0i2 nt rel tions.ip )etween doles2ents? so2i l 2o/peten2e nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender. 8.is result is in gree/ent wit. =ei6s& Cillessen& S2.olte& Segers nd Spi6,er/ n (20(0! 0indings t. t 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent did not 2orrel te signi0i2 ntly wit. so2i l intelligen2e wit. eit.er o0 t.e gender. %.2 Su// ry o0 = 6or 3indings (. 8.e rel tions.ip )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? popul rity nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender is low. 2. Hender . s low di00eren2e in rel tions.ip )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? so2i l 2o/peten2e nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent. %. 8.e rel tions.ip )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? popul rity nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender is not signi0i2 nt. 4. 8.ere is no signi0i2 nt rel tions.ip )etween doles2ents? so2i l 2o/peten2e nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender. .# Conclusion Hender . s low rel tions.ip wit. senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? popul rity nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent nd t.ere is low rel tions.ip )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? so2i l 2o/peten2e nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender. Signi0i2 nt rel tions.ip does not e9ist )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool student?s popul rity nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender. 8.ere is no signi0i2 nt rel tions.ip )etween senior se2ond ry s2.ool students? so2i l 2o/peten2e nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent ) sed on gender = le nd 0e/ le students s.ould )e given e:u l opportunity to p rti2ip te in so2i l inter 2tion s well s 2 de/i2 e9er2ises nd p rents s.ould 0oster positive so2i l inter 2tion in t.eir 2.ildren t n e rly st ge o0 li0e. %eferences ;dler& P. ;.& A ;dler& P. ((''E! Peer Power5 Pre doles2ent 2ulture nd identity. New Brunswi2,5 -utgers 4niversity Press. B rnes& S. >. (2002!. ;2.ieve/ent /otiv tion 0or te 2.er edu2 tion5 ;n lysis o0 ttitude )out 0uture su22ess 0or residen2e in poor ur) n neig.)our.ood. Sociological Focus, '/(2! 20( F 20E. Boss ert& H.& Dou/en& S.& Buyse& 1.& A $ers2.ueren& @. (20((! IPredi2ting student?s ;2 de/i2 ;2.ieve/ent 0ter t.e 8r nsition to 0irst Hr de5 ; 8wo-ye r >ongitudin l StudyJ. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, %2& 47 F "7. C.en& X.& -u)in& @. K. A >i& D. ((''7!. -el tion )etween ;2 de/i2 ;2.ieve/ent nd So2i l ;d6ust/ent5 1viden2e 0ro/ C.inese 2.ildren. Developmental Psychology %E(%!& "(E - "2" Cillessen& ;. K. N.& A = yeu9& >. (2004!. 3ro/ Censure to -ein0or2e/ent5 Develop/ent l 2. nges in t.e sso2i tion )etween ggression nd so2i l st tus. Child Development, 7"& (47 F (6%. doi5(0.((((G6.(467-E624.2004.00660.9. Cillessen& ;. K. N.& A -ose& ;. *. (200"!. 4nderst nding popul rity in t.e peer syste/. Current Directions in Psychological Science, (4(2!& (02 F (0". doi5(0.((((G6.0'6%-72(4.200".00%4%.9. Crow& >. D.& A Crow& D.(('6'!. ;doles2ent Develop/ent nd ;d6ust/ent. 4nited St tes5 =2Hr w F Kill Boo, Co/p ny. De Bruyn& 1. K.& A Cillessen& ;. K. N. (2006!. Keterogeneity o0 girls? 2onsensu l popul rity5 ;2 de/i2 nd Interperson l Be. viour l pro0iles. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, %& 4%" F 44". . .ttp5GGlin,.springer.2o/G rti2leG(0.(007O23s(0'64-00"-'02%-4 Di6,str & *. @.& >inden)erg& S.& $er.ulst& 3. C.& #/el& *. A $eenstr & -. (200'!. 8.e rel tion )etween popul rity nd ggressive& destru2tive& nd nor/-)re ,ing )e. viours5 /oder ting e00e2ts o0 t.leti2 )ilities& p.ysi2 l ttr 2tiveness& nd pro-so2i lity. Journal of Research on Adolescence, ('& 2'" F %0E. Dorn& >. D. A Biro& 3. =. (20((!. IPu)erty nd its =e sure/ent5 ; De2 de in -eviewJ. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 2(((!& (E0 F ('". 122les& *. S. (2004!. S2.ools& 2 de/i2 /otiv tion& nd st ge environ/ent 0it. In -. >erner nd >. Stein)erg.

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K nd)oo, o0 ;doles2ent Psy2.ology (2nd 1d! DileyC Ko)o,en& N*5 pp (2" F ("%. Kop/eyer Hor/ n& ;.& @i/& *.& A S2.i//el)us2.& ;. (2002!. 8.e ttri)utes doles2ents sso2i ted wit. peer popul rity nd te 2.er pre0eren2e. Journal of School Psychology, 40& (4% F (6". doi5(0.(0(6GS0022440"(02!000'2-4. @ li& -. $. A 3errer& 1. (2007!. IPro2essing speed in 2.ild.ood nd doles2en2e5 >ongitudin l /odels 0or e9 /ining develop/ent l 2. ngeJ. Child Development 7E(6!5 (760 F (770. @ie0er& S. =. A -y n& ;. =. (200E!. Striving 0or so2i l do/in n2e over peers5 t.e i/pli2 tions 0or 2 de/i2 d6ust/ent during e rly doles2en2e. Journal of Educational Psychology, (00& 4(7 F 42E. > 3ont n & @. =.& A Cillessen& ;. K. N. (2002!. C.ildren?s Per2eptions o0 Popul r nd 4npopul r Peers5 ; =ulti-/et.od ;ssess/ent. Developmental Psychology, %E& 6%" F 647. doi5(0.(0%7G00(2-(64'.%E.".6%" > rson& -. A Dilson& S. (2004!. ;doles2en2e 2ross pl 2e nd ti/e5 Hlo) li< tion nd t.e 2. nging p t.w y to dult.ood. In -. =. >erner nd >. Stein)erg. K nd)oo, o0 ;doles2ent Psy2.ology. New Qor,5 Diley. >e se& ;. =.& @ennedy& C. ;. A ;9elrod& *. >. (2002!. C.ildren?s so2i l 2onstru2tions o0 popul rity. Social Development, ((& E7 F (0'. doi5(0.((((G(467-'"07.00(EE. >e0ton& >. ;. A Br nnon& >. (200%!. Psy2.ology (6t. 1d!. Pe rson 1du2 tion In2. >erner& >. =. A Stein)erg& >. D. (2004!. K nd)oo, o0 ;doles2ent Psy2.ology (2nd 1d!. Ko)o,en& N*5 *o.n Diley A sons. = re2e,& *.& Cr w0ord& =. A Popp& D. (2004!. #n t.e 2onstru2tion o0 gender& se9 nd se9u lities. In ;. K. 1 gly& ;. 1. Be ll A *. S. Stern)erg (1ds.! I8.e Psy2.ology o0 HenderJ (pp. ('2 F 2(6!. New Qor,5 Huil0ord Press. =ei6s& N.& Cillessen& ;. K. N.& S2.olte& -. K. *.& Segers& 1. A Spi6,er/ n& -. (20(0!. So2i l intelligen2e nd 2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent s predi2tor?s doles2ents? popul rity. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, %'((!& 62 F 72. .ttp5GGnl.lin,edin.2o/Gpu)Gnoort6e-/ei6sG27G4(0G4 0 Nw 2.u,wu& 8. ;. (2004!. Psy2.ology o0 le rning. De S nd 9 >i/ited& 1nugu. Nworgu& B. H. (2006!. 1du2 tion l -ese r2.5 B si2 Issues nd =et.odology (2nd 1d! 1nugu5 4niversity 8rust Pu)lis.ers. #ni& ;. ;. (20(0!. Peer group pressure s deter/in nt o0 doles2ents? so2i l d6ust/ent in Nigeri n s2.ools. ;si n Pacific Journal of Educators and Education, 2"& (E' F 202. #nyilo& B. #.& nd #nyilo& #. H. (20(0!. ;2 de/i2 2.ieve/ent nd sel0-2on2ept o0 se2ond ry s2.ool students. Journal of Research in ational Development, E(2!& 4' F 6(. Pellegrini& ;. D. (2002!. 8.e 2.ild t s2.ool5 Inter 2tion wit. peers nd te 2.ers. >ondon5 ;rnold. - ven& *. A Step.enson& *. (200(!. Co/peten2y in t.e le rning so2iety. (1ds! New Qor,5 Peter > ng. - << ,& =. S. (20(%!. Con2ept nd 2onte9t o0 gender. Slide S. re In2. www.slides. re.netG3CKDG2on2ept-on...... -od,in& P. C.& 3 r/er& 8. D.& Pe rl& -.& A $ n ;2,er& -. (2000!. Keterogeneity o0 popul r )oys5 ;ntiso2i l nd Pro-so2i l Con0igur tions. Developmental Psychology, %6& (4 F 24. doi5(0.(0%7G00(2-(64'.%6.(.(4. S ntro2,& *. D. (2004!. 1du2 tion l Psy2.ology (2nd 1d!. New Qor,5 =2Hr w Kill. S2.w rt<& D.& Hor/ n& ;.& N , /oto& *. A =2@ y& 8. (2006!. Popul rity& so2i l 2o/peten2e nd ggression in doles2ent peer groups5 >in,s wit. 2 de/i2 per0or/ n2e nd s2.ool ttend n2e. Developmental Psychology, 42& (((6 F ((27. Se/rud-Cli,e/ n& =. (2007!. So2i l 2o/peten2e in 2.ildren. New Qor,& NQ5 Springer S2ien2e R Business =edi . Silver & D. K.& = rtinussen& =. A D .l& 8. I. (200(!. 8.e 8ro/sP So2i l Intelligen2e S2 le. ; sel0-report /e sure o0 so2i l intelligen2e. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 42& %(% F %('. doi5(0.((((G(467'4"0.00242. Spen2e& S. K. (200%!. So2i l s,ills tr ining wit. 2.ildren nd young people5 8.eory& 1viden2e nd Pr 2ti2e. Child and Adolescent !ental "ealth, E& E4 F '6. doi5(0.((((G(47"-%"EE.000"(. Stein)erg& >. (200E!. I;doles2en2eJ (Et. 1d! New Qor,& NQ5 =2Hr w Kill. 8 nner& *. (('72!. Se:uen2e& te/po& nd individu l v ri tion in growt. nd develop/ent o0 )oys nd girls ged twelve to si9teen. In *. @ g n nd -. Coles (1ds! 8welve to Si9teen5 1 rly ;doles2en2e. New Qor,5 Norton. 8o/porows,i& P.& D vis& C.& =iller& P. A N glieri& *. (200E!. I19er2ise nd C.ildren?s Intelligen2e& Cognition nd ;2 de/i2 ;2.ieve/entJ. Educational Psychology, 20(2!& ((( F (%(. $ygots,y& >. (('7E!. =ind in t.e so2iety. >ondon5 K rv rd 4niversity Press.

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