Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.

10* 2%13

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Geochemical Fingerprints; Implication for Provenance, Tectonic and Depositional Settings of Lower Benue Trough Se uence, Southeastern !igeria
(lu+unmi ,. -deig+e1* .usuf -. Jimoh2/ 1. 0e"artment of 1eolog2* 3niversit2 of I+adan* Nigeria. E-mail4 olu5ris2%%&6gmail.com 2.0e"artment of ,hemical* 1eological and !h2sical Science* 7wara State 3niversit2* 8alete* Nigeria / E-mail of the corres"onding author4 2usuf.9imoh65wasu.edu.ng* a2oola9imoh126gmail.com "#stract :he stud2 areas* -su ;iver 1rou" -;1# and ,ross ;iver 1rou"s ,;1# +elong to <ower =enue :rough. :he :rough is thought to have +een de"osited +2 marine transgression and regression. -;1 covers -wi* -+a5ali5i and 8famosing >ormations while E5en5"on* E?e--5u* New Netim* -wgu and -g+ani >ormations fall within ,;1. Sam"ling was done to cover +oth the -+a5ali5i -nticlinorium and ,ala+ar >lan5. :he stud2 aimed at using geochemical a""roach to deduce weathering* "rovenance* tectonic setting as well as de"ositional environment in a holistic manner which hitherto has not +een used +2 an2 wor5er. - total of $6 fresh outcro" sam"les were o+tained from the stud2 area. :he sam"les were su+9ected to detailed lithologic descri"tion +2 visual e@amination. 1eochemical anal2sis was done using Inductivel2 ,ou"led !lasma 8ass S"ectrosco"2 and Inductivel2 ,ou"led !lasma -tomic Emission S"ectrosco"2 I,!-8SA-ES# to determine ma9or* trace and rare-earth elements using lithium meta+orateAtetra+orate fusion method. Beathering Indices of ,hemical Inde@ of -lteration ,I-#* !lagioclase Inde@ of -lteration !I-#* ,hemical Inde@ of Beathering ,IB# and ;u@ton ;atio ;;# of -;1 has a range of %.1'-'6.1* %.13-&&.3* %.1'-&&.$ and 1.'%-2$.2# with median of C6.C* &2.6* &3.$ and $.C6# res"ectivel2 while ,;1 has a range of 2.&3-&C.C* 2.C'&&.C* 2.&4-&&.C and 1.'3-46.4# and median of C6.1* '$.$* 'C.C and 1%.&# res"ectivel2* indicating moderate to high weathering at the source. :he -l2(3- 72(D,a(D8g(#- >e2(3D8g(#* -7># ternar2 "lots reveals sediments of -;1 and ,;1 de"osited in ,ontinental* :ransition and 8arine ?one and dominated +2 argillaceous* car+onaceous argillite* car+onaceous and a ferruginous argillites confirming a chemicall2 altered sediments de"osited in o@idi?ing and shallow marine environment. :he "lots of <og >e2(3A72(# vs <og Si(2A-l2(3# reveals sediments de"osited in the >e Shale* Shale* Bac5e* Su+ar5ose and Euart? arenite field. :he discriminant function "lots of Ferron characteri?ed the sediments as +een derived from Euart?ose sedimentar2 "rovenance* Intermediate igneous and >elsic "rovenance. :race elements ternar2 "lots of <a-:h-Sc* :h-Sc-GrA1% and :h-,o-GrA1% reveal de"osition within ,ontinental Island -rc* !assive 8argin and (ceanic Island -rc settings. :his confirmed the tectonic discriminant "lots of 72(ANa2( vs Si(2. :his discriminant function diagram "ro"osed +2 ;oser and 7orsch 1&'6# distinguish the sources of the sediments into four "rovenance ?ones* mafic* intermediate* felsic* igneous and Huart?ose sedimentar2 using ratio "lots and raw o@ides. 8ost of the sediments of -;1 and ,;1 fall in* Huart?ose sedimentar2 "rovenance using raw o@ide "lots* and e@ce"tions are the limestones that fall in intermediate igneous "rovenance this also corro+orates with the ratio "lots. ,onclusivel2* the stud2 shows that the ,retaceous clastic sediments of -;1 and ,;1 have multi"le "rovenances su+9ected to moderate to high weathering conditions and were de"osited within an o@idi?ing and shallow marine setting and derived from 3""er ,ontinental ,rust 3,,#. $e%words& -su ;iver 1rou"* ,ross ;iver 1rou"* !rovenance* 1eochemistr2* :ectonic settings. Bord ,ounts4 44% '( Introduction :he =enue :rough is a uniHue rift feature on the -frican continent in that it occu"ies an intracontinental "osition and has a thic5 com"ressionall2 folded ,retaceous su"racrustal fill ,ratchele2 and Jones 1&6$I Bright 1&6'I 1rant 1&C1I =ur5e et al. 1&C1I =ur5e and Bhiteman 1&C3I Nwachu5wu 1&C2I (lade 1&C$#. :he =enue :rough has a lateral e@tent of a+out 2$%5m in the south and includes the -nam+ra =asin* the -+a5ali5i anticlinorium and the -fi5"o s2ncline. :he <ower =enue :rough is a linear* intracratonic* gra+en +asin* tending NE-SB. Its origin is associated with the se"aration of the -frican and South -merican continents in the Earl2 ,retaceous. :he trough is characteri?ed +2 an u"lifted +asement +loc5* flan5ed +2 dee" +asin containing a+out 65m of sediments. :he intracontinental =enue :rough was initiated during the lower ,retaceous in relation with the -tlantic (cean o"ening :his "a"er descri+es the geochemical com"osition of Sandstones* Shales* 8arls* <imestones from the -su ;iver and ,ross ;iver 1rou" of the <ower =enue :rough* Southeastern Nigeria as e@"osed in -+a5ali5i -rea and ,ala+ar >lan5 >ig. 1#. >ift2-Si@ $6# outcro" sam"les were collected from eight '# >ormations4 -wi* -+a5ali5i*

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Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.10* 2%13

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8famosing >ormations which constitute -;1 while E5en5"on* E?e--5u* New Netim 8arl* -wgu and -g+ani >ormations constitute ,;1. :he geochemistr2 of the siliciclastic sediments is of similar im"ortance* +ecause such studies can give information a+out the "rovenance* tectonic setting and weathering histor2 of the source roc5s. :he geochemical com"osition of terrigenous sedimentar2 roc5s is a function of the com"le@ inter"la2 of various varia+les* such as "rovenance* weathering* trans"ortation and diagenesis =hatia* 1&'3#. ;ecent investigations on geochemical characteristics of ancient and modern detritus have +een carried out in order to infer the source roc5s* "rovenance and tectonic setting e.g.* !otter* 1&C'I =hatia* 1&'3I Fiscott* 1&'4I =hatia and ,roo5* 1&'6I ;oser and 7orsch* 1&'6* 1&''#. Fence the stud2 aimed at using geochemical a""roach to deduce weathering* "rovenance* tectonic setting as well as de"ositional environment in the 1rou"s in a holistic manner which hitherto has not +een used +2 an2 wor5er. 1.1 1eological Setting :he intracontinental =enue :rough was initiated during the lower ,retaceous in relation with the -tlantic (cean o"ening. :he first stage of its evolution started in the -"tian* forming isolated +asins with continental sedimentation. In the -l+ian times* a great delta develo"ed in the 3""er =enue :rough* while the first marine transgression coming from the o"ening 1ulf of 1uinea occurred in the south and reached the 8iddle =enue. :he wides"read :uronian transgression made the -tlantic and :eth2s waters communicate through the Sahara* Niger +asins and the =enue :rough. :he tectonic evolution of the =enue :rough was closel2 controlled +2 transcurrent faulting through an a@ial fault s2stem* develo"ing local com"ressional and tensional regimes and resulting in +asins and +asement horsts along releasing and restraining +ends of the faults. :wo ma9or com"ressional "hases occurred in the -+a5ali5i area southern =enue# during the Santonian and at the end of the ,retaceous in the 3""er =enue :rough. In -+a5ali5i* the sedimentar2 infilling was severel2 deformed through folding and flattening* and moderate folding and fracturing occurred in the northeast. :he ,retaceous magmatism was restricted to main fault ?ones in most of the trough +ut was "articularl2 active in the -+a5ali5i :rough* where it has al5aline affinities. >rom -l+ian to Santonian* the magmatism was accom"anied in "art of the -+a5ali5i :rough +2 a low-grade metamor"hism. 1.2 -su ;iver 1rou" :he -+a5ali5i-=enue !hase -"tian-Santonian#* have more than 3%%%m of roc5s seHuence com"rising the -+a5ali5i* E?e--5u and -wgu >ormations* de"osited during the first "hase in the -+a5ali5i-=enue =asin* the =enue )alle2 and the ,ala+ar >lan5. Structural inversion affected the -+a5ali5i region and dis"laced the de"ositional a@is further to the south of the -nam+ra =asin (+i et al.* 2%%1#. In the <ower =enue* regression ended during the Santonian and the -+a5ali5i area emerged com"letel2* however the effects of the Santonian "hase are restricted to the -+a5ali5i anticlinorium* the -nam+ra s2ncline does not dis"la2 traces of this tectonic e"isode =en5helil* 1&'6#. :he u"liftment and folding of the the -+a5ali5i anticlinorium led to the e@"osure and su+seHuent erosion of the ,oniacian* :uronian and -l+ian >ormations. ,onseHuent to this u"liftment* two de"ressions were formed flan5ing the -+a5ali5i anticlinorium* :he2 consist of the wide -nam+ra +asin to the Northwest NB# and the narrow -fi5"o s2ncline to the Southeast SE#. -;1 >ig. 2# re"resenting the first and the oldest c2cles of the shallow marine to +rac5ish water sediment* which were de"osited in -l+ian and end around the ,enomanian. :hese sediments were de"osited on the =asement ,om"le@ and consist of roughl2 2%%%-3%%%m of "oorl2 +edded shales -+a5ali5i Shales#* siltstone and limestone* and mudstone. :he "resence of ,enomanian sediments and Santonian intrusions of d25es and sill e@trusions that "ossess im"ortant minerali?ation ?ones along the gentl2 folded a@is of the -+a5ali5i anticline had +een re"orted. 1.3 ,ross ;iver 1rou" :he ,ross ;iver 1rou" as e@"osed within ,ala+ar >lan5 is "art of the continental margin of Nigeria dominated +2 +loc5 faults with NB-SE trending horst and gra+en structures* such as the Itu5 high and the I5ang trough. :he ,ala+ar >lan5 forms that "art of the southeastern continental margin l2ing +etween the ,ameroon volcanic trend on the east* I5"e "latform on the west* (+an massif to the north and ,ala+ar hinge line to the south. Some authors had included ,ala+ar >lan5 as "art of the =enue :rough. :he ,ala+ar >lan5 contains u" to 4%%% m of -l+ian to 8aastrichtian marine sediments in outcro" sections. (verl2ing the -su ;iver 1rou" is the ,ross ;iver 1rou" com"rising of E5en5"on >ormation* E?e--5u >ormation* New Netim >ormation* -wgu >ormation and -g+ani >ormation. :he E?e--5u Shale is re"resented +2 the E5en5"on Shale which overlies the (du5"ani >ormation in the ,ala+ar >lan5 and is underl2ing the -wgu Shale which is also re"resented +2 New Netim 8arl and +oth re"resent the N5alagu >ormation >ig. 2#. )(* +aterials and +ethods - total of >ift2 $6# fresh outcro" sam"les were o+tained from the stud2 areaI Sam"ling was done to cover +oth -su ;iver -;1# and ,ross ;iver 1rou"s ,;1# within =enue :rough. -;1 covers -wi* -+a5ali5i and 8famosing >ormations while E5en5"on* E?e--5u* New Netim* -wgu and -g+ani >ormations fall within ,;1. :he stud2 area fall within the coordinate longitude CJ%%KE and 'J3$KE and latitude $J%%KN and 6J4$KN# <ower

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Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.10* 2%13

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=enue :rough* Southeastern Nigeria* sam"les were collected from -maseri Huarr2* En2ing+a Huarr2* Nigercem Huarr2* Setraco Huarr2* Ishiagu +ridge* 3gwueme* and 3gwuo5wute in -;1 >ig .3 and >ig. $# while in ,;1 >ig. 4 and >ig. $#* sam"les were collected from 3nicem Huarr2* 3nicem 9unction* 7mC -wi* 7mC farmland* 7m C E5en5"on* (du5"ani 9unction and New netim. >ift2 $6# sam"les were su+9ected to detailed lithologic descri"tion +2 visual e@amination and were anal2sed for ma9or* trace and rare-earth elements +2 -cme <a+oratories <imited code4 4-4=#* )ancouver* ,anada. 8a9or elements :a+le. 1# were anal2sed +2 lithium meta+orateAtetra+orate fusion Inductivel2 ,ou"led !lasma -tomic Emission S"ectrometr2 I,!--ES# and trace elements :a+le. 2# +2 Inductivel2 ,ou"led !lasma 8ass S"ectrometr2 I,!-8S#. 2.1 Sam"le !re"aration Sediment was dried 6%J,# and sieved to -'% mesh -1'% Lm#. - 2$%g aliHuot was riffle s"lit and "ulveri?ed to '$M "assing 2%% meshes C$ Lm# in a mild-steel and "uc5 mill. 2.2 ;esults <ithologies o+served include sandstone* shale* marl* limestone as well as lignite. 8egasco"icall2* the sandstones are fine to medium grained* well sorted and su+-angular to su+-rounded* while the shales are organic ranging from light gre2 to +lac5. 8a9orit2 of the shale sam"les were ver2 fissile while* others were highl2 indurated with laminations and s"ecs of mica. :he lignite is +lac5 in colour and could re"resent su+-+ituminous to +ituminous coal. It is also worth2 of note that some of the sandstone sam"les a""ear reddish +rown in colour as a result of ferruginisation. (+served limestone sam"les were fossilliferous with some of the fossil fragments visi+le to the na5ed e2e. ,(* Discussion 3.1 8a9or Elements 1eochemistr2 :he clastic sediments of the -;1 have fluctuating values for their Si(2 ranging from %.1'-3.C2M for 8famosing >ormation* $1.4'-6C.24M for -+a5ali5i >ormation* and $$.4&-'%.C6M for -wi >ormation with an average of 1.16* $6.'6 and C3.&&# res"ectivel2. (nl2 -wi >ormation in the -;1 has average Si(2 higher than the average of 66M +2 weight for 3""er ,ontinental ,rust 3,,# :a2lor and 8c<ennan* 1&'$#. <i5ewise in ,;1* the Si(2# content is from 6'.'3M to &$.%2M for -g+ani >ormation* 46.&C-63.34M for -wgu >ormation* 2C.33-$3.&2M for New Netim 8arl* $.'4-'C.'4M for E?e--5u >ormation and 6.C2-$'.21M for E5en5"on >ormation with an average of '&.%6M* $$.2%M* 44.42M* 41.32M* 44.4'M# res"ectivel2. (nl2 -g+ani >ormation in the ,;1 has average Si(2 higher than the average of 66M +2 weight for 3""er ,ontinental ,rust 3,,# :a2lor and 8c<ennan* 1&'$#. :he limestones of 8famosing have e@tremel2 low Si(2 contents as low as %.1'M and which is "rimaril2 due to the fact that it consists +asicall2 of volatile constituents that were com+usted as is evident from their average loss on ignition 43.42M#. :he high value values for ,a( in the 8famosing limestones indicate the2 are car+onates and are mainl2 calcite &CM ,a,(3#. In similar vein* the limestones of E?e--5u and E5en5"on of ,;1 have high Si(2 contents of $.'4M and 6.C2M with loss of ignition <(I# of 41.1M and 32.%M res"ectivel2# when com"ared to 8famosing <imestone* indicating that the2 have lower volatile constituents. :he high value values for ,a( in the limestones indicate the2 are car+onate. :he value -l2(3 ranges from %.1-%.4'M* 1%.6C-23.13M and 3.66-14.11M with an average of %.21M* 1&.&6M* '.&6M and 1$.21M for 8famosing* -+a5ali5i* -wi Sandstone and -wi <ignite res"ectivel2* while in ,;1* -l2(3 ranges from 1.&-3.'CM* 1C.$'-2$.C1M* 6.21-13.2$M* 1.4$-1$.%3M and 2.2&-1&.'$M# with an average of 2.'2* 21.6$* 1%.12* $.1& and 1$.C6M# for -g+ani >ormation* -wgu >ormation* New Netim >ormation* E?e--5u >ormation and E5en5"on >ormation res"ectivel2#. :he mean high value of -l2(3 in -+a5ali5i shale* -wi sandstone and <ignite within -;1# and in -wgu* New netim marl* E?e--5u Shale and E5en5"on Shale ,;1# ma2 indicate a high 5aoliniteAillite ratio =esl2 and ,learl* 1&&C# and "resence of aluminosilicate materials felds"ar and mica#. :he limestones of 8famosing* E?e--5u and E5en5"on are de"leted in -l2(3. -lso a corres"onding high average value of -l2(3A Na2(D,a(# 111.4&# in -wi >ormation -;1#* 64.1$# in -g+ani Sandstone and 24%.6# in -wgu Shale ,;1# which is a ratio of the most immo+ile to the most mo+ile element confirm high content of clastic materials over car+onate materials* while low values of %.%1# for 8famosing limestone -;1#* %.6$* %.C& and 11.34# for New Netim* E?e--5u and E5en5"on >ormations confirm high content of car+onate materials over clastic materials. 1enerall2* the 8g(* >e2(3 t# and 8g(D>e2(3# content ranges from %.2$-%.43M* %.%6%.4$M and %.3C-%.C'M for 8famosing >ormation* %.&4-2.31M* 4.21-1%.34M and $.1$-12.$6M# for -+a5ali5i >ormation* %.12-%.2%M* 1.%2-2.'$M and 1.14-3.6CM# for -wi >ormation* Fowever* shales of -+a5ali5i are ferruginised due to a""recia+le amount of >e2(3. In similar vein for ,;1* 8g(* >e2(3 t# and 8g(D>e2(3# content ranges from %.%1-%.%3M* %.44-23.&3M and %.23-23.&4M# res"ectivel2 for -g+ani Sandstone* %.1'%.3CM* 2.4-3.6&M and 2.$'-4.%6M# for -wgu Shales* 1.%3-1.6$M* 1.%1-2.$%M* and 2.%4-3.&$M# for New Netim 8arl* %.41-1.33M* %.'3-$.12M and 1.1'-6.4$M# for E?e--5u >m* %.$'-2.26M* 2.$1-13.63M and 3.$$-1$.'&M# for E5en5"on >m. Fowever* E5en5"on Shale and -g+ani Sandstone are ferruginised due to a""recia+le amount of >e2(3. -l2(3A >e2(3D8g(# ranges from %.14-%.62* 1.6&-3.%6 and 3.21-6.$4# for 8famosing* -+a5ali5i and

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Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.10* 2%13

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-wi >ormations res"ectivel2 in -;1 and %.%&-11.C'# in -g+ani >ormation* 6.33-6.'1# in -wgu Shales* 3.%%3.36# in Netim 8arl* %.&C-4.43# in E?e--5u >ormation and %.3'-3.'3M# in E5en5"on with an average of 2.&M* 6.$CM* 3.1CM* 1.&6M and 1.&'M# res"ectivel2. :his indicates moderate diagenetic alteration es"eciall2 in -wi >ormation -;1#* -wgu >ormation and -g+ani >ormations within ,;1. 72(A-l2(3 values ranges from %.21%.3%# in 8famosing* %.%'-%.1$# in -+a5ali5i >ormation and %.21-%.34# in -wi >ormation within -;1* and %.%2-%.%'* %.%4-%.%6* %.21-%.31* %.%$-%.21* %.11-%.21# in -g+ani* -wgu* New Netim* E?e--5u and E5en5"on >ormations within ,;1. :he ver2 low value in -+a5ali5i* -g+ani and -wgu >ormations suggests sedimentar2 rec2cling or increase in the degree of source area weathering =aulu? et al.* 2%%%#. :his can +e +ac5ed-u" +2 increase in the value of -l2(3 and >e2(3 which corres"onds to decrease in the value of Si(2 and vice versa see :a+le 1#. It is an indication of weathering and alteration. :he relativel2 high values of 72(ANa2( ratios es"eciall2 in shales of ,;1 is attri+uted to the "resence of al+itic "lagioclase* 7-felds"ar* mica and illite !etti9ohn et al.* 1&63* 8c<ennan et al.* 1&'3* Nath et al.* 2%%%* (sae et al.* 2%%6#. -wgu >ormation has high value of 72(ANa2( u" to a+out 2$M. -verage values of -l2(3ASi(2 are %.2&* %.36* and %.16# in 8famosing* -+a5ali5i and -wi >ormations res"ectivel2 within -;1* and %.%3* %.41* %.24* %.1' and %.3$# for -g+ani* -wgu* New Netim* E?e--5u and E5en5"on >ormations within ,;1. :he low average value in -wi >ormation -;1#* -g+ani* New Netim and E?e--5u >ormations ,;1# is an indication of Huart? enrichment =hatia* 1&'3#* this su""orts the relativel2 high average value of Si(2A-l2(3 for -wi Sandstone 1%.31#* -g+ani 32.'2# and E?e-5u '.%6#.Bithin -su ;iver 1rou"* ,a( is the most a+undant ma9or elements in 8famosing <imestone* with average values of $4.$M this is +ac5ed u" +2 high loss of ignition* (ther ma9or elements in the limestones has low values in the following order 8g(* Na2(* 72(* :i(2* !2($* 8n(* and ,r2(3# having %.3$* %.%%$* %.%6* %.%1* %.%4* %.%& and %.%%2M res"ectivel2. In -+a5ali5i >ormation* -l2(3* >e2(3 and 8g( decreases with increasing Si(2 with while others :i(2* !2($* 8n( and ,r2($ # have ver2 low concentrations in the following order %.&*%.12* %.%' and %.%14M# res"ectivel2. In -wi >ormation* >e2(3 and 72( are the most a+undant ma9or elements +esides -l2(3 and Si(2 with an average of 1.CM and 2.CM res"ectivel2* while others 8g(* ,a(* Na2(* :i(2* !2($* 8n( and ,r2($# have ver2 low concentrations in the following order* %.4&* %.%2* %.%C* %.$3* %.%6* %.%%' and %.%%6* res"ectivel2. Similarl2 in ,;1* >e2(3 is the most a+undant ma9or element in -g+ani Sandstone +esides -l2(3 and Si(2 with an average of $.$M while others 8g(* ,a(* Na2(* 72(* :i(2* !2($* 8n( and ,r2($# have ver2 low concentrations in the following order* %.%2* %.%3* %.%2* %.1%* %.%C* %.11* %.%1* and %.%%1 res"ectivel2. In -wgu Shale* ,a(* Na2(* 72(* :i(2* !2($* 8n( and ,r2($# have ver2 low average concentrations in the following order* %.%6* %.%4* %.&'* 1.26* %.16* %.%%' and %.%13 res"ectivel2* In E?e--5u >ormation* ,a( and >e2(3 are the most a+undant ma9or element +esides -l2(3 and Si(2 with an average of 24.C&M and 2.23M res"ectivel2 while others 8g(* Na2(* 72(* :i(2* !2($* 8n( and ,r2($# have ver2 low concentrations in the following order* %.6'* %.$4* %.C3* %.3* %.1'* %.23 and %.%%$M res"ectivel2* while E5en5"on Shale has high value of >e2(3 and 72( with an average of C.22M and 3.%2M res"ectivel2* other ma9or elements in the shale has low average concentration 8g(* 1.C'M* ,a(* 1.41M* Na2(* %.'6M* !2($* %.61M* :i(2* %.&1M* 8n(2* %.%4M and ,r2(3* %.%13M#. :he summar2 of ma9or element of -;1 and ,;1 is given in :a+le 3 and 4 res"ectivel2. 3.1.1 ,lassification of the Sediments Standard "lot of Ferron 1&''# using log >e2(3A72(# against log Si(2A-l2(3# which is a modified version of !etti9ohn et al.* 1&C2# was em"lo2ed to classif2 the sediments of the -;1 and ,;1. -+a5ali5i Shales "lotted within the >e shale* while -wi Sandstones fall within the su+ar5ose region >ig. 6#. In ,;1* the sandstone of -g+ani >ormation falls within the Huart? arenite* region which is also an indication of the enrichment of Huart? in the sam"les. -gwu Shale and E5en5"on Shale are "lotted in shale region* E?e--5u Sandstone fall in the su+ar5ose region* while New Netim 8arl and few sam"les of E?e--5u Shale were "lotted in wac5e region >ig. C#. - :ernar2 "lot was used to classif2 the limestone of E?e--5u* E5en5"on and New Netim 8arl which falls in car+onate region >ig. '#. Bith a sam"le of New Netim 8arl "lotted close to siderite. 3.1.2 !aleo-Beathering Indices and 8aturit2 :he ,hemical Inde@ of -lteration ,I-# and !lagioclase inde@ of -lteration !I-# are the most widel2 used indices for Huantitative estimation of the degree of chemical weathering undergone +2 the roc5s of the "rovenance area of clastic sediments +2 >edo et al.* 1&&$# which gives an indication of the degree of weathering in the source region Nes+itt and .oung* 1&'2#. (ther indices also used are the ,hemical Inde@ of Beathering ,IB# Farnois* 1&''# and ;u@ton ;atio ;;#. :he ,I-N1%%O-l2(3A -l2(3D,a(DNa2(D72(#P :he !I-N1%%O -l2(3-72(# A -l2(3D,a(DNa2(-72(P :he ,IBN1%%O-l2(3A -l2(3D,a(DNa2(#P :he ;;N Si%2A-l2%3 ,I-* !I- and ,IB for -;1 has median of C6.C* &2.6 and &3.$# M res"ectivel2 while ,;1 having median of C6.1* '$.$* and 'C.C# M res"ectivel2 indicating moderate to high weathering at the source see :a+le $#. :hese

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values are varia+le and it ma2 +e as a result of multi"le "rovenances for the sediments which have varia+le "ro"ortions of source area weathering and related "rocesses or ma2 +e due to low concentrations of the al5alis and al5aline earth elements. Fowever* ma9orit2 of the sam"les show ,I-* !I- and ,IB values greater than 6%M indicating moderate to high intensive# weathering either at the source or during trans"ort +efore de"osition 8c<ennan* 1&&3I >edo et al.* 1&&$#. E@ce"tions are the limestone sam"les and some shales showing e@tremel2 low values. >rom the high alteration indices* it can +e inferred that the sediments are geochemicall2 and te@turall2 mature. In -;1* the ,I- values were also "lotted in -l2(3 - ,a( D Na2(# - 72( - - ,N - 7# diagram >ig. &#. In the --,N-7 diagram* the sediments com"rising of -wi Sandstones* -+a5ali5i Shales and -wi lignite were "lotted mostl2 within the 5aolinite-chlorite and illite region. :he fact that the sam"les did not "lot ver2 close to the "lagioclase-5-felds"ar 9oin line is an indication of high weathering at the source with the limestone having e@tremel2 low value of ,I-. In ,;1 sediments* -g+ani Sandstone* -gwu Shale* E5en5"on Shale with a sam"le of E?e--5u Sandstone were "lotted within the 5aolinite-chlorite* and smectite-illite region* an indication of high weathering at the source* while New E?e--5u Shales are "lotted near "lagioclase indicating low to moderate weathering in the source >ig.1%#. -lso* the relationshi" +etween :hA3 ratio and :h concentration can also +e a""lied as an estimate of the degree of weathering in sedimentar2 roc5s. =oth :h and 3 are relativel2 immo+ile during weathering* although* 3 ma2 change its redo@ state from 32D to 36D* the latter +eing more solu+le# during re-wor5ing under o@idi?ing conditions as this is the case and it is thus more readil2 removed from the s2stem there+2 increasing the :hA3 ratio a+ove u""er crust igneous values. :he :hA3 ratio in most u""er continental roc5s is t2"icall2 +etween 3.$-4.% 8c<ennan et al.* 1&&3#. In sedimentar2 roc5s* :hA3 values higher than 4.% ma2 indicate intense weathering in the source areas or sedimentar2 rec2cling. -;1 sediments has :hA3 ratios of %.%3-C.&% with median of 3.'2* these fall within the :hA3 value for u""er continental roc5s which is t2"icall2 +etween 3.$-4.% 8c<ennan et al.* 1&&3#* while ,;1 range from %.36-C.33 with median of 3.&' indicating moderate to high weathering the source area or sediment rec2cling. Sediments from active margin tectonic settings have :hA3 significantl2 +elow 3.$ accom"anied +2 low :h and 3 contents >ig.11 and >ig.12# and this is inter"reted as dominantl2 reflecting a low ratio in the source roc5 8c<ennan 1&'&+* 8c<ennan and :a2lor* 1&&%#. :his can +e seen for the -;1 and ,;1 sediments which have a varia+le "ro"ortion of low :hA3 ratios. <ow :hA3 ratios are rather common in mantle derived volcanic roc5s and reflect the geochemicall2 de"leted nature of such reservoirs Newman et al.* 1&'4#. -lso* it is worth2 of note to add that high :hA3 ratios are seen in rec2cled sedimentar2 source roc5s 8c<ennan et al.* 1&&3# and this is also reflected in the sediments +ecause an a""recia+le "ercentage of the sediments have high :hA3 ratios as well. >rom this* it can also +e ascertained that the -;1 and ,;1 are from +oth active continental margins as well as "assive margins which translates into mi@ed environments for the sediments. In -;1* -+a5ali5i Shale and -wi Sandstone has high :hA3 ratio greater than 3.$ while In ,;1* E5en5"on Shale* and few sam"les of -g+ani Sandstone have :hA3 ratio a+ove 3.$ thus e@hi+iting sedimentar2 rec2cling. -lso* a +ivariant "lot of Si(2 against total -l2(3D72(DNa2(# "ro"osed +2 Suttner and 0utta* 1&'6 >ig.13 and >ig.14# was used in order to identif2 the maturit2 of the sandstones of -wi and -g+ani and E?e--5u as a function of climate. :he "lot revealed semi-humid conditions for the sandstones and most other sediments with e@ce"tions of shale in +oth grou"s. 3.1.3 0e"ositional Environment and !rovenance Signatures :he de"ositional environments for sediments of the -;1 and ,;1 were classified +ased on the ternar2 "lots of Englung and Jorgensen 1&C3#. :his involves the chemical classification on the +asis of -l2(3#- 72(D Na2(D,a(#- >e2(3D8g(# contents -7>#. -s can +e o+served from the "lots* there is a gradual transition of the sediments from continental to transitional environments which de"icts a somewhat shallow-marine environment. >ig.1$# shows that -wi Sandstone* -wi <ignite and -+a5ali5i Shales fall under transition ?one while car+onaceous 8famosing limestones fall into marine ?one. >ig.16# shows that the -g+ani sandstone of ,;1 mainl2 "lotted in the continental ?one and are ferruginised thus named >erruginous argillite* E5en5"on Shales and few sam"les of E?e--5u Shales* New Netim 8arl and sandstone of E?e--5u falls in the transition ?one +ut are tending towards marine ?one where there are "lotting of limestones of +oth E?e--5u and E5en5"on >ormation. =oth limestones are car+onaceous while the New Netim 8arl* E?e--5u Sandstones and few shales of E?e--5u falls under car+onaceous argillite. -wgu Shales are "lotted in the continental ?one which is also -rgillaceous. :his shows that some of the sediments were trans"orted from the continental environment +efore +eing de"osited in the shallow-marine environment elucidating the fact that the sediments underwent moderate to high trans"ortation levels under o@idi?ing conditions. Several classifications have +een "ro"osed to discriminate from various tectonic settings 8a2nard et al.* 1&'2I =hatia* 1&'3I =hatia and ,roo5* 1&'6I ;oser and 7orsch* 1&'6. :he "rovenance signature stud2 em"lo2ed for this stud2 hel"s distinguish the sources of the sediments into four "rovenance ?ones* mafic* intermediate or felsic* igneous and Huart?ose sedimentar2. :his discriminant function diagram "ro"osed +2 ;oser and 7orsch 1&'6# ma5es use of the o@ides of :i* -l* >e* 8g* ,a* Na and 7 to effectivel2 differentiate the sediments into four

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"rovenance ?ones. :he2 also noted that +iogenic ,a( and Si(2 in "rovenance determination could +e eliminated +2 a "lot in which the discriminant functions are +ased u"on the ratios of :i(2* >e2(3* 8g( and 72( all to -l2(3 though it is not as effective as the one +ased u"on the raw o@ides. :he discriminant functions for the two "lots used to discriminate the sediments from the stud2 area are as follows4 :he formula for raw o@ides is given as4 Discriminant Function -DF'. / -1.CC3:i(2 D %.6%C-l2(3 D %.C6>e2(3 :# - 1.$8g( D %.616,a( D %.$%&Na2( Q 1.22472( Q &.%& Discriminant Function -DF). / %.44$:i(2 D %.%C-l2(3 Q %.2$>e2(3 :# Q 1.428g( D %.43',a( D 1.4C$Na2( D 1.42672( Q 6.'61. Bhile that of the ratio "lot is given as4 Discriminant Function -DF'. N 3%.63' :i(2A-l2(3 Q 12.$41 >e2(3 :#A-l2(3 D C.32& 8g(A-l2(3 D 12.%31Na2(A-l2(3 D 3$.4%2 72(A -l2(3 Q 6.3'2 Discriminant Function -DF). N$6.$%%:i(2A-l2(3 Q 1%.'C& >e2(3 :#A-l2(3 D 3%.'C$ 8g(A-l2(3 Q $.4%4 Na2(A-l2(3 D 11.112 72(A-l2(3 Q 3.'&. >rom the "lots >ig.1C and >ig.1'#* -wi sandstone falls in felsic igneous "rovenance* -+a5ali5i shale from Huart?ose sedimentar2 source* -wi sandstone were derived from rec2cled sources or felsic igneous "rovenance and the derivation of the sediments could +e from a highl2 weathered granite-gneiss terrain andAor from a "ree@isting sedimentar2 terrain ;oser and 7orsch 1&'6#. :he "lots using the raw o@ides >ig.1&# revealed that the ,;1 sediments were sourced ma9orl2 from Huart?ose sedimentar2 "rovenance* while ratio "lots >ig.2%# also corres"ond with the o@ide "lots showing sediments "lotting ma9orl2 in the Huart?ose sedimentar2 "rovenance. Fowever* -g+ani sandstone* E?e--5u Sandstone* -wgu Shale* E?e--5u Shale and E5en5"on Shale were derived from Huart?ose sedimentar2 "rovenance. :he felsic in"ut must have come from "re-e@isting sedimentar2 terrain "ro+a+l2 rec2cled orogen "rovenance. ,() Trace 0lements geochemistr% 3.2.1 !rovenance and :ectonic setting :he high field strength elements F>SE# such as Gr* N+* Ff* .* :h* are "referentiall2 "artioned into melts during cr2stalli?ation >eng and 7errich* 1&&%# and as a result* these elements are enriched in felsic rather than mafic sources. :hese elements are thought to reflect "rovenance com"ositions as a conseHuence of their generall2 immo+ile +ehavior :a2lor and 8clennan* 1&'$#. :he ferromagnesian trace elements ,r* Ni* ,o and ) show generall2 similar +ehavior in magmatic "rocesses +ut the2 ma2 +e fractionated during weathering >eng and 7errich* 1&&%#. In the studied sam"les* ,r and Ni are enriched with res"ect to the average com"osition of the u""er continental crust 3,,#. :his enrichment of ,r and Ni ma2 suggest some +asic in"ut from the source terrane. :he elevated values of ,r R1$%""m# and Ni R1%%""m# and the ratio of ,rANi +etween 1.3-1.$* are diagnostic of ultramafic roc5s in the source region 1arver et al.* 1&&6#. In com"arison* ,r concentrations range from 6.'4 to 1%3""m with an average of 46.4 in ,;1 sediments* while Ni ranges from S2% to '1""m with an average of 4%.6. while in -su river sediments* the ,r concentrations range from 6.'4 to 123""m with an average of $%.&* Ni ranges from S2% to 61""m with an average of 22.'. :his com"arison im"lies that the e@istence of ultramafic roc5s in the source region was unli5el2. -lso* the ,o enrichment which has an average value of '.$ for ,;1 and C.%3 for -;1 sediments are lower than the -verage 3""er ,ontinental ,rust -3,# 1%.%%# confirms a much reduced mafic in"ut from the source area :a2lor and 8c<ennan* 1&'$#. :herefore it can +e concluded that the sediments of +oth grou"s are from mi@ed environments of felsic igneous "rovenance* intermediate igneous and with Huart?ose sedimentar2 "rovenance dominant. Summar2 of the trace elements geochemistr2 of -;1 and ,;1 is given on :a+le 6 and C res"ectivel2. =hatia and ,roo5 1&'6# used <a* :h and Sc concentrations as well as :h* Sc and GrA1% and :h* ,o and GrA1% concentrations to discriminate sediments derived from oceanic island arc* from continental island arcs and from active and "assive continental margins. 3sing :h-,o-GrA1% and :h-Sc-GrA1% ternar2 "lots* for -;1 sediments >ig.21 and >ig.22#* shows -wi Sandstone* -wi lignite "lotted in "assive margin while -+a5ali5i Shales falls into continental island arc together with 8famosing <imestone* these "lots also correlate with ternar2 "lot of <a:h-Sc >ig.23#. 3sing <a-:h-Sc* :h-,o-GrA1% and :h-Sc-GrA1% ternar2 "lots* the ,;1 sediments showed affinit2 for continental island arc and "assive margin with few "lotting in oceanic island arc and active continental margin. :ernar2 diagram of +oth :h-,o-GrA1% and :h-Sc-GrA1% >ig.2$ and >ig.26# shows E5en5"on Shales* E?e--5u Shales* -wgu Shales and E?e--5u limestones were derived from continental island arc. Bhile -g+ani Sandstone* New Netim 8arl and E?e--5u sandstone were derived from "assive margin* these also have similarit2 with that of <a-:h-Sc ternar2 "lot >ig.24#. :h-,o-GrA1% "lot indicates that E5en5"on <imestones tectonic setting is from (ceanic island arc. ;oser and 7orsch 1&'6# esta+lished a discriminating diagram using log 52(ANa2(# )s Si(2 >ig.2C and >ig.2'# to discriminate tectonic settings of terrigenous sedimentar2 roc5s. >rom the diagram the sediments "lotted in the active continental margin as well as the "assive margin field correlates with the ternar2 diagram to discriminate tectonic settings +2 =hatia and ,roo5 1&'6#.

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4. 1onclusion :he inorganic geochemical anal2sis has +een a""lied to stud2 the sediments of <ower =enue :rough with attendant information derived from the wor5* the +ul5 geochemical studies of the -;1 and ,;1 sediments revealed that Si(2 is the dominant o@ide followed +2 -l2(3 and >e2(3 which constitutes over &%M while others li5e 72(* :i(2* Na2(* 8g( and !2($ constitute the rest. :he Si(2A-l2(3 ratios for the sediments in +oth grou"s are a""recia+l2 high indicating that the sam"les have +een heavil2 weathered evidenced from the enrichment of Huart? and de"letion of felds"ars. -lso* the relativel2 high concentrations of >e2(3 and :i(2 is an indication of iron-titanium minerals such as haematite and anatase rutiles* high concentration of ,a( in limestones of 8famosing in -;1* E?e--5u and E5en5"on in ,;1 is an indication of car+onate as well as* the high 72(ANa2( ratios es"eciall2 in shales is attri+uted to the "resence of "lagioclase. :he mean high values of -l2(3 in -+a5ali5i Shale -;1#* -gwu Shale* New Netim 8arl* E?e--5u Shale and E5en5"on Shale ,;1# ma2 also indicate a high 5aoliniteAillite ratio. 3sing the ma9or element geochemistr2* the a""lication of source area weathering using ,I-* ,IB* !I- and ;; median value of C6.C* &2.6* &3.$ and $.C6# res"ectivel2 in -;1 and C6.1* '$.$* 'C.C and 1%.&# res"ectivel2 in ,;1 reveals that the sediments have +een su+9ected to intense weathering at the source area as well as high levels of chemical weathering and trans"ortation es"eciall2 in -+a5ali5i Shale and -wi Sandstone in -;1 and -g+ani Sandstone* -wgu Shale and E5en5"on Shale in ,;1. In the --,N-7 diagram* the sediments com"rising of -wi sandstones* -+a5ali5i shales and -wi lignite were "lotted mostl2 within the 5aolinite-chlorite and illite region* In ,;1 sediments* -g+ani Sandstone* -gwu Shale* E5en5"on Shale with a sam"le of E?e--5u sandstone were "lotted within the 5aolinite-chlorite* and smectite-illite region* an indication of high weathering at the source. Bhile New Netim 8arl* E?e--5u shale "lotted near "lagioclase indicating low to moderate weathering in the source. :hA3 ratios of the sediments in -;1 sediments have :hA3 ratios of %.%3-C.&% with median of 3.'2* while ,;1 range from %.36-C.33 with median of 3.&' indicating high weathering at the source. =ivariate "lot of Si(2 against total -l2(3D72(DNa2( "ro"osed +2 Suttner and 0utta* 1&'6 was used in order to identif2 the maturit2 of the sandstones* In -;1* there is increasing chemical maturit2 from -+a5ali5i Shale to -wi Sandstone* while in ,;1* there is increasing chemical maturit2 from E5en5"on Shale* New Netim 8arl* -wgu Shale* E?e--5u Sandstone to -g+ani Sandstone. :he use of FerronTs model classified the sediments of -;1 as >e Shale* Su+ ar5ose while in ,;1 sediments "lotted in Shale* Bac5e* Su+ar5ose and Euart? arenite. :ernar2 "lot to classif2 the limestones of 8famosing* E?e--5u* E5en5"on and 8arl of New Netim reveals the2 are ,alcitic with a sam"le of E?e--5u limestone "lotted in 8agnesite. -7># ternar2 "lots reveals sediments of -;1 and ,;1 de"osited in ,ontinental* :ransition and 8arine ?one and dominated +2 -rgillaceous* ,ar+onaceous -rgillite* ,ar+onaceous and a >erruginous argillites confirming a chemicall2 altered sediments de"osited in o@idi?ing and shallow marine environment. >urthermore* the discriminant function "lots of ;oser and 7orsch for the "rovenance signature studies reveals sediments of -;1 and ,;1 dominants in Huart?ose sedimentar2 "rovenance with few in"uts from intermediate igneous* as well as felsic igneous "rovenances. :he trace elements geochemistr2 through the use of <a-:h-Sc* :h-Sc-GrA1% and :h-,o-GrA1% after =hatia and ,roo5* 1&'6# reveals that sediments of +oth -;1 and ,;1 "lotted in the ,ontinental Island -rc* !assive margins and (ceanic Island -rc. :his is also conforming to tectonic discriminant "lots of 72(ANa2( vs Si(2 +2 ;oser and 7orsch 1&'6#. It therefore im"lies that the sediments were de"osited in "late interiors or in an intracratonic +asin. :hus* the source of -;1 and ,;1 sediments was from Euart?ose sedimentar2 terrain* this corro+orates with the "lot of :hASc versus GrASc after 8clennan et al.* 1&&3# in which most of the sediments of +oth grou"s have +een rewor5ed or rec2cled. :hA3 average values are 3.6$ and 3.C1 in -;1 and ,;1 suggesting the2 are from 3,,. 2eferences =en5helil* J.* 1&'&#. Structure and 1eod2namic evolution of the Intracontinental =enue :rough Nigeria#. !h.0 :hesis* 3niversit2 of Nice. !u+lished +2 Elf Nigeria* <td. SNE- !#* ".234. =en5helil* 8.1.* !onsard* J.>.* U Saug2* <.* 1&'&#. :he =ornu-=enue :rough* the Niger 0elta and its (ffshore4 :ectono-sedimentar2 reconstruction during the ,retaceous and :ertiar2 from geo"h2sical data and geolog2. =esl2* =.8.* ,leal* ,.J.* 1&&C#. 3""er ,ar+oniferous Stratigra"h2 of the Best 8idlands 37# revised in the light of +orehole geo"h2sical logs and detrital com"ositional suites. Geology Journal, 32* "". '$ Q 11'. =hatia* 8.;.* 1&'3#. !late :ectonics and 1eochemical ,om"osition of Sandstones. Journal of Geology. ). &1* "". 611 Q 62C. =hatia* 8.;.* 1&'$#. ;are earth element geochemistr2 of -ustralian !aleo?oic gra2wac5es and mudroc5s4 !rovenance and :ectonic control4 Sedimentary geology* ).4$* "" &C-113. =hatia* 8.;.* and ,roo5* 7.-.B.* 1&'6#. :race Element ,haracteristics of 1ra2wac5es and :ectonic Setting 0iscrimination of Sedimentar2 =asins. Contrib. mineral. Petrol. ). &2* "" 1'1 Q 1&3. =ur5e* 7.,.* U Bhiteman* :.>.J.* 1&C3#. 3"lift* ;ifting and +rea5 u" of -frica4 Im"lications on ,ontinental

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0rift to Earth Sciences Edited +2 :arling* 0.F. and ;uncom* S.7.#* "".C3$-C$$. =ur5e* 7.,.* 0essauvagie* :.>. J.* U Bhiteman* -.J.* 1&C1#. :he o"ening of the 1ulf of 1uinea and the 1eological Fistor2 of the =enue 0e"ression and Niger 0elta* Natural Physical Science* )ol 233* no. 3'* "". $1-$$. ,ratchle2* ,.;.* U Jones* 1.!.* 1&6$#. -n inter"retation of the 1eolog2 and gravit2 anomalies of the =enue :rough* overseas 1eological surve2* "a"er 1* 2$". Englund* J.(.* U Jorgensen* !.* 1&C3#. - chemical classification s2stem for argillaceous sediments and factors affecting their com"osition Geol. Stockholm Forh. &$* 'C-&C. >edo* ,.8.* Nes+itt* F.B.* U .oung* 1.8.* 1&&$#. 3nraveling the effects of "otassium metasomatism in sedimentar2 roc5s and !alaesols* with im"lications for "aleoweathering conditions and "rovenance. Geology 23* "" &21- &24. >eng* ;.* U 7errich* ;.* 1&&%#. 1eochemistr2 of fine Q grained clastic sediments in the -rchean -+iti+i greenstone +elt* ,anada4 Im"lications for !rovenance and tectonic setting4 Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta ).$4* "" 1%61 Q 1%'1. 1arver* J.I.* ;o2ce* !.;.* U Smic5* :.-.* 1&&6#. ,hromium and nic5el in shale of the :aconic foreland4 - case stud2 for the "rovenance of fine grained sediment with an ultra-matic source. Journal of Sedimentology Research. 1%%* 1%%-1%6. 1rant* N. 7..* 1&C1#. South -tlantic* =enue :rough and 1ulf of 1uinea ,retaceous :ri""le Junction. 1eol. Soc. -m. =ull. 2'* ".22&$. Farnois* <.* 1&''#. :he new inde@* a new chemical inde@ of weathering. Sedimentary Geology ). $$* "" 31&322. Ferron* 8.8.* 1&''#. 1eochemical ,lassification of :errigenous Sands and Shales from core to log data. Journal of sedimentary Petrology* ). $'* "". '2% Q '2&. Fiscott* ;. N.* 1&'4#. ("hiolitic source roc5s for :aconic-age fl2sch4 :race element evidence. Geological Society of America ulletin. &$* 1261Q126C. 8a2nard* J.=.* )alloni* ;.* U .u* F.S.* 1&'2#. ,om"osition of modern dee" sea sand from are related +asins. :rench fore-arc 1eolog24 Sedimentation and :ectonics on 8odern and -ncient -ctive !late 8argins <egget* J.7.* eds#* 21 Q 4%* Geological Society of America S!ecial !a"er. 2'4. 8clennan* S.8.* Femming* S.* 8c0aniel* 0.7.* U Fanson* 1.N.* 1&&3#. 1eochemical a""roaches to sedimentation* "rovenance* and tectonics. !rocesses controlling the com"osition of clastic sediments Johnson* 8.J. and =asu* -.* eds.#* 21-4%* Geological. Society of America s!ecial !a!er 2'4. 8clennan* S.8.* :a2lor* S.;.* and Eri5sson* 7.-.* 1&'3#. 1eochemistr2 of -rchean Shales from the !il+ara Su"er grou"* Bestern -ustralia. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 4C* 1211 Q 1222. Nath* =.N.* 7un?endorf* F.* !luger* B.<.* 2%%%#. Influence of !rovenance* weathering and sedimentar2 "rocesses on the elemental ratio of the fine grained fraction of the +ed load sediments from the )ein+anad la5e and the ad9oining ,ontinental shelf* southwest coast of in clim. Journal of Sedimentary Research.C%* 1%'1 Q 1%&4. Nes+itt* F.B.* U .oung* 1.8.* 1&'2#. Earl2 !rotero?oic ,limate and !late motion inferred from ma9or element chemistr2 of lutites* Nature "##* "". C1$ Q C1C. Nes+itt* F.B.* .oung* 1.8.* 8clannan* S.8.* 7ea2s* ;.;.* 1&&6#. Effects of chemical weathering and sorting on the !etrogenesis of Siliciclastic Sediments with Im"lications for "rovenance studies. Journal of Geology. 1%4* "" $2$ Q $42. Newman* S.* >in5el* ;.,.* U 8ac0ougall* J.0.* 1&'4#. ,om"arison of su"er 23%# :h- su"er 23'# 3 diseHuili+rium s2stematics in lavas from three hot s"ot regionsI Fawaii* !rince Edward and Samoa. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta $%&"'( )*+,)"$. Nwachu5wu* S.(.* 1&C2#. :he tectonic evolution of the Southern "ortion of the =enue :rough Nigeria. 1eol. 8ag.1%&* "". 411- 41&. (+i* ,.1.* 2%%%#. 0e"ositional 8odel for the ,am"anian-8aastrichtian Succession* -nam+ra =asin* Southeastern Nigeria. !h.d :hesis* 3niversit2 of Nigeria* Nsu55a Nigeria. (lade* 8. -.* 1&C$#. Evolution of Nigerian =enue :rough -ulacogen#4 - :ectonic 8odel. 1eol. 8ag. )ol. 112* "". $C$ Q $'3. (sae S.* -siedu* 0.7.* =anoeng-.a5u+o* =.* 7oe+erl ,.* 0am"are* S.=.* 2%%6#. !rovenance and tectonic Setting of <ate !rotero?oic =uem Sandstones of southeastern 1hana4 Evidence from geochemistr2 and detrital modes. Journal of African -arth Science ).44* "". '$ Q &6. !etti9ohn* >. J.* 1&$C#. Sedimentar2 ;oc5s* 2nd edn* Far"er and ;ow* New .or5. 62'"". !otter* !. E.* 1&C'. !etrolog2 and chemistr2 of modern +ig river sands. J. Geol. 34* 423Q44&. ;oser* =.!.* U 7orsch* ;.J.* 1&'6#. 0etermination of tectonic setting of sandstone. 8udstone suites using Si(2 content and 72(ANa2( ratio4 Journal of Geology* ). &4* "" 63$ Q 6$%.

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;oser* =.!.* U 7orsch* ;.J.* 1&''#. !rovenance Signatures of Sandstone-8udstone suites determined using discriminant function anal2sis of ma9or-element data. Chemical Geology. 6C* 11&-13& Suttner* <. J.* U 0utta* !. 7.* 1&'6#. -lluvial sandstone com"ositin and "aleoclimate* I. >ramewor5 mineralog24 Journal of Sedimentary Petrology* v. $6* no. 3* ". 32&-34$. :a2lor* S.;.* 8clennan* S.8.* 1&'$#. :he continental crust4 its com"osition and evolution. lack.ell Science Publisher, 312"". Bright* J.=.* 1&6'#. South -tlantic ,ontinental 0rift and the =enue :roughV. :ectono Q !h2sics. 64 3%1 Q 31%.
3 6 9 2 1 5 1
° ° ° ° °

N
4 1 1 1 4 1
° °

B S

E

SB CNB

°

PB BB R. N iger PB BT PB
Legend
AB Anambra Basin Benue Trough Dahomey Basin Sokoto Basin Chad and Niger Delta Calabar Flank Bida Basin Precambrian Basement

1 1

°

R.

Be n

ue

Fig '4 Geological map showing different #asin in !igeria* note the Benue trough -BT., "#a5ali5i -"2G. and 1ala#ar Flan5 -12G. modified after 6#a7e, )**8(

8 5

8

°

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DB CNB PB CF SA

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BT DB DB SB

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100

0

100 200 Kilometers

Stud2 -rea

CND CF BB PB

5

°

3

6

9

2 1

5 1

°

°

°

°

°

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Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.10* 2%13

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' 0 0 7 ' 0 0

' 0 3 7

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# Oguma

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# # O"u!k po Olangbe#ho # O"ukpa # Onu$e%i # # # Ado!u O!okam # # Ooole U"ankon +sukka # # # # Opi
Igumale

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Allu ium !os Basalts Cretaceous "ntrusions Post Santonian Se#uences A$gu%Ndeaboh Shale &rou' ()e%Aku Shale &rou' *duk'ani Formation Asu Ri er &rou' Basement Com'le+ Bight o, Bonny Cameroon
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E+UG U # Agbani # A$gu # OKIGWE # O$o Ka!

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Study Area Anambra Basin Benue Trough Dahomey Basin Sokoto Bas in Chad and Niger Delta Calabar Flank Bida Basin Prec ambrian Basement

°

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BIG*),O-,BO++&

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Fig )& Geological +ap of Southeastern !igeria 1overing the Stud% "rea -"2G, i(e 2ed Thin line. and -12G, i(e Blue Thic5 line.
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# # # #
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Cretaceous "ntrusions Post Sant onian Se#uences A$gu%Ndeaboh Shale &rou'

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# Amuzu

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(ss Oso Afikpo Ka!

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(os",/an"onian /e1uen#es A$gu-+deaboh /hale,G!oup Eze-Aku,/hale G!oup Asu,Ri2e! G!oup Ou"#!op, o#a"ion )o$n

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°

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°

Fig ,& Geological map of the "2G showing sample location

' 5 2 7
°

°

10

0

10

20 Kilometers

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Fig( 8& Geological map of the 12G showing sample location

Fig( 9& 1orrelation 1hart of all 6utcrops Studied showing their Locations, Formations and Groups(

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Fig( 4& 1lassification of Siliclastic sediments of "2G -"fter :erron, ';33.

Fig( <& 1lassification of Siliclastic sediments 12G -"fter :erron, ';33.

Fig( 3& Ternar% diagram classif%ing car#onate roc5s of #oth "2G and 12G

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Fig ;& 1I" ternar% diagram -"l)6,=1a6>!a)6=$)6. for "su 2iver Group -after !es#itt and ?oung, ';3).(

Fig '*& 1I" ternar% diagram -"l)6,=1a6>!a)6=$)6. for 1ross 2iver Group -after !es#itt and ?oung, ';3).(

Fig ''& Plot of Th@A vs Th for "su 2iver Group sediments -after +cLennan et al(, ';;,.(

12C

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-.. 2

.

.-

.-2

Beathering trend
1 1

<E1EN0 -Sst of Agbani Fm (CRG) -Sst of Eze-Aku Fm (CRG) -Shale of Awgu Fm (CRG) -Shale of Eze-Aku Fm (CRG) - Shale of Ekenkpon Fm (CRG)

Th@A 0

3""er ,rust
0e"leted mantle sources

0

/

/

-.. . ..--

-

Th

Fig ')& Plot of Th@A vs Th for 1ross 2iver Group sediments -after +cLennan et al(, ';;,.(
.-./30.--

Increasing ,hemical 8aturit2 --wi sst.
22-

<E1EN0 --+a5ali5i shale

Si6)

1-

1-

0-

Semi=:umid Semi="rid

0-

/-

/-

./30-

-

)6, > $ )6 > !a )6 Fig ',& Si6) "l versus -"L )6,>$)6>!a)6. for "su 2iver Group sediments showing trend of +aturit% -after Suttner and Dutta, ';34.
.-./30.--

Increasing 8aturit2
2-

,hemical
2-

1-

1-

<E1EN0 -Sst of Agbani Fm (CRG) -Sst of Eze-Aku Fm (CRG) -Shale of Awgu Fm (CRG) -Shale of Eze-Aku Fm (CRG) - Shale of Ekenkpon Fm (CRG)

Si6)

0-

0-

Semi=:umid Semi="rid
//-

./30-

-

"l)6, > $)6 > !a)6

Fig('8& Si6) versus -"l)6,>$)6>!a)6. for 1ross 2iver Group sediments showing trend of +aturit% -after Suttner and Dutta, ';34.(

12'

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<E1EN0
-

A .--

/-

'

2-

0-

1-

1-

)
TD

1 D 4

--wi sst. --+a5ali5i shale -8famosing limestone --wi lignite 1- -;1I<<-,E(3S 2,-;=(N-,E(3S -;1I<<I:ES 3- ,-;=(N-,E(3S 4-,-;=(N-,E(3S >E;I:E $- >E;;31IN(3S
0-

6- >E;;31IN(3S -;1I<<I:E
/-

2-

+D
.--

,
/0-

8
12-

9
F
.--

,G-,(N:INEN:-< G(NE :G-:;-NSI:I(N G(NE 8G-8-;INE G(NE
-

4

Fig( '9& B"$FC Ternar% plots for "2G A .-<E1EN0
/-

'

2-

0-

1-

-Sst of Agbani Fm (CRG) -Sst of Eze-aku Fm (CRG) -Shale of Awgu Fm (CRG) -Shale of Eze-aku Fm (CRG) - Shale of Ekenkpon Fm (CRG) -Marl of ew etim Fm (CRG)
0-

)
1-

1 D
TD

4
/-

- <imestone of E?e-a5u >m ,;1# -limestone of E5en"on >m ,;1#

2-

+D

,
.--

4
/0-

8
12-

9
F
.--

-

Fig( '4& "l)6, = -$)6>1a6>+g6. = -Fe)6,>+g6. B"$FC Ternar% plots for 12G

12&

Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.10* 2%13
%0%//0-

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<E1EN0
2-

Euart?ose Sedimentar2 !rovenance

--wi sst.
2-

--+a5ali5i shale

Discriminant function )

8afic Igneous !rovenance
00-

Intermediate Igneous !rovenance
-

>elsic Igneous !rovenance
-

%0-

Discriminant function ' %/-

/-

0-

Fig '<& Discriminant Function diagram for provenance signature for "su 2iver Group sediments using ratio plot -after 2oser and $orch ';33.
%././3/-

<E1EN0 --wi sst. --+a5ali5i shale

>elsic Igneous !rovenance Discriminant function ) Intermediate Igneous !rovenance
..-

-

Euart?ose Sedimentar2 !rovenance

8afic Igneous !rovenance

-

%.%.-

%.-

Discriminant function ' .-

/-

3-

Fig '34 Discriminant Function diagram for provenance signature for "su 2iver Group sediments using raw oEide -after 2oser and $orch ';33.

13%

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%./-

-

.-

/-

3/-

<E1EN0

>elsic Igneous !rovenance

.-

.-

Discriminant function )

Intermediate !rovenance

Igneous

-Sst of Agbani Fm (CRG) -Sst of Eze-Aku Fm (CRG) -Shale of Awgu Fm (CRG) -Shale of Eze-Aku Fm (CRG) - Shale of Ekenkpon Fm (CRG)

-

-

8afic Igneous !rovenance
%.%.-

Euart?ose Sedimentar2 !rovenance
%/%.%/-

Discriminant function ' .-

/-

3-

Fig ';4 Discriminant Function diagram for provenance signature for 1ross 2iver Group sediments using raw oEide -after 2oser and $orch ';33.
%.1%./%2%000-

<E1EN0

Euart?ose Sedimentar2 !rovenance
%0-

8afic Igneous !rovenance Discriminant function )
%0-

-Sst of Agbani Fm (CRG) -Sst of Eze-Aku Fm (CRG) -Shale of Awgu Fm (CRG) -Shale of Eze-Aku Fm (CRG) - Shale of Ekenkpon Fm (CRG)

%2-

Intermediate Igneous !rovenance
%./-

%2-

>elsic Igneous !rovenance
%./-

%.1%.1%./-

%.1-

Discriminant function '
%2-

%0-

-

Fig )*4 Discriminant Function diagram for provenance signature for 1ross 2iver Group sediments using ratio plot -after 2oser and $orch ';33.

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<E1EN0 --wi sst. --+a5ali5i shale -8famosing limestone --wi lignite " N (,E-NI, IS<-N0 -;, BN -;, 1N-,:I)E 8-;1IN D N !-SSI)E 8-;1IN ,(N:INEN:-< ,(N:INEN:-< IS<-N0

Fig( )'& Th=1o=Dr@'* Plots for the Sediments of "2G -"fter Bhatia and 1roo5, ';34.(

<E1EN0 --wi sst. --+a5ali5i shale -8famosing limestone --wi lignite " N (,E-NI, IS<-N0 -;, BN ,(N:INEN:-< IS<-N0 -;, 1N-,:I)E 8-;1IN D N !-SSI)E 8-;1IN ,(N:INEN:-<

Fig( ))& Th=Sc=Dr@'* Plots for Sediments of "2G -"fter Bhatia and 1roo5, ';34.

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<E1EN0 --wi sst. --+a5ali5i shale -8famosing limestone --wi lignite
" N (,E-NI, IS<-N0 -;, BN ,(N:INEN:-< IS<-N0 -;, 1N-,:I)E,(N:INEN:-< 8-;1IN D N !-SSI)E 8-;1IN

Fig( ),& La=Th=Sc Plots for Sediments of "2G -"fter Bhatia and 1roo5, ';34.
<E1EN0 -Sst of Agbani Fm (CRG) -Sst of Eze-aku Fm (CRG) -Shale of Awgu Fm (CRG) -Shale of Eze-Aku Fm (CRG) - Shale of Ekenkpon Fm (CRG) -Marl of ew etim Fm (CRG) -<imestone of E?e--5u >m ,;1# -limestone of E5en5"on >m ,;1# " N (,E-NI, IS<-N0 -;, BN ,(N:INEN:-< IS<-N0 -;, 1N-,:I)E ,(N:INEN:-< 8-;1IN D N !-SSI)E 8-;1IN

Fig( )8& La=Th=Sc Plots for Sediments of 12G -"fter Bhatia and 1roo5, ';34.

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<E1EN0
-Sst of Agbani Fm (CRG) -Sst of Eze-aku Fm (CRG) -Shale of Awgu Fm (CRG) -Shale of Eze-Aku Fm (CRG) - Shale of Ekenkpon Fm (CRG)

-8arl of New Netim >m ,;1# -!imestone of Eze-Aku Fm (CRG) -limestone of Ekenkpon Fm (CRG)

" N (,E-NI, IS<-N0 -;, BN ,(N:INEN:-< IS<-N0 -;, 1N-,:I)E,(N:INEN:-< 8-;1IN D N !-SSI)E 8-;1IN

Fig( )9& Th=1o=Dr@'* Plots for the Sediments of 12G -"fter Bhatia and 1roo5, ';34.(
<E1EN0 -Sst of Agbani Fm (CRG) -Sst of Eze-Aku Fm (CRG) -Shale of Awgu Fm (CRG) -Shale of Eze-Aku Fm (CRG) - Shale of Ekenkpon Fm (CRG)

-8arl of New Netim >m ,;1# -<imestone of E?e--5u >m ,;1# -limestone of E5en5"on >m ,;1# " N (,E-NI, IS<-N0 -;, BN ,(N:INEN:-< IS<-N0 -;, 1N-,:I)E ,(N:INEN:-< 8-;1IN D N !-SSI)E 8-;1IN

Fig( )4& Th=Sc=Dr@'* Plots for Sediments of 12G -"fter Bhatia and 1roo5, ';34.

134

Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.10* 2%13

www.iiste.org

<E1EN0 --wi sst. --+a5ali5i shale -8famosing limestone
6I+ N (,E-NI, IS<-N0 -;, "1+N-,:I)E,(N:INEN:-< 8-;1IN P+ N !-SSI)E 8-;1IN

Fig( )<& Tectonic Discriminant Diagram for "2G sediments -"fter 2oser and $orsch, ';34.( <E1EN0

-Sst of Agbani Fm (CRG) -Sst of Eze-Aku Fm (CRG) -Shale of Awgu Fm (CRG) -Shale of Eze-Aku Fm (CRG) - Shale of Ekenkpon Fm (CRG)
- 8arl of New Netim >m ,;1#

-!imestone of Eze-Aku Fm (CRG) -!imestone of Ekenkpon Fm (CRG)

(I-N(ceanic Island -rc -,8N-ctive ,ontinental 8argin !8N!assive 8argin Fig( )3& Tectonic Discriminant Diagram for 12G sediments -"fter 2oser and $orsch, ';34.(

13$

Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.10* 2%13

www.iiste.org

Ta#le '& 2esults of +a7or 6Eides for, sediments of "su 2iver and 1ross 2iver Group, Lower Benue Trough, Southeastern !igeria
2oc5 no Formation group Litholog% T%pe +a7or 6Eide F. +DL S"!DST6!0 S"!DST6!0 S"!DST6!0 S"!DST6!0 S"!DST6!0 S"!DST6!0 S"!DST6!0 S"!DST6!0 S"!DST6!0 S:"L0 S:"L0 +"2L +"2L +"2L +"2L S"!DST6!0 S"!DST6!0 LI+0ST6!0 S:"L0 LI+0ST6!0 LI+0ST6!0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 LI+0ST6!0 LI+0ST6!0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 LI+0ST6!0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 LI+0ST6!0 LI+0ST6!0 LI+0ST6!0 LI+0ST6!0 LI+0ST6!0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S"!DST6!0 S"!DST6!0 S"!DST6!0 LIG!IT0 S"!DST6!0 8"=8B Si6) F %.%1 33(); 43(3, ;'(;3 ;8(,3 33(*3 34(43 ;9(*) ;8() ;8('' 4,(,8 84(;< 9,(;) 9,()< ,9('8 )<(,, <4(); 3<(38 4()4 9)(;< 9(38 3(;< 9,(,3 99(*, )9('' 3(;8 4(<) 98(8' 9)(*4 98(*, 83(8 93()' 83('' 9)(;' ;(<, 9,(,, 9)('4 9)(34 9,(*9 9,() 9,(9, *('3 *()3 *(<, ,(<) *(;' 4<()8 4*(), 99(8< 9)(8) 98(,, 9'(83 3*(<4 38(; ;)(*3 94(<8 99(8; 8"=8B "l)6, F %.%1 ,(3< )() )(<, ,(*3 '(; ,(' )(<' )(,4 ,(8 '<(93 )9(<' ',()9 ',(' 3(*) 4('' 9(') 9(,8 '(89 '9(*, )()3 '(3' 9(;3 8(94 9('4 )(); )(83 '<(; '<(,< '3(9, '3(88 '8(98 ';(3, )'(38 )(3, ';(38 ';(39 ';('< '3(;3 ';(8, '3(;4 *(' *(' *('4 *(83 *('; '*(4< )'(,8 )*(, ),(' )'()8 ),(', '*()' <(34 ,(44 '9()' '8('' 8"=8B Fe)6, F %.%4 9(*4 ),(;, ,(9; *(88 4(3, <(,, *() '('9 *(;< )(8 ,(4; )(9 )(, '(,3 '(*' *(4; '('< )(4) 9(') '(9' *(3, )(;; )(*3 ,(*4 8(33 )(9' <(44 ;(9, 8(,8 <(', ',(4, ;(*3 8(9) ,(9; 9(49 4(8< 4(8 4(4, 4(,) 4(84 *(89 *(*4 *(); *(,; *()< 8()' 9(83 ;(8; ;(43 '*(,8 '*()9 '()9 '(88 '(*) )(*9 )(39 8"=8B +g6 F %.%1 *(*) G*(*' G*(*' *(*, *(*) *(*, *(*, *(*' *(*) *('3 *(,< '(88 '(49 '(); '(*, *(8; *(8' *(4, '(,, *(39 *(89 *(4, *(9) *(38 '('3 '(*8 '(<; )('3 *(<3 '(<) )()4 )()8 '('3 *(93 '(<< '(3; '(;3 '(;8 '(< '(49 *()9 *(,' *(,4 *(,; *(8, *(;8 '(9 )(*3 )()9 )() )(,' *(,' *() *(') *(;; *(3) 8"=8B 1a6 F %.%1 *(*) *(*, *(*) *(*, *(*9 *(*9 *(*) *(*' *(*, *(*< *(*8 ;(3< '*()' )4()' ,)(38 <(;) *(<, 8<(3' 3(;9 8<(9' 8<(44 '9(,4 '4('; ,*(;< 89(8 84(8) '(48 '(9' '(<4 ,(39 '(,, *(3; *('; 89(*) '(*< *(;< '(', '('8 '(); '(98 99(<' 99(*, 98(;9 9)(9< 98(8, 9(;4 *(8' *(38 *(' *(' *('4 *(*, *(*' *(*) *(*' *(*8 8"=8B !a)6 F %.%1 *(*' *(*) *(*) *(*) *(*) *(*) *(*) *(*) *(*, *(*8 *(*8 )(), )(), '(99 '(); '(*' *(98 *(') )(*< *('4 *(48 *(', *(' *('' *(,8 *('4 '()< '(*9 *('< *(48 )('3 *(,, *(*; *(8< *(;4 *(3' *(3, *(3; *(;8 ' G*(*' G*(*' G*(*' *(*' *(*' ,()' '(<' '(4; *(<3 *(4' *(<3 *(' *(*3 *(*, *(*< *(*< 8"=8B $)6 F %.%1 *(*4 *(*4 *(*4 *(' *(*; *(' *('' *('3 *(' ' *(;9 8(*; ,(;) )(83 '(;9 '(*3 *(;< *(*3 )(*3 *(,9 *('' *(< *(9) *(43 *(,< *(,< ,('3 )(3' )(33 )(8 '(9, )(83 ,(' *(84 ,(', ,(*' ,(3< ,(3; ,(9) ,(88 *(*, *(*, *(*8 *('8 *(*8 *(3< ,('< )(38 )(;' )(<' )(;) ,(8; )(9< *(;8 ,(83 ,(*' 8"=8B Ti6) F %.%1 *(', *(*< *(*< *(' *(*9 *(*; *(*< *(*, *(*9 '(*3 '(88 *(94 *(9< *()3 *() *('; *(88 *(*9 *(3) *(') *(*3 *(,3 *(, *(,9 *('' *(', *(;) *(; *(39 *(;' *(98 *(3; *(;3 *(', *(;9 *(;4 *(;; *(;< '(*) *(;3 G*(*' G*(*' G*(*' *(*) G*(*' *(,, '(') '(*9 '(*3 '(*9 '(*< *(,) *(), *(8; *(3; *(< 8"=8B P)69 F %.%1 *(*8 *(,' *(*8 *(*, *(,' *('9 *(*) *(*< *(*9 *()' *('' *(,3 *(,' *()' *('< *(), *(,4 *(*3 *('4 *(*3 *('9 *('; *('9 *()' *(8, '(3< *(' *('8 ,()' )(,, *(48 *(', *('4 ',(8 *(*; *(*< *('8 *('8 *(,, *(88 *(*9 *(*) *(*4 *(*, *(*9 *(', *(' *(') *('' *('' *(', *(*8 *(*9 *(*, *('' *(*3 8"=8B +n6 F %.%1 G*(*' G*(*' G*(*' G*(*' G*(*' G*(*' G*(*' G*(*' G*(*' G*(*' G*(*' *(*) *(*) *(*) *(*) *(*, G*(*' *(< *(*9 *(' *(*< *(*, *(*, *(*, *(8< *(9; *(*9 *('' G*(*' *(*8 *(*) *(*; G*(*' *()3 *(*, *(*, *(*4 *(*4 *(*, *(*, *('3 *(*< *(*3 *(*9 *(*4 *('3 *(*) *(' *(*; *(*3 *(*4 G*(*' G*(*' G*(*' G*(*' G*(*' 8"=8B 1r)6, F %.%%2 G*(**) *(**8 G*(**) G*(**) G*(**) G*(**) G*(**) G*(**) G*(**) *(*'' *(*'9 *(**4 *(**4 *(**, *(**) *(**) *(**, G*(**) *(*' G*(**) G*(**) *(**3 *(**9 *(*'' G*(**) *(**) *(*') *(*') *(*') *(*', *(**< *(*'9 *(*', *(**8 *(*', *(*'8 *(*'8 *(*'8 *(*'8 *(*'8 G*(**) G*(**) G*(**) G*(**) *(**, *(**, *(*'8 *(*', *(*'3 *(*'3 *(*'< *(**, G*(**) G*(**) *(*', *(*'' 8"=8B L6I F -$.1 )(9 8(9 '(9 '(3 )(< )(9 '(; ) '(, ',(3 )*(9 ''(9 ')(' ),(' )<(3 4(; )() 8* ''() 8'(' ,;(' )*(' )*(8 ,, ,9(8 ,<(9 '*(; ')(' ',(' ',(; 8(; '9(3 '8(; ),() ', ',(4 ')(8 ')() ') ''(3 8, 88(' 88(, 8)(' 8,(4 4() 8(< 9(3 <(, <(' <(9 ,(8 )(4 '(4 )*(, ))(< 8"=8B Total F %.%1 ;;(;8 ;;(;) ;;(3; '**(*, '**(** ;)(8) '**(*' ;;(3' ;;(38 ;;(3, ;;(3, ;;(;3 ;;(3' ;;(;' ;;(33 ;;(39 ;;(34 ;;(3, ;;(3< ;;(<3 '**(*, ;;(39 '**(** ;;(3, ;;(3) '**(*, '**(*) ;;(38 '**(*) ;;(;' ;;(3< ;;(3* ;;(<9 ;;(3' ;;(38 ;;(3, ;;(3, ;;(;3 ;;(3' ;;(;' ;;(33 ;;(39 ;;(34 ;;(3, ;;(3< ;;(<3 '**(*, ;;(3' ;;(38 ;;(3, ;;(;' ;;(3< ;;(3* ;;(<9 ;;(3' ;;(38

2$ *94 2$ *99 2$ *98 2$ *9, 2$ *9) 2$ *9' 2$ *9* 2$ *8; 2$ *83 2$ *8< 2$ *84 2$ *89 2$ *88 2$ *8, 2$ *8) 2$ *8' 2$ *8* 2$ *,; 2$ *,3 2$ *,< 2$ *,4 2$ *,9 2$ *,8 2$ *,, 2$ *,) 2$ *,' 2$ *,* 2$ *); 2$ *)3 2$ *)< 2$ *)4 2$ *)9 2$ *)8 2$ *), 2$ *)) 2$ *)' 2$ *)* 2$ *'; 2$ *'3 2$ *'< 2$ *'4 2$ *'9 2$ *'8 2$ *', 2$ *') 2$ *'' 2$ *'* 2$ **; 2$ **3 2$ **< 2$ **4 2$ **9 2$ **8 2$ **, 2$ **) 2$ **'

"GB"!I "GB"!I "GB"!I "GB"!I "GB"!I "GB"!I "GB"!I "GB"!I "GB"!I "HGA "HGA !0H !0TI+ !0H !0TI+ !0H !0TI+ !0H !0TI+ 0D0="$A 0D0="$A 0D0="$A 0D0="$A 0D0="$A 0D0="$A 0D0="$A 0D0="$A 0D0="$A 0$0!$P6! 0$0!$P6! 0$0!$P6! 0$0!$P6! 0$0!$P6! 0$0!$P6! 0$0!$P6! 0$0!$P6! 0$0!$P6! 0$0!$P6! 0$0!$P6! 0$0!$P6! 0$0!$P6! 0$0!$P6! 0$0!$P6! 0$0!$P6! +F"+6SI!G +F"+6SI!G +F"+6SI!G +F"+6SI!G +F"+6SI!G "B"$"LI$I "B"$"LI$I "B"$"LI$I "B"$"LI$I "B"$"LI$I "B"$"LI$I "HI "HI "HI "HI "HI

12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G 12G "2G "2G "2G "2G "2G "2G "2G "2G "2G "2G "2G "2G "2G "2G "2G "2G

Sam"le No4 1-16# Q -su ;iver 1rou" Sam"le No4 1C-$6# Q ,ross ;iver 1rou"

136

Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.10* 2%13

www.iiste.org

Ta#le )& 2esults of Trace 0lements for, sediments of 1ross river and "su 2iver Group, Lower Benue Trough, Southeastern !igeria
Sample Litholog% T%pe 2$ *94 2$ *99 2$ *98 2$ *9, 2$ *9) 2$ *9' 2$ *9* 2$ *8; 2$ *83 2$ *8< 2$ *84 2$ *89 2$ *88 2$ *8, 2$ *8) 2$ *8' 2$ *8* 2$ *,; 2$ *,3 2$ *,< 2$ *,4 2$ *,9 2$ *,8 2$ *,, 2$ *,) 2$ *,' 2$ *,* 2$ *); 2$ *)3 2$ *)< 2$ *)4 2$ *)9 2$ *)8 2$ *), 2$ *)) 2$ *)' 2$ *)* 2$ *'; 2$ *'3 2$ *'< 2$ *'4 2$ *'9 2$ *'8 2$ *', 2$ *') 2$ *'' 2$ *'* 2$ **; 2$ **3 2$ **< 2$ **4 2$ **9 2$ **8 2$ **, 2$ **) 2$ **' S"!DST6!0 S"!DST6!0 S"!DST6!0 S"!DST6!0 S"!DST6!0 S"!DST6!0 S"!DST6!0 S"!DST6!0 S"!DST6!0 S:"L0 S:"L0 +"2L +"2L +"2L +"2L S"!DST6!0 S"!DST6!0 LI+0ST6!0 S:"L0 LI+0ST6!0 LI+0ST6!0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 LI+0ST6!0 LI+0ST6!0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 LI+0ST6!0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 LI+0ST6!0 LI+0ST6!0 LI+0ST6!0 LI+0ST6!0 LI+0ST6!0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S:"L0 S"!DST6!0 S"!DST6!0 S"!DST6!0 LIG!IT0 S"!DST6!0 Ba PP+ ' ,; '3 '** ,, ,4 <' )9 33 )8 384 ,)9 '*34 '*'3 <,< 993 )<, )4' )4 ';8 9, ); )4* ))' 89' <' 94 9,, 9,3 '*88 )3; ,8< ';) ,;3 ),, ,8* ,'8 ,') ,*< ,4* ,9* ; 3 ,' '9 < '<< 9,; 843 ,89 ,)4 ,84 );; )33 <4 ''* ''' Be PP+ ' G' , G' G' G' G' G' G' G' ) , ) ) ) ' G' G' G' ) G' G' ' G' G' ) G' 8 , 9 , ) , , ) , 8 , 8 , , G' G' G' G' G' ' , 9 8 , 8 ' G' G' 8 , 1o PP+ *() *(; 9(9 G*() *(< *(< *(< *(, *(, *(8 ', ';(3 9() 8(8 )() '(8 '(, '(4 *(8 ;(8 '(, *(9 4(, 8() 9(' ),(; 3(3 '3() '9(, < ))(4 '8(8 '9(8 3() ,4(9 ',(' '8(; '9(, '4() ''(; ')(, G*() G*() *(8 G*() G*() 3(, ';(8 ',(8 )' )'(4 )* '() *(< *(9 , )(4 1r PP+ ' 4(38 )<(,< 4(38 4(38 4(38 4(38 4(38 4(38 4(38 <9()4 '*)(4, 8'(*9 8'(*9 )*(9, ',(43 ',(43 )*(9, 4(38 43(8) 4(38 4(38 98(<8 ,8()' <9()4 4(38 ',(43 3)('* 3)('* 3)('* 33(;9 8<(3; '*)(4, 33(;9 )<(,< 33(;9 ;9(<; ;9(<; ;9(<; ;9(<; ;9(<; 4(38 4(38 4(38 4(38 )*(9, )*(9, ;9(<; 33(;9 '),('4 '),('4 ''4(,' )*(9, 4(38 4(38 33(;9 <9()4 1s PP+ *(' *(9 *() *(, *(8 *(, *(8 *(8 *() *(8 , 8(4 8(3 8(4 )(8 '(< *(8 *(8 *(' ,(3 *(4 *(' )(' '(4 ) '(, '(; ;() 3(; 9(9 3(, '(4 ;(' ;(9 *(3 ;(3 '*(8 ')() ''(9 '*(' ;(, G*(' G*(' *() *(, *(' *(3 8(8 4(9 '4(, ')(3 '4 <(9 9(3 ,(, ')(4 ;(9 Ga PP+ *(9 8(8 )(4 )(4 ,(, )(, )(; )(4 '(3 ,() )8(, ,)(3 '<(9 '3(4 '*(9 <(9 8(9 9() '(< '3(, ,(9 '(< 3(9 4(8 <(< 8(8 ,(4 ),(3 ),(4 )9(< )8(, '9(3 )4(8 )4(, ,(9 )<(4 )<(4 )4(8 )4(, )4 )9(3 G*(9 G*(9 *(3 *(3 G*(9 ')(; )3(, );() ,)(, ,*() ,)(< '*(3 ;(; ,(; )8(' )*(, :f PP+ *(' '(< '(, )() ,(9 '(8 '(; '() ' '(9 '4(; <(' ;() '*(' 4(' 8(< )(, 4(9 *(, ; *(; )() '() ' '() '(; *(3 4(3 4(, ', 8(, 3(8 )(3 9(3 )(8 9 ,(4 9(< 9 4(8 4(' G*(' G*(' G*(' *(' G*(' 9 <(3 9 )(3 , )(; ,(, ,(< <(' 4(; 9 !# PP+ *(' ,(; '(< '(3 )(3 '(' )(, '(4 *(4 '() )< ,,(' ''(; ''(9 9(, ,(3 )(; 9(' *(; '9(< )() '(< ;(' 4(; 3(3 )(3 )(3 '3(' '4(< '4() '3(8 ''() '4(3 )*(9 )(8 )*(' ';(4 ';(9 ';(< ';(; ';() G*(' G*(' *() *(8 *(' 4(; ),(< ))(8 )'(< )'(8 ),(3 4(; 9(' 4() '9(8 ''(8 2# PP+ *(' 8(, 9 8(9 < 4(< 3(9 <(4 ,(< 3(4 8,() 84(3 '),(8 ')8(4 <)(; 99() )<(8 ),(9 ,(, ;3() '< 8(, 8'() ,*(' 8*(< '< '3(8 ',8(4 '),() '*,(< '') 83(< '';(; ',*(9 '9(< '8)() '8<(' '49(' '4,(4 '84(3 '89(' '(, '(8 '(; 9(; '(3 )<(4 ',8(4 ','(; '8;(4 '8)(' '9*(; '8)() ;8(3 ,;() '8;(, '))(8 Sn PP+ ' G' G' G' G' G' G' G' G' G' , 9 ) ) ' G' G' G' G' , G' G' ' ' ' G' G' 8 8 8 8 ) 8 9 G' 9 8 8 8 8 8 G' G' G' G' G' ) 8 9 8 9 8 ) ) '9 8 8 Sr PP+ *(9 ''(8 4 ,*(' '9(; '4(' )3(< ';(9 49() ', )3,(4 ',4(< <*<(' 4;*(9 ',*4(4 '88'(, )33 4*(< '*4'(' ,8<(9 9<<(' 838(8 8'8(9 ,;;(9 3,,(< 4))(3 4,)(< ,9< ,*)(< 8)4(3 )4;(9 ),)(' '8)(9 ;4(8 ''<)(3 '94(4 '9)(3 '4<(; '49(< ';)(' ';)(< )4'() ,), );,(; ,'*(3 )<4(4 '49(3 )*,(, '88(9 '8)(' ','(< '8;(' '4*(< '3*(; <3(8 8,,(3 )89(; Ta PP+ *(' *(, *() *(' *() *(' *() *() G*(' *(' '(; )(9 *(; *(; *(8 *(8 *() *(8 *(' '() *() *(' *(4 *(8 *(4 *(, *(' '(9 '(' '() '(, *(3 '(' '(< *() '(8 '(9 '(4 '(8 '(8 '() G*(' G*(' G*(' G*(' G*(' *(9 '(4 '(4 '(9 '(9 '(9 '(, *(; , '(4 '(, Th PP+ *() ,(' '(3 ) )() )(9 )(3 )(' )() '(; '<(; '4(4 '9(4 '9(' 3(, <() )(, ,(8 '() '9() )(9 '(; 4() 8(' 9(9 )(4 )(, '3(; '<(, )3(4 '4(3 ''(4 '9(, ),() ''(' )) )'(4 )* ';() '3(4 '3(8 G*() G*() *(8 *(4 G*() 4(, ';(; ';() ),(8 ';(< ),(< 3() 9 <(; '4(; ')(9 A PP+ *(' ' 9 *(4 *(< ' *(4 *(9 *(, *(< 3(< 8(4 ,(9 ,(4 ) '(4 ' '() ' , 9() '(, 8(4 8(3 4(4 '() '(4 ,(3 )(; 9(, 8(8 )(< )(8 ,(; ;() ,(3 ,(4 ,() ,(' ,(' ,(' ,(9 *(4 8(, *(; *(< '(, ,(9 ,(, ,(' )(4 , '(, '(3 '(9 ;(8 <() I PP+ 3 )3 '44 G3 ; '* ,< 3 G3 G3 3, ',* ,4 ,< '3 ', '8 )8 )' <; ); '* )93 ))3 39, '9 '9 33 33 <3 ;9 9' ''' ;3 '< '*3 ''8 '*; '*, '** ;9 '< G3 )* ; G3 ,' ''; ''9 '88 '*' '8) ,8 ,) )4 '', ;; H PP+ *(9 G*(9 G*(9 G*(9 G*(9 G*(9 G*(9 G*(9 G*(9 G*(9 '(' ) *(< *(< G*(9 G*(9 G*(9 G*(9 G*(9 '(' G*(9 G*(9 *(3 *(4 *(4 G*(9 G*(9 '() '() '(' '(, *(9 '(, '(9 G*(9 '(9 '() '(< '(, '(, '(' G*(9 G*(9 G*(9 G*(9 G*(9 G*(9 '(8 )(; )() '(9 '(9 *(; ' '(, '(' *(; Dr PP+ *(' 93(, 8'(3 <;(, ')3(9 8;(; 4;(' 88(; ,3(' 84(; 4'8 )93() ,)*(; ,,4(, )'8(< '<<(< 3<(< )9*(< ''(; ,,<(< )8(4 <8(9 8;(' ,4 89(, 9;(; )<() )8<(, )*8(3 899(4 '9<(4 );)(3 '*<(, ';, ;; '98(3 '8'(3 '<4(3 '3'(< ))9(' ),4() ' *(3 )(3 9(< ) '3,(, )<)(' '3*(; 3,(< ;3(9 ;8(; ''8(3 ')4(, ),;(4 )83(' '<)(, !i PP+ )* !i G)* G)* G)* G)* G)* G)* G)* G)* G)* )8 ,3 G)* G)* G)* G)* G)* G)* G)* )9 G)* G)* <, 3' <* )' G)* ,8 ,, G)* 9) 88 ,4 G)* 88 )< ,9 ,) ,4 ,8 ,, G)* G)* G)* G)* G)* G)* ,3 ,3 93 4' 9; G)* G)* G)* G)* Sc PP+ ' 9 3 ) ' ) ) ' G' G' '8 )) 9 4 8 ) ) 8 ' '' 8 ' < 9 4 9 '' '8 '8 '< '3 ; '3 '9 ; '4 '< '< '< '4 '9 G' G' G' G' G' 4 '< '3 )* '; )* 8 , ) ; 3 ? PP+ *(' , 9(; '(< )(4 )(' )(< )(' ' '(9 ,3(8 );(; '4(3 '9(' ')(< '*() 4() ;(< ,(; ,*(9 ;(3 '*(, ''(; 3(< ')(< 9;() '8'() )8(8 )9(4 '**(< '<'(; 88(, )*(, )8(4 '8<(4 '4 '3(9 )*(8 )*(, )4(3 ,'(8 )(8 '() )(, ,(; )() )) )<(4 ,,(3 )4(9 )4(; ,* ;(, ')(9 ;(4 '8(< ')

Ta#le ,& Summar% of ma7or, elemental anal%ses of the clastic sediments of "2G SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 MgO CaO Na2O K2O TiO2 SST Min. Max. Avg SH Min. Max. Avg LST Min. Max. Avg ""#$% %*#)+ ,+#& "(#$+ ',#*$ "'#% )#(+ &#,* (#(' &#'' ($#(( +#%' ()#', *&#(& (%#%' )#( )#$+ )#*( (#)* *#+" (#)$ $#*( ()#&$ +#*$ )#)' )#$" )#*% )#(* )#+* )#&' )#%$ *#&( (#++ )#*" )#$& )#&" )#)( )#)$ )#)& )#( "#%' (#*' "*#", ""#,( "$#"$ )#)& )#( )#), )#'( &#*( (#$' )#)( )#)( )#)( )#%$ &#$% *#") )#+, &#(, *#", )#)& )#($ )#)' )#*& )#, )#$& )#&& (#)+ )#%" )#)( )#)* )#)*

P2O5 )#)& )#)+ )#)" )#( )#(& )#(( )#)* )#)' )#)$

MnO )#)( )#)( )#)( )#( )#(+ )#)++ )#)" )#(+ )#)%

Cr2O3 )#))& )#)(( )#)), )#))& )#)(+ )#)($ )#))* )#))& )#))&

13C

Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.10* 2%13

www.iiste.org

Ta#le 8& Summar% of ma7or, elemental anal%ses of the clastic sediments of 12G SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 MgO CaO Na2O K2O TiO2 SST Min. Max. '+#+& %"#)* (#% "#&$ )#* *&#%& -)#)( )#$% )#)( ,#%* )#)( (#)( )#)' (#)+ )#)& )#$$

P2O5 )#)* )#&'

MnO -)#)( )#)&

Cr2O3 -)#))* )#))$

SH

Min. Max.

*"#(( '&#&$

$#"' *"#,(

*#)+ (&#'&

)#(+ *#*'

)#)$ &)#%,

)#)$ *#(+

)#"* &#+%

)#&) (#$$

)#), &#*(

-)#)( )#((

)#))+ )#)("

MARL

Min. Max.

*,#&& "&#%*

'#(( (&#*"

(#)( *#")

(#)& (#'"

%#+, &*#+$

(#*% *#*&

(#%" $#)%

)#*) )#",

)#(, )#&+

)#)* )#)*

)#))* )#))'

LST

Min. Max.

"#+$ %#,&

(#$" *#+&

)#+& $#++

)#$" (#(+

$"#)* $,#+(

)#(* )#'$

)#)+ )#$'

)#)" )#(&

)#)+ (&#$

)#), )#,

-)#))* )#))$

(CRG) Min. Max Me ian.

Ta#le 9& 1I", PI" and 1IH values for "2G "!D 12G sediments CIA PIA CIW (ARG) CIA PIA CIW *#%& %,#,& ,'#( *#,+ %%#'+ +"#" *#%$ %%#'% +,#, )#(+ +'#(& ,'#, )#(& )#(+ %%#&* %%#$+ %*#' %&#"

13'

Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.10* 2%13

www.iiste.org

Ta#le 4& Summar% of Trace and 2are=earth elemental oEide for clastic sediments of "2G Tra!e "le#en$% Mini#&# Maxi#&n A'erage (a , "&% (%, (e ( " &#(( C) )#* *(#' ,#)& Cr '#+$ (*& ")#% C% )#( ('#& '#+' Ga )#" &*#, (+#* H* )#( ,#+ $#&+ N+ )#( *&#+ ((#+ R+ (#& (")#% +( Sn ( (" $#'$ Sr ,+#$ $&&#+ *(+ Ta )#( (#' (#$+ T, )#* *&#$ (*#' )#' %#$ & . + ($$ ,(#' W )#" *#% (#$, /r )#+ *%*#( ((" 0 (#* &&#+ ($#+ La (#( '+#* &)#& Ce (#, (&'#+ ",#+ Pr )#* ("#%, '#'% N (#( '&#& *"#' S# )#($ ()#*" $#& "& )#)& *#)* )#+" G )#(& ,#,+ &#&, T+ )#)* (#(% )#"( 12 )#($ '#(" *#'+ H) )#)& (#(& )#") "r )#), &#)' (#$& T# )#)( )#$% )#** 0+ )#)% *#%+ (#&% L& )#)( )#$$ )#* T,3)#)& ,#%) &#'" /r3S! (#)) ((% *)#&' T,3C) )#+ ("#+ &#" La3C) *#% && (& Cr3T, )#+, *)" *"#%+ "&3"&4 )#' (#(" )#,& Ce3Ce4 (#)( (#'* (#*)

13&

Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.10* 2%13

www.iiste.org

Ta#le <& Summar% of Trace and 2are=earth elemental oEide for clastic sediments of 12G Tra!e "le#en$% Mini#&# Maxi#&n A'erage (a (+ ()+' &(* (e ( " *#, C) )#& &'#" +#") Cr '#+$ ()& $'#$ C% )#( (*#* +#, Ga (#, &*#+ (&#* H* )#& ('#% $#" N+ )#' &&#( ()#* R+ (#& ('"#( ')#' Sn ( " &#* Sr ' ($$( &'& Ta )#( *#" )#+ T, (#* *+#' ()#& )#& %#* &#)( . + +"& %(#* W )#" * (#(& /r ( '($ ("% 0 ( (,* *% La &#, (**#+ &+ Ce *#% &(* ,( Pr )#", $%#, %#( N *#( *&* &,#$ S# )#*+ $%#*, '#,+ "& )#)" ((#)+ (#,' G )#*( $&#"$ "#%% T+ )#)& '#$$ (#)$ 12 )#($ &*#$, $#,, H) )#)$ "#$& )#%% "r )#( (&#)$ *#&+ T# )#)* ,#'% )#+* 0+ )#(& ((#($ *#)+ L& )#)* (#'+ )#& T,3)#&' ,#&& &#,( /r3S! *#$, (*+#" *%#$+ T,3C) )#( *) *#, La3C) )#, "* +#$ Cr3T, (#% ("#*( $#," "&3"&4 )#' )#+ )#,$ Ce3Ce4 (#) $#& (#,"

14%

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